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The broad aims of this syllabus are that the students should be able to: 1. 2. 3. . #. $. %. develop an interest in chemistry; seek knowledge and enjoyment from the subject of chemistry; develop an ability to think scientifically; ac!uire an ability to perform e"periment; ac!uire an ability to solve problems; observe accurately and objectively; develop an awareness of the social& economical and technological implication of chemistry.

The general objectives of 'hemistry syllabus are to: 1. 2. 3. . #. $. %. (. ). enable learners to develop understanding science process skill and scientific attitude to appreciate chemistry as a changing and growing human activity; be able to apply the knowledge and principles learned in e"plaining phenomena or solving problems related to chemistry; enable learners to formulate opinions in solving community problems especially related to environment; provide opportunities to understand social and economic issues related to chemistry; prepare the students to adopt careers in chemistry based field of science and technology; prepare the students for studies beyond higher secondary level; develop imaginative and critical thinking; develop self nutrition and the ability to work in a sustained fashion; recogni*e the usefulness and limitations of scientific method and to appreciate the interrelationship between different disciplines.

The syllabus content is based on the following specific objectives: A. Knowledge !nde"#$%nd&ng %nd %''l&(%$&on# +tudents should be able to: 1. 2. 3. . #. B. understand certain useful facts& laws& principles& theories and concepts in chemistry; communicate using and ade!uate chemistry vocabulary; apply the knowledge and principles learned in e"plaining physical phenomena or solving problems related to chemistry; understand the relevant applications of chemistry in society and in every day life; use generali*ation and models to make predictions.

P"%($&(%l S)&ll# +tudents should be able to: 1. 2. 3. . #. $. follow se!uence of instruction& learn techni!ues and safe handling of apparatus and chemicals; observe and record e"perimental observations accurately; interpret and evaluate observations and e"perimental data; manipulate numerical and other data; select appropriate apparatus to design e"periments; analy*e and evaluate chemical information of a !ualitative and !uantitative nature and draw valid conclusions.


A$$&$!de# +tudents should be able to: 1. 2. 3. . #. $. develop curiosity and interest in making scientific investigations; accept that theories and models have both usefulness and limitations in making predications and describing physical phenomena; develop personal integrity through objective observations and honest recording of e"perimental data; cooperate with others in scientific in!uiry; show awareness of the moral& economic& political and social conse!uences of the applications of chemistry to meet human needs; develop attitudes relevant to science such as in!uiry and inventiveness.


Fo" Cl%## *I CONTENTS T,e B%#&( Con(e'$# -+. 'e"&od#/ ,tom& -olecule& .on and -olecular .on /elative atomic mass and relative molecular mass 0etermination of relative atomic masses of isotopes by -ass +pectrometry 0etermination of empirical and molecular formula The mole& ,vogadro1s number and molar volume +toichiometric calculations 2imiting /eactant 3ercentage yield SCOPE 'oncept and brief description. /ecall. 4orking of -ass +pectrometer is not re!uired. .llustration with e"amples. /ecall. 'oncept of +toichiometry& 'alculation based on balance chemical e!uation. 'oncept and brief description. 'oncept and calculation.

+. 1. 2. 3. . #. $. %. (. 0. 1. 2. 3. . #. 7. 1. 2.

E1'e"&2en$%l Te(,n&3!e# &n C,e2&#$"4 -56 'e"&od#/ 5iltration 3rinciple and brief description with diagram. 'rystalli*ation 6rief description. +ublimation 6rief description. +olvent e"traction 3rime and brief description with theoretical background. 'hromatography 3rinciple and brief description of paper chromatography. T,e G%#e# -+0 'e"&od#/ +tates of matter .deal gas laws /ecall general properties of solids& li!uids and gases& with their reasons. 6oyle1s law and its verification& 'harles law and derivation of absolute *ero& avogadro1s law and its importance. 0iffusion and effusion 9rahm1s law of diffusion and its verification and 0alton1s 2aw of partial pressure. +tatement of the laws& related calculations and solved e"amples. -ain postulates and derivation of gas laws from it. 0escription of all types of molecular motion and their dependence on temperature. 0erivation of gas e!uation and calculations based on it. 'oncept of critical temperature. /eal gases depart from ideal behaviour at high pressure and at low temperature. :ander 4aals e"planation of this behaviour.

3. . #. $. %.

7inetic theory of gases 7inetic interpretation of temperature .deal gas e!uation 2i!uefaction of gases /eal gases 8 their deviation from ideal behaviour

(. .. 1.

3lasma state L&3!&d# %nd Sol&d# -+6 'e"&od#/ .ntermolecular forces

, brief introduction of plasma state& its properties and uses. <ydrogen bonding with reference to < 2=& <5 8 ><3. 0ipole?0ipole interactions& 2ondon dispersion forces. @ffect of these forces on physical properties of compounds. 0escription and measurement of vapour pressure& boiling point?effect of pressure on boiling point @nergetic of phase changes. 6rief e"planation and their importance. 'rystalline and amorphous solids. 0ifference with e"amples. 3roperties of crystalline solids. 'oncepts of unit cell and crystal lattice& 2attice energy of >a'l. +even crystal systems on the basis of dimensions of the unit cell. 'haracteristics of ionic& covalent& metallic and molecular solids. +tructure of >a'l& solid iodine& graphite& diamond and metals. +imple method for determination of ,vogadro1s number. 0iscovery of electron& proton and neutron. 'haracteristics of these particles. -ass and charge of these particles. 0escriptive treatment. 0erivation of radius and energy of electron in nth orbit. 'oncept of spectrum. 0ifference between continuous and line spectra. 'haracteristics of the emission spectrum of atomic hydrogen. .nterpretation of the spectrum using the relationship @ D hE. 0escriptive treatment in the light of -osley1s e"periment. 0escriptive treatment of wave nature of electron. .ntroductory non mathematical treatment. 6rief non mathematical description of four !uantum numbers. +hapes of s and p orbitals. ,ufbau principle& 3auli1s e"clusion principle and <und1s rule. 4riting of electronic configuration upto F D 3$. /ecall different types of bonds. @nergy changes during the formation of a bond.

