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CHAPTER 4
Newton's Laws of Motion
4.1 FORCE, MASS, AND ACCELERATION
A force acts on a2-kg mass and gives it anaccelerationof3m/s2. What accelerationis produced by thesame
force when actingona mass of(a) 1kg? (b) 4kg? (c) How large is theforce?
Wefirst find the force FusingF =ma (onedimension). F "" (2kg)(3m/s2)""6N. Thennoting a F/m,
we have for thedifferent masses m"" 1kg, a== (6N)/(lkg) = 6m/s
2
; m=4kg, a= 1.5m/s
2
thus (a) 6m/s
2
(b) 1.5m/s2 (c) 6N.
4.2 (Fill in the blanks.)The mass ofa 300gobject is __(a). Its weightonearth is __(b). An object that
weighs 20N onearth has a mass on the moon equal to___(c). The mass ofan object thatweighs 5lb on
earth is (d).
(a) 300g (b) w= (300g)(980cm/s
2
) 2.94x10
5
dyn=2.94N. (c) m =wig=(20N)/(9.8m/s2)=
2.04kg; mass is the same anywhere. (d) m =wig= (5 Ib)/(32.2ft/s2) 0.155slug.
4.3 A resultant external force of7.0Ib actsonan objectthatweighs 40lbon earth. What is the object's
acceleration (a) onearth? (b) on the moon?
(a) We use F ma, where we recall that F stands for theresultantofall forces acting onthe mass m. To
getm we note thatm = wig=(40Ib)/(32.2ft/S2) =1.24slug. Then a F/m=(7.0\b)/(1.24s\ug)::: S.64ft/s2.
(b)Theaccelerationonthe moon is the samesince theresultantforce is still 7.0lb andthe mass is the same
anywhere.
4.4 A horizontalcable pulls a2oo-kgcart along a horizontal track. Thetension in the cableis 500N. Starting
from rest, (a) how longwill it take thecart to reach a speedof8m/s? (b) Howfar will it have gone?
Assumingnofriction, thetension in the cable is theonly horizontal force. Then from F: =max we get
ax = (500N)/(2ookg)= 2.50m/s
2
. We now use kinematics to solve the problem.
(a) Vx VOx + axt; and since thecartstartsfrom rest, VOx =O. Thent =vxl ax =(8m/s)/(2.S0m/s2) 3.2s.
(b) Lettingthestartingpointbetheorigin we havex=Vnxt + 0+ H2.s0m/s
2
)(3.2S)2=12.8m
4.5 A 9OO-kg car is going20m/salong a level road. How large a constant retardingforce is required to stopit in
a distance of30m?
Herewe start with the kinematical equationthat allows us tofind the acceleration ax: V; + 2a..-x.
where Vx =0 whenx=30m and VOx 20m/s. Solvingwe obtain ax -6.67m/s
2
Finally we solve for the
retardingforce using F... =max:::(900kg)(-6.67m/s2)=-6000N.
4.6 How much force does it take togive a 200oo-kglocomotivean accelerationof 1.5m/s
2
on a level trackwith a
coefficient ofrolling friction of0.03?
RefertoFig. 4-1. F =ma, N mg, F = + ma 0.03(20000)(9.8)+ 20000(1.5)=
5880+ 30000 35.880kN
a
N
F
mg
Fig. 4-1
51
4.8
52 0 CHAPTER4
4.7 A 12.0-g bullet is accelerated from rest to aspeed of700mlsas it travels20em in a gun barrel. Assumingthe
acceleration to beconstant, how largewas the acceleratingforce?
, From kinematicswe have v;= +2a
x
x. Forourcase vox =0, and Vx =700mlswhenx = 0.20m. Solving
we get ax =1. 23 .10
6
m/s'. We thenobtainF: by notingm =0.012kg and using F:=max =14.8kN.
A 20-kg crate hangs at the end ofa long rope. Find its acceleration when the tension in the rope is (a)250N,
(b) 150N, (c) zero, (d) 196N.
, Thecrate is actedon by twovertical forces-thetension in the rope, T, upward and theweight ofthe
crate, W =mg, downward. Noting that w=(20kg)(9.8m/s
2
) =196N and using T w= may, we get:
(a) ay= 2.7m/s
2
; (b)ay= -2.3m/s';(c) ay -9.8m/s"; (d)ay=O. Note that negative acceleration is
downward for ourcase.
4.9 A 40-kg trunk sliding across a floor slows down from 5.0 to2.0mlsin 6.0s. Assuming that theforce acting on
the trunk is constant, find its magnitude and its direction relative to the velocity vector ofthe trunk.
, Letting thex axis bealongthedirection ofmotion, we have for the magnitude ofthe resultant force
F: = max To find a.we use the kinematical relationship Vx = vox +axt, with vox 5.0mis, Vx 2.0mis,
t=6.0s. Solving we get ax =:-0.50mLs'. Then F:=(40kg)(-0.50m/s
2
) = =-20N. Notingthattheresultant
force in they direction is zerosince ay= 0, we have ouranswer, F is 20N in the direction opposite to the
velocity.
4.10 A resultantforce of20N gives a body ofmass m anacceleration of8.0m/s
2
, and a body ofmass mI an
acceleration of24m/s
2
Whataccelerationwill this force cause the two masses to acquire iffastened together?
, From F= ma, with F 20Nand a=8.0m/s',we getm =2.50kg. From F=m'a' and
a' =24.0m/s
2
we getm'= 0.83kg. Combining the two masses yields M =m +m'= 3.33kg and
F=MA yields A =6.0m/s'.
4.11 An1100-kgcar travelsona straight highway with a speedof30m/s. The driversees a red light ahead and
applies her brakes, which exerta constant brakingforce of4kN. (a) What is the deceleration ofthe car?
(b) In how manyseconds will the carstop?
, (a) Use Newton'ssecond law ofmotion. Take a retardingforce to be negative.
F=ma -4X 10
3
= llOOa a= -3.636m/s'
Thus, the decelerationis 3.636m/s'.
v Vo
(b) a=--where v equalszeroafterI seconds, and Vo equals 30m/s.
t
-3.636=0- 30
30/3.636= s
t
Thecarwill come a stopin 8.25s.
4.12 A force of70N gives an objectofunknown mass an acceleration of20ft/s2. Whatis the object's mass?
F 70N 70kgm/s
2
, F=ma -=m m =..,.---:-:;-....,---:---:--:-
a (20ft/s')(0.305m/ft)
6.10m/s' =
4.13 A boy having a mass of75 kg holds in his hands a bagofflour weighing 40N(Fig. 4-2). With what force does
the floor push up on his feet?
, Fortheboy to be in equilibrium, thefloor mustpush uponthe boy'sfeet with a force F equal and
opposite to thecombined weight oftheflour and the boy. Letm equal the mass oftheboy and wtheweight
oftheflour:
F= mg+w 75(9.8)+40= 735+40=775N
4.14 Apply Newton'sthird law in the following situation: Two drivers, oneowning a large Cadillac and theother
owninga small Volkswagen, makea bet. TheVWownerbets that his carcan pull as hard as the Cadillac.
Theychain thetwo rearbumperstogetherin a large empty parking lot. Eachdriver gets into his carand
applies full power. The Cadillac pulls the VW backward all over the lot. ThedriveroftheVWlaterclaims
L
g the
ving
iON,
gon
It
er?
NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION 0 53
w ~ 4 N
F
Fig. 42
that his carwas pulling on the chain as hard as the Cadillacall the time. What does Newton'sthird law say in
this case? Assume that thechain has negligible mass.
Newton'sthird law says thatthe VWowneris right. Eachcar must pull on thechainwith the same
magnitudeofforce, one being the action and theother the reaction. Themotion oftheVWis aconsequence
ofall the forces actingon it, not justthe force ofthechain. Theseotherforces include, in particular, the
frictional force betweentires and road, which is quitedifferent for the VWand the Cadillac.
4.15 A 2-slug mass pulls horizontally on a3-slug mass by meansofa lightly stretched spring (Fig. 4-3). Ifatone
instant the 3-slugmass has an acceleration toward the 2-slug mass of1.8ft/s\ find the netforce on the 2-slug
mass and its acceleration atthatinstant.
