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# TRANSFORMERS AND

MAGNETIC CIRCUITS
Gyan Ranjan Biswal Gyan Ranjan Biswal
PhD, IIT Roorkee
A i t t P f Assistant Professor
Department of Electrical Engineering
School of Engineering
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Magnetic Fields and Circuits
A current i through a coil produces a
magnetic flux, f, in webers, Wb.
BA =
A
d =

B A i
B = magnetic flux density in Wb/m
2
.
B H
H = magnetic field intensity in A/m.
= B H
m= magnetic permeability
Hl Ni =
Ampere's Law:
d i =

H l i

reluctance
2
Ni = F
Magnetomotive force = F R
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
Right-Hand Rule
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
Magnetic Flux
Magnetic flux, f, in webers, Wb.
i
i
Current entering
"dots" produce
1
v
2
v
2
i
1
i
2
N
1
N
11
flux in coil 1 produced by current in coil 1 =
12
flux in coil 1 produced by current in coil 2 =
12
p y
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flux in coil 2 produced by current in coil 1 =
fl i il 2 d d b i il 2
22
flux in coil 2 produced by current in coil 2 =
1 11 12
total flux in coil 1 = = +
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2 21 22
total flux in coil 2 = = +
2
i
1
i
1
v
2
v
2
N
1
N
i
N =
1 1 1
N =
Faraday's Law: induced voltage in coil 1 is
1 1
1 1
( )
d d
v t N

= = Faraday s Law: induced voltage in coil 1 is
Sign of induced voltage v
1
is such that the current i through
1 1
( ) v t N
dt dt
an external resistor would be opposite to the current i
1
that produces the flux f
1
.
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Example of Lenz's law
Symbol L of inductance from Lenz
Mutual Inductance
2
i
1
i
1
v
2
v
2
N
1
N
F d ' L
1 11 12
1 1 1 1
( )
d d d
v t N N N
dt dt dt

= = +
1 2
( )
di di
t L L +
In linear range, flux is proportional to current
1 2
1 11 12
( ) v t L L
dt dt
= +
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self-inductance mutual inductance
Mutual Inductance
2
i
1
i
1
v
2
v
2
N
1
N
1 2
1 11 12
( )
di di
v t L L
d d
= +
1 11 12
( )
dt dt
1 2
2 21 22
( )
di di
v t L L
dt dt
= +
1 2
1 1
( )
di di
v t L M
dt dt
= +
dt dt
Linear media
1 2
2 2
( )
di di
v t M L
dt dt
= +
12 21
L L M = =
dt dt
L L =
L L = Let
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2 22
L L =
1 11
L L = Let
Ideal Transformer - Voltage
1 1
( )
d
v t N
dt

=
2
i
1
i
The input AC voltage, v
1
,
produces a flux
1
v
2
v
2
N
1
N
f
1
1
1
( ) v t dt
N
=

This changing flux through
2 2
( )
d
v t N
dt

=
This changing flux through
coil 2 induces a voltage, v
2
across coil 2
d
N N

N
1 1 1
2 2 2
v N N
dt
d
v N N
dt

= =
2
2 1
1
N
v v
N
=
10
dt
Ideal Transformer - Current
Ni F
Magnetomotive force, mmf
2
i
1
i
Ni = F
1
v
2
v
2
N
1
N
f
The total mmf applied to core is
1 1 2 2
N i N i = = F R
For ideal transformer, the reluctance R is zero.
1
2 1
N
i i = 1 1 2 2
N i N i =
2 1
2
N
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Ideal Transformer - Impedance
2
V
v
2
i
1
i
N N
2
2
L
=
V
Z
I
1
v
2
v
2
N
1
N
1
1 2
2
N
N
= V V
Input impedance
2
N
2
N
= I I
1
i
=
V
Z
I
2
1
i L
N
N

=

Z Z
1 2
1
N
= I I
1
I
2
N

Z
2
L
i
n
=
Z
Z
2
1
N
n
N
=
Turns ratio
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Ideal Transformer - Power
P i
v
2
i
1
i
N N
P vi =
1
v
2
v
2
N
1
N
Power delivered to primary Power delivered to load
1 1 1
P v i =
2 2 2
P v i =
1
2 1
2
N
i i
N
=
2
2 1
1
N
v v
N
=
2 2 2 1 1 1
P v i v i P = = =
2
1
Power delivered to an ideal transformer by the source
i t f d t th l d
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Application:
L.V.D.T.
Li V i bl Diff ti l T f Linear Variable Differential Transformer
Position transducer
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LVDT's are often used on clutch actuation
and for monitoring brake disc wear
LVDT's are also used for LVDT s are also used for
sensors in an automotive
active suspension system p y
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Voltages Induced in Field-Cutting Conductors
Blu e =
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
Voltages Induced in Field-Cutting Conductors
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
Magnetic Field Around a Long Straight Wire
I
H B

= =
r

2
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
Flux Density in a Toroidal Core
NI
R
NI
B

2
=
R 2
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
Magnetization Circuits with Air-gap
w
l
c
i
c
l
g
N
g
d
c c
c
c
A
l

=
g g
g
g
A
l

=
g c
Ni
+
=
c c
g g

g c
g g c c
l H l H Ni + =
) ( fringing Neglecting wd A A
g c
= =
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Fringing
w
l
c
i
N
With large air-gaps, flux tends to leak outside the air gap. This is
called fringing which increases the effective flux area. One way to called fringing which increases the effective flux area. One way to
approximate this increase is:
n n gn g n g n
d w A l d d l w w = + = + = ; ;
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n n gn g n g n
d w A l d d l w w + + ; ;
Fringing
Fringing is approximately counted by adding the length of the gap to Fringing is approximately counted by adding the length of the gap to
the depth and width in computing effective gap area.
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
A Magnetic Circuit with Reluctances in Series and Parallel
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
A Magnetic Circuit using Dot-conversion
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
Energy Considerations
dB H
W
W
B
v

= =
Al
v

0
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
Core Loss
Power loss due to hysteresis is proportional to frequency, assuming constant
peak flux.
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
Core Loss
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
Magnetization Curves
B
knee
saturation
B
B
Linear
knee
Linear
H H H H
Magnetization curve Magnetization curve g
(linear) (Ideal)
g
(non-linear) (Actual)
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Magnetization Curves
One can linearize magnetic circuits by including air-gaps
However that would cause a large increase in ampere-turn
requirements requirements.
Ex: Transformers dont have air-gaps. They have very little
magnetizing current (5% of full load)
I d ti t h i Th h l ti i Induction motors have air-gaps. They have large magnetizing
current (30-50%)
Question: why induction motors have air gap and
transformers dont?
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
REAL TRANSFORMERS
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
REAL TRANSFORMERS
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
REAL TRANSFORMERS
Regulation and Efficiency
V V
% 100 regulation percent

=
V
V V
l l d

P P
% 100 1 % 100 efficiency power
in
loss
in

= =
P
P
P
P
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
REAL TRANSFORMERS
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Electrical Engineering: Principles and Applications, 3
rd
edition by Allan R. Hambley, Pearson publication, 2005
Thank You Thank You
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