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2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved

!"#$ &'(#")* +,("'- ).* /00#12)3".


41$, 5(6)0 ).* 78 7)9$').
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2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
!"#$ &'(#")* +,("'- ).* /00#12)3".
2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
+):#( "; <".$(.$9
1. lnLroducuon ...................................... 3
2. Semng up Lhe Model ................................. 4
3. 8olL 8eglons ...................................... 3
4. uenlng a 8olL reload ................................ 6
3. ConLacL 8eglons .................................... 7
6. Classlc Lxample of 8olL reload ............................ 8
7. ldeallzauon of 8olL reloads ............................... 10
8. 8olL reloads wlLh laLe Models ............................ 12
9. 8olL reloads ln Solld Models ............................. 13
10. Summary ......................................... 14
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2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
!"#$ &'(#")* +,("'- ).* /00#12)3".
2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
4.$'"*523".
6,)$ 17 8"#$ 0'(#")*9
8olL preload ls used Lo clamp LogeLher Lwo plaLes or Lwo sLrucLures and creaLe a frlcuonal lock beLween Lhe members and reduce
Lhe eecLs of cycllng loadlng on Lhe bolL. WlLh respecL Lo Lhe lauer (l.e., bolL faugue), bolL preload can make all Lhe dlerence
beLween a safe, long-lasung sLrucLure or caLasLrophlc fallure.
6,('( $" 57( 8"#$ 0'(#")*9
8olL preload ls noL a free lunch. 1o eecuvely use bolL preload on lLA connecuons requlres many addluonal sLeps and lL converLs a
llnear run lnLo a nonllnear run LhaL requlres Lwo sequenual nonllnear analysls where (l) Lhe bolL preload ls applled and Lhen (ll) Lhe
exLernal sLrucLure load ls applled.
6,)$ 17 2":('(* 1. $,17 ;,1$( 0)0('9
1hls whlLe paper wlll cover a Lhe baslcs of semng up you model for bolL preload, Lheoreucal foundauon, examples of lLs use and a
bolL faugue prlmer.
<.=1.(('1.= >"??(.$@
8olL preload adds qulLe a blL of complexlLy Lo any model slnce Lhe analysls procedure ls nonllnear (geomeLrlcally nonllnear) and LhaL
Lwo sequenual nonllnear runs are requlred Lo arrlve aL Lhe nal bolL preload soluuon". 1he uullLy of Lhls approach lles ln lLs ablllLy
Lo quanuLauvely calculaLe Lhe bolL axlal and shear forces for any Lype of bolLed connecuon. Addluonally, lf bolL faugue ls lmporLanL,
Lhen a bolL preload approach ls lnvaluable.
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2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
!"#$ &'(#")* +,("'- ).* /00#12)3".
2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
A(B.= 50 $,( C"*(# D"' !"#$ &'(#")*1.=
A common appllcauon of bolL preloadlng ls Lhe connecuon of ange geomeLrles. ln Lhe example below, a symmeLrlc ange ls bolLed
LogeLher wlLh four bolLs. 1he bolLs are modeled uslng beam elemenLs and Lhelr end nodes are connecLed Lo Lhe solld mesh model
uslng rlgld llnks. 1hls ldeallzauon ls qulLe common. All models assoclaLed wlLh Lhls whlLe paper can be downloaded from Lhe
redlcuve Lnglneerlng webslLe.
ConLacL ls enforced beLween Lhe Lwo parLs and a bolL preload ls applled Lo Lhe beam elemenLs. lf Lhe reader ls unfamlllar wlLh Lhls
Lype of modellng, Lhey should Lake a look aL Lhe redlcuve Lnglneerlng webslLe under Semlnars and revlew our semlnar on ConLacL
Modellng.
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2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
!"#$ &'(#")* +,("'- ).* /00#12)3".
2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
!"#$ E(=1".7
8olL 8eglons are !"#$ dened reglons LhaL can be dened uslng elLher bar or beam elemenLs. uenlng 8olL 8eglons before uslng Lhe
bolL preload command ls slower, buL allows you Lo more easlly name/label each reglon, allowlng you Lo keep your model more
organlzed. Creaung 8olL 8eglons ls also used for Lhe speclal cases when each of your bolLs are made up of muluple beam or bar
elemenLs ln serles.