Thespring pulls on each mass with the same forceFbutin opposite directions. Using Newton's second
law,
F 5.4lb
UsingNewton's secondlaw on themass ml>
F = mtat S.4lb at 2.7ft/s2
Fig. 43
4.16 A 96-lb boy is standingin an elevator. Find the force on the boy's feet when the elevator(a) stands still (b)
moves downward at a constant velocityof3ft/s (c) acceleratesdownward with an acceleration of4.0ft/S2,
and(4) acceleratesupward with an acceleration of4.0ft/s2.
(a) Findthemass ofthe boy in the properunit, the slug:
weight(w) 96lb
m = . . =32ft/S2=3lb .S2/ft=3slug
accelerationofgravity (g)
When an elevatorstandsstill, theforce on theboy'sfeet, according to Newton's first law, is equal and
oppositeto his weight. Theanswer is therefore96lbupward.
(b) A constantvelocity means zero acceleration. Forzero acceleration theforce oftheelevatorbalances the
earth'sdownward gravitational force, that is, the weightofthe boy. Again by Newton's first law, the answer
is96lbupward.
(c) When theacceleration oftheelevatoris downward, the boy'sweight exceeds the upward force E ofthe
elevator, yielding a net downward force F. From Fig. 44
F=ma=3slugX4.0ft/s
2
=12Ibs
2
/ftxft/s
2
F 12lb E=w-F=96-12 84lb
By Newton'ssecond law, thefloor oftheelevator pushes upward on the boy'sfeet with a force of84lb.
m
1
a ..
1
54 0 CHAPTER 4
m-3 slug
E
Fig. 4-4
(d) When theelevatoracceleratesat4.0ft/s2 upward, theforce E acting onthe boy is greater than his weight
w by an amount F 121b:
E = w + F = 96+ 12= 1081b upward
4.17 Anelevatorstartsfrom rest with a constantupward acceleration. It moves2.0min thefirst 0.60s. A
passenger in theelevatoris holding a 3-kg package by a vertical string. Whatis the tension in thestring
duringthe accelerating process?
, Toobtain thetension T in thestringwe apply the second law to the m = 3.0kg package: T - w = may,
with w =mg =29.4N. Theacceleration a of the package is thesameas thatof theelevator; it is obtained
from the displacementformulay == VOyt + where VOy ::: 0 and y == 2.0m, when t::: 0.60s. Solving we get
ay = 11.1 m/s
2
Substituting into ourequation for T, we get T 22.7N.
4.18 Just as her parachuteopens, a 150-lb parachutistis falling at a speedof160ft/s. After0.80shas passed, the
chuteis fully openand her speed hasdropped to 35 ft/s. Find the average retardingforce exerted upon the
chutistduring this time.
, Wechoose downward asthe positivey direction. Theaverage acceleration of thechutistover the0.80-s
interval is
- (35 160)ft/s 6f I 2
a ::: == -15 t s
Y 0.80s
Next we use: Er;, = may, orw - t == may, with w =150Ib, m wig = 4.69 slug. and t = the average
retarding force due to thechute. Solvingwe get t = N.
4.19 A boy who normally weighs 300N ona bathroom scale croucheson the scale andsuddenly jumpsupward.
Hiscompanion notices thatthescale reading momentarily jumpsup to400Nasthe boy springs upward.
Estimatethe boy's maximum acceleration in this process.
, The maximum upward force exerted by thescale on the boy is 400N. The netforce on the boy is
(400- 300) N and this equalsrna. Usingm 300/9.8yields a = 3.3m/s2.
4.20 Shortlyafterleapingfrom an airplane a91.8-kg man has an upward force of225 Nexerted on him by theair.
Find the resultantforce on the man.
, The resultantforce onthe man is the vectorsumoftwo forces-theweight w == mg = (91.8kg)(9.8m/s2) ==
900N downward, and the225-N force upward. Then the resultantforce is 900 225 = 675 Ndownward.
4.21 Tomeasure the mass ofa box, we push it alonga smooth surface, exertinga net horizontal force of150lb.
The acceleration is observed to be 3.0m/s
2
What is themass of the box?
, Using F. = max for the horizontal direction we get 150Ib x 4.45N/lb m(3.0 m/s
2
) andm == 223 kg.
4.22 A book sits ona horizontaltopofa caras thecaraccelerates horizontally from rest. If thestaticcoefficient of
friction between car top and book is 0.45, what is the maximum acceleration thecarcan have ifthe book is
nottoslip?
, Whenthe book ofmass m is about to slide, thefrictionf =Ilmg. Friction is theonly horizontal force
acting, thusf rna. InsertingIl 0.45 yields a Ilg ::: 4.41m/s
2

4.23
4.24

4.2
4.2

4.:
4.:
L
NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION a 55
4.23 Prove the following for a car movingona horizontal road: The magnitudeofthecar's acceleration cannot
exceed p.g, where p. is thecoefficientoffriction between tires and road. Whatis thesimilarexpression for the
acceleration of acargoingup an incline whose angleis 8?
Frictionbetween tires and roadsupplies the force moving the car, soI mao On ahorizontal road
FN = mg, soIma.=P.FN = p.mg, therefoream=p.g. Onthe incline, equations ofmotion parallel and
perpendicularto thesurface are P.FN mgsin 8= mamax and FN - mgcos8= O. Solve for a: a
ma
=
(p. cos8- sin 8)g.
4.24 A 5-kg mass hangs at the end ofa cord. Find thetension in thecord ifthe acceleration ofthe massis
(a) 1.5m/s
2
up, (6) 1.5m/s
2
down, and (c) 9.8m/s
2
down.
Choosingupward as positive we have T - W = may, where T is the tension in the cord, m= 5kg, and
w= mg= 49N is theweight ofthe mass.
(a) T=56.5N (6) T=41.5N(c) T=Q.
4.25 A 700-N manstandsona scale on thefloor ofanelevator. The scale records the force it exerts on whatever is
on it. Whatis the scale readingifthe elevatorhas an acceleration of(a) 1.8m/s2 up? (6) 1.8m/s
2
down?
(c) 9.8m/s2 down?
Again choosing upward as positive and lettingN representthe force ofthescale on the man, we have
N- w= may. Notingthat w;:: 700N,and thatm = wig= 71.4kg, we solve for Nusing thevalues ofaygiven:
(a) N=829N. (6) N=571N. (c) N=Q.
4.26 Using the scale described inProb. 4.25, a 65-kg astronaut weighs himselfon the moon, whereg = 1.60m/s2.
Sincegmoon is the accelerationoffree fall onthe moon, and Wmoon is theforce ofgravity onthe moon's
surface, we have W
moon
= mgmoon= (65 kg)(1.60m/s
2
) = 104N. By Newton's first law scale reads 104N.
4.27 A rough ruleofthumb statesthat thefrictional force between dry concreteand a skiddingcar'stires is about
equaltonine-tenthsofthecar's weight. If theskid marks leftby a carin corningto rest are 20m long, about
howfast was the cargoing just before the brakeswere applied?
Since Ifl = P.!FN!, andsince FN =W on level ground, we have for p. 0.9, 1=-0.9W. Find thecar's
acceleration from F=ma, which isl=(Wlg)a withI =-0.9W. Thena= -0.9g. Since x is 20m,use
2
6g
112
v - ~ =2ax with v=0, togive Vo = =18.8m/s.
4.28 If the coefficient offriction between acar'swheels and a roadway is 0.70, what is the least distance in which
thecarcan acceleratefrom rest to a speedof 15 m/s?
Usinga= p.g (seeProbs. 4.23 and 4.27) in the kinematicalformula v
2
= ~ + 2ax,
15
2
0
2
_
2a 2(0.70)(9.8)
4.29 A constant force accelerates an electron (m = 9.1 x10-
31
kg) from rest to a speed of5x10
7
mlsin a distance
of0.80cm. Determine this force. How many times largerthanmgis it?
Firstfind theconstant accelerationfrom v
2
- ~ = 2ax; then a= 25 x 10
14
/1.6x 10-
2
= 1.56X 10
17
m/s
2
, so
F=ma= (9.1 x 10-
31
) (1.56x 10
17
)=1.43x lO-DN. Then F/mg=a/g= 1.56x10
17
/9.8 1.6x 10
16

4.30 The4.0-kg head ofa sledge hammeris moving at 6.0mlswhen it strikesa spike, driving it into a log; the
duration oftheimpact(orthe timefor thesledge hammer to stop aftercontact)is 0.0020s. Find (a) the time
average ofthe impact force, (6)thedistance thespike penetratesthe log.