2. 3. . #. $. %. (. 8. 1. 2. 3. .

3hase changes 2i!uid crystals +olids ;nit cell 8 crystal lattice 'rystals 8 their classification 0ifferent types of solids 0etermination of ,vogadro1s number A$o2&( S$"!($!"e -+9 'e"&od#/ +ubatomic particles of atom /utherford model of atom 6ohr1s model of atom +pectrum of hydrogen atom

#. $. %. (. ). 1C.

A?rays 8 atomic number 0ual nature of electron <eisenberg1s uncertainty principle Buantum numbers @nergy levels 8 =rbitals @lectronic configuration of atoms

6. 1.

C,e2&(%l Bond&ng -+9 'e"&od#/ @nergetic of bond formation

2. 3. . #. $.

.oni*ation energy& electron affinity 8 electro?negativity 'ovalent bond 6ond energy& bond length and 0ipole moment .onic and 'ovalent radii @ffect of bonding on physical 8 chemical changes

0escription and e"planation of variation of these properties with reference to periodic table. 2ewis theory& velence bond theory& :+@3/ theory& -olecular orbital theory of diatomic molecules. 6rief and simple treatment of bond energy& bond length& bond polarity. ;se of these properties to compare the reactivity of covalent bond. 'oncept& e"amples and their calculations. 0escribe 8 interpret the effect of different types of bonding on physical properties of compounds. Bualitative e"planation of relative reactivities of ionic and covalent compounds. @"planation and e"amples of such reactions. 'oncept of the terms with e"amples. +tatement& mathematical form and the e"planation of the terms involved @ D !v ; < D !p @"perimental determination of enthalpy changes: +tandard enthalpy changes of formation& combustion& hydration& solution and neutrali*ation& lattice energy. 0efinition and applications G6orn?habercycle& and lattice energyH to determine enthalpy changes that can not be found e"perimentally. 'oncept and e"planation. 2aw of mass action and writing e!uilibrium e"pressions. G7c7bH. 3rediction of direction and e"tent of a reaction with numerical e"amples. +tatement and e"planation of the principle. +tudy of the effects of changes in concentration& temperature& pressure and presence of catalyst on the reaction at e!uilibrium. 'oncept and mathematical form including p<& p=<& p7w and common ion effect. 'oncept of buffer and buffer action with numerical e"amples. 0escribe and e"plain the condition used in the production of ammonia and sulphur trio"ide. +olubility product and its calculations from solubility of the salt. 'alculation of percentage and molarity. -orality& mole fraction and parts per million.

:. 1. 2. 3. .

T,e"2o C,e2&#$"4 -+5 'e"&od#/ +pontaneous and >on?spontaneous reactions +ystem& surrounding and state function .nternal energy and first law of thermodynamics @nthalpy


<ess1s 2aw

9. 1. 2. 3.

C,e2&(%l E3!&l&<"&!2 -+6 'e"&od#/ /eversible reaction 8 phenomenon of dynamic e!uilibrium ,pplications of e!uilibrium e"pression 2e?'hatelier1s 3rinciple

,cid?base e!uilibrium

#. $. =. 1.

,pplication of chemical e!uilibrium in industry +olubility of sparingly soluble salts Sol!$&on# -+. 'e"&od#/ 'oncentration ;nits


Types of solutions


'olligative properties of solution

. +5. 1.

<ydration and hydrolysis Ele($"o C,e2&#$"4 -+6 'e"&od#/ @lectrolytic conductance

/ecall types of solutions. +olutions of li!uids in li!uids& vapour pressure?composition curve for an ideal mi"ture of li!uids. ,*eotropic mi"tures. +olutions of solids in li!uids. 5ractional crystalli*ation. +olubility and solubility curve. 2owering of vapour pressure of solvent by a solute& /oult1s 2aw. -easurement of elevation of boiling point and depression of free*ing point. 'oncept and e"planation with their reasoning. /ecall electrolytes and conductance. @"amples of electrolysis like electrolysis of a!ueous solution of >a'l anodi*ing of ,l& refinding of 'u. 0escription of 0aniel 'ell. 'ell e!uations. 'oncept of electrode potential and standard electrode potential. 0escription of standard hydrogen and calomel electrodes. 0etermination of standard electrode potential of materials. >umerical e"amples. 'oncept and e"planation. ;se of standard redo" potential to predict the spontaneity of a reaction. 'oncept. 5inding out the o"idation states of atoms in compounds and radicals. 6alancing of redo" e!uations by o"idation number and ion electron methods. 4orking of rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. 0escription of the terms?rate of reaction& order of reaction& rate constant& half life of a reaction 8 rate determining step. 3hysical 8 chemical methods. 'oncept and e"planation. .llustrative e"amples involving path ways. ,rrhenious e!uation: 0escription and e"planation G0erivation not includedH <omogeneous 8 heterogeneous catalyses. @n*ymes as catalysts.

2. 3.

@lectrochemical cells @lectrode potential

. #.

@lectrochemical series ="idation state and balancing of e!uations -odern batteries and fuel cells Re%($&on K&ne$&(# -+5 'e"&od#/ /ate of reaction 0etermination of rate of reaction ,ctivation energy 5inding the order of reaction @ffect of concentration and temperature on the rates of reaction 'atalysis

$. ++. 1. 2. 3. . #. $.

