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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SPACE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY THIRUVANANTHAPURAM 695 547 B. Tech Fifth Semester - November 2013 AV315 - Instrumentation and control Systems

1. One of the most important variables that must be controlled in industrial and chemical systems is temperature. A simple representation of a thermal control system is shown in Figure 1. The temperature T of the process is controlled by the heater with a resistance R. An approximate representation of the dynamic linearly relates the heat loss from the process to the temperature dierence T Te . This relation holds if the temperature dierence is relatively small and the energy storage of the heater and the vessel walls is negligible. Also, it is assumed that the voltage eh applied to the heater is proportional to edesired or eh = kEb = ka Eb e(t), where ka is the constant of the actuator. Then the linearized openloop response of the system is T(s) = where
MC , A

Te (s) k1 ka Eb E (s) + s + 1 s + 1


M = mass in tank, A = surface area of tank, = heat transfer constant, C = specic heat constant, k1 = a dimensionality constant, and eth = output voltage of thermocouple.

Determine and compare the open-loop and closed-loop systems for (a) sensitivity to changes in the constant K = k1 ka Eb . (b) the ability to reduce the eects of a step disturbance in the environmental temperature T(s); and (c) the steady-state error of the temperature controller for a step change in the input, edesired Assume that the heater is bi-directional, that is, it can reduce the temperature inside the tank for negative error signals.



2. During ascent, the automatic steering program aboard the space shuttle provides the interface between the low-rate processing of guidance (commands) and the high-rate processing of ight control (steering in response to the commands). The function performed is basically that of smoothing.A simplied representation of a maneuver smoother linearized for coplanar maneuvers is shown in Figure 2. Here CB (s) is the commanded body angle as calculated by guidance, and DB (s) is the desired body angle sent to ight control after smoothing. For this system (a) Sketch a root locus where the roots vary as a function of K3 (with some K2 > 0). (b) Locate the closed-loop zeros. (c) Repeat (a) and (b) for a root locus sketched as a function of K2 (with some K3 > 0). NOTE: In the class, we have studied drawing the root-locus as a function of the forward path gain K . In this problem this is not the case! Therefore, create an equivalent system where K2 or K3 appears as the forward path gain. 3. In a magnetic levitation experiment a metallic object is held up in the air suspended under an electromagnet. The vertical displacement of the object can be described by the following nonlinear dierential equation m where
m = mass of the metallic object. g = gravity acceleration constant. k = a positive constant. H = distance between the electromagnet and the metallic object (output signal). I = electromagnets current (input signal).

I2 d2 H = mg k dt2 H2


Linearizing the above equation about the equilibrium point H0 = I0 input output relations (transfer function) as
2 H (s) mH0 = 2 kI 2 I (s) s2 03

k , mg

we can obtain the




where H (s) = H (t) H0 and I (s) = I (t) I0 . Figure 3 shows the block diagram of the 2kI0 closed-loop control of this linearized magnetic levitation system. Assume that mH 2 = 1300

and = 860. Draw the root locus (with K > 0) and nd the range of K for closed-loop stability when (a) G(s) = K . (b) G(s) =
k(s+200) . (s+1000)

2 2kI0 3 mH0

Note: There is a positive feedback in the loop; can you still use the techniques discussed in the class to draw the root locus? CONTINUED


Figure 1:

Figure 2:

Figure 3: