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# THE LEARNING CENTER

## Cl#e! a0o#t .hen to #!e di\$\$erent \$or #la!

y 2 y1 x 2 x1

This is the formula for finding the !lo"e of a line that passes through two points.

When can I #!e thi! \$or #la% When I am given two points through which a line passes and I am asked to find the slope of that line Exa "le &' Find the slope of the line which passes through the points (2, - ! and (-", -1!.

## An!.er# The slope of the line is

) . (

y=

x +0

This formula is called the !lo"e/interce"t \$or #la for a line \$ecause it displa%s \$oth the slope and the %-intercept of the line.

%&
)lope &

'(0
%-intercept & 0

When can I #!e thi! \$or #la% When I am given the e*uation for a line and I am asked to find the slope and %-intercept of that line or When I am given the slope and %-intercept of a line and I am asked to write an e*uation for the line

Exa "le *' Find the slope and the %-intercept of the line whose e*uation is 2' - +% & ". To find the slope and %-intercept, solve the e*uation for %. )olving for % automaticall% puts the e*uation into % & m' ( \$ form, the form where %ou can readil% see the slope and the %-intercept. An!.er# The slope of the line is
& . The %-intercept is -23 /+45,. 1
*x 5 y = + 5 y = *x + + 5 y *x + = + 5 5 5 & + y= x 1 5
)lope %-intercept

Exa "le 6' Write an e*uation for the line that has a slope of ,-.2 and a %-intercept of 12. /emem\$er that the numerical value of the slope replaces replaces 0 in % & ' ( 0. An!.er# y =
7 x + &* . *
/ev. 11.0"

## WRITING EQUATIONS FOR LINES

y y& = -x x & ,

9age *

This formula is called the "oint/!lo"e \$or #la for a line \$ecause m represents the slope and '1 and %1 represent the '- and %-coordinates of a point through which the line passes.

When can I #!e thi! \$or #la% When I am given the slope of a line and a point and I am asked to write an e*uation for the line which has the given slope and which passes through the given point Exa "le 1' Write an e*uation for the line that passes through the point (-", 1! and that has a slope of .". y y& = - x x & , The slope of the line is m. m & ." ( y 6 = -x -+,, + The '-coordinate of the given point is '1. '1 %1 ( The %-coordinate of the given point is %1. (-", 1! y 6 = -x + +, + ( To get the e*uation for the line, plug in the numerical values for m, '1, and %1 y 6 = x +( Then isolate % to get the answer in % & m' ( \$ form. + ( y= x +(+6 + An!.er# ( y = x + &2 +

## Cl#e! a0o#t >ertical and hori=ontal line!

:ertical Line! The slope of all vertical lines is undefined. ; <#nde\$ined< The e*uation for all vertical lines can \$e written as ' & a constant. (3 never appears in the e*uation for a vertical line.! 4ook at the vertical line to the left. )everal points on (2,1! that line have \$een la\$eled. 5o matter (2,0! whether the %-coordinate (2,-2! for the point is positive, 2ero, or negative, the 'coordinate does not change. It remains the same, the constant 2. Therefore the e*uation for this vertical line is x ; *. Hori=ontal Line! The slope of all hori2ontal lines is 2ero. ;2 The e*uation for all hori2ontal lines can \$e written as % & a constant. (6 never appears in the e*uation for a hori2ontal line.! 4ook at the hori2ontal line to the left. )everal points on that line have \$een la\$eled. 5o matter whether the '- coordinate for the point is positive, 2ero, or negative, the %-coordinate does not change. It remains the same, the constant 2. Therefore the e*uation for this hori2ontal line is y ; *.
(-1,2! (0,2! (2,2!

9age 6

## Cl#e! a0o#t "arallel and "er"endic#lar line!

9arallel line! If two lines are "arallel, their slopes are the !a e numerical value? 9er"endic#lar line! If two lines are "er"endic#lar, the numerical values of their slopes are the negati>e reci"rocal! of each other. If the slope of a given line is ".-, then ever% line that is parallel to the given line will also have a slope of ".- \$ecause parallel lines have the same slope.

If the slope of a given line is ".-, then ever% line that is perpendicular to the given line will have a slope of ,-.", \$ecause ".- and ,-." are the negative reciprocals of each other. 5egative means that the slopes have opposite signs. /eciprocal means that the numerator and denominator have traded places. (The numerator and denominator have flipped upside down.)