Fo" Cl%## *I 1. 2. 3. . #. $. %. (. ). 1C. 11. 12. +eparation of a mi"ture of inks by paper chromatograph +eparation and identification lead and cadmium ions in a mi"ture solution by paper chromatography 3urification of commercial >a'.Gcommon ion effectH 'rystalli*ation of 6en*oic acid from water 0etermination of heat of neutrali*ation 3reparation and standardi*ation of acid?alkali solution 0etermination of >a2'=3 in a mi"ture solution 0etermination of >a < '=3 in a mi"ture solution +tandardi*ation of 7-n= solution by standard o"alic acid solution 0etermination of number of water molecules of crystalli*ation in -ohr1s salt and 5errous sulphate 0etermination of acetic acid in vinegar Titration of iodine solution against sodium thiosulphate solution using starch solution indicator


.mportant instructions to student in the laboratory. i. ii. iii. iv. 7nowledge of precautions and laboratory safety. 7nowledge of first aid and first kit. 5amiliarity with glass ware. 'utting and bending of glass tubes.


This set of instructional objectives has been compiled to show the level of achievement that is e"pected of an average pupil on completing the study of specific parts of the syllabus. .t aims at assisting the teachers in their selection of course materials& learning activities and instructional methods. .t can serve as the learning guidelines for the pupils and the basis of an evaluation program. .n stating the specific objectives there are two groups of terms having very similar meaning. The first group is on achievement in recalling facts& which include Idefine1& describe1& and state. De?&ne refers to a rather formal definition of terms which involves their fundamental concept. @De#("&<eA refers to the recall of phenomena or processes& @S$%$eA is used when the objective re!uires the recall of only some aspects of a phenomenon or a process; it limits the scope of teaching. The second group is on achievement relating to science e"periments. This group includes @de#&gnA& @'e"?o"2A& @de2on#$"%$eA. @De#&gnA %n e1'e"&2en$ would be used when there are more than one acceptable ways of doing it. 3upils are e"pected to be able to set up the e"periment by applying what they have previously learned. These e"periments may re!uire the taking of !uantitative data or long term observation. @Pe"?o"2A %n e1'e"&2en$ would be used when the objective emphasi*es on the demonstration of e"perimental skill; the detail of the e"periment could be found in the teachers1 notes or te"tbooks. @De2on#$"%$eA % ',eno2enon by simple e"periments is used when the objective emphasi*es on the result of the e"periment and the e"perimental skill involved is very simple& such as passing some gas into a solution @De#("&<eA %n e1'e"&2en$ is used when pupils are e"pected to know& in principle& how the e"periment could be carried out and the e"pected result. T,e B%#&( Con(e'$# 1. ion 2. i. ii. The students will learn The scales of relative atomic masses of element The determination of relative atomic masses by mass spectrometry and its use to solve the chemical problem. The students will recall the difference between an atom& molecule& ion and molecular

iii. iv. v.

The concept of mole& ,vogadro1s number& molar volume and to apply these concept for stoichiometric calculation The concept of limiting reactant To calculate theoretical and percentage yields using balanced chemical e!uations.

E1'e"&2en$%l Te(,n&3!e# The students will learn i. ii. iii. iv. v. T,e G%#e# 1. 2. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. The students will be able to compare the properties of three states of matter in terms of their physical behaviour and the types of intermolecular forces present in these states. The students will learn <ow different laws govern the physical behaviour of gases ,bout the important postulates which formulate the kinetic model of gases The kinetic interpretation of temperature 0erivation of ideal gas e!uation and calculations based on it .deal and non ideal behaviour of gases and vander 4aal1s e"planation of non? ideal behaviour The concept of li!uefaction of gases and critical temperature 6rief concept of plasma and its properties The concept and operation of filtration The concept and the process of crystalli*ation with its importance The concept of sublimation The concept of solvent e"traction The concept and the principle paper chromatography with its development

L&3!&d# %nd Sol&d# The students will learn i. ii. iii. iv. The concepts of hydrogen bonding& dipole?dipole interaction and 2ondon dispersion forces and the effect of these forces on the physical properties of molecules The concepts of evaporation& vapour pressure and boiling point and the methods to determine the vapour pressure of a li!uid and effect of pressure on boiling point The energy changes accompanied by the phase changes 6rief concept of li!uid crystals and their importance in daily life

v. vi. vii. viii. i". ".

4hat are solids The difference between crystalline and amorphous solids The concepts of unit cell& crystal lattice and lattice energy To classify solids on the basis of the dimensions of unit cell and the forces of attraction between their particles ,bout the crystalline structure of important elements and compounds <ow to calculate the ,vogadro1s number.

A$o2&( S$"!($!"e The students will learn i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. <ow the sub atomic particles were discovered ,bout the differences in properties of electron& proton and neutron ,bout the various models of atom e.g. /utherford1s 8 6ohr1s model <ow to interpret the spectrum of hydrogen using 6ohr1s model <ow the concept of atomic number was developed ,bout the wave nature of electron and how !uantum number can be used to e"plain its physical behaviour ,bout energy levels and the shapes of orbitals ,bout the rules to distribute electrons in energy levels and sub?levels

C,e2&(%l Bond&ng The students will learn i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. The definition of a chemical bond and the energy changes accompanied by the formation of a bond ,bout the thermodynamic properties of elements and the reasons of their variation in the periodic table ,bout various theories of covalent bond ,bout various properties of a bond and their effect on the reactivity The relationship of the types of bonds and their physical properties <ow chemical changes are related to energy changes during the formation and breakage of bonds. T,e"2o C,e2&#$"4 The students will learn i. To describe the terms system& surrounding and state function


ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

The difference between spontaneous ad non?spontaneous reaction To describe the meaning of internal energy and internal energy change To describe the meaning of enthalpy change in terms of e"othermic and endothermic reactions To derive e!uation @D!v and J<D!p using 1st law of thermodynamics <ess1s law and its applications.

