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www.elsevier.com/locate/nlm

Boussinesq-type approximation for second-grade uids

Arianna Passerini

a

, Gudrun Thter

b,

a

Dipartimento di Matematica, Universit di Ferrara, Via N. Machiavelli 35, I-44100 Ferrara, Italy

b

Institut fr Angewandte Mathematik, Universitt Hannover, Welfengarten 1, D-30167 Hannover, Germany

Received 7 January 2004; accepted 22 July 2004

Abstract

We derive the equivalent of the OberbeckBoussinesq approximation for second-grade uids. We nd that two new non-

dimensional numbers (in comparison to the Newtonian model) have to be taken into account in order to arrive at the

approximation. In addition we deduce a system which does not neglect dissipative heating together with criteria which qualify

the system to be suitable.

2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: OberbeckBoussinesq approximation; Second-grade uids; Onset of convection; Dissipative heating

1. Introduction

Many interesting phenomena involve thermally

driven ows. This concerns such diverse phenomena

as convection in stars, the ocean and the atmosphere,

and the production of pure semiconductors. A very

prominent and useful model for ow patterns of a

uid layer under the inuence of a weight force and

heating from below is the OberbeckBoussinesq ap-

proximation [1,2]. It stems from the end of the 19th

century and is the basis for most of what is known

today about processes where acoustic phenomena as

sound propagation can be neglected. There has been

a long discussion how to justify this approximation in

Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: ari@ifeuniv.unife.it (A. Passerini),

thaeter@ifam.uni-hannover.de (G. Thter).

0020-7462/$ - see front matter 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijnonlinmec.2004.07.019

some appropriate physical frame and to delineate its

validityhere we refer only to some of the numerous

contributions [39].

In 1996 Rajagopal, R ui cka, and Srinivasa provided

a justication for the approximation within the full

thermodynamical theory for NavierStokesFourier

uids [8]. One crucial idea was to adapt a new

method of treating the constraint of mechanical in-

compressibility introduced by Hills and Roberts

[7]. Simultaneously, the procedure advocated in [8]

clearly xes the validity of the approximation in terms

of quantities which can be measured for concrete

applications.

Nonetheless, due to the rapid technological ad-

vances there are important modern applications for

which the OberbeckBoussinesq approximation does

not seem to be appropriate for a multitude of reasons

(see [10,11] and references therein). For instance, the

822 A. Passerini, G. Thter / International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 40 (2005) 821831

linear stressstrain relation of the Newtonian uid

model apparently misses main features of the ow

for solidliquid suspensions occurring as solutions of

macromolecules, blood, glaciers, molten plastic. On

the other hand neglecting the dissipative heating is in-

appropriate for a large class of processes and domains.

Of course, all mathematical theories of nature only

approximate it. They dene materials, which are math-

ematical idealisations of the materials encountered in

nature [12, p. 5f]. This situation leads to two notable

questions:

What would be better (and still simple enough) mod-

els for certain non-Newtonian uids?

What are measurable quantities which qualify mod-

els to be suitable or not?

For some non-standard situations these questions are

answered in [10,11]. In [13] the behavior of second-

grade uids in isochoric convective motion has been

studied. To this end rst an OberbeckBoussinesq-

like system for second-grade uids has been pro-

posed by simply replacing

1

the Newtonian model

by the corresponding non-linear extra stress tensor

T = 2jD + :

1

d

dt

D + :

2

D

2

, i.e. some extra non-

linear terms appear in the equation of motion. Ob-

viously, this choice seems to contradict the idea of

the OberbeckBoussinesq approximation as a rst

order or linear one, and moreover, it does not

seem to be the only one that is possible. Thus, the

convincing formulation of an OberbeckBoussinesq-

type approximation for second-grade uids in some

appropriate physical frame is an interesting open

problem.

It is the aim of our paper to discuss this issue

in the light of the approach developed in [8]. As a

matter of fact, in experiments with polymeric liquids

and other typical non-Newtonian uids the onset of

convection seems to be unaffected by the nature of

the uid. This is also an outcome of the analysis in

[13], where the chosen approach cuts the high fre-

quencies in space. A theoretical investigation seems

necessary.

There are some very severe conceptual difcul-

ties in reconciling statistical mechanics with classical

1

Notation at the beginning of the next section. Note, div v =

tr D = 0.

thermodynamics. Shortly after Boltzmann claimed

to have reduced Thermodynamics to the statis-

tics of molecules, Josef Loschmidt and Ernst Zer-

melo (among others) pointed out several paradoxes.

Maxwell himself (who was the rst to suggest that

thermodynamics might simply be the macroscopic

effect of the statistics of molecules) introduced his

infamous Demon, who continues to bedevil physicists

today.

Within this point of view truncations, which cut all

high frequencies, become not only unavoidable as a

tool to approach solutions in calculations, but even

suitable and in some sense theoretically justied, be-

cause a velocity eld in the mean free path between

two molecules loses all physical sense. It is necessary

to set a frame in which suitable truncations can be sin-

gled out and controlled. In this sense the procedure

given in [8] is particularly suitable, since it does not

lead to require that the layer is thin, which would be

unacceptable if we decide that high spatial frequencies

have to be cut.

In (24) we dene two non-dimensional numbers A

1

and A

2

, which depend on the material constants :

1

,

:

2

and on the conguration through the spatial dimen-

sion L and the mean density j

r

. Namely, A

i

:=

:

i

L

2

j

r

(i =1, 2). They control the effect of the non-Newtonian

part of the stress tensor in the following sense: if A

i

,

i = 1, 2, is small (of order c for some known small

c), then the term is dropped, if it is of order 1 it must

be kept. It is very interesting that our number A

1

is the

same expression (in case j

r

=1) as the one measuring

the non-Newtonian behavior found in [13] by com-

pletely different arguments and that already in [14,15]

the absorption number, which is the reciprocal to A

1

had been implemented.

2

We start our analysis with a preparative section. Af-

ter that we derive the OberbeckBoussinesq approx-

imation for second-grade uids in Section 3, while

Section 4 is devoted to dissipative heating and the cor-

responding modied temperature equation. Precisely,

2

The aim in [14] was to characterize how the term with factor

:

1

crucially inuences the diffusion of velocity and vorticity from a

boundary while [15] studies uniqueness in creeping ow of second-

grade uids. Note that under the thermodynamical restriction 2:

1

+

:

2

= 0 the numbers A

1

and A

2

are of the same order.

A. Passerini, G. Thter / International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 40 (2005) 821831 823

the new systems are (notation below):

div v = 0,

v

1

Re

v = div

_

A

1

d

dt

D + A

2

D

2

_

+

1

c

3

(b p) +0b,

0

1

Pr Re

0

=

_

0,

Di

_

(0 +O)v b +

2

Re

D

2

+ A

1

D D

_

.

2. Notation and frame

2.1. Notation

In what follows, boldfaced minuscules stand for

vectors and vector valued functions whereas boldfaced

capital letters represent tensor valued functions, i.e.

v =(v

1

, v

2

, v

3

) (row or column according to the con-

text), T = (T

kl

)

3

k,l=1

. We set T

:= (T

lk

)

3

k,l=1

.

The dot between two quantities denotes the corre-

sponding scalar product between vectors or tensors.

Besides, tr D :=

3

k=1

D

kk

, DD =: D

2

, (this is the

usual tensor product, the result of which is a ten-

sor), D

2

:= D D, and I is the identity. Note, that

tr (D

2

) = D D = D

2

.

For partial derivatives we use two types of the ab-

breviations: j

k

:=

j

jx

k

if k {1, 2, 3} and j

:=

j

j

else. As usual A := j

11

+j

22

+j

33

, := (j

1

, j

2

, j

3

),

and the superposed dot is the material time derivative.

Henceforth let v denote the velocity eld, 0 the

absolute temperature, p the pressure and j the density.

Then, L := v, T is the Cauchy stress tensor, b the

density of external body forces, e the specic internal

energy, and q the heat ux vector. All these quantities

depend on x R

3

and t >0. For a detailed physical

background we refer the reader to [12,16].

2.2. Problem

Consider an innite horizontal layer of viscous uid

inside a gravitational eld the underside of which is

heated while the upper side is xed and held at a con-

stant temperature. This yields a temperature difference

between the top and the bottom of the uid. If it is

big enough to rule out viscosity and conduction, con-

vection will occur. All related forces are expressed as

a nondimensional number called the Rayleigh number

which is the buoyant force divided by the product of

viscous drag and the rate of heat diffusion,

Ra :=

g:jL

3

j

. (1)

Here g is the acceleration due to gravity, : is the coef-

cient of thermal expansion, the temperature differ-

ence between hot and cold end, L the width (vertical

distance between the walls), the thermal diffusivity,

and j the dynamic viscosity of the uid.

Convection sets in when the Rayleigh number ex-

ceeds a certain critical value. If only conduction is

present the corresponding so-called hydrostatic solu-

tion (v

h

, p

h

, 0

h

) has a zero velocity eld while the

temperature decreases linearly from the value 0

b

at the

bottom to 0

t

at the top. Of course, this solution exists

for all values of the temperature gradient.