## 9#tting all the cl#e! together

Exa "le +' Write an e*uation for the line that is parallel to "' ( 2% & - and that passes through the point (1, 7!. What strateg% should \$e used8
In order to write an e*uation for a line, %ou usuall% need to know the slope of that line. 3ou can use the

slope of "' ( 2% & - since it is parallel to the line whose e*uation %ou are asked to write. To find the slope of "' ( 2% & -. solve for %. This puts the e*uation into % & m' ( \$ form. 9lug \$oth the slope that %ou :ust found and the given point into the point-slope formula. y y& = - x x & , +x + *y = 7 point (1, 7! + '1 %1 * y = + x + 7 y ) = - x 6, * + 7 y= x+ + &+ * * y ) = x + * * )lope + &+ y= x+ +) * * + *( An!.er' y= x+ * *

## WRITING EQUATIONS FOR LINES

9age 1

Exa "le )' Write an e*uation for the line that is perpendicular to ' - 1% & 11 and that passes through the point ( , 2!. What strateg% should \$e used8
In order to write an e*uation for a line, %ou usuall% need to know the slope of that line. 3ou can use the

negative reciprocal of the slope of ' - 1% & 11 since it is perpendicular to the line whose e*uation %ou are asked to write. To find the slope of ' - 1% & 11, solve for %. This puts the e*uation into % & m' ( \$ form. 9lug \$oth the negative reciprocal of the slope that %ou :ust found and the given point into the point-slope formula. y y& = -x x & , x 6 y = && point ( , 2! '1 %1 y * = 6- x (, 6 y = x + && )lope The negative
6 y x && = + 6 6 6 & && y= x reciprocal of 1.1 is ,1. 6 6

An!.er'

y * = 6 x + *& y = 6x + *& + * y = 6x + *6

Exa "le (' Write an e*uation for the line that passes through the points (", -1! and (-;, -2!. What strateg% should \$e used8
In order to write an e*uation for a line, %ou usuall% need to know the slope of that line. 3ou can use the

slope formula to find the needed slope. 5e't %ou can plug the slope and one of the given points into the point-slope formula to get the e*uation for the line.
= = y * y& x* x&
y y& =

)lope

## * -&, 1 + * +& = 7 & = 7 & = 7

<se - x the x & ,slope and the point (", -1! in the point& y -&, = slope -x +, formula. 7 & y + & = - x +, 7 & + y +& = x 7 7 & + y = x & An!.er' 7 7 & &1 y= x 7 7

Exa "le 5' Write an e*uation for the line that passes through the points (", ;! and (-1, ;!. What strateg% should \$e used8
5otice that \$oth points have the same %-value. /emem\$er that all of the points on a hori2ontal line have

the same %-values. Therefore, these points are on a hori2ontal line. /emem\$er that the e*uation for a hori2ontal line can \$e written as % & a constant. In this case, the constant must \$e ; since that is the %-value common to \$oth points. An!.er' y ; 1 WRITING EQUATIONS FOR LINES 9age +

Exa "le 7' Write an e*uation for the line that passes through the points (", ;! and (", -7!. What strateg% should \$e used8
5otice that \$oth points have the same '-value. /emem\$er that all of the points on a vertical line have the

same '-values. Therefore, these points are on a vertical line. /emem\$er that the e*uation for a vertical line can \$e written as ' & a constant. In this case, the constant must \$e " since that is the '-value common to \$oth points. An!.er' x ; +

9ractice "ro0le !' 1. Find an e*uation for the line that passes through the points (;, 12! and (;, 1!. (Hint: Both points have the same x-values.) 2. Write the e*uation for a line with a slope of 7." that passes through the point (- , -1!. 1. Write an e*uation for the line which passes through the point (1,12! and which is parallel to ;' ( 2% & 7. (Hint: Parallel lines have the same slope.) ;. Find an e*uation for the line which passes through the points (-, --! and (--, !. ". Write an e*uation for a line which passes through the points (1, ;! and (1, 1-!. (Hint: Both points have the same x-values.) 7. Find an e*uation for the line which is perpendicular to ' , 1% & " and which passes through the point (-7, !. (Hint: Perpendicular slopes are the ne ative reciprocals of each other.) . Write an e*uation for the line which passes through the points (- , -"! and (;, -"!. (Hint: Both points have the same !-values.) +. Find an e*uation for the line which has a %-intercept of ; and which has a slope of , . -. Write an e*uation for the line which passes through the point (-11, -1! and which is parallel to % & +. (Hint: " # \$ is a hori%ontal line. &ince all hori%ontal lines are parallel to each other' the e(uation that !ou write should )e a hori%ontal line.) 10. Write an e*uation for the line which passes through the point (-11, -1! and which is parallel to ' & 7. (Hint: x # * is a vertical line. &ince all vertical lines are parallel to each other' the e(uation that !ou write should )e a vertical line.) 11. Write an e*uation for the line which passes through the point ( , +! and which is perpendicular to % & -1. (Hint: +ertical lines and hori%ontal lines are perpendicular to each other. &ince ! # -, is a hori%ontal line' !ou will want to write an e(uation for a vertical line.) 12. Write an e*uation for the line which passes through the point (;, "! and which is perpendicular to ' & -. (Hint: +ertical lines and hori%ontal lines are perpendicular to each other. &ince x # - is a vertical line' !ou will want to write an e(uation for a hori%ontal line.) An!.er! to "ractice "ro0le !'
1. ' = ; 2. % = 7 1 '+ " "
;. % = ". ' = 1 7. % = 1 ' 11 + ' 1 . % = " +. % = ' + ; -. % = 1
10 . ' = 11 11 . ' = 12 . % = "

1. % = 2' + 1+