C,e2&(%l E3!&l&<"&!2 The students will learn i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Sol!$&on The students will recall the concentration units and the types of solution. The students will learn i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. The properties of solutions of li!uids ,bout the energy changes during the formation of a solution of solid in li!uid The separation of solids by fractional crystalli*ation and li!uids by fractional distillation The effect of solute on the vapour pressure of solvent in solution <ow the elevation of boiling point lowing of vapour pressure and depression in free*ing point are measured and use to calculate molar mass of unknown solute The difference between the hydration and hydrolysis ,bout reversible reaction 8 phenomenon of e!uilibrium To write e!uilibrium constant e"pression using the concept of law of mass action G7c&7pH ,pply e!uilibrium e"pression to predict the direction and e"tent of reaction The effect of variation of conditions on reaction at e!uilibrium with the help of 2e? 'hatlier1s principle ,cid base e!uilibrium and its application in the terms of p<& p=<& p7w& buffers and 6uffer action& common ion effect The industrial application of the phenomenon of e!uilibrium The concepts of solubility product and common ion effect and their application

Ele($"o(,e2&#$"4 The students will learn i. The phenomenon of electrolytic conductance


ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii.

The working of electrochemical cells and their application The concepts of electrode potential and to describe standard hydrogen electrodes and to determine standard electrode potential of metals The concept of electrochemical series and to predict the spontaneity of the reaction To calculate the o"idation state of an element in a compound and ions To balance the chemical e!uations by o"idation number method To balancing the chemical e!uations by ion?electron method 4orking of rechargeable batteries and fuel cells.

Re%($&on K&ne$&(# The students will learn i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. The concept of rate of reaction& rate constant and rate determining step To determine the rate of reaction by physical and chemical methods The concept of activation energy To find out the order of reaction The effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction The phenomenon of catalysis



,ssessment& appraisal& or evaluation is a means of determining how far the objectives of the curriculum have been reali*ed. 4hat really matters is the methodology employed for such determination. ,s is now recogni*ed& performance on the basis of content?oriented tests alone does not provide an ade!uate measure of a student1s knowledge and ability to use information in a purposeful or meaningful way; the implication& then& is that effective and rewarding techni!ues should be developed for evaluating the kind and content of teaching and learning that is taking place and for bringing about improvement in both. The following points& while developing the testsK!uestions may be kept in view: 1. 3roper care should be taken to prepare the objective?type and constructed?response !uestions relating to knowledge& comprehension& application& analysis and synthesis& keeping in view the specific instructional objectives of the syllabus and the command words for the !uestions. 2. There should be at least two periodicKmonthly tests in addition to routine classKtests. Teachers are e"pected to develop and employ assessment strategies which are dynamic in approach and diverse in design. 4hen used in combination& they should properly accommodate every aspect of a student1s learning. 3. .n addition to the final public e"amination& two internal e"aminations should be arranged during the academic year for each class. . 'lassroom e"aminations offer the best and most reliable evaluation of how well students have mastered certain information and achieved the course objectives. Teachers should adopt innovative teaching and assessment methodologies to prepare the students for the revised pattern of e"amination. The model papers& instructional objectives& definitions of cognitive levels and command words and other guidelines included in this book must be kept in view during teaching and designing the test items for internal e"amination.



Knowledge: This re!uires knowing and remembering facts and figures& vocabulary and conte"ts& and the ability to recall key ideas& concepts& trends& se!uences& categories& etc. .t can be taught and evaluated through !uestions based on: who& when& where& what& list& define& describe& identify& label& tabulate& !uote& name& state& etc. Understanding: This re!uires understanding information& grasping meaning& interpreting facts& comparing& contrasting& grouping& inferring causesKreasons& seeing patterns& organi*ing parts& making links& summari*ing& solving& identifying motives& finding evidence& etc. .t can be taught and evaluated through !uestions based on: why how& show& demonstrate& paraphrase& interpret& summari*e& e"plain& prove& identify the main ideaKtheme& predict& compare& differentiate& discuss& chart the courseKdirection& report& solve& etc. Application: This re!uires using information or concepts in new situations& solving problems& organi*ing information and ideas& using old ideas to create new one and generali*ing from given facts& analy*ing relationships& relating knowledge from several areas& drawing conclusions& evaluating worth& etc. .t can be taught and evaluated through !uestions based on: distinguish& analy*e& show relationship& propose an alternative& prioriti*e& give reasons for& categori*e& illustrate& corroborate& compare and contrast& create& design& formulate& integrate& rearrange& reconstructKrecreate& reorgani*e& predict conse!uences etc.


The purpose of command words given below is to direct the attention of the teachers as well as students to the specific tasks that students are e"pected to undertake in the course of their subject studies. +ame command words will be used in the e"amination !uestions to assess the competence of the candidates through their responses. The definitions of command words have also been given to facilitate the teachers in planning their lessons and classroom assessments. C%l(!l%$eC Cl%##&?4C Co2'%"eC De?&ne $,e $e"2 o" $e"2#C De2on#$"%$eC .s used when a numerical answer is re!uired. .n general& working should be shown& especially where two or more steps are involved. +tate the basis for categori*ation of a set of related entities and assign e"amples to categories. 2ist the main characteristics of two entities clearly identifying their similarities and differences. =nly a formal statement or e!uivalent paraphrase is re!uired >o e"amples need to be given. .mplies that the candidate is e"pected to show how is one thing related to another& usually it is a reference to theory but sometimes it is by physical manipulation or e"periment. To state in words Gusing diagrams where appropriateH the main points of the topic. .t is often used with reference either to particular phenomena or to particular e"periments. .n the former instance& the term usually implies that the answer should include reference to visual observations associated with the phenomena. =ften implies that the !uantity concerned cannot be measured directly but is obtained by calculation& substituting measured or known values of other !uantities into a standard formula& for e.g. relative molecular mass. To identify those characteristics which always or sometimes distinguish between two categories. To give a critical account of the points involved in the topic. .mplies a simple freehand sketch or diagram. 'are should be taken with proportions and the clear labeling of parts. -ay imply reasoning or some reference to theory& depending on the conte"t. , general term that may variously be interpreted as calculate& measure& determine etc.