2.3. Second-grade uids

Dening the extra stress tensor as

T := T + pI,

and writing D for the symmetric part of the velocity

gradient, i.e. D :=

1

2

(v+v

), a second-grade uid

is characterized by the constitutive relation

3

1

d

dt

D +:

2

D

2

, (2)

where

d

dt

is the lower convected derivative, namely

d

dt

D := j

t

D + (v )D + v

D + Dv, (3)

and j, z, :

1

and :

2

are material constants, possibly

satisfying the thermodynamical restrictions :

1

>0 and

2:

1

+:

2

=0. Though these restrictions are not neces-

sary to get the system we are looking for, they can be

discussed and found suitable in the light of our result.

Concerning the comparison between a second-order

approximation of a simple uid with fading memory,

3

Mostly the denition

T := jA

1

+z(tr A

1

)I +:

1

A

2

+:

2

A

2

1

with A

1

:= 2D and A

2

:=

d

dt

A

1

is applied. Here we prefer to

use D instead of the A

i

s. Our normal stress moduli :

i

and the z

then differ by the factor 2 or 4, respectively.

824 A. Passerini, G. Thter / International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 40 (2005) 821831

and RivlinEricksen model for uids of grade two

(satisfying those thermodynamical restrictions), we re-

fer the reader to [17]. We mention that in looking for

solutions of the corresponding system of partial dif-

ferential equations, the conditions necessary to model

the interaction of the uid with its boundary could

be more restrictive than for Newtonian uids. Since

the equations are of higher order, in some situations

it is necessary to add new boundary conditions to the

Navier-Stokes usual ones in order to obtain well-posed

problems, by means of uniqueness results. This prob-

lem is discussed in [1820].

2.4. General approximation scheme

Starting point: Balance laws (4) and the sec-

ond law of thermodynamics in the form of the

ClausiusDuhem inequality (5).

To close the system we need constitutive relations

for a couple of quantities. They shall obey some

physical principles:

principle of material frame indifference,

entropy principle,

thermodynamic stability.

The key is the generalized incompressibility. If in-

serted into the mass balance the relation directly

leads to an equation for the density.

As independent variables we choose v, 0 and the

mechanical pressure p.

The next step is to supply constitutive relations for

T and q.

Then we express the energy balance in terms of the

Helmholtz free energy.

Now one has to choose the appropriate constitutive

relation for

T. For the usual OberbeckBoussinesq

approximation it is linear (Newtonian), but here

a second-grade uid rheology is chosen (non-

Newtonian model).

At this point we arrive at a highly nonlinear system

in which no term is neglected. It governs the ow of

material which obeys the constitutive assumptions

which were introduced.

Nowwe start the approximation procedure by a non-

dimensionalization. The problem is to choose repre-

sentative values for velocity, time and pressure since

they are not obvious from the conguration.

The next non-trivial choice is the small parameter c

which shall serve as perturbation parameter. In ac-

cordance with the idea of the OberbeckBoussinesq

approximation it shall measure compressibility.

With this non-dimensionalization we arrive at a

system including dimensionless numbers as the

Rayleigh and Prandtl number.

Now we express all independent variables as

power series of c, insert these series into our non-

dimensional system and read off a rst approxi-

mation by balancing the rst c-levels of the series.

The approximation shall be a closed system for the

partial sums of a certain order of the quantities.

One precisely knows, that terms of the order c

k

for

some k N are neglected if working with this ap-

proximation in place of the full system.

3. Derivation of the Boussinesq-type

approximation

In short we state all the steps, though they overlap

with [8] (and [10,11]) to some extent. This is conve-

nient for the reader since we give clear guidance and

correct some misprints in [8]. Moreover, we think that

this provides a better idea of the frame in which our

approximations makes sense.

3.1. Constitutive assumptions

Let us rst quote the Balance laws for mass, linear

momentum and energy. Since we are not interested

in radiative heating, we drop the corresponding term

from the energy balance and use the system

4

j +jdiv v = 0,

j v div T =jb,

j e div q = T L. (4)

It is handy to apply the entropy inequality in the form

of the ClausiusDuhem inequality

j p + div

_

q

0

_

0. (5)

To deduce the OberbeckBoussinesq approximation

one has to augment (4) and (5) with constitutive as-

sumptions and constraints. Notably, the (mechanical)

4

If T is symmetric, then T L = T D.

A. Passerini, G. Thter / International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 40 (2005) 821831 825

incompressibility constraint implies several simpli-

cations to system (4). We make the following assump-

tions.

(1) The uid shall be incompressible in the gener-

alized sense [7], i.e.

div v =:

0. (6)

To nd a simple approximation scheme we set : to be

constant (though it could depend on the temperature as

well). Eqs. (6) and (4)

1

directly lead to the differential

equation

:

0 =

j

j

.

Integrating this equation one nds an expression for

j in terms of 0, namely

j =j

r

e

:(00

r

)

, (7)

where the constants j

r

and 0

r

correspond to some con-

venient reference state where density and temperature

are known.

