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# DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

AND OP-AMP
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Gyan Ranjan Biswal
PhD, IIT Roorkee
Assistant Professor
Department of Electrical Engineering
School of Engineering
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Topics covered in this module
The basic operation amplifier

The differential amplifier

Offset error voltage and current

Basic operation amplifier applications

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Basic Op-Amp
Operational amplifier or op-amp, is a very high gain
differential amplifier with a high input impedance (typically a
few meg-Ohms) and low output impedance (less than 100 W).

Note the op-amp has two inputs and one output.
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The function of a differential amplifier
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DIFF AMP is to amplify the
difference between two signals. It is the basic stage of integrated operational
amplifier.
The output depends
upon the difference.

v
d

is the differential-
mode signal and the
common-mode signal is
v
c

where;

The Differential Amplifier
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We should like to have A
d
large, A
c
should equal zero.

Common mode rejection ratio

The Common Mode Rejection Ratio
Op-amp CMRR is a measure of the ability to cancel out common-mode
signals.

Because the op-amp has two inputs that are opposite in phase (inverting
input and the non-inverting input) any signal that is common to both
inputs will be cancelled.
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Equating current in R and R and using R
= R
1
and R = R
1
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V
o
= V
o1
V
o2
= - V
d
/ 2 = + V
d
/ 2
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For perfect symmetry and identical transistor;
R
e
= R
e1
ll R
e2
Where;
R
e1
= R
e2
, R
c1
= R
c2
,
V
CC
and V
EE
across Q1 and Q2 transistor are the same.

This method of obtaining O/P w.r.t. GND is known as Floating O/P.
Therefore,
V
o
= V
o1
V
o2

As, I
EQ1
= I
EQ2
= I
EQ
; and therefore, current flowing through Re
is 2xI
EQ
.

CASE 1: Set V
S2
= V
S1
= V
d
/ 2 = V
dm
;

As both the source are 180
o
out of phase from same Q point.
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Differential transistor at Differential mode ;
As change in value of Q point is zero, so change across
Re
is
zero (A.C. voltage drop across R
e
is zero).
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Therefore, in case of common mode gain; the A.C. equivalent circuit and
approximated small signal circuit will be;
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The common mode
rejection ratio increases
with R
e

However the emitter
supply V
EE
must become
larger as

R
e
is increased

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An op-amp is a wide-bandwidth amplifier. The
following affect the bandwidth of the op-amp:

Gain
Slew rate
Frequency Parameters
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Op-Amps have a very high gain. They can be connected
open-loop or closed-loop.

Open-loop refers to a configuration where there is no
feedback from output back to the input. In the open-
loop configuration the gain can exceed 10,000.

Closed-loop configuration reduces the gain. In order to
control the gain of an op-amp it must have feedback.
This feedback is a negative feedback. A negative
feedback reduces the gain and improves many
characteristics of the op-amp.
Op-Amp Gain
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Gain and Bandwidth
The op-amps high
frequency response is limited
by internal circuitry. The plot
shown is for an open loop gain
(A
OL
or A
VD
). This means that
the op-amp is operating at the
highest possible gain with no
feedback resistor.

In the open loop, the op-
amp has a narrow bandwidth.
The bandwidth widens in
closed-loop operation, but
then the gain is lower.
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Maximum Signal Frequency
The slew rate determines the highest frequency of the op-amp without
distortion.
Where, V
P
is the peak voltage.
p
V 2
SR
f s
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Slew Rate (SR)
Slew rate (SR) is the
maximum rate at which an op-
amp can change output without
distortion.
s) V/ (in
t
V
SR
o
=
Note: The SR rating is given in the specification sheets as V/s rating.
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Op-Amp SpecificationsDC Offset Parameters
Input offset voltage

Input offset current

Input offset voltage and input offset current

Input bias current
Even when the input voltage is zero, there can be an output
offset. The following can cause this offset:
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Input Offset Voltage (V
IO
)
The specification sheet for an op-amp indicate an input offset voltage (V
IO
).

The effect of this input offset voltage on the output can be calculated with
1
f 1
IO o(offset)
R
R R
V V
+
=
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Output Offset Voltage Due to Input Offset Current (I
IO
)
The input offset Current (I
IO
) is specified in the specifications for
the op-amp.

The effect on the output can be calculated using:
IO
o(offset) o(offset due to I )
V V =
If there is a difference between the dc bias currents for the same
applied input, then this also causes an output offset voltage:
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Total Offset Due to V
IO
and I
IO
Op-amps may have an output offset voltage due to
both factors V
IO
and I
IO
. The total output offset voltage will
be the sum of the effects of both:
) I to due (offset V ) V to due (offset V (offset) V
IO o IO o o
+ =
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Input Bias Current (I
IB
)
A parameter that is related to input offset current (I
IO
) is called input
bias current (I
IB
)

The separate input bias currents are:
The total input bias current is the average:
2
I
I I
IO
IB IB
+ =
+
2
I
I I
IO
IB IB
=

2
I I
I
IB IB
IB
+
+
=
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The signal input is applied to the inverting () input
The non-inverting input (+) is grounded
The resistor R
f
is the feedback resistor. It is connected
from the output to the negative (inverting) input. This is
negative feedback.
Inverting Op-Amp
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1
1 1 1
1
.
.
o
f o f
f
V
I V Y
R
V
I V Y
R
= =
= =
1
f
CL
R
A
R
=
V
-
= V
+

As, V
+
= 0; therefore, V
-
= 0
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Gain can be determined from external resistors: R
f
and R
1

Unity gainvoltage gain is 1
The negative sign denotes
a 180 phase shift between
input and output.
o f
v
1 1
V R
A
V R
= =
1
R
R
A
R R
1
f
v
1 f
=

=
=
Constant GainR
f
is a multiple of R
1

Inverting Op-Amp Gain
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Virtual Ground
An understanding of the
concept of virtual ground
provides a better
understanding of how an
op-amp operates.