D&??e"en$&%$eC D&#(!##C D"%wDCon#$"!($C E1'l%&nC F&ndC



/e!uires a number of points& generally each of one word& with no elaboration. 4here a given number of points are specified& this should not be e"ceeded. .mplies brevity& i.e. restricting the answer to giving essentials. .mplies that the candidate is not e"pected to produce the re!uired answer by recall but by making a logical connection between other pieces of information. +uch information may be wholly given in the !uestion or may depend on answers e"tracted in an earlier part of the !uestion. .mplies a practical activity in which the choice of e!uipment& order of procedure and accuracy of measurement will play a part. .mplies a practical activity in which the candidate is e"pected to apply an approved methodology with appropriate safety precautious. 0escribe how things depend upon& follow from or are part of another. .mplies a concise answer with little or no supporting argument& for e"ample a numerical answer that can be obtained by inspection. 0escribe with specific e"amples of how a given term or concept is applied in daily life. to e"amine thoroughly and systematically to be able to make a statement about a phenomenon or concept. involves looking at a given e"ample and stating what it most probably is. To determine e"tent& !uantity& amount or degree of something as determined by measurement or calculation. To construct full sentences of continuous prose& not abbreviated te"t. To write down the facts and e"planation as given or provided in the te"t. 0emonstrate with evidence. To bring back to mind and write down& as it is given in the te"t that you have already memori*ed.

O!$l&neC P"ed&($ o" Ded!(eC

P"e'%"eC P!"&?4C Rel%$eC S$%$eC Iden$&?4C E1'lo"eC Re(ogn&EeC Me%#!"eC B"&$eC N%""%$eC S,owC Re(%llC



.n contrast to the previous practice the e"amination will not be based on a single te"tbook& but will now be curriculum based to support the e"amination reforms. Therefore& the students and teachers are encouraged to widen their studies and teaching respectively to competitive te"tbooks and other available material. 5ollowing books are recommended for reference and supplementary reading: 1. 2. 3. . #. 'hemistry 11 3unjab Te"tbook 6oard& 2ahore 'hemistry for class A. +indh Te"tbook 6oard& Lamshoro 'hemistry for class A. >453 Te"tbook 6oard& 3eshawar. 'hemistry class A. 6aluchistan Te"tbook 6oard& Buetta , Te"tbook of 'hemistry class A. >ational 6ook 5oundation& .slamabad


5ederal 6oard <++'?. @"amination 'hemistry -odel Buestion 3aper
/oll >o: ,nswer +heet >o: MMMMMMMMMMMM +ignature of 'andidate: MMMMMMMMMMM +ignature of .nvigilator: MMMMMMMMMMM


SECTION > A Time allowed: 2C minutes -arks: 1%

>ote: +ection?, is compulsory and comprises pages 1?$. ,ll parts of this section are to be answered on the !uestion paper itself. .t should be completed in the first 2C minutes and handed over to the 'entre +uperintendent. 0eletingKoverwriting is not allowed. 0o not use lead pencil. F.+ .nsert the correct option i.e. ,K6K'K0 in the empty bo" opposite each part. @ach part carries one mark. i. .ndicate the set in which all members are isoelectronic ,. 6. '. 0. ii. 51?& 'l1?& 6r1? =N& =& =1? 'a2N& -g2N& ,l3N 51?& >a1N& >eC

;nder which set of conditions& a real gas obeys the ideal gas laws most closely. ,. 6. '. 0. 2ow pressure and low temperature <igh pressure and high temperature 2ow pressure and high temperature +tandard temperature and pressure


3age 1 of $

Turn =ver



.n the graphite lattice& what is the number of nearest neighbours for each carbon atomO ,. 6. '. 0. 3 # $


,ccording to 6oyle1s law& volume of given mass of a gas at constant temperature is inversely proportional to its pressure. 4hich of the graphs depicts this law correctlyO



3age 2 of $

Turn =ver


4hich of the following relationships is true for spectral linesO ,. 6. '. 0. P blue QP red R "?ray Q R radio waves R microwave S R "?ray @ visible S @ uv


0ipole moment is the measure of polarity. 4hich one of the following molecules is polarO ,. 6. '. 0. ''l 653 '5 >53


5ollowing diagram shows the chromatogram of substance A and T: 1 cm +olvent front

X 12cm 1Ccm (cm $cm


cm 2cm Ccm The /f value of substance A will be ,. 6. 2.# C. '. 0.

C.33 3.CC
3age 3 of $ Turn =ver

viii. The following are applied across the discharge tube: a. @lectric field b. magnetic field c. electric and magnetic field simultaneously 4hich one is true regarding the points at which cathode rays strike the photographic plateO

@lectric 5ield ,. 6. '. 0. 31 33 32 32

-agnetic 5ield @lectric 8 -agnetic 5ield +imultaneously 32 33 32 31 33 31 31 33



4hen two ice cubes are pressed over each other& they unite to form one cube. 4hich force holds them togetherO ,. 6. '. 0. 'ovalent bond @lectrostatic interaction 'o?ordinate covalent bond <ydrogen bonding


The enthalpy change representing the lattice energy of potassium chloride is shown by ,. 6. '. 0. 7GsH N U 'l2GgH 7NGa!H N 'l?Ga!H 7NGgH N 'l?GgH 7NGgH N 'l?GgH

7'lGsH 7'lGa!H 7'lGsH 7'lGgH

of $

V< D " V< D y V< D * V< D w

Turn =ver


The solubility product values for the following salts at 2#W' are: 3b'l2D1"1C?# >a'lD1"1C2# 7'lD1"1C23 Fn'l2D1"1C2C =n passing <'l gas& which one of the following salts precipitates out firstO ,. 6. '. 0. >a'l Fn'l2 3b'l2 7'l