(2) Mechanical pressure: For the stress T we set

T := T + pI with p :=

1

3

tr T. (8)

Due to this denition the trace of

Tis zero. Note, that p

in (8) is not the thermodynamic pressure which would

be xed by an equation of state but stands for the

mechanical or hydrostatic pressure and is connected to

the (hydrostatic) equilibrium state. Since the density

is already determined by (7) we treat the mechanical

pressure p as the third independent variable, which

together with the velocity v and the temperature 0 has

to be determined from the nal system of equations.

Namely, inserting (8) in (4)

2

and taking the divergence

one arrives at

div(j v) + div(p div

T) = div(jb),

j v +jdiv v +p div(div

T)

=jdiv b + j b.

In the last term on the right-hand side we replace b

via (4)

2

and use (6) to calculate div v =:

0 + L L

.

Finally we nd the following equation for p

p

1

j

j p =jdiv b

1

j

j div

T j:

0

jL L

+ div(div

T). (9)

(3) For the heat ux we suppose the Fourier law

q = 0 ( is const.). (10)

(4) Now we express e by introducing the specic

Helmholtz free energy through

T := e 0p. (11)

The Helmholtz free energy measures the amount of

energy one has to put in to establish the system while

the spontaneous energy transfer to the system from the

environment is taken into account. Using (11) we can

rewrite (5). First we calculate with (10)

div

q

0

=

_

|0|

2

0

2

1

0

0

_

.

From (11) we deduce p =

1

0

(

T e +

0p) and nd

that (5) transforms to

j

0

(

T e +

0p) +

0

_

|0|

2

0

0

_

0.

Multiplying this by 0 and replacing j e via (4)

3

by

T L +0 we gain

j(p

0 +

T) + T L +

|0|

2

0

0. (12)

Due to (7) we see that T = T(0) which means in

particular that

T =

0j

0

T. Moreover, (8) leads to T

L = p div v +

T L = p:

0 +

T L. Inserting this

into (12) we obtain

j

_

p +

:p

j

+ j

0

T

_

0 +

T L +

|0|

2

0

0.

The linearity of this inequality (which must hold for

all processes) in

0 implies that the coefcient of

0

must be zero, i.e. p = j

0

T :p/j. Together with

(11) we arrive at

e =T:0

p

j

0j

0

T.

Utilizing this e the energy balance (4)

3

transforms to

(j0j

00

T+:

2

0p)

0 :0 p 0 =

T L, (13)

and the ClausiusDuhem inequality has altered to

T L +

|0|

2

0

0. (14)

826 A. Passerini, G. Thter / International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 40 (2005) 821831

We set C(0) := j0j

00

T. After a lengthy calculation

with this denition and the Gibbs equation one sees

that C is the specic heat at constant volume.

(5) In contrast to [8] the extra stress shall obey (2).

Since we xed p as mechanical pressure we observe

that

T = 2jD

2

3

j(tr D)I +:

1

d

dt

D +:

2

D

2

=:

T

N

+:

1

d

dt

D +:

2

D

2

. (15)

Clearly, div

T

N

= j(v +

1

3

(div v)) and

T

N

L =

2j(D

2

1

3

|tr D|

2

). Employing our assumptions

(1)(5) system (4) nally transforms to

j =j

r

e

:(00

r

)

,

div v =:

0,

j v + p =j

_

v +

1

3

(tr D) I

_

+:

1

div

d

dt

D

+:

2

div(D

2

) +jb,

(C(0) :

2

0p)

0 :0 p 0

= 2j

_

D

2

1

3

|tr D|

2

_

+

_

:

1

d

dt

D +:

2

D

2

_

D. (16)

System (16) governs the ow of second-grade uids,

which are incompressible in the generalized sense and

obey the Fourier law.

3.2. Non-dimensionalization

Let U be the representative velocity, L, t

0

and

typical length, time and pressure; j

r

is the reference

density (used in (7)) and g the gravitational acceler-

ation or the acceleration due to another applied body

force (which is proportional to j), respectively. More-

over, we set

:= 0

b

0

t

, O :=

1

2

(0

b

+0

t

),

c

0

:= C(O). (17)

This means c

0

is the specic heat at the mean tem-

perature level. We introduce the non-dimensional

variables:

x :=

x

L

, t :=

t

t

0

, v :=

v

U

, j :=

j

j

r

,

p :=

p

, C :=

C

c

0

, b :=

b

g

, 0 :=

0

O. (18)

Note that C(0)=C((0+O)), 0

t

=

1

2

, 0

b

=

1

2

. We do

not choose U, L and t

0

independently but t

0

:= L/U.