F(G.1.= ) !"#$ E(=1".
1o begln denlng a 8olL 8eglon, use Lhe !"#$ &'()"* command, found elLher on Lhe Model 1ree under +"**',-"*. / &'()"*. / !"#$
&'()"* or under Lhe le menu +"**',$ / !"#$ &'()"*. 1hls command brlngs up Lhe !"#$ &'()"* dlalogue box. Slnce we wlll be
denlng Lhe 8olL 8eglons uslng lL mesh raLher Lhan geomeLry, selecL Lhe 0#'1'*$ radlo buuon under 2'3*'4 !5 box6 lf Lhe bolL
conslsLs of only one elemenL, you can selecL Lhe deslred elemenL and cllck Ck. lf Lhe bolL conslsLs of more Lhan one elemenL, cllck
Lhe 78#-9#' buuon, Lhls brlngs up Lhe sLandard selecL dlalogue box. lck all of Lhe elemenLs LhaL are a parL of Lhe bolL Lo be
lncluded ln Lhe 8olL 8eglon and cllck Ck. 8emember, each 8olL 8eglon should conslsL of only one bolL. 8epeaL for every deslred 8olL
8eglon.
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2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
!"#$ &'(#")* +,("'- ).* /00#12)3".
2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
F(G.1.= ) !"#$ &'(#")*
lL ls noL neccessary Lo creaLe a 8olL 8eglon prlor Lo 8olL reload appllcauon, buL lL ls recommended for model organlzauon. 1he bolL
preload command can be accessed by golng Lo 7"4'# / :";4 / !"#$ <='#";4, or by uslng Lhe Model 1ree. 1hls brlngs up Lhe +=';$'
!"#$ <='#";4 dlalogue box. H"$(@ $,( :)#5( "D $,( 0'(#")* 17 $,( #")* 0(' 8"#$I ."$ $,( $"$)# #")*J lf Lhere are prevlously dened
8olL 8eglons, boLh opuons wlll be avallable ln Lhe >99#5 ?" box, lf 8olL 8eglons have noL been dened, only Lhe LlemenL(s) opuon
wlll be avallable.
lf Lhe 8olL 8eglon(s) radlo buuon ls selecLed ln Lhe >99#5 ?" box, Lhe 0*-$5 @'#',-"* A @'#',$ &'()"*B.C dlalogue box wlll appear. lck
each of Lhe 8olL 8eglons Lhe bolL preload ls Lo be applled Lo dlrecLly or use Lhe menu Lo selecL Lhe reglons. Cllck Ck when done.
lf Lhe LlemenL(s) opuon ls selecLed, Lhe SelecL LlemenLs dlalogue box wlll appear. Pand plck each of Lhe bar or beam elemenLs Lhe
bolL preload ls Lo be applled Lo. Cllck Ck when done. lor each elemenL selecLed, a correspondlng 8olL 8eglon wlll be auLomaucally
creaLed.
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2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
!"#$ &'(#")* +,("'- ).* /00#12)3".
2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
>".$)2$ E(=1".7
lor bolL preload Lo work, llnear conLacL musL be enabled. lor a deLalled explanauon of how Lo do Lhls, see our weblnar and whlLe
paper on Llnear ConLacL Analysls.
Shown below ls how llnear conLacL was seL up for Lhls example.
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2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
!"#$ &'(#")* +,("'- ).* /00#12)3".
2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
>#)7712 !"#$ &'(#")* <K)?0#(@ +(.71".
Shown below are conLacL pressure and bolL axlal force resulLs from Lhe currenL example under Lenslle loadlng of 100,000 lbf wlLh a
bolL preload of 30,000 lbf per bolL. 1he conLacL pressure shows LhaL Lhe bolLs are pulllng Lhe anges LogeLher slnce Lhe Lenslle load ls
pulllng Lhe cenLer of Lhe sLrucLure aparL. 1he bolLs' axlal forces range from 62,827 Lo 62,837 lbf or approxlmaLely 62,800 lbf. lf Lhe
bolL preload ls 30,000 lbf, ls lL correcL Lo say LhaL Lhls analysls ls accuraLe? 8efore we answer Lhls quesuon, leL's look aL anoLher load
case uslng Lhls model.
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2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
!"#$ &'(#")* +,("'- ).* /00#12)3".