The solutions that are formed by li!uids whose molecules have very similar structures and intermolecular forces are: ,. 6. '. 0. >on?ideal solutions .deal solutions +tandard solution +aturated solution

"iii. The mutual solubility of conjugate solutions is affected by ,. 6. '. 0. 3ressure :olume -ass Temperature



4hich of the following represents the same net reaction as the electrolysis of a!ueous sulphuric acidO ,. 6. '. 0. @lectrolysis of water @lectrolysis of a!ueous hydrochloric acid @lectrolysis of sodium chloride @lectrolysis of a!ueous copper G..H sulphate


4hich one of the following substance will conduct electric current without a chemical changeO ,. 6. '. 0. ,n a!ueous solution ,n electrolyte +olid sodium chloride , li!uid metal
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The gaseous reaction: 2A N T takes place in two steps i. ANT +low AT ii. AT N A 5ast A2T The rate e!uation for the reaction is given by ,. 6. '. 0. /ate D 7 XAY2 /ate D 7 XTY2 /ate D 7 XAY2XTY /ate D 7 XAYXTY



-olar mass of any substance contains ,vogadro >o. of particles. The largest number of atoms are present in ,. 6. '. 0. 1.(g of '12<22=11 (g of 'a'=3 $g of >a>=3 g of <2 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM

5or @"aminer1s use only B. >o.1: Total -arks: 1%


-arks =btained:

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5ederal 6oard <++'?. @"amination 'hemistry -odel Buestion 3aper

Time allowed: 2. C hours Total -arks: $(

>ote: +ections I61 and I'1 comprise pages 1?$ and !uestions therein are to be answered on the separately provided answer book. ,nswer all the !uestions from section I61 and attempt any two !uestions from section I'1. ;se supplementary answer sheet i.e.& sheet 6 if re!uired. 4rite your answers neatly and legibly. SECTION > B G 2 marksH >ote: ,ttempt ALL the !uestions. The answer to each part of a !uestion should not e"ceed # to $ lines. B.2 ,mmonia and fluorine react to produce dinitrogen tetra fluoride according to the following reaction

2><3GgH N #52GgH i. ii. G3H -OR/ i.

>25 GgH N $<5GgH G2H

.f .CCg of ammonia and 1 .Cg of fluorine are allowed to react <ow many grams of dinitrogen tetra fluoride are producedO >ame the reactant& which is in e"cess. ,lso calculate its volume at +T3& which is left un?reacted.

, gaseous hydrocarbon has the following composition by mass: ' D (#.% Z and < D 1 .3Z 'alculate empirical formula of the gaseous hydrocarbon. a. b. 'alculate the relative molecular mass. ,lso calculate molecular formula for the hydrocarbon.



, C.2#g sample of the hydrocarbon has a volume of 1CCcm3 at +T3

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+odium atom imparts a characteristic yellow colour when e"cited in a flame. The wavelength of this colour in emission spectrum is #().Cnm. a. b. G2H 4hat is the fre!uency of this radiationO 4hat is the energy of this radiation per photon and per mole of photonO G1H


The diagram given below shows the chromatogram of following five spots a. c. e. ;nknown mi"ture 1 0ye , 0ye ' b. d. ;nknown mi"ture 2 0ye 6


4rite down the composition of mi"ture 1.



ii. iii. G2H B.#

4hich dye ,& 6 or ' is not present in either of the two mi"tures. 4rite down in two lines& the basic principle of paper chromatography.


5or the distribution of .odine between two immiscible solvents G<2= and ''l H .odine reacts with iodide ion to form tri?iodide ion in a reversible reaction. i. ii. iii. 4rite the reaction for this process. >ame and state the law followed. 4rite the distribution co?efficient for this reaction. -OR/ The following sets of !uantum numbers are not allowed. 5or each set state whyO a. b. c. nD3 nD2 nD3 lD3 lD1 lD1 mDC m D ?1 m D ?2
3age 2 of $


s D ?U s D ?1 s D ?U


Turn =ver

B.$ S!<#$%n(e <2= ,r ><3 >2 a. b. G2H c. G2H B.% The table below gives the boiling points of three substances: N%2e 3entane Fo"2!l%
CH7 > CH0 > CH0 > CH0 > CH7

C"&$&(%l Te2'e"%$!"e -K/ $ %.$ 1#C.) C#.$ O

C"&$&(%l P"e##!"e -%$2/ 21%.C 111.# (.C 33.# G1H

The above gases can be li!uefied under the given conditions. +tate the two conditions under which gases can be li!uefied. 4hat will happen to gas molecules under the conditions you have mentioned in part GaHO +ee the table and state whether the critical temperature of >2 will be higher or lesser than ><3 and whyO

Rel%$&Ge 2ole(!l%" 2%## %2

Bo&l&ng 'o&n$DHC 3$


3ropanol 0iethyl ether i. ii. B.(

CH7 > CH0 > CH0 > OH CH7 > CH0 > O > CH0 > CH7

% %

11% 3#

'ompare pentane with diethyl ether& why both have nearly same boiling points. 4hy does propanol have a higher boiling point than pentane and diethyl ether& name the intermolecular forces involvedO


0ipole moment is the product of the electric charge and distance between the positive and negative centres. i. ii. G2H -OR/ 5ollowing table shows the ionic radii in pm. 2iN G$CH >aN G)#H 7N G133H i. G3H
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4rite the formula and units of dipole moments. @"plain the polarity of <2= and '=2 on the basis of dipole moment.


6e2N G31H -g2N G$1H 'a2N G))H

,l3N G#CH

=2? G132H +2? G1( H

5?1 G13$H 'l?1 G1(1H 6r ?1 G1)#H

0iscuss the variation of ionic radii in the periodic table. 9ive a reason for your answer.

ii. G1H B.)