The non-inverting input
pin is at ground. The
inverting input pin is also at
0 V for an AC signal.
The op-amp has such high
input impedance that even with
a high gain there is no current
from inverting input pin,
therefore there is no voltage
from inverting pin to groundall
of the current is through R
f
.
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Fig. 15.2a represents voltage-shunt feedback the voltage gain A
Vf

with feedback is given by
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Practical Op-Amp Circuits
Inverting amplifier

Non-inverting amplifier

Unity follower

Summing amplifier

Integrator

Differentiator
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Inverting / Non-inverting Op-Amps
1
1
f
o
V
R
R
V

=
Inverting Amplifier Non-inverting Amplifier
1
1
f
o
V )
R
R
1 ( V + =
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Unity Follower
1 o
V V =
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Z and Z are equal in magnitude but differ in angle. Any phase shift,
from 0 to 360 (or 180) may be obtained.
R
1
=R
2
=R
3
=.=R
n
=R
1
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Summing Amplifier
Because the op-amp has
a high input impedance,
the multiple inputs are
treated as separate inputs.
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
3
3
f
2
2
f
1
1
f
o
V
R
R
V
R
R
V
R
R
V
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Integrator
The output is the integral
of the input. Integration is
the operation of summing
the area under a waveform
or curve over a period of
time. This circuit is useful
in low-pass filter circuits
and sensor conditioning
circuits.
}
= (t)dt v
RC
1
(t) v
1 o
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Differentiator
The differentiator
takes the derivative of
the input. This circuit is
useful in high-pass filter
circuits.
dt
(t) dv
RC (t) v
1
o
=
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Op-Amp Applications
Constant-gain multiplier

Voltage summing

Voltage buffer

Controlled sources

Instrumentation circuits

Active filters
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Constant-Gain Amplifier
Inverting Version
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Constant-Gain Amplifier
Noninverting Version
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Multiple-Stage Gains
1 2 3
f f f
1
A A A A
R R R
A 1
R R2 R3
=
| |
| || |
= +
| | |
\ .\ .
\ .
The total gain (3-stages) is given by:

or
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Voltage Summing
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
3
3
f
2
2
f
1
1
f
o
V
R
R
V
R
R
V
R
R
V
The output is the
sum of individual
signals times the gain:
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Voltage Buffer
Realistically these
circuits are designed
using equal resistors
(R
1
=R
f
) to avoid
problems with offset
voltages.
Any amplifier with no gain or loss is called a unity gain amplifier.

The advantages of using a unity gain amplifier:

Very high input impedance
Very low output impedance
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Controlled Sources
Voltage-controlled voltage source

Voltage-controlled current source

Current-controlled voltage source

Current-controlled current source
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Voltage-Controlled Voltage Source
The output voltage is the
gain times the input voltage.
What makes an op-amp
different from other
amplifiers is its impedance
characteristics and gain
calculations that depend
solely on external resistors.
Non-inverting Amplifier Version
more
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Voltage-Controlled Voltage Source
The output voltage is the
gain times the input voltage.
What makes an op-amp
different from other
amplifiers is its impedance
characteristics and gain
calculations that depend
solely on external resistors.
Inverting Amplifier Version
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Voltage-Controlled Current Source
The output current is:
1
1
1
o
kV
R
V
I = =
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Current-Controlled Voltage Source
This is simply another way
of applying the op-amp
operation. Whether the input
is a current determined by
V
in
/R
1
or as I
1
:

or

in
1
f
out
V
R
R
V

=
L 1 out
R I V =
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Current-Controlled Current Source
This circuit may appear more
complicated than the others but it is
really the same thing.
in
in
f
out
2 1
in
f
out
in
in
f
out
R
V
R
V
R || R
V
R
V
V
R
R
V
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
kI
R
R
1 I I
R
R R
R
V
I
R R
R R
V I
R || R
V
I
2
1
o
2
2 1
1
in
o
2 1
2 1
in o
2 1
in
o
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
=
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Instrumentation Circuits
Some examples of instrumentation circuits using op-amps:

Display driver

Instrumentation amplifier
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Display Driver
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Instrumentation Amplifier
For all R
s
at the same value (except R
p
):
( ) ( )
2 1 2 1
P
o
V V k V V
R
2R
1 V =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
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Active Filters
Adding capacitors to op-amp circuits provides external control of the
cutoff frequencies. The op-amp active filter provides controllable cutoff
frequencies and controllable gain.

Low-pass filter

High-pass filter

Band-pass filter

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1 1
OH
C R 2
1
f =
1
f
v
R
R
1 A + =
Low-Pass FilterFirst-Order
The upper cutoff frequency
and voltage gain are given by:
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High-Pass Filter
1 1
OL
C R 2
1
f =
The cutoff frequency is determined by:
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Bandpass Filter
There are two cutoff
frequencies: upper and
lower. They can be
calculated using the same
low-pass cutoff and high-
pass cutoff frequency
formulas in the appropriate
sections.
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An op amp proportional-mode controller.
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An op amp integral-mode controller.
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An op amp derivative-mode controller.
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Thank You