Moreover we x 0

r

:= O and set

C(0) :=

1

c

0

C((0 +O)), v :=

j

j

r

,

Re :=

LU

v

. (19)

The quantity v is called kinematic viscosity while Re

is the Reynolds number. Then (16) in terms of the

nondimensional quantities becomes (we skip all bars

for convenience) after some calculations

j = e

:0

,

div v =:

0,

j v =

1

Re

_

v +

1

3

(div v)

_

+

j

r

U

2

p

+

1

L

2

j

r

_

:

1

div

d

dt

D +:

2

div(D

2

)

_

+

gL

U

2

jb,

(

Cc

0

UL :

2

UL(0 +O)p)

0

:UL(0 +O) p 0

=

2jU

2

_

D

2

1

3

|tr D|

2

_

+

U

3

L

_

:

1

d

dt

D +:

2

D

2

_

D. (20)

A priori there is no obvious representative veloc-

ity. Nonetheless, natural convection processes are

reected if the gravitational potential energy is trans-

formed into kinetic energy. In particular, this means

that in the body force term we observe the balance [6]

gL

U

2

: 1 motivating U :=

_

g:L. (21)

The perturbation parameter is thermal compressibility

c

3

:= : (22)

(unlike [8], where c

3

= Re :). To balance inertial

and viscous effects the Reynolds number should be of

A. Passerini, G. Thter / International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 40 (2005) 821831 827

order 1 compared to this c. We calculate for Eq. (20)

3

that

U

2

gL

= : = c

3

. Moreover, with (19) and (21) we

nd, that

L =

Re v

U

=

Re v

_

:gL

L =

1

c

3

_

Re

2

v

2

/g. (23)

We dene two new non-dimensional numbers

A

1

:=

:

1

L

2

j

r

, A

2

:=

:

2

L

2

j

r

. (24)

They can be calculated from the conguration and

the material properties. With (23) we see that A

i

=

c

2

:

i

g

2/3

j

1/3

r

/Re

4/3

j

4/3

. Consequently, if e.g. :

i

or g

are very big then they can be of order 1 together with

Re. Finally, we introduce

:=

j

r

3

_

Re

5

v

5

g

2

, Pr :=

c

0

v

, := j

r

gL.

The Prandtl number Pr, which measures viscous ver-

sus inertial forces, shall be of order 1 at least. Divid-

ing now (20)

4

by we calculate for the coefcients

in (20)

4

, that c

0

UL/ = Re Pr, and,

:=

1

:UL =

:

j

r

gLv Re

=

1

c

3

j

r

g

1

c

3

_

Re

2

v

2

/gv Re =c

2

,

1

:

2

UL =: =c

5

,

1

jU

2

=

1

vj

r

:gL =

1

Re

=

1

Re

c

2

,

:

i

U

3

L

= A

i

j

r

LU

3

= A

i

= A

i

c

2

.

Thus, Eqs. (20) become with our abbreviations

j = e

c

3

0

,

div v =c

3

0,

c

3

j v =

c

3

Re

_

v +

1

3

(div v)

_

p

+c

3

_

A

1

div

d

dt

D + A

2

div(D

2

)

_

+jb,

(Pr Re

C c

5

(0 +O)p)

0 c

2

(0 +O) p 0

= c

2

_

2

Re

_

D

2

|tr D|

2

3

_

+

_

A

1

d

dt

D + A

2

D

2

_

D

_

. (25)

3.3. Approximation

The quantities v, 0 and p are expanded in a power

series with respect to the perturbation parameter c in

the form

v =

k=0

c

k

v

k

, 0 =

k=0

c

k

0

k

, p =

k=0

c

k

p

k

. (26)

The boundary conditions are attached to the respective

zero-order term and consequently, the higher-order

terms have to fulll zero boundary conditions. In sys-

tem (25) all quantities are replaced by these power

series. It is assumed that all quantities are as smooth

as necessary. We analyze the rst c-powers (or c-

levels) to read off the simplest approximate system.

From equation (25)

2

it is obvious that div v

0

=div v

1

=

div v

2

=0. Hence, the term div v in (25)

3

will give no

contribution in our analysis at the levels c

0

c

5

. Anal-

ogously, in (25)

4

the terms c

5

(0 + O)p

0 and tr D

will not appear at c

0

c

4

. We use the Taylor expansion

j(0) = 1 c

3

0 + o(c

6

). (27)

Also, the density enters with its rst c-level only. In-

serting (26) and (27) the velocity equation becomes

c

3

_

1 c

3

k=0

c

k

0

k

+ o(c

6

)

_

k=0

c

k

_

j

t

v

k

+

l+m=k

(v

l

)v

m

_

c

3

Re

k=0

c

k

(v

k

+ o(c

3

)) +

k=0

c

k

p

k

c

3

_

_

A

1

div

d

dt

D

_

k=0

c

k

v

k

_

+ A

2

div

_

_

_

D

_

k=0

c

k

v

k

__

2

_

_

_

_

=

_

1 c

3

k=0

c

k

0

k

+ o(c

6

)

_

b.