(a) Theaverage force is a constantforce thatwould effect the same result as the actual time-varying force
overthe time interval involved. Fora constantforce wecanuse Vx = VOx + axt tofind thecorresponding
constant acceleration ax. HereVOx =6.0mis, Vx = 0, and t=0.0020s. Solvingwe get ax =-3000m/s
2
Then
Ex = max yields Ex = -12kN. Here Ex represents theforce ofthespikeon the hammer-
head. The reaction force on the spikeis the impact force, which is 12kN.
(6)Thespikemoves thesame distance as the hammerhead in the time interval in question. Forthe
hammerhead we havex vOxt + la
x
t
2
(6.0m/s)(0.0020s)+ !(- 3000m/s2)(0.0020S)2 0.006m orx
6.0mm.
56 0 CHAPTER4
l
312
4.31" A body ofmass m moves along Y that at timetits position is y(t)=at - bt+c, where a, b, care
constants. (a) Calculatethe acceleration ofthe body. (b) Whatis the force acting on it?
(a)a
y
= d
2
y/ dt
2
. We first obtain Vy dy/dt = - b and then d
2
y/dt
2
iar1l2. Toobtain the force we
have (b) F =may =imar
l12
4.32< Measurementson a 300-g object movingalong the xaxis show its position (in centimeters)to be given by
x = 0.20t- 5,Ot
2
+7.5t
3
, wheretis the time in seconds. Find the netforce that acted onthe objectduring the
time for which this expression applies.
Because Foet = ma, we mustfind a; a=du/dtand v dx/dt, Doing thedifferentiations, u 0.20-1O.0t+
22.5t
2
, a= -10,0+45t; so F
net
=300( -10.0+45t) dyn=0.00300( -10.0+45t)N
4.33< A 50-g mass vibrating up and down attheendofa springhas its position given by y= 0.150sin3tmfor t in
seconds. Find the net force thatactsonthe mass to give it this motion.
Theacceleration is d
2
y/dt
2
= 1.35sin3t m/s2; so Fnet = 0.050(-1.35sin3t)=-0.0675sin3tN. The
4.34< A bodyofmass m moves alongX such thatat time tits position is x(t)=at' {31
3
+yt, where IX, (3, yare
constants. (a) Calculatethe acceleration ofthe body. (b) What is the force actingon it?
(a) i 4IXt
3
- 3{3t
2
+Y and x 12IXt2 - 6{3t
(b) f:= mX 12mIXt2- 6m{3t
4.2 FRICTION; INCLINED PLANES; VECTOR NOTATION
4.35 Thebreakingstrength ofa steel cableis 20kN. Ifonepulls horizontally with this cable, what is the maximum
horizontal acceleration which can be given to an 8-ton(metric) body restingon a rough horizontal surface if
the coefficient ofkinetic friction is 0.15?
Let Tbethe cable force. Then L: F ma becomes T I-Lkmg = ma. Formaximum acceleration T=
2.0x 10'N, so that2.0x 10
4
N- 0.15(8000kg)(9.8m/s2)= (8000kg)a. Solving we geta= 1.03m/s2.
4.36 A 20-kg wagon is pulled along thelevel ground by a rope inclined at30 above the horizontal. A friction
force of30Nopposes the motion. How large is thepullingforce if the wagon is moving with (a) constant
speed, and (b) an accelerationof0.40m/s2?
Let the pullingforce ofthe rope be T. Using L: f:=max we have for ourcase Tcos30 30N=man
wherem = 20kg. (a) Forax =0, T=34.6N. (b) Forax 0.40m/s
2
, T 43.9N
4.37 Suppose, as shownin Fig. 4-5, thata 70-kg box is pulled by a 400-N force atan angle of 30 to the horizontal.
Thecoefficient ofslidingfriction is 0.50. Find the acceleration of the box.
Because the box does not move vertically, L: may =O. From Fig. 4-5, we see that thisequation is
Y+200N- mg= O. Butmg=(70kg)(9.8m/s2)= 686N. Itfollows that Y 486N.
Wecan find the friction force actingon the box by writingf =I-L Y= (0.50)(486N)=243N. Now letus write
L: f.: max for the box. Itis (346- 243)N (70kg)a,c> from which ax = 1.47m/s2.
200 N
mg Fig. 45
4.38 Asshownin Fig. 46, aforce of400N pushes ona 25kg box. Startingfrom rest, the box achieves a velocity
of2.0mlsin a time of4s. Find the coefficient ofsliding friction between box and floor.
IIiiIII\I\I Ii IIIIIiI II II II I II
NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION 0 57
306 N
ve
the
(25)(9,8) N Fig. 4-6
It+
, We must find f by use of F = rna, But first we must find a fn.1m a motion problem. We know that Vo 0,
In
vf = 2 mIs, t = 4 s. Using vf =Vo +at gives
a =vf - VQ =2 m/s 0.50 m/s2
t 4s
Now we can write EF. = ma
z
., where ax a = 0.50 m/s
2
From Fig. 4-6, this equation is 257 N - f =
e
(25 kg)(0.50 m/s
2
) , or f = 245 N. We now wish to use f.l = f IY. To find Y, we write EFy =may = 0, since no
vertical motion occurs. From Fig. 4-6, Y - 306 N - (25)(9.8) N = 0, or Y =551 N.
Then
f 245
f.l Y 551 =0.44
A 12-kg box is released from the top of an incline that is 5.0 m long and makes an angle of 40 to the
horizontal. A 60-N friction force impedes the motion of the box. (a) What will be the acceleration of the box
and (6) how long will it take to reach the bottom of the incline?
mum
e if
, In Fig. 4-7 we show the three forces acting on the block: the frictional force f = 60 N; the normal force N,
which is perpendicular to the incline; and the weight of the block, W = mg = (12 kg)(9.8 m/s
2
) = 118 N. We
choose the x axis along the incline with downward as positive. Using EF. = max> we have W sin 40 = man
or (118 N)(0.642) - (60 N) =(12 kg)a
x
Solving we have ax = 1.31 m/s
2
To find the time to reach the bottom
of the incline, starting from rest, we use x = vOxt + ~ a x t 2 with VOx = 0 and x = 5.0 m. Solving we get
t = (7.63 S2)112 = 2.76 s.
,t
For the situation outlined in Prob. 4.39, what is the coefficient of friction between box and incline?
, Again referring to Fig. 4-7 we have from EE'y 0, N - w cos 40 =0, or N = 90 N. Then, recalling that the
coefficient of kinetic friction is given by f.lk =fIN, we have f.lk = 0.67.
;Dntal.
i write
An inclined plane makes an angle of 300 with the horizontal. Find the constant force, applied parallel to the
plane, required to cause a 15-kg box to slide (a) up the plane with acceleration 1.2 m/s
2
and (b) down the
incline with acceleration 1.2 m/s
2
Neglect friction forces.
, Here we assume that the x axis is along the incline and positive upward. IfP is the constant force referred
to, then from EF. =max we have P - w sin 30 =man with m =15 kg and w mg =147 N.
(a) For ax 1.2m/s
2
,P=2J.5N.(b)a
x
=-1.2m/s
2
,P 55.5N
A 400-g block originally moving at 120 cm/s coasts 70 cm along a tabletop before corning to rest. What is the
coefficient of friction between block and table?
.ocity
Fig. 4-7
58 0 CHAPTER 4
, For the block E Fy:;: 0 yields FN = W=mg and EFx =ma yields -IlFN ma; hence, 11 = -a/g. The
uniform acceleration, from v
2
is a =-1.22/2(0.7)= 1.03m/s2; then 11 =1.0319.8=0.105.
4.43 How large aforce parallel toa 30" incline is needed to give a5.0-kg box an acceleration of0.20m/s
2
up the 4.4
incline(0) iffriction is negligible? (b) If the coefficient offriction is 0.30?
, (0) The componentofthe weight down theincline=mg sin30=5(9.8)(0.5) 24.5N, while the external
force up the plane is F. So Fnel ma becomes F 24.5=5(0.20) from which F =25.5N (b) A friction
force =IlFN must be added to 24.5N down theincline. FN =mg cos30=42.4Nand IlFN =12.7N, soF is
larger by this amount; thus F =38.2N.

4.44 An 8.0-kg box is released on a30incline and acceleratesdown the incline at0.30m/s
2
. Findthefrictional
force impedingits motion. How large is thecoefficient offriction in thissituation?
