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1. How many ATPs are generated by Aerobic respiration? Please work it out in a table form.

Pathway Glycolysis preparatory phase Glycolysis pay-off phase Coenzyme yield ATP yield -2 Source of ATP The inputs of two ATP from the cytoplasm are required to begin glycolysis. To start this reaction needed the activation energy. ATPs made by glycolysis. Note the Net Yield for glycolysis would be 2ATPs (4 ATP2ATP). These molecules are created by glycolysis, but they can only be converted into ATP in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. 2 NADH 4 (6) This requires them to enter the mitochondria. A step that is free in some organisms, and costs 2ATP in others. This is what causes the differences in the Net yield of aerobic respiration. electron transport chain (ETC) Substrate-level phosphorylation ETC ETC From the complete breakdown of one glucose molecule to carbon dioxide and oxidation of all the high energy molecules.

Pyruvate 2 NADH Oxidation Krebs cycle 6 NADH 2 FADH2 Total yield 2 18 4 36 (38) ATP 6

2. What is the purpose of anaerobic and aerobic respiration? Aerobic respiration requires oxygen, anaerobic does not. The sugar glucose is the major food molecule in the cell, but it is too energetic to use directly in most chemical reactions. Glucose is broken down into an energy storing molecule (ATP) that can be used throughout the cell. Anaerobic respiration occurs in the cytoplasm when no oxygen is present for the cell to continue respiration after glycolysis. Each pyruvate is converted to a molecule of ethanol and one NADH is used in the reaction. Lactate fermentation occurs in animals. Each pyruvate is converted to lactate and one NADH is used. The purpose of both fermentation processes is to free NADH for use in glycolysis.

3. What are the steps in glycolysis? Draw the diagram.

A glucose molecule is energized by the addition of a high-energy phosphate from ATP, forming glucose-6-phosphate.

A rearrangement of the molecule forms fructose-6-phosphate.

Using the available energy of a second ATP molecule, a second phosphate is added to the fructose.

The fructose-1,6-biphosphate is split into two three-carbon molecules, each having one phosphate group attached. The dihydrooxacetone (DHAP) quickly rearranges to form another G3P molecule, so the net result is two G3P molecules.

In near-simultaneous reactions, each G3P molecule gains an inorganic phosphorous while contributing two electrons and a hydrogen ion to NAD+ to form the energized carrier molecules NADH. The resulting molecules have two high-energy phosphates.

Two molecules of low energy ADP are elevated to ATP molecules by phosphates from the biphosphoglycerates. This recovers the energy invested in the first step of the glycolysis. The remaining phosphorous is relocated to the center position.

The final phosphate is transferred to ADP to form ATP, and this step represents the net yield of 2 ATP for the glycolysis process as a whole.

4. Why do cells need to ferment if they already get 2 ATP from glycolysis?

When there is not enough oxygen to conduct oxidative phosphorylation, some cells resort to fermentation to produce Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) by substrate-level phosphorylation. These pathways both utilize pyruvate as an electron acceptor to recycle Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+) so that it can be reused in glycolysis. In Fermentation, Pyruvate is transformed into another molecule using the energy provided by NADH. It does not use cellular respiration or any ETC, therefore, it does not require oxygen to generate ATP. Fermentation does require a sufficient supply of NAD+ to accept electrons to sustain the process. NADH gets converted to NAD so that it can be used again in glycolysis, and pyruvate becomes lactic acid in animal cells, or ethanol and carbon dioxide in plants, yeast, and bacterial cells. The anaerobic pathway is glycolysis and fermentation. This pathway recycles the NADH generated, so the only energy molecules made from the breakdown of sugar by this pathway is 2ATP for every glucose molecule.