'alculate the distance between potassium and chloride ions in the potassium chloride crystal.

The diagram below shows a simple galvanic cell


a. b.

4hat is meant by the term standard electrode potentialO


The standard electrode potential of the ,gNGa!H K,g GsH and 'u2NGa!H K'u GsH couples are NC.( volt and NC.3 volt respectively. i. ii. G1H >ame the positive electrode. 4rite the direction of the electron flow in the e"ternal circuit. G1H

c. G2H

9ive e!uations for the reactions& which are taking place at each electrode under standard conditions.

B.1C 'onsider the following general electrolytic cell:

i. ii. iii.

,t which electrode does o"idation occurO ,t which electrode does element - formO ,t which electrode are electrons being released by ionsO -OR/
3age of $


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i. ii. iii.

4hat is the direction of electron flow with respect to anode and cathode in a batteryO <ow many alkaline batteries must be placed in series to light a flashlightO 4rite the reaction in the alkaline battery occurring at anode.


B.11 'alcium nitrate is a soluble salt. .t ioni*es in water to produce calcium and nitrate ion. 'alculate the molarities of positive and negative ions produced by the dissociation of #gdm?3 calcium nitrate. B.12 a. b. +tate buffer solutionO @"plain using e!uations& why an a!ueous mi"ture of acetic acid G<,H and sodium acetate G>aN,?H can act as a buffer



solution on the addition of an acid or an alkali. G3H SECTION > C G-arks: 2$H >ote: ,ttempt any TBO !uestions. B.13 a. ,cetylene G'2<2H is used in welding. .f the heats of formation of acetylene& '=2 and <2= are N22$7LKmol& ?3)3.# 7LKmol and ?2(#.% 7LKmol respectively. i. 'alculate the enthalpy of combustion of acetylene. G3H ii. 4hich law is helpful to calculate the above dataO +tate this law. G2H i. ii. 4hat is meant by lattice energyO G1H 2attice energy of the compounds cannot be measured directly by any method. +tate indirect method used for its measurement. G1H 0raw stepwise flow sheet diagram for the measurement of V<lattice for potassium chloride G7'lH. G3H c. .n the e!uilibrium >2 N 3<2 2><3 V< D ?)2. $ 7LKmol 4hat is the effect on the position of e!uilibrium if i. Temperature is increased G1H ii. 3ressure is decreased G1H iii. ,ny amount of nitrogen is added to the e!uilibrium mi"ture. G1H i. ii. G3H
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+tate /aoult1s 2aw. 0erive a relationship between mole fractions of two volatile compounds and their vapour pressure.



;sing the graph answer the !uestions below:


i. ii.

<ow many grams of 7>=3 are dissolved in #2#g saturated solution at $CW'. G1H 2(Cg of 7>=3 is dissolved in a 2#Cg of water at $CW'. <ow many grams of water should be evaporated from the solution to make the solution saturatedO G3H


>on?ideal solutions show two types of deviations. 4hat are these deviations and what are the conditions under which these deviations are shown by these solutionsO G2N3H 6oth 653 and ><3 are tetra?atomic molecules& still they have different geometries. i. G3H ii. iii. 9ive hybridi*ation in these molecules and draw the structure of hybridi*ed orbitals. G3H These compounds e"hibit different dipole moments. 'omment on this behaviour. G2H 0raw their structures and discuss bond angles according to :+@3/ theory.

B.1# a.


;sing the -olecular =rbital Treatment of o"ygen molecule. 3rove that: i. ii. =2 is paramagnetic while =22? is diamagnetic. There is double bond between o"ygen atoms in =2. IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII G H G1H

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5ederal 6oard <++'?. @"amination 'hemistry 3ractical -odel Buestion 3aper
Time allowed: 3 hours 1. 2. +eparation and identification of lead and cadmium ions in a mi"ture solution by paper chromatography. 0etermination of number of water molecules crystalli*ation in -ohr1s +alt and 5errous +ulphate. -OR/ 3reparation and standardi*ation of acid [ alkali solution. 3. . >ote book :iva voce IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII


-arks: 1# G H G%H G%H G2H G2H

3age 1 of 1


5ederal 6oard <++' [ . @"amination 'hemistry [ -ark +cheme
SECTION A F.+ i. iv. vii. ". "iii. "vi. 0 ' ' ' 0 0 ii. v. viii. "i. "iv. "vii. ' , ' ' , 0 iii. vi. i". "ii. "v. , 0 0 6 0 -+:1+J+:/ SECTION B F.0 2><3 N #52 i. moles of ><3 D moles of 52 D ii.
1 3(


-8/ >25 N $<5


D C.23#

GU markH GU markH G1 markH GU markH G1 markH GU markH G1 markH

D C.3$(

mass of >25 D %.$# g ,mmonia moles of ammonia used D C.1 % mole in e"cess D C.23# [ C.1 % D C.C(( mol : D n :m D C.C(( 22. 1 D 1.)%dm3 -OR/ '
(#.% 12


: :

1 .3 1.CC(

G1 markH G1 markH

%.1 2 : 1 : '<2

1 .1(% 2




: D n :m nD
V Vm

1CC 22 1

D .1$ 1C?3 mol

mass mole

G1 markH

relative molecular mass D D b. nD D

molecular formula mass empirical formula mass

C.2# D #$ . $ 1C 3

G1 markH

#$ 1

GU markH

-olecular formula D n Gempirical formulaH D G'<2H D ' <( F.7 a. :D D b. @ D h 3er photon D $.$2$ 1C?3 #.C) 1C1# D 3.3% 1C?1(L 3er mole D
3.3% 1C 1( $.C22 1C 23 1CCC

GU markH -7/

3 1C ( #() 1C 1C

D #.C) 1C1L +?1

G1 markH

G1 markH G1 markH -./ G1 markH G1 markH G1 G1 -7/

D 2C2) 7LKmol F.. i. ii. iii. markH +olute having lower /f value is less soluble than solute having higher /f value in the same solvent markH F.8 i. ii. iii. .2 N . . 0istribution law or partition law 7D
?1 Ga!H ?3 Ga!H

, and ' 6 /elative solubility of different solute present in the mi"ture




G1 markH G1 markH G1 markH

as I 3G1aq H


a. markH b. c. F.6 a. b. c.