, Thecomponentofthe weight down theincline =8(9.8)(0.5) 39.2N. Now F =ma leads to 39.2- 1=
8(0.3), sothatI 36.8N. The normalforce equals the componentofW perpendicular to the incline,
8(9.8)(0.867) 67.9N. Therefore11 =36.8/67.9=0.54.
4.45 A horizontal force P is exertedona 20-kg box in ordertoslideit up a 30 incline. Thefriction force retarding
the motion is 80N. How large must P beif theaccelerationofthe moving box is to be (a) zeroand
(b) 0.75m/s
2
?
, Herewe choose thex axis along the incline with positive upward. All theforces on the block areshown in
Fig. 4-8. From EFx =max we have P cos30 w sin30- I = max, wherem =20kg, w mg =196N, and
1= 80N. (a) Forax =0, P 206N. (b) Forax =0.75m/s2, P =223N
4.5
Fig. 48
4.5
4.46 A horizontal force of200Nis required to cause a 15-kg block toslide upa 20 incline with an acceleration of
25 cm/s
2
Find (a) thefriction force onthe block and (b) the coefficient offriction.
, Thesituation is as shown in Fig. 4-9. We again choose thex axis along the incline, and they axis
perpendicular to the incline. Then from EFx ;=; max we get P cos20 - w sin20=(15kg)(0.25m/s2) and
from equilibrium in the y direction we get N - P sin20- w cos20 O. Noting that P =200Nand
w = mg =147N, we solve the equations, yieldingI 134NandN =207N, respectively. Finally Ilk =I IN =
0.65 is the coefficient offriction. Note how P contributes to the normal force.
#1FI4-9
4.47 Whatis the smallest force parallel to a 37 incline neededtokeepa 100-N weight from sliding down the
incline ifthecoefficients ofstatic andkineticfriction are both0.30?
, As usual, choose thex andy axes parallel and perpendicular totheincline. LetF be the unknown force,I
thefriction force, and N the normalforce. If the weight is about to slide down the incline, thenthe frictional
force is maximum andin the upward direction. Then
4.5;
and N - w cos37= O. F - w sin3JO+Imox = 0, where
Noting that w 100Nand11, 0.3, we get N 80N and1m.. 24N; andfinally F = 36N is theminimum
force needed along the incline.
4.48 Referring to Problem4.47, indicate what parallel force is required to keep theweight moving up theincline at
constantspeed.
4.54
L.___ ________________________________________________________
NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION 0 59
Herewe have kineticfriction down the incline, andf = /lkN. N is still 80N (why?) and since Ilk == 0.30, we
havef == 24N. Then Ef'x 0yields F - wsin37- f == 0; and solving, we get F == 84N.
Forthe sameconditionsas in Prob. 4.48 assume thatthe force F, up the incline, is 94N. Whatis the
accelerationofthe object?If the object startsfrom rest, how far will it move in 10s1
he
As before,f == /lieN 24Nand is down the incline opposing the motion. Thenusing Ef'x = max, we have
F wsin37- f =max. Noting m wig=10.2kg we solve, gettingax =0.98m/s
2
upthe incline. Next we use
the kinematic formulax =vOxt + a x t 2 with VOx =O. Settingt= 10s and using ourax. we getx = 49m.
lal
A 5-kg block rests ona 30 incline. Thecoefficient ofstaticfriction betweenthe block and incline is 0.20.
How large a horizontalforce must pushonthe block if the block is tobe on the verge ofsliding upthe
incline?
il
LetPbe the horizontalforce. We choosex andy axes II and .1 tothe incline. Since the block is on the
verge ofmoving, itis in equilibrium: I:f'x = 0 and EFy = O. Herewe have maximum staticfrictional force
down the incline. Pcos30- wsin30- fmax = 0; N - wcos30 Psin30== 0,where Nandf are the normal
and friction forces, respectively. w= mg = 49N. Substitutingfm.x = /lsN in the first equation, and puttingin all
rding known quantities, we get
0.866P- 0.20N= 24.5N N - 0.50P== 42.4N
These two equationsin two unknowns canbe solved in avariety ofways. We multiply the first equationby5
lin in
and add tothe second equation toeliminate N. This yields3.83P= 165N, or P= 43.1 N.
j
Rework Prob. 4.50for incipient motion down the incline.
The only difference from Prob. 4.50 is that the maximum frictional force is upthe incline. We therefore
change the sign in front offm.x in the Ef'x 0equation. We thenget for ourtwoequations:
0.866P+ 0.20N= 24.5N N - 0.50P=42.4N
We again multiply thefirst equationby 5, butnowsubtract the secondequation toeliminateN. Thisyields
4.83P== 80.1N,orP== 16.6N. Note thatin Probs. 4.50 and4.51 the numerical valves ofN aredifferent,
reflecting theirdependenceon P.
InFig. 4-10, the8-kg object is subject totheforces F; 30NandF; = 40N. Find the accelerationofthe
mof
object.
md
Irce,f
Newton's secondlaw in component form is F;x + Fa == max and F;y + F;y == may. or30cos40+40cos700
ional
8a
x
and30sin40- 40sin70== 8ay. Solving, a= 4.6i- 2.3j m/s
2

A 7-kgobjectis subjected totwoforces, Fl == 20i+30j NandF2= 8i 50j N. Find the acceleration ofthe
object.
m
F==F
J
+ Fz:;=28i- 20jN; a=.!.F=4i- (20/7)jm/s
2

m
:lineat
Theforces FJ and Fz shown in Fig. 4-10 give the8-kgobjectthe accelerationa= 3.0im/sz. Find F; and F;.
Fig. 4-10
60 0 CHAPTER 4
Ourmotion equationstaketheform f'tx + Fa 8(3), f'ty + Fzy = O. From the latter, Fl sin40
F2 sin70; from theformer, F[ cos40 24- F2 cos70. Dividing these relationswe have tan40=
F;sin70/(24 - Fz cos70). Using these, Fz = 16.4NandF; = (sin70
0
/sin400)F2 = 24N.
4.55 Findtheforce needed to give a proton (m = 1.67x 10-
27
kg) an acceleration 2x 1Q9j - 3X 1Q9j m/s
2

F= ma= 3.34x 1O-
18
i 5.01x 1O-
18
j N
4.56 A 200-g objectis subjected to a force0.30i 0.40j N. If theobjectstarts from rest, whatwill bethe velocity
vectoroftheobject after6s?
Y = Yo +ta= 0+;;; F O . ~ O O (O.3Oi - 0.40j)= 9i - 12j mls
4.57 If theobjectofProb. 4.56 started at theorigin, whatwas its location at theend ofthe 6-s period?
2
S = So +tyo+!t a= 0+0+;:F= 2 0 ~ ~ O O ) (0.3Oi- 0.40j)= 27i- 36j m
Thustheobjectwas found atthe point(27m, - 36m).
4.3 TWOOBJECT AND OTHER PROBLEMS
4.58 InFig. 4-11, find theaccelerationofthecart that is required to prevent block B from falling. Thecoefficient
ofstaticfriction between theblock and thecartis ft,.
If the block is not to fall, the friction force,f, must balancetheblock'sweight:f = mg. Butthe horizontal
motion oftheblock is given by N = mao Therefore,
f g
-=:-
N a
or
Since themaximumvalue offiNisft., we musthavea 2: g/ ft. ifthe block is nottofall.
a
f'
B
N
Fig. 411
4.59 A passengeron a large ship sailingin a quietseahangs a ball from theceiling ofhercabin by meansofa long
thread. Wheneverthe ship accelerates, she notes thatthe pendulum ball lags behind the pointofsuspension
andso thependulum no longer hangsvertically. How large is theship'sacceleration when thependulum
standsat an angle of5 to thevertical?
See Fig. 4-12. Theball is accelerated by theforce Tsin5. Therefore Tsin5= mao Vertically EF= 0, so
T cos5=mg. Solving for a =g tan5 gives a = 0.0875g = 0.86m/s
2

T
II'g
Fig. 412
4.60 A rectangular block ofmass m sitsontopofanothersimilar block, which in turnsits on a flat table. The
maximum possible frictional force ofoneblock onthe otheris2.0m N. Whatis the largestpossible
accelerationwhich can be given the lowerblock withouttheupper block sliding off? What is thecoefficient of
friction between thetwo blocks?
Fm.. = 2.0m=mama.. so am.. =2.0m/s2. Also ft =f/mg =2.0m/9.8m =0.20.
NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION a 61
~ .............. .