Namely, at c

0

we note

p

0

= b.

828 A. Passerini, G. Thter / International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 40 (2005) 821831

Therefore the body forces must have a potential to en-

sure the solvability of this equation. Nevertheless, with

regard to applications this is no serious restriction. For

c

1

and c

2

we see p

1

=p

2

=0, which together with

the zero boundary conditions means p

1

=p

2

=0. Let

d

0

dt

D := D(j

t

v

0

) + (v

0

)D(v

0

) + v

0

D(v

0

)

+ D(v

0

)v

0

.

Finally, for c

3

and c

4

we observe

j

t

v

0

+ (v

0

)v

0

1

Re

v

0

A

1

div

d

0

dt

D

A

2

div(D(v

0

)

2

) + p

3

= 0

0

b,

j

t

v

1

+ (v

0

)v

1

+ (v

1

)v

0

1

Re

v

1

A

1

div

_

D(j

t

v

1

) +

i+k=1

((v

i

)D(v

k

)

+ v

i

D(v

k

) + D(v

i

)v

k

)

_

2A

2

div(D(v

0

)D(v

1

)) + p

4

= 0

1

b. (28)

Next we analyze (25)

4

.

C is smooth enough to use a

Taylor series, i.e.

C(0)

C(0

0

) + (0 0

0

)

C

(0

0

)

=

C(0

0

) +c

C

(0

0

)

k=1

c

k1

0

k

,

where

C

:= j

0

C and we obtain

Pr Re

_

C(0

0

) +c

C

(0

0

)

k=1

c

k1

0

k

+ o(c

2

)

_

k=0

c

k

_

j

t

0

k

+

l+m=k

v

l

0

m

__

c

2

k=0

c

k

0

k

+O

__

k=0

c

k

_

j

t

p

k

+

l+m=k

v

l

p

m

__

k=0

c

k

0

k

= c

2

2

Re

_

D

_

k=0

c

k

v

k

_

D

_

k=0

c

k

v

k

_

+ o(c

3

)

_

+ c

2

_

A

1

d

dt

D

_

k=0

c

k

v

k

_

+ A

2

_

D

_

k=0

c

k

v

k

__

2

_

_

D

_

k=0

c

k

v

k

_

.

Let

0

0

:= j

t

0

0

+ v

0

0

0

. We see for c

0

, that

Pr Re

C(0

0

)

0

0

0

0

= 0, (29)

and c

1

raises

Pr Re(

C(0

0

)(j

t

0

1

+ v

0

0

1

+ v

1

0

0

)

+

C

(0

0

)0

1

0

0

) 0

1

= 0. (30)

We observe that v

1

= 0, 0

1

= 0, p

4

= 0 fulll Eqs.

(28) and (30) and have zero boundary values. Due

to our smoothness assumptions these are the unique

solutions.

Finally, we set v := v

0

, 0 := 0

0

and p := p

0

+c

3

p

3

to obtain the OberbeckBoussinesq-type system

div v = 0,

v

1

Re

v div

_

A

1

d

dt

D + A

2

D

2

_

+

1

c

3

(p b) = 0b,

Pr Re

C(0)

0 0 = 0. (31)

Since div v = 0 one calculates that [13]

div

_

A

1

d

dt

D + A

2

D

2

_

=

1

2

A

1

v + A

1

div(v

D)

+ (2A

1

+ A

2

) div(D

2

).

(note that the last term vanishes under the thermody-

namical restriction 2:

1

+ :

2

= 0). Let us summarize

that (31) holds if c is small while Re, Pr, A

1

, and A

2

are of order 1 at least. From our procedure it is clear

that in (31) both v and 0 are precisely of order c and

A. Passerini, G. Thter / International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 40 (2005) 821831 829

p of order c

4

since v

1

= 0, 0

1

= 0, p

4

= 0. More

precisely, let (v

f

, 0

f

, p

f

) solve the full system (16),

and (v

a

, 0

a

, p

a

) approximation (31) then

v

f

= v

a

+ o(c

2

), 0

f

=0

a

+ o(c

2

) and

p

f

= p

a

+ o(c

5

).

Let us have a closer look at the velocity equation (31)

2

.

We see that the originally dubious assumption of the

OberbeckBoussinesq approximation: j is constant

in all terms except the body force term, where it is lin-

ear in 0 has transformed to the fact that we combine

two approximation levels. One level is the equilibrium

of body forces and p

0

, the other one is the adjust-

ment between velocity changes (expressed by the dif-

ferential operators on the left hand side) and the buoy-

ancy term. One can hide this fact and obscure the way

in which the different approximations for j enter that

equation by setting p :=

1

c

3

(p b).