5. What pathways make up aerobic respiration?

The breakdown of glucose begins with an anaerobic pathway known as glycolysis. In both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells this pathway occurs. The products of this pathway can be introduced into anaerobic pathways, referred as fermentation, or into aerobic respiration which involves the pathways known as the Kreb's cycle, the electron transport chain, and chemiosmosis. During glycolysis and the Kreb's cycle, high energy electrons are released. These electrons reduce NAD+ to NAD- which is then converted to NADH. The high energy electrons are carried by NADH to the electron transport chain (ETC). Coenzyme A joins to pyruvate causing a loss of one carbon and the generation of NADH. The acetyl-CoA formed enters the Krebs cycle and the acetyl group is transferred to a molecule of oxaloacetic acid making a molecule of citric acid. The

Krebs cycle releases CO2 and the high energy molecules NADH, and FADH2 which are converted into ATP by the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The ETC requires oxygen at the final step to accept the electrons from the last cytochrome in ETC. Without oxygen the ETC and the Kreb's cycle stop functioning.

6. Why do we need oxygen to break down glucose completely by aerobic respiration? Oxygen is the main requirement in aerobic respiration because in the mitochondria, oxygen is the final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain. The electron transport chain stops working if there is no oxygen to accept electrons and then the high energy molecules NADH and FADH2 cannot be converted back into NAD and FAD. Without these molecules, the glucose biochemical pathway will stop. These molecules become the limiting reagents needed for glucose break down to continue, and when they run out, the pathway discontinue.

7. How does the electron transport chain convert NADH and FADH2 into ATP? The mitochondria contain two compartments, the matrix and the intermembrane space. The Kreb's cycle occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria. This is where NADH and FADH2 are produced. They travel to the inner membrane and dump their electrons onto the membrane. This loss of electrons is a redox reaction and converts NADH back into NAD while FADH2 changes back into FAD. The membrane proteins in the Electron Transport Chain are protein pumps. The passage of electrons across them makes them change shape and pump protons across the inner membrane from the matrix to the intermembrane space. Each NADH pumps three protons whereas each FADH2 pumps two protons. This pumping of electrons across the inner membrane causes a concentration gradient of hydrogen atoms across the membrane. By diffusion, the hydrogen ions will want to travel back into the matrix to reach equilibrium. They can do so by traveling through a special channel found in the membrane called ATP synthase. This channel uses the

energy of the passage of the Hydrogen ions to make ATP. For each proton that passes, one ATP is made. This is why each NADH makes three ATP and each FADH2 makes 2 ATP.

8. Which enzyme regulates the glycolysis? How? Glycolysis can be divided into two phases which are energy investment phase and energy payoff phase. During the energy investment phase, hexokinase in step 1 transfers a phosphate group from ATP to glucose, making it more chemically reactive. The charge on the phosphate also traps the sugar in the cell. Glucose 6-Phosphate is converted to its isomer, Fructose 6-Phosphate with the help of phosphoglucoisomerase. Phosphofructokinase transfers a phosphate group from ATP to the opposite end of the sugar, investing a second molecule of ATP. This is a key step for regulation of glycolysis. Aldolase cleaves the sugar molecule (Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate) into two different three-carbon sugars (isomers) which are Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate and Glyceraldehydes 3-Phosphate. Isomerase catalyzes the reversible conversion between the two isomers. This reaction never reaches equilibrium. Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate is used as the substrate of the next reaction (step 6) as fast as it forms. During the energy payoff phase, triose phosphate dehydrogenase in step 6 catalyzes two sequential reactions. First, the sugar is oxidized by the transfer of electrons to NAD+ , forming NADH. Second, the energy released from this redox reaction is used to attach a phosphate group to the oxidized substrate, making a product of very high potential energy. The phosphate group added in the previous step is transferred to ADP (substrate-level phosphorylation) in an exergonic reaction. The carbonyl group of a sugar has been oxidized to the carboxyl group of an organic acid (3Phosphoglycerate) with the help of phosphoglycerokinase. Enzyme phosphoglyceromutase relocates the remaining phosphate group, forming 2-Phosphoglycerate.

Enolase causes a double bond to form in the substrate by extracting a water molecule, yielding phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), a compound with a very high potential energy. The phosphate group is then transferred from PEP to ADP with the help of pyruvate kinase, forming pyruvate.