~
a=3 m/s
2
-
(a) (b)
Fig. 4-13
4.61 A block sits on an incline as shown in Fig. 4-13(a). (a) What must bethefrictional force betweenblockand
incline iftheblock is nottoslide along the inclinewhen the incline is accelerating to the right at 3m/s2?
(b) What is theleastvalue I-ts can have for this to happen?
Resolve the forces and the3-m/s2 acceleration intocomponentsperpendicular and parallel totheplane
[Fig.4-13(b). WriteF =mafor each direction: 0.6mg- f =3(0.8)m and FN O.8mg =3(0.6)m, which yield
(a)f=(3.48m)N, FN =(9.64m)N
f 3.48m
(b) I-ts =-=--=0.36
FN 9.64m
4.62 In theabsenceoffriction, would the blockofProb. 4.61 accelerate up ordown theincline?
Down [at 3.48m/s2 relative to incline, since total acceleration down incline is then 0.6gby Prob. 4.61(a)].
4.63 Theinclined planeshown in Fig. 4-14 has an acceleration a to the right. Show that the block will slide on the
plane ifa>gtan(e- a), where I-ts taneis thecoefficient ofstaticfriction for the contactingsurfaces.
y
x Fig. 4-14
Ifthe blockis notto slide, it must have thesame acceleration as theplane. Hence
f cosa - N sin a ma f sin a+Ncosa- mg=0
Fromthese,
f = m(acosa +gsina) N =m(gcosa - asin a)
and
f acos a+ sin a a+ tana
- = ~ =
N gcosa- asin a g - atana
Nowthe maximum value off/N in the absence ofslipping is I-ts = tane. Thusthe acceleration amustsatisfy
a+ tana e tane- tana
--'='--- :5tan or a:5g gtan(e-a)
g- atana 1+tanetana
Ifa>gtan(e- a), the blockwill slide.
4.64 ObjectsA and H, eachofmass m, areconnectedbya light inextensiblecord. They areconstrained to move
on a frictionless ringin a vertical plane, as shown in Fig. 4-15. Theobjectsare released from rest at the
positionsshown. Findthe tension in the cord just after release.
Atthe momentofrelease, A is constrained to move horizontally and H vertically, so that the two initial
62 D CHAPTER 4
Fig. 415
accelerationsare tangential as shown. Furthermore, thetwo accelerationshave thesame magnitude, a, since
otherwisethecordwould have tostretch. Thus, the horizontal force equation for A and thevertical force
equationfor B, atthe indicated positions, are
Tsin45 ma mg- Tsin45"= ma
T mg =mg
Eliminatinga,
2sin45 V2
4.67
4.65 If the system in Fig. 4-16(a) is given an acceleration, find the forces onthe sphere, assuming no friction.
, From Fig. 4-16(b), ER,er = Rlcos30"- w maYer = 0and EFt.or = R2 - Rlsin30= rna. Thus, the acting
forces are 4.68
W
. w w ( a)
R
1
=-- l.15w R2= Rlsm30"+ a= (1.15w)(0.5)+-a= w 0.58+-
cos30 g g g
and the weight, w.
4.69
w
(a) (b)
Fig. 416
4.66 In Fig. 4-17, mass A is 15kg and mass B is 11 kg. If they aregiven anupward accelerationof3m/s2 by
pullingupon A, find thetensions T\ and Tz.
, First apply Newton'ssecond law to thesystem as a whole to find the force Fl acceleratingbothmasses
upward.
F; =78N
Since F; is the resultantforce, Fl =T.. - mAg - mBg, and the tension T.. is thesumoftheweightsofA and B
plus F;.
Tl mAg+ mBg + F; 15(9.8)+ 11(9.8)+ 78 147+ 107.8+ 78
NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION 0 63
fa
Fig. 417
Similarlyfor mass B only,
F; = mBa = 11(3)= 33N 7; =mBg + F; =11(9.8)+ 33=: 107.8+ 33 =140.8N
Tocheck, for block A only,
Ii =: mAg + mAa + 7; = 147+ 45+ 140.8=: 332.8N
4.67 Referring toFig. 4-18, find the accelerationoftheblocks and the tension in the connectingstring ifthe
appliedforce is Fand the frictional forces onthe blocks arenegligible.
,.ApplyF =ma toeach blockin turntoobtainF - T =m
2
a and T =m) a. Solve for Tand a toobtain
a = F/(m) +m
z
) and T =m1F/(m
l
+mz).
4.68 InFig. 4-18,.ifF= 20N, m
l
m
2
= 3kg, and the acceleration is 0.50m/sz, what will be the tension in the
connectingcord ifthefrictional forces on the two blocks areequal? Howlarge is thefrictional force oneither
block?
Fig. 418
, Write F = ma for each block usingf as thefriction force oneach block. Thenwe obtainF - f - T= mza
and T - f = mla. Use thegiven values and solve tofind T = 10NandL 8.5N.
4.69 The device diagramed in Fig. 4-19 is called anAtwood'smachine. Intermsofm
l
andmz with mz>ml'
(a) howfar will mz fall in time t afterthe systemis released? (b) Whatis the tension inthe light cord
thatconnectsthe two masses? Assume the pulleytobefrictionless and massless.
A
I I
I ~ ~ T
+ ~ a m2
mIg
m2g Fig. 4-19
, (a) Isolate theforces oneach massandwrite Newton'ssecond law, choosingup as positive:
T - mIg =mla and T mzg =-mza. Eliminating Tgives a (m2 - ml)g/(ml + m
2
). Nowusey= at
z
/2 to
find the distance fallen in time t. (b) Fromtheabove equations, T =: 2mlmzg/(ml +m
z
).
64 0 CHAPTER4
4.70 Acord passing over africtionless, massless pulley (Atwood'smachine) has a4-kg block tied toone endand a
12-kgblock tied to theother. Compute the acceleration and the tension in the cord.
I Usingtheformulas derived in Prob. 4.69,
a 122 4(9.8)= 4.9m/s
2
1 +4
4.71 Foran Atwood'smachine (Prob. 4.69) with masses 10 and 12kg, find (a) thevelocities at theend of3sand
(6) the distances moved in 3s. (c) Ifatthe endof3s thestring is cut, find thedistances moved by the masses
in the next 6s.
a= (m2 - ml)g 12 10(9.8)=0.89m/s2
I (a)
m
l
+m
2
12+10
4.73
Since the acceleration is constant, thecommon speed atthe endof3sis v=Vo +at=0+ (0.89)(3)= 2.67tn/s.
Mass2moves down and mass 1moves up. (6)Thedistance moved by eachmass in 3sis
S= vot+ = (0)(3)+!(0.89)(3)2= 4m.
(c) Ifthestringis cut, the massesfall freely with initial velocitiesV
20
= -2.67mlsand VIO=
up taken as positive. Formass 2, thedisplacement in 6sis then
Y2 =V20t - =(-2.67)(6)- H9.8)(6r=-192.4m
i.e., adownward distance of192.4m. Mass 1travels upward a distance
,
d = 2g = 2(9.8) =O.4m
+2.67mIs,with
beforecoming to a stopand thenfalling downward. The timeoftravel upward beforecomingtoa stopfor
mass 1is
tup= g = = 0.27s
Itthen travels downward 5.73sfor a distance
d" = IH-g)t
2
1= !{9.8)(5.73)2= 160.9m. 4.74
The total distancetraveled by mass 1is then d d'+d" = 0.4+160.9=161.3m.
4.72 InFig. 4-20, the weightsoftheobjects are 200 and 300N. Thepulleys are essentially frictionless and
massless. Pulley PI has a stationary axle but pulley P
2
is free to move upand down. Find the tensions Tt and
1;, and the accelerationofeachbody.
300 N Fig. 4.20
4.75
NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION a 65
I Mass B will rise and mass A will fall. You cansee this by notingthat the forces actingon pulley P
2
are27;
up and TI down. Therefore Tl = 27; (theinertialess object transmits thetension). Twice as large a force is
pullingupward on B as onA.