4. Natural convection with dissipative heating

Already for a long time in the literature one has

found the supposition that for large domains or other

non-standard applications it is not suitable to neglect

a priori dissipative heating though the processes seem

otherwise near to the regime for which the Boussinesq

approximation works ne. The crucial idea is that the

... effect of viscous dissipation in natural convection

is appreciable when the induced kinetic energy be-

comes appreciable compared to the amount of heat

transferred. This occurs when either the equivalent

body force is large or when the convection region is

extensive. [21, p. 225]. To express this balance Os-

trach introduced the so-called Dissipation number Di

in 1957 [22]. It is the ratio of kinetic energy of the uid

to the heat transferred to the uid and has been used

in a lot of approaches since then (e.g. [10,11,2124]).

If we introduce

Di :=

:gj

r

L

c

0

c

2

= Di Re Pr

as a non-dimensional number of order 1 instead of

the balance of the terms differs from the previous

section in the temperature equation. Namely, instead

of (25)

4

we nd after dividing by Re Pr

(

C c

3

Di(0 +O)p)

0 Di(0 +O) p

1

Pr Re

0

=

2Di

Re

_

D

2

|tr D|

2

3

_

+ Di

_

A

1

d

dt

D + A

2

D

2

_

D. (32)

Here we insert the power series to examine (32). For

this we need the more precise expression

C(0) =

C(0

0

) +c

C

(0

0

)

k=1

c

k1

0

k

+

c

2

2

(0

0

)

_

k=1

c

k1

0

k

_

2

+ o(c

3

). (33)

In this way and also recalling div v

0

=div v

1

=div v

2

=

0, we nd

_

_

C(0

0

) +c

C

(0

0

)

k=1

c

k1

0

k

+

c

2

2

(0

0

)

_

k=1

c

k1

0

k

_

2

+ o(c

3

)

_

_

_

j

t

0

0

+ v

0

0

0

+ c

_

j

t

0

1

+

i+k=1

v

i

0

k

_

+ o(c

2

)

_

Di

_

k=0

c

k

0

k

+O

_

_

j

t

p

0

+ v

0

p

0

+ c

_

j

t

p

1

+

i+k=1

v

i

p

k

_

+ o(c

2

)

_

1

Pr Re

k=0

c

k

0

k

=

2Di

Re

_

D

_

k=0

c

k

v

k

_

D

_

k=0

c

k

v

k

_

+ o(c

3

)

_

+ Di

_

_

A

1

d

dt

D

_

k=0

c

k

v

k

_

830 A. Passerini, G. Thter / International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 40 (2005) 821831

+ A

2

_

D

_

k=0

c

k

v

k

__

2

_

_

D

_

k=0

c

k

v

k

_

.

Now we see at c

0

, that

C(0

0

)

0

0

Di(0

0

+O)(j

t

p

0

+v

0

p

0

)

1

Pr Re

0

0

=

2Di

Re

D(v

0

) D(v

0

)

+ Di

_

A

1

d

0

dt

D + A

2

(D(v

0

))

2

_

D(v

0

).

It is reasonable (though for the following not essential)

to assume that b does not depend on the time.

5

Then

the relation p

0

= b leads to

j

t

p

0

+ v

0

p

0

= v

0

b,

and c

1

furnishes

C(0

0

)(j

t

0

1

+ v

0

0

1

+ v

1

0

0

)

+

C

(0

0

)0

1

0

0

Di0

1

v

0

b

Di(0

0

+O)(j

t

p

1

+ v

1

p

0

+ v

0

p

1

)

1

Pr Re

0

1

=

4Di

Re

D(v

0

) D(v

1

)

+ Di

_

A

1

d

0

dt

D D(v

1

) + A

1

_

D(j

t

v

1

)

+

i+k=1

((v

i

)D(v

k

) + v

i

D(v

k

)

+ D(v

i

)v

k

)

_

D(v

0

) + A

2

i+k+l=1

(D(v

i

)D(v

k

)) D(v

l

)

_

. (34)

5

Since b =1 for some scalar 1 always j

t

p

0

+v

0

p

0

=

j

t

1+ v

0

1.

