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MAGNETIC CIRCUITS

Gyan Ranjan Biswal Gyan Ranjan Biswal

PhD, IIT Roorkee

A i t t P f Assistant Professor

Department of Electrical Engineering

School of Engineering

Shiv Nadar University, Noida y,

1

Magnetic Fields and Circuits

A current i through a coil produces a

magnetic flux, f, in webers, Wb.

BA =

A

d =

B A i

B = magnetic flux density in Wb/m

2

.

B H

H = magnetic field intensity in A/m.

= B H

m= magnetic permeability

Hl Ni =

Ampere's Law:

d i =

H l i

reluctance

2

Ni = F

Magnetomotive force = F R

3

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

4

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

Right-Hand Rule

5

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

Magnetic Flux

Magnetic flux, f, in webers, Wb.

i

i

Current entering

"dots" produce

fluxes that add

1

v

2

v

2

i

1

i

2

N

1

N

fluxes that add.

11

flux in coil 1 produced by current in coil 1 =

12

flux in coil 1 produced by current in coil 2 =

12

p y

21

flux in coil 2 produced by current in coil 1 =

fl i il 2 d d b i il 2

22

flux in coil 2 produced by current in coil 2 =

1 11 12

total flux in coil 1 = = +

6

2 21 22

total flux in coil 2 = = +

Faraday's Law

2

i

1

i

1

v

2

v

2

N

1

N

i

N =

Total flux linking coil 1:

1 1 1

N =

Faraday's Law: induced voltage in coil 1 is

Total flux linking coil 1:

1 1

1 1

( )

d d

v t N

= = Faraday s Law: induced voltage in coil 1 is

Sign of induced voltage v

1

is such that the current i through

1 1

( ) v t N

dt dt

an external resistor would be opposite to the current i

1

that produces the flux f

1

.

7

Example of Lenz's law

Symbol L of inductance from Lenz

Mutual Inductance

2

i

1

i

1

v

2

v

2

N

1

N

F d ' L

1 11 12

1 1 1 1

( )

d d d

v t N N N

dt dt dt

= = +

Faraday's Law

1 2

( )

di di

t L L +

In linear range, flux is proportional to current

1 2

1 11 12

( ) v t L L

dt dt

= +

8

self-inductance mutual inductance

Mutual Inductance

2

i

1

i

1

v

2

v

2

N

1

N

1 2

1 11 12

( )

di di

v t L L

d d

= +

1 11 12

( )

dt dt

1 2

2 21 22

( )

di di

v t L L

dt dt

= +

1 2

1 1

( )

di di

v t L M

dt dt

= +

dt dt

Linear media

1 2

2 2

( )

di di

v t M L

dt dt

= +

12 21

L L M = =

dt dt

L L =

L L = Let

9

2 22

L L =

1 11

L L = Let

Ideal Transformer - Voltage

1 1

( )

d

v t N

dt

=

2

i

1

i

The input AC voltage, v

1

,

produces a flux

1

v

2

v

2

N

1

N

f

1

1

1

( ) v t dt

N

=

This changing flux through

2 2

( )

d

v t N

dt

=

This changing flux through

coil 2 induces a voltage, v

2

across coil 2

d

N N

N

1 1 1

2 2 2

v N N

dt

d

v N N

dt

= =

2

2 1

1

N

v v

N

=

10

dt

Ideal Transformer - Current

Ni F

Magnetomotive force, mmf

2

i

1

i

Ni = F

1

v

2

v

2

N

1

N

f

The total mmf applied to core is

1 1 2 2

N i N i = = F R

For ideal transformer, the reluctance R is zero.

1

2 1

N

i i = 1 1 2 2

N i N i =

2 1

2

N

11

Ideal Transformer - Impedance

2

V

v

2

i

1

i

N N

Load impedance

2

2

L

=

V

Z

I

1

v

2

v

2

N

1

N

1

1 2

2

N

N

= V V

Input impedance

2

N

2

N

= I I

1

i

=

V

Z

I

2

1

i L

N

N

=

Z Z

1 2

1

N

= I I

1

I

2

N

Z

2

L

i

n

=

Z

Z

2

1

N

n

N

=

Turns ratio

12

Ideal Transformer - Power

P i

v

2

i

1

i

N N

P vi =

1

v

2

v

2

N

1

N

Power delivered to primary Power delivered to load

1 1 1

P v i =

2 2 2

P v i =

1

2 1

2

N

i i

N

=

2

2 1

1

N

v v

N

=

2 2 2 1 1 1

P v i v i P = = =

2

1

Power delivered to an ideal transformer by the source

i t f d t th l d

13

is transferred to the load.

Application:

L.V.D.T.

Li V i bl Diff ti l T f Linear Variable Differential Transformer

Position transducer

14

LVDT's are often used on clutch actuation

and for monitoring brake disc wear

LVDT's are also used for LVDT s are also used for

sensors in an automotive

active suspension system p y

15

Voltages Induced in Field-Cutting Conductors

Blu e =

16

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

Voltages Induced in Field-Cutting Conductors

17

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

18

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

Magnetic Field Around a Long Straight Wire

I

H B

= =

r

2

19

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

20

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

Flux Density in a Toroidal Core

NI

R

NI

B

2

=

R 2

21

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

22

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

23

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

24

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

25

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

Magnetization Circuits with Air-gap

w

l

c

i

c

l

g

N

g

d

c c

c

c

A

l

=

g g

g

g

A

l

=

g c

Ni

+

=

c c

g g

g c

g g c c

l H l H Ni + =

) ( fringing Neglecting wd A A

g c

= =

26

Fringing

w

l

c

i

N

With large air-gaps, flux tends to leak outside the air gap. This is

called fringing which increases the effective flux area. One way to called fringing which increases the effective flux area. One way to

approximate this increase is:

n n gn g n g n

d w A l d d l w w = + = + = ; ;

27

n n gn g n g n

d w A l d d l w w + + ; ;

Fringing

Fringing is approximately counted by adding the length of the gap to Fringing is approximately counted by adding the length of the gap to

the depth and width in computing effective gap area.

28

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

29

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

A Magnetic Circuit with Reluctances in Series and Parallel

30

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

31

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

A Magnetic Circuit using Dot-conversion

32

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

33

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

34

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

Energy Considerations

dB H

W

W

B

v

= =

Al

v

0

35

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

Core Loss

Power loss due to hysteresis is proportional to frequency, assuming constant

peak flux.

36

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

Core Loss

37

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

Magnetization Curves

B

knee

saturation

B

B

Linear

knee

Linear

H H H H

Magnetization curve Magnetization curve g

(linear) (Ideal)

g

(non-linear) (Actual)

(see also Fig. 1.6 in the text)

38

Magnetization Curves

One can linearize magnetic circuits by including air-gaps

However that would cause a large increase in ampere-turn

requirements requirements.

Ex: Transformers dont have air-gaps. They have very little

magnetizing current (5% of full load)

I d ti t h i Th h l ti i Induction motors have air-gaps. They have large magnetizing

current (30-50%)

Question: why induction motors have air gap and

transformers dont?

39

40

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

41

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

42

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

REAL TRANSFORMERS

43

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

REAL TRANSFORMERS

44

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

REAL TRANSFORMERS

Regulation and Efficiency

V V

% 100 regulation percent

load

load load - no

=

V

V V

load

l l d

P P

% 100 1 % 100 efficiency power

in

loss

in

load

= =

P

P

P

P

45

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

REAL TRANSFORMERS

46

Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3

rd

edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005

Thank You Thank You

47

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