Leta downward accelerationofA. Then =upward acceleration ofB. [As the cord between PI and A
lengthensby 1unit, thesegmentsoneitherside of P
2
each shorten by i unit. Hence, = SB/SA =
HaBt2)/na
A
t2) aB/aA'] Write EF, may for each mass in turn, taking the direction ofmotion as positive in
eachcase. We have
1;- 300N= and 200N 7;=mAa
Butm wigand so m
A
= (200/9.8)kg and m
B
=(300/9.8)kg. Further, TI 27;. Substitution ofthesevalues
in thetwo equations allows us to compute T2 and then 1; anda. Theresults are
Tl 327N 7;=164N a=1.78m/s2
4.73 An inclined plane making an angle of25 with the horizontal has a pulley atits top. A 30-kg block onthe
planeis connectedto a freely hanging20-kg block by means ofa cord passingoverthe pulley. Computethe
distance the20-kg block will fall in 2sstartingfrom rest. Neglect friction.
Fig. 421
I The situation is as shown in Fig. 4-21. We apply Newton's second law to each block separately. Forblock
B we choosedownward as positive, while for blockA we choose ourx axis along the incline with the positive
sense upward. Thischoice allows us to use thesame symbol, a, for the accelerationof each block. Thenfor
block B, Wb - T mba, where mb =20kg and Wb = 196Nand T is the tension in the cord. Since the pulley is
frictionless, the same tension T will exist on both sides of the pulley. Thenfor block A, T Wa sin25 maa,
where ma = 30kg and Wa =294N. Wecan eliminate the tension T by adding the two equations, which yields
Wb - Wa sin25= (ma +mb)a. Substituting in the known values we solve, gettinga= 144m/s
2
Theequation
for fall from rest is y = VOyt + with VOy = O. Substitutingin a
y
= 1.44m/s
2
and1=2s, we gety =2.88m.
4.74 RepeatProb. 4.73 if the coefficient offriction between block and planeis 0.20.
I The equation for block A is now T - Wo sin25- f =maa. The block B equation is the same as before:
Wb - T =mba. Adding thetwo equationswe get this time Wb Wa sin25- f = (ma +mb)a. As soon as we
obtainf we can solve for a. Toobtainf we note thatf =IlkN, where Ilk 0.20 is the coefficient of kinetic
friction and N is thenormal force exertedon the block by theincline. Noting E F, 0for the direction
perpendicularto the incline, we have Wa cos25 - N =0, orN 266N. Thenf =53Nandsolving for the
acceleration a = m/s
2
. Again using y=vo),1 + with VOy = 0, a
y
= 0.38m/s\and 1== 2s, we get
y 0.76m.
4.75 In Fig. 4-22, the two boxes haveidentical masses, 40kg. Both experience aslidingfriction force with
Il = 0.15. Find the acceleration ofthe boxes and the tension in the tie cord.
T
A
...
Fig. 422
66 0 CHAPTER 4
, Usingf IlY. where Y= normal force, we find thatthefriction forces on the two boxes are
fA =(0.15)(mg) fs =(0.15)(0.87mg)
Butm 40kg and sofA =59Nandfs =51 N.
Letus apply EF. =max toeachblock in turn, taking the direction ofmotion as positive.
T 59N=(40kg)a and 0.5mg-T 51N=(40kg)a
Solving these two equationsfor a and Tgives a = 1.08m/s2 and T= 102N.
4.76 Two bodies, ofmassesm
l
andmz. are released from the position shown in Fig. 4.23(a). If the massofthe
4.7f
smooth-topped table is m3' find the reaction ofthe Hoor on the table while the two bodiesare in motion.
Assume that the table doesnot move.
, From Fig. 4-23(b), the force equationsfor thebodies are
Body 1: EFYer =WI T = mla
Body2: EFhar =T =mza
Table: EF'v.r =N- T W2 - W3 =0, EF
har
= T - f = 0
Ttr
T
112
(b)
fl2
N/2
Fig.4-23
where Nandf arethevertical andhorizontal (frictional) componentsoftheforce exerted by the Hoor on the
table. [We assume in Fig. 4.23(b) thatleft and right legsshare load equally. This does notaffect ouranalysis.]
From the first two equations,
(a)
Then,
4.79
and, finally,
4.77 Threeidentical blocks, each ofmass 0.6kg, areconnectedby light strings as shown in Fig. 4-24. Assume that
they lie ona smooth, horizontal surfaceand are observed to have an accelerationof4.0m/s
z
under the action
ofa force F. Calculate Fand the two tensions.
Fig. 4-24
, Letthe tensionsin thecord beTab and 7;,0 respectively, and let uswrite Newton's second law for each
block separately, choosing positive to the rightfor each. Since the cords are inextensible, we know thatthey
-----
NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION 0 67
have the same acceleration, which we denote by a. Then for blocks A, B, C, respectively (letting
m=ma=mb me),
F T.b=ma
(Note how the tensions appearwith opposite signs in adjacent equations.)Tosolve these equationsfor a we
add theequations, and the tensions cancel in pairs, leaving F 3ma =3(0.6kg)(4.0m/s2) =7.2N. The
tensions can now be obtained by substituting back into the individual equations:
T.b =7.2N- (0.6kg)(4.0m/sZ) =4.8N
4.78 Three blocks with masses 6kg, 9kg, and 10kg are connected as shown in Fig. 4-25. Thecoefficient offriction
between the table and the lO-kg block is 0.2. Find (a) the acceleration ofthe system and (b) the tensions in
the cord on the left and in thecord on the right.
B
A
c
Fig. 4-25
, (a) Let the tension in thecord on the left be Tt and on the right be T
z
. The pulleys are assumed to be
frictionless. We apply Newton'ssecond law to each ofthe three blocks, choosing the positivesense of the axis
for each blockconsistently. Thuswe choosedownward as positive for block C, to the right positive for block
B, and upward as positive for blockA. Thefrictional foice on block B is to the left and can be obtained from
f = IlkN. where Ilk = 0.20 and the normal force N equals the weight Wb =98N from vertical equilibrium. Thus
f = 19.6N. Forourthree equationswe have
We - Tz = mea
where a is the acceleration, m
e
- 9kg, and We = 88.2N.
T2 Tt - f= mba
Tt Wa = maa
wherem. =6kg and W. =58.8N.
As with earlierproblems involvingcords connectingblocks, the tensions in adjacentequationsappear with
.J
oppositesigns. Addingthethreeequationseliminates the tensionscompletely:We - f - W. = (ma + mb + mc)a.
Note thatthis is equivalent to a one-dimensional problem involving a single block of mass m. + mb + me acted
on by a force We tothe right and forcesf and Wa to the left. Substitutingthe known masses, weights, andf
givesa =0.39m/s
z
. (b) Substitutea back into the equationsofmotion for eachblock, most conveniently the
first and third, to obtain T
t
=61 N, Tz = 85N. The remaining equation canbe used tocheck the results.
4.79 In Fig. 4-26, thecoefficient ofslidingfriction between blockA and the table is 0.20. Also, m
A
;;: 25 kg,
ma 15kg. Howfar will blockB dropin the first 3safter thesystemis released?
T
f
y
Fig. 4-26
68 0 CHAPTER 4
Since, for blockA, there is no motion vertically, the normal force is Y = mAg = (25 kg)(9.8m/s
2
) = 245 N.
Thenf = /l Y = (0.20)(245N) =49N.
We must first find the acceleration ofthe system and then we can describe its motion. Let us apply F = ma
to each block in turn. Taking the motion direction as positive, we have
T-f=mAa or T-49N=(25kg)a
and mBg - T = mBa or - T + (15)(9.8)N= (15 kg)a
We can eliminate T by adding the two equations. Then, solving for a, we find a = 2.45m/s
2
.
Now we can work a motion problem with a = 2.45 m/s
2
, va = 0, t =3s.
y = vat + 4at
2
gives
as the distance B falls in the first 3s.
4.80 How large a horizontal force in addition to T must pull on blockA in Fig. 4-26 to give it an acceleration of
0.75 m/s
2
toward the left? Assume, as in Prob. 4.79, that /l =0.20, m
A
=25 kg, and m
B
= 15kg.
If we were to redraw Fig. 4-26 in this case, we should show a force P pulling toward the left onA. In
addition, the retardingfriction forcef should be reversed in direction in the figure. As in Prob. 4.79,f = 49 N.
We write F = ma for each block in turn, taking the motion direction to be positive. We have
P - T - 49 N= (25 kg)(0.75 m/s2) and T - (15)(9.8)N= (15 kg)(0.75m/s2)
Solve the last equation for T and substitute in the previousequation. Wecan then solve for the single
unknown, P, and find it to be226N.
4.81 The two blocksshown in Fig. 4-27 have equal masses. Thecoefficients ofstatic and dynamic friction are
equal, 0.30 for both blocks. If the system is given an initial speed of0.90m/sto the left, how far will it move
before coming to rest if the inclines are quite long?