2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
>#)7712 !"#$ &'(#")* <K)?0#(@ !(.*1.=
A bendlng load ls applled Lo Lhe model and one slde of Lhe conLacL face ls under compresslon whlle Lhe opposlng slde separaLes. 1he
same bolL preload of 30,000 lbf per bolL was applled. under Lhese condluons, Lhe bolL axlal force ls 30,113 lbf on Lhe slde under
compresslon and 84,410 lbf on Lhe slde under Lenslon. Are Lhese reasonable resulLs? 1he only way Lo know wheLher or noL Lhese are
loglcal resulLs ls Lo undersLand a blL of Lhe Lheory underlylng bolL preload analysls.
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2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
!"#$ &'(#")* +,("'- ).* /00#12)3".
2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
4*()#1L)3". "D !"#$ &'(#")*7
8olL preload can be ldeallzed as: (Mechanlcal Lnglneerlng ueslgn, Shlgley, 3
'*
Ld, 1977)
1hls ldeallzauon ls one-dlmenslonal and assumes unlform load appllcauon of
bolL preload (ll) and Lhe applled load (). 1he bolL suness ls kb and Lhe
suness of Lhe connecLed members ls ks. 1o lllusLraLe Lhls equauon, a slmple
brlck model was creaLed wlLh unlL dlmenslons. A bolL was creaLed aL Lhe cenLer
wlLh a 1 unlL cross-secuonal area. 1he maLerlal was alumlnum wlLh an L=1e7
psl. 8lgld llnks aL Lhe ends of Lhe beam keep Lhe Lop and bouom surfaces aL.
1hls modellng ldeallzauon where Lhe Lop and bouom surfaces move LogeLher
wlLh Lhe beam ends, sauses Lhe %&"'()*#+#,- */,0,!&-1 as requlred by Lhe
above equauon (see Shlgley for deLalls).
Clven Lhls slmple ldeallzauon, Lhe bolL suness (kb) ls equal Lo A*L/L or
1*1e7/2=3e6 and Lhe sLrucLure suness (ks) ls equal Lo 1*1e7/2=3e6. WlLh a
bolL preload (ll) = 1,000 lbf and an exLernally applled load () of 300 lbf, Lhe
equauon would predlcL a LoLal axlal force on bolL (lb) = x*300+1,000 = 1,230
lbf. As shown on Lhe rlghL, Lhe LoLal axlal force on Lhe bolL ls 1,230 lbf.
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2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
!"#$ &'(#")* +,("'- ).* /00#12)3".
2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
4*()#1L)3". "D !"#$ &'(#")*7
1he prlor equauon ls valld as long as compresslon exlsLs beLween Lhe preloaded parLs. lf Lhe exLernal load causes Lhe preloaded
parLs Lo separaLe, Lhen Lhe LoLal exLernal load ls carrled only by Lhe bolL. 1hls upplng polnL can be calculaLed uslng Lhe followlng
equauon from Shlgley:
lf Lhe bolL preload (ll) ls 1,000 lbf, Lhen Lhe clamped parLs would separaLe when ls=0.0. 1he above equauon can Lhen be rearranged
and Lhe exLernal load Lo negaLe Lhe preload would be:
ln general Lerms, lf your bolL preload ls equal or greaLer Lhan Lhe
exLernally applled load, Lhen Lhe preloaded parLs wlll sLay clamped and
faclllLaLe Lhe [olnL sLaylng locked".
lrom a faugue vlewpolnL, Lhe lmporLance of a preloaded [olnL cannoL be
oversLaLed due Lo lower alLernaung sLresses ln Lhe bolL and LhaL Lhe [olnL
sLays locked. A faugue dlscusslon ls glven aL Lhe end of Lhls whlLe paper.
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2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
!"#$ &'(#")* +,("'- ).* /00#12)3".
2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
!"#$ &'(#")*7 ;1$, &#)$( ?"*(#7
laLe elemenLs have no Lhrough Lhlckness suness. As such, km does noL exlsL and Lhe applled load has no eecL up Lo Lhe bolL
preload.
ln Lhe example shown below, a half-symmeLrlcal Lube ls preloaded Lhrough a bolL aL lLs cenLer. 1he bolL ls modeled wlLh a beam
elemenL and Lwo rlgld llnks. 1he bolL ls glven a preload of 1,000 lbf. An exLernal Lenslle load ls glven Lo our sLrucLure aL 30, 100, and
130 of Lhe bolL preload. 1he bolL's axlal force ls Lhen 1,000, 1,000 and 1,300 lbf, respecuvely. 1hese resulLs are correcL alLhough on
an englneerlng basls, are llloglcal slnce we know LhaL all sLrucLures have some suness.