At c

2

we nally collect

C(0

0

)(j

t

0

2

+ v

0

0

2

+ v

1

0

1

+ v

2

0

0

)

+

C

(0

0

)(0

2

0

0

+0

1

(j

t

0

1

+ v

0

0

1

+ v

1

0

0

))

+

1

2

C

(0

0

)0

2

1

0

0

Di(0

2

v

0

b

0

1

(j

t

p

1

+ v

1

b + v

0

p

1

))

Di(0

0

+O)(j

t

p

2

+ v

0

p

2

+ v

1

p

1

+ v

2

b)

1

PrRe

0

2

=

2Di

Re

(2 D(v

0

) D(v

2

)

+ D(v

1

) D(v

1

)) + DiA

1

_

D(j

t

v

2

)

+

i+k=2

_

(v

i

)D(v

k

) + v

i

D(v

k

)

+D(v

i

)v

k

)

_

D(v

0

) + DiA

1

_

D(j

t

v

1

)

+

i+k=1

((v

i

)D(v

k

) + v

i

D(v

k

)

+D(v

i

)v

k

)

_

D(v

1

) + DiA

1

d

0

dt

D D(v

2

)

+ DiA

2

i+k+l=2

(D(v

i

)D(v

k

)) D(v

l

). (35)

Since the solutions are smooth we infer from the

unique solvability that

0

1

= 0, p

4

= 0

because these values fulll the equations and have

zero boundary values. Now we need the c

5

-level in the

velocity equation, which is

j

t

v

2

+

i+k=2

(v

i

)v

k

1

Re

v

2

A

1

div

_

D(j

t

v

2

) +

i+k=2

((v

i

)D(v

k

)

+ v

i

D(v

k

) + D(v

i

)v

k

)

_

A

2

div(D(v

1

)

D(v

1

) + 2D(v

0

)D(v

2

)) + p

5

= 0

2

b. (36)

Eqs. (35), (36) and the known values for v

1

, 0

1

and

p

2

lead to

v

2

= 0, 0

2

= 0, p

5

= 0.

A. Passerini, G. Thter / International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 40 (2005) 821831 831

Finally,

6

by setting v := v

0

, 0 := 0

0

, and p :=

p

0

+ c

3

p

3

we obtain the approximate system with

the modied temperature equation. Since div v = 0 it

further simplies since [13, Lemma 1]

_

A

1

d

dt

D + A

2

D

2

_

D = A

1

D D.

Consequently, nally we arrive at

0

1

Pr Re

0 = Di

_

(0 +O)v b

+

2

Re

D

2

+ A

1

D D

_

. (37)

As in the previous section our approximation uses

different levels in the temperature and the velocity

equation and div v = 0. However, in contrast to (31)

here in system (31)

1,2

, (37) all terms are more precise:

both v and 0 are correct of order c

2

and p of order c

5

,

respectively, since v

1

=v

2

=0, 0

1

=0

2

=0, p

4

=p

5

=0.

Thus, the difference to the solution of the full system

is of the order c

3

for v and 0, and c

6

for p, respectively.

Acknowledgements

The second author was supported by the C.N.R.I.

to come to Ferrara for work on the problem.

References

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bei der Bercksichtigung der Strmungen infolge von

Temperaturdifferenzen, Ann. Phys. Chem. 7 (1879) 271;

A. Oberbeck, ber die Bewegungserscheinungen der

Atmosphre, Sitzungs Ber. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. 383 (1888)

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[2] J. Boussinesq, Thorie Analytique de la Chaleur, Gauthier-

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[3] L. Rayleigh, On convection currents in a horizontal layer

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Philos. Mag. 32 (6) (1916) 529.

[4] E.A. Spiegel, G. Veronis, On the Boussinesq approximation

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One computes that the next c-levels yield non-trivial

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[6] A. Giorgini, D.D. Gray, The validity of the Boussinesq

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[7] R.N. Hills, P.H. Roberts, On the motion of a uid that is

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[10] Y. Kagei, M. R ui cka, G. Thter, Natural convection with

dissipative heating, Commun. Math. Phys. 214 (2000)

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[11] G. Thter, Natural convection, dissipation & power-law

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Thesis, Hannover, 2003.

[12] C.A. Truesdell, A First Course in Rational Continuum

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[13] C. Ferrario, A. Passerini, G. Thter, Generalization of the

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[15] R.L. Fosdic, K.R. Rajagopal, Uniqueness and drag for uids

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Mechanics of Fluids, Birkhauser, Boston, 1999.

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[18] K.R. Rajagopal, On boundary conditions for uids of

the differential type, in: A. Sequeira (Ed.), NavierStokes

Equations and Related Non-Linear Problems, Plenum Press,

New York, 1995, pp. 273278.

[19] A.S. Gupta, K.R. Rajagopal, An exact solution for the ow

of a non-Newtonian uid past an innite plate, Meccanica

19 (1984) 158160.

[20] P.N. Kaloni, K.R. Rajagopal, Some remarks on boundary

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Application, Hemisphere Publication, Washington, DC, 1989,

pp. 935942.

[21] B. Gebhart, Effects of viscous dissipation in natural

convection, J. Fluid Mech. 14 (1962) 225232.

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Gttingen, Heidelberg, 1958, pp. 185208.

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