-OR/ 4hen n D 3 the possible value of l will n [ 1 which is l D 2 so l D 3 is not allowed. 4hen m D ?1 s D ?U& NU not ?1 clock wise or anti clock wise direction 4hen l D 1 then m D ? l & C& N l not m D ?2 the value of m varies from ? l to N l 2ow temperature <igh pressure -olecules come close to each other attractive forces between them increase. 9aseous particles are converted into li!uid state. 2esser than ><3 >2 molecules have weak :ander 4aal forces while stronger forces Ghydrogen bondingH e"ist in ><3 molecules. 6oth have weak intermolecular forces therefore less amount of energy is re!uired to break these forces. 3ropanol molecules have stronger intermolecular forces than the others. <ydrogen bonding


G1 markH G1 markH -8/ GU markH GU markH G1 markH G1 markH G1 markH G1 markH -7/

F.: i. markH ii. markH G1 markH F.9 i. ii. G1 G1


;nit D 0ebye or 'oulomb meter. <2= is polar while '=2 is non?polar =D' D= .n '=2 dipole moment of ' D = cancel the effect of each other.

-./ G1 markH G1 markH G1 markH


markH -OR/ i. :ariation in period /eason G1 markH GU markH

ii. F.= a. markH b. c. F.+5 i. ii. iii. i. ii. iii. F.++

:ariation in group /eason 7N 'l? D 131 N 1(1 D 3123m

G1 markH GU markH G1 markH -8/

4hen an electrode is in contact with one molar solution of its own ions at 2)(k& is standard electrode potential. i. 'opper electrode ii. 'opper to silver 'u 'u2N N 2 e ,gN N e ,g Nive electrode [ive electrode Nive electrode -OR/ from anode to cathode Fn N 2C<?


G1 markH G1 markH G2 marksH -7/ G1 markH G1 markH G1 markH G1 markH G1 markH G1 markH -7/

FnG=<H2 N 2 e

at anode

'oncentration D #gKdm 'oncmolKdm3 D D

# 1C

Conc.g dm 3 molar mass

D C.C3C#molKdm3

G1 markH

'aG>=3H2 'a2N N 2 NO31 'onc. of 'a2N D C.C3C#'onc. of NO31 D 2 C.C3C# D C.C$1F.+0 a. b.

G2 marksH -./

That resists change in p< when acid or alkali added to it. G1 markH '<3'==< N <2= '<3'==? N <3=N '<3'==?>aN '<3'==? N >aN 4hen a base or =<? ions are added to above buffer system& =<? react with <3=N to give back <2= and p< of solution remain unchanged. 'ommon ion effect is applied in buffer solution. G3 markH


SECTION C F.+7 a. i. -+7/ '2<2 N #K2=2 2'=2 N <2= V< D O GaH ' N =2 '=2 V< D ?3)3.#7LKmol GbH <2 N 1K2 =2 <2= V< D ?2(#.%7LKmol GcH 2' N <2 '2<2 V< D 22$7LKmol -ultiply e!uation GaH by G2H then add the product to e!uation GbH we get: GdH 2' N
# O2 2

N <2

2'=2 N <2=

V< D ?1C%2.%7L

ii. marksH b. i.

+ubtract e!uation GcH from e!uation GdH 2' N <2 '2<2 V< D ?22$ '2<2 N #K2=2 2'2 N <2= V< D ?12)(.%7LKmol G3 marksH <ess1s 2aw: overall energy change is the same& regardless of the route applied. G2 2attice energy is the enthalpy of formation of one mole of the ionic compound from gaseous ions under standard conditions. 6orn?haber cycle
+ GgH

G1 markH ii. iii.

G1 markH
+ GgH

+ e + Cl G g H

N 'l GgH

V<@., V<0
K G+ gH N e N
1 Cl 2 2


V<GionH 7GgH N U'l2 V<GatmH 7GsH N U'l2GgH c. i. ii. iii. 7'l G3 marksH G1 markH G1 markH G1 markH -+7/ V<f +ystem move towards backward direction. +ystem move towards backward direction. Towards forward direction.



a. markH

i. ii.

The relative lowering of vapour pressure is e!ual to mole fraction of solute.


G1 G1





11C g of KNO3 21C 11C #2# g of KNO3 21C

G1 markH G1 markH G1

b. markH

i. ii.

21Cg of solution contain 11Cg of 7>=3 1g D

#2#g D


D 2%#g of 7>=3 This is saturated solution. 3ositive deviation negative deviation .n case of positive deviation total pressure increases. .n case of negative deviation total pressure decreases. 0iagram for both deviation.

G1 markH G1 markH G2 marksH G1 markH G1 markH G1 markH -+7/

F.+8 a. i.

\ < < < 6ond angle D 1C%W 5 \ 6 < < 6ond angle D 12CW .n ><3 D +33 hybridi*ation .n 653 D +32 hybridi*ation

G1 markH GU markH

G1 markH GU markH GU markH GU markH



G1 markH

G1 markH iii. b. i. .n ><3 ] = while in 653 D = due to their structure. =2 G1 markH G1 markH


0ue to un?paired electron in orbital =2 show paramagnetic behaviour. marksH

2 4hile O2 is diamagnetic because it has no un?paired ^ electron in orbital.



marksH ii.

6ond order D UX1C [ $Y D UX Y D2

G1 markH