A key polnL of Lhls analysls ls LhaL when uslng bolL preload on plaLe sLrucLures, Lhe nal bolL load wlll always be !,%#$2#"0+)-#% /$
,/,2*/,"#$3)03#.
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2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
!"#$ &'(#")* +,("'- ).* /00#12)3".
2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
!"#$ &'(#")*7 1. A"#1* C"*(#7
A 3-u model was consLrucLed uslng brlck elemenLs. ln Lhls example, all Lhe relevanL bolL load physlcs are capLured.
1he same example formaL ls followed wlLh Lhe exLernally applled load aL 30, 100 and 130 of Lhe bolL preload.
1he key polnL, ls LhaL Lhe bolL axlal suness wlll always be a blL more Lhan your preload, and lL should scale ln a reasonable manner.
WlLhouL a dlrecL calculauon of kb and ks, a reasonable manner ls open Lo lnLerpreLauon. 1hls ls where good englneerlng [udgmenL
musL be applled.
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2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
!"#$ &'(#")* +,("'- ).* /00#12)3".
2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
A5??)'- "D !"#$ &'(#")* +,("'-I /00#12)3". ).* M)3=5(
8olL preload Lheory sLaLes:
And assumes LhaL Lhe bolL preload and Lhe exLernal load acL on Lhe same secuon of solld maLerlal. 1he nal axlal force on a
preloaded bolL (lb) wlll be Lhe bolL preload and Lhen some fracuon of Lhe exLernally applled load.
ln plaLe models k
9
ls lnnlLe (lL really doesn'L exlsL slnce lL ls a plaLe). Pence, Lhe applled load does noL lncrease Lhe bolL load (lb)
unul exceeds ll. 1hls under predlcLs Lhe acLual bolL load slnce all bolLed sLrucLures have some bolLed [olnL suness (km).
ln a solld model, bolL preload funcuons as one would expecL and Lhe LoLal bolL axlal force follows bolL Lheory ln general Lerms.
Powever, care should be Laken ln how Lhe bolL head and nuL are modeled wlLh rlgld llnks slnce Lhe bolL preload mechanlsm
requlres LhaL Lhe sLrucLural members be compressed underneaLh Lhe bolL head or nuL for bolL preload Lo funcuon as deslred.
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2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
!"#$ &'(#")* +,("'- ).* /00#12)3".
2011 - All 8lghLs 8eserved
A5??)'- "D !"#$ &'(#")* +,("'-I /00#12)3". ).* M)3=5(
Cne of Lhe maln reasons for applylng bolL preload ls Lo avold faugue of Lhe bolL. 1hls may noL seem lmmedlaLely obvlous aer Lhe
prlor dlscusslon slnce lL was shown LhaL Lhe nal bolL load ls always hlgher Lhan Lhe lnlual bolL preload. 1haL ls, Lhe bolL sLress ls a
llnear comblnauon of Lhe bolL preload and some fracuon of Lhe exLernally applled load. 8uL, Lhe bolL's alLernaung sLress ls greaLly
reduced. 1hls ls Lhe domlnanL advanLage of bolL preload.
LeL's conslder Lwo faugue cases and evaluaLe bolL llfe uslng Lhe Soderberg equauon for slmpllclLy where:
ln Lhls example, we'll assume LhaL any exLernal load lncreases Lhe bolL preload by 20 (see Lheory secuon).
Pere are Lhe parameLers:
8olL Area = 1 sq ln
8olL reload = 80,000 lbf
AlLernaung SLress (LxLernally Applled Load = 100,000 lbf LhaL cycles from 0.0).
8olL SLress Lndurance (Se) = 70,000 psl
8olL ?leld SLress (Sy) = 140,000 psl
+,( N5(73". $,)$ 17 0"7(* 17 *"(7 8"#$ 0'(#")* ,(#0 "' ,5'$9
no 8olL reload:
WlLh 8olL reload:
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