Fig. 427
Again we assume that the pulley is frictionless and the tension in the cord is the same everywhere. We
apply Newton's second law to each block to get the acceleration ofthe blocks. Wechoose ourx axis for each
block II tothe inclines and choose the positive sense to the left. Then we have w sin53- fa - T = ma and
T - w sin30- fb = ma, where m is the common mass and w = mg, the common weights ofblocksA and B.
Thefrictional forces on the two blocks are determined from the equilibrium conditions perpendicular to the
inclines. Thus for blockA, fa = /lkNa, with normal force Na = w cos53; and for block B, fb = /lkNb' with
Nb = w cos30. Weeliminate the tension by adding ourtwo equations toyield w sin53- fa - fb - w sin30=
2ma; orsubstitutingfor w, fa, andfb, mg sin53- /lkmg cos53- /lkmg cos30- mg sin30 =2ma. Dividing
outby m and solving, we get a =g(sin53- Ilk cos53- Ilk cos30- sin30)/2 = -0.694m/s2. We now apply
the kinematical equation v; = ~ x + 2a
x
x to eitherblock with vox =0.90mis, ax = -0.694m/s2, and Vx = 0 to
get x =0.583m.
4.82 If the blocks in Fig. 4-27 are momentarily atrest, whatis thesmallest coefficient offriction for which the
blockswill remain at rest?
The tendency to motion will be to the left since that slope is steeper. For minimum coefficient offriction
thefrictional forces will be their maximum value (the verge ofslipping). Thus,fa = /l,mg cos53 and
fb = /l,mg cos30, both acting to the right. Then the equationsofequilibrium are
BlockA: mg sin53- /l,mg cos53- T = O. Block B: T - mg sin30- /l.mg cos30 =0
Adding the two equations yields mg(sin53- /l. cos53- sin30- /l, cos30) = O. Dividingout mg
and rearranging terms, we get /l.,(cos53+ cos30)=sin53- sin30, and /l, = 0.203.
4.8<
4.85
N.
Ie
:h
y
NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION 0 69
4.83 A blimpis descendingwith an accelerationa. How much ballast must bejettisioned for the blimpto rise with
thesameaccelerationa? Thereis a buoyantforce acting upward ontheblimpwhich is equal to.theweight of
theair displaced by the blimp; assume thatthe buoyant force is the same in bothcases.
, FromFig. 4-28, the equations ofmotion are
Descending: mIg Fb =mla. Ascending: Fb - m
2
g =m
2
a
Addinggives (ml - m2)g = (ml + m2)a. Butml - m
2
m, the mass ofthe discarded ballast. Therefore,
mg =[mJ + (mJ - m)]a or
g+a
(a) Descending (b) Ascending
Fig. 428
4.84< Show theaccelerationofthecenterofmass in Prob. 4.83 does not changewhen theballast is ejected.
Use this fact toconfirm thevalue ofm found in Prob. 4.83.
, Choose up as positive. Since EF on the system ofblimpand ballast is thesame beforeand after the
ballastwas thrown out, EF m!a
em
, we must have a
em
= -a, before and after. Now, measured from some
reference level,Yem =[m2Yblimp + (m! - m2)Ybanas,]/ml' ThenYem =[mzYblimp + (mJ - m2)jiballastl/m!. ButYblimp =
a, Yb.lI.st -g, andYem =aem =-a; so -a =[m2a - (m! - m2)g]/m! or(ml +m2)a = (mJ m2)g as before,
yielding thesame value for m "" (mJ - m
2
).
4.85 Three blocks, ofmasses 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0kg, arranged in the order lower, middle, and upper, respectively, are
connected by strings on africtionless inclinedplaneof60. A force of120Nis applied upward along the
incline tothe uppermostblock, causing an upward movementofthe blocks. Theconnectingcords are light.
Whatis the acceleration ofthe blocks?
Fig. 429
, Thesituation is depicted in Fig. 4-29 with F = 120N.
m! = 2.0kg m2 4.0kg and m3 = 6.0kg
Applying Newton's second law to each block, we have
NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION 0 71
T
6 kg
T
3kg
m2- Fig. 431
Tocheck this, apply Newton'ssecond law to m
2
alone.
3(9.8)- T 3(3.27) 29.4- T =9.8 T=19.6N
As expected, the tension is the same.
4.91 A 6.0-kg block rests on a horizontal surface. Its coefficient ofkineticfriction is 0.22. The block is connected
It
by astring passing over a pulleyto a 3.0-kg mass, as in Fig. 4-32. (a) Whatis theacceleration a? (b) What is
the tension T in the string?
N
T
, We treatthe problem as ifit were in onedimension.
(a) Forthesystem as awhole,
netF =ma m =m
l
+m2 = 6.0+3.0 9.0kg netF =mzg /AkN =ma N =mIg
ma m2g - /Akm]g 9.0a 3.0(9.8) 0.22(6.0)(9.8)= 1.68(9.8) a =1.83m/s2
(b) The force thestring exerts on m! is
T =/AkN + m1a =0.22(6.0)(9.8)+ 6.0(1.83) 12.94+ 10.98 T =
4.92 Suppose thatblocks A and B have masses of2and6kg, respectively, and are in contacton a smooth
horizontal surface. If a horizontal force of6Npushes them, calculate(a) the acceleration ofthe system and
(b) the force that the 2-kg block exerts on the other block.
, (a) See Fig. 4-33(a). Considering the blocks to move as a unit, M =m. + mb =8kg, F Ma =6N
a 0.75m/s2.
F=6N

B
-----iIoo- B
A
(a) (b)
Fig. 433
70 D CHAPTER 4
2
+m3)g sin60= (ml+m2 +m))a; 120N (12.0kg)(9.8m/s2)(0.866) =
(12.0 kg)a; a J.51mLs2.
4.86 RefertoProb. 4.85. What are the tensions between the upperand middle blocks, andthelowerandmiddle
blocks?
, Continuingfrom Prob. 4.85, substitutethe value ofa into the individual block equations, andsolve for T,
and T
2

Forblock 1:
For block 3: T2
T, (2.0kg)(9.8m/s")(0.866) +(2.0kg)(1.51mLs") 20.0N
120N- (6.0kg)(9.8m/s2)(0.866) - (6.0kg)(1.51 m/s")=60.0N
Thiscan be checked by substitutinginto theequationfor block2.
4.87 A skiergoes down a hillside, which makes an angle e with respect to the horizontal. If Ilk is the coefficient of
slidingfriction betweenskis andslope, show that the accelerationoftheskieris a = g(sine- Ilk cos e).
, Reverse thedirection ofmotion in Prob. 4.23, andapply to kinetic ratherthanstaticfriction.
4.88 Referto Fig. 4-30. Find T, and 7; ifthe blocks are toaccelerate (a) upward at 6.0m/s
2
and(b) downward at
0.60 m/s
2
.
4.9
Fig. 4-30
, Treatingthe two masses and the connectingcord as an isolatedobject, l.Og = l.Oa; then isolating the
800-g mass, obtain T2 - 0.8g =0.8a; a is thesame in bothexpressions. (a) a =6.0m/sZ, so =6.0+9.8=
15.8Nand T2 12.6N. (b) a = -0.60m/s2, so T, =9.8-0.6=9.2Nand 7;=7.4N. As a checkon the
answers, isolate the 200-g mass andobserve that T, - 0.2g T2 =0.2a.
4.89 Thecords holdingthetwo masses shown in Fig. 4-30 will break ifthe tension exceeds 15.0N. What is the
maximum upward acceleration one can give the masses without thecordbreaking? Repeatif thestrength is
only 7.0N.
, Note, Tl > Tz from Prob. 4.88. Considerthefree body made up ofboth masses and the massless cord
between them: Tl -l.0g=LOa; for 15.0N, a = 5.2mLs2; for = 7.0N,a = -2.8mLs2. (The system
must beacceleratingdownward, since could notsupportthe9.8-N weight.)
4.!
4.90 A 6.0-kgblock rests on a smoothfrictionless table. A stringattached to the block passes overa frictionless
pulley, and a 3.0-kg mass hangs from thestringas shownin Fig. 4-31. (a) What is the acceleration a?
(b) Whatis the tension T in the string?
, (a) This type ofproblem, as seen in Prob. 4.78, can be treatedas ifit were in onedimension. Thus,
Newton'ssecond law takes theform
F=ma 3(9.8)= (6+ 3)a 29.4= 9a a = 3.27m/s"
(b) ApplyingNewton'ssecond law to mass m, alone,
72 0 CHAPTER4
(6) Ifwe now consider block B tobeoursystem, the only force actingonitis the force due toblockA, F
ab

Then since the acceleration is thesameas in part (a), we have Fab Mba = 4.5N. However, we mustconsider
alsothe case in which we reverse blocks A and B as in Fig. 4-33(b). As before, considering the blocks as a
unit we have a =0.75m/s
2
Now, however, ifwe consider block B as oursystem we have two forces acting,
the force F tothe right and theforce Fab to the left. Then F Fab =Mba and solving we getFab =1.5N in
magnitude and points totheleft.
We could verify these results by consideringblockA to be the system for the two cases.
4.93 In Fig. 4-34, the pulley is assumed massless and frictionless. Find the acceleration ofthe mass m in terms ofF
if there is no friction between thesurfaceandm. Repeatifthe frictional force onm isf.
: i, F
Fig.4-34
, Note T F 12. Newton's law for the blockgives T =ma, hence a = F 12m. When friction is involved we
have FI2 - f = ma, soa = (F/2m) - (f1m).
4.94 In Fig. 4-35, assume that there is negligible friction between the blocks and table. Computethe tension in the
cordand the acceleration ofm
2
ifm
t
300g, m
2
200g, and F =0.40N.
Fig. 4-35
, Write F =ma for each block. Leta be the accelerationofm2' Theacceleration ofmt is then a/2 (compare
Prob. 4.72). Then T =m
2
a and F 2T m
t
(a/2). Onefinds a =0.73m/s2 and T =0.145N.
4.95 How large must F bein Fig. 4-36 togive the 700-g block an accelerationof30cm/s2? Thecoefficientof
friction between the two blocks and also between blockandtable is 0.150.
Fig.4-36
, Converting to SI units, isolate each mass and note the forces thatact oneach. Vertically only theweights
and normal forces areinvolved, FN = 0.2g onthe upperblock and 0.9g onthe lowerone. Friction forces are:
Jl(0.2g) betweenblocks and Jl(0.9g) atthe table. F = ma for the blocks: T Jl(0.2g)=0.2a and F T
Jl(O.2g) Jl(O.9g) O.7a; aftereliminating tension T between these, F =0.9a+Jl(1.3g)= 0.9(0.30)+
0.150(1.3)(9.8)=~ 1 8 N.
4.96 Assume in Fig. 4-36 thatthe coefficient of friction is the same at the top and bottom ofthe7oo-g block. If
2
a =70cm/s when F = 1.30N,how large is the coefficient offriction?
, FollowingProb. 4.95, F=0.90+Jl(l.3g); then we use F= 1.30Nand0 0.700m/s2 tofind Jl 0.053.
4.97
InFig. 4-37, whenm is 3.0kg, the acceleration ofthe block m is 0.6m/s2, while a 1.6m/s
2
ifm =4.0kg.
Find the frictional force on block M as well as its mass. Neglect the mass andfriction ofthe pulleys.
, Apply Newton'ssecondlaw to m for eachcase: 3(9.8)- 21; =3(0.6), so 'rt 13.8N; and 4(9.8)- 2 ~ =
4(1.6), so ~ = 16.4N. ApplyingNewton'ssecond law to M for each case, 13.8- f =M(1.2) and 16.4- f =
M(3.2). Solve to find M = 1.3 andf =17.2N.
t i
4.98
4.99
abo
ider
J
"
)fF
the
pare
Ilts
re:
NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION 0 73
Fig. 437
4.98
InFig. 4-38(a), block 1is one-fourth the length ofblock 2 and weighs one-fourth as much. Assume thatthere
is no friction between block 2 and the surfaceonwhich it moves and that thecoefficient ofslidingfriction
betweenblocks 1and 2is JJk = 0.2. Afterthesystem is released, find thedistanceblock2has movedwhen
only one-fourth ofblock 1is still on block 2. Block 1and block 3have the same mass.
, FromFig. 4-38(b), theequationsofmotion are
Solve thefirst and third equationssimultaneously to geta
l
= (g/2)(1- JJk); from thesecondequation,
a
2
=(g/4)JJk' Then the displacements ofblocks 1and2aregiven by x =!at
2
, i.e.,
Atthe instant thatone-fourthofblock 1remains on block2,X2 + I = Xl+ (1/16), whereI is the length of
block 2. Therefore,
and
(a) Configuration at t = 0
~ L .
(b)
Fig. 4-38
4.99 A dinner platerests ona tablecloth, with its center0.3mfrom theedgeofthe table. Thetablecloth is
suddenly yanked horizontallywith a constant accelerationof9.2m/s2 [Fig.4-39(a)]. Thecoefficient ofsliding
friction betweenthetablecloth and theplateis JJk =0.75. Find (a) theacceleration, (b) thevelocity, and
(c) thedistance oftheplate from the edge ofthetable, when theedgeofthe tablecloth passes underthe
centeroftheplate. Assume that thetablecloth just fits thetabletop.
I
!
!
I
I
ffi
4.101
74 D CHAPTER 4
/"
\
W= mg
\
PlateL I = = = ~
N )
f /J-kN = /J-kmg
(b)
(a)
Fig. 4-39
(0) from Fig. 4-39(b), theforce equationfor the plateis /Amg =map, orap /-lg =(0.75)(9.8)
The plate slips, since a
p
is less than 9.2m/s2. (b) Atthe time the edge ofthe tablecloth is at thecenterofthe
plate, the cloth and the plate areat thesamedistance from the edge ofthe table:
xp = Xc 0.3+H7.4)t
2
= 0+H9.2)t
2
Solving, t 0.58sandvp =0+(7.35)(0.58)=4.26m/s.
(c) Xp =0.3+0(0.58)+H7.35)(O.58)2= 1.54m
4.100 In the pulley system shown in Fig. 4-40, themovable pulleys A, B, Careofmass 1kg each. D and E are
fixed pulleys. Thestrings are vertical and inextensible. Findthe tension in thestringand the accelerationsof
the frictionless pulleys.
WriteYA. YB, Yc for the positionsofthe centersofthe pulleysA, B, C attime t; a
A
, a
B
, ac are the
accelerations at time t.
mg
Fig. 4-40
T
Position at time t
W = 400g
I
I
I
tTo = 6OO0g
y
I
I
r
...1_,
I
IInitial position
I
Fig. 441
!l.
f the
of
Followingthestringfrom the end at the centerofA to the end atthe centerofB, we get
or YA +Ys + 2yc = constant
Takethe secondtime-derivative ofthis equation to get a
A
+ as + 2ac O.
Thereis justone stringand, thus, one tension T. The force equationsare
T+mg -2T =ma
A T + mg - 2T =mas mg 2T=ma
c
Substitutingm =1kg andsolving thefourequationsfor thefour unknownsa
A
, as, a
c
, T, we obtain
T=6.5N
4.10r A bodyofmass 400kg is suspended atthe lower end ofa lightvertical chain and is beingpulled up vertically
(see Fig. 4-41). Initially the body is atrest and the pull on the chain is 6000g N. The pull getssmaller
uniformlyattherate of360g N pereach meterthroughwhich the body is raised. Whatis the velocity ofthe
body when ithas been raised lOm?
, Attime e, lety be theheight (in meters) ofthe body above its initial position. Thepull in the chain is then
T =(6000- 360y)g and Newton'ssecondlaw gives
T 400g =400.9 or (5600- 360y)g =400y
Thisequationmay be changedinto onefor y =v (thevelocity ofthe body) by useofthe identity
2y 2dv =2dv dy =2v dv =d(v
2
)/d
de dy de dy Y
Thus 200 ~ : 2 =(5600 360y)g or
Let V be the velocity atheight 10m. Then, on integrating
f2d(v
2
) =gfO(28-1.8y) dy V
2
=g[28y -
V =+v'190g +43.2m/s.
Thechoice ofthe + sign for V (upwardmotion) should bechecked. For0s y s lO, the netforce,
(5600 360y)g, is positive, andsothe acceleration is positive. Then,since the bodystarted from rest, V must
be positive.
NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION 0 75
d(v
2
) =g(28 -1.8y) dy
0.9y2]tO =g[28(lO) - 0.9(lOO)]=1909