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# J. math. uid mech.

11 (2009) 274302
1422-6928/09/020274-29
c 2007 Birkh auser Verlag, Basel
DOI 10.1007/s00021-007-0259-5
Journal of Mathematical
Fluid Mechanics
The OberbeckBoussinesq Approximation as a Singular Limit
of the Full NavierStokesFourier System
Eduard Feireisl and Antonin Novotn y
Abstract. We consider the asymptotic limit for the complete NavierStokesFourier system as
both Mach and Froude numbers tend to zero. The limit is investigated in the context of weak
variational solutions on an arbitrary large time interval and for the ill-prepared initial data. The
convergence to the OberbeckBoussinesq system is shown.
Mathematics Subject Classication (2000). Primary 35Q; Secondary 76N.
Keywords. NavierStokesFourier system, OberbeckBoussinesq approximation, low Mach
number limit, ill-prepared data.
1. Introduction
1.1. The OberbeckBoussinesq system
Simplied asymptotic limits derived trough scale analysis yield often a useful in-
sight into the behaviour of more complex systems arising in mathematical uid
dynamics. A typical example is the ow of a heat conducting Newtonian uid in
a three-dimensional container R
3
that can be described in the framework of
the OberbeckBoussinesq approximation ((OB) system):
div u = 0,

t
(u) + div(u u)
_
+
x
P = div S rj ,
c
p
_

t
+ div(u)
_
div(
x
) = 0,
_

_
(1.1)
where u(t, x) is the velocity at time t (0, T) and position x , (t, x) is the
temperature, the symbol P denotes the normal stress (pressure), and j = [0, 0, 1]
is the unit vector in the x
3
direction. The viscous stress tensor S is given through
Newtons rheological law
S =
_

x
u +

x
u
_
, (1.2)
Vol. 11 (2009) OberbeckBoussinesq Approximation 275
where the viscosity coecient as well as the heat conductivity coecient ,
and the specic heat at constant pressure c
p
are evaluated at constant density
and constant temperature =
1
||
_

## dx. Consistent with the Boussinesq

approximation, the temperature-dependent density r = r() appears only in the
momentum equation and is assumed to vary with temperature as
r + () = 0, (1.3)
where stands for the coecient of thermal expansion (see Rajagopal et al. 
for more details on the physical background of the problem).
For the sake of simplicity, we shall assume that
= T
2
(0, ), where T
2
=
_
[, ][
{,}
_
2
is a two-dimensional torus, (1.4)
that means, we consider the periodic boundary conditions with respect to the
spatial coordinates x
1
, x
2
, together with the conservative boundary conditions
u j = 0, (Sj) j = 0,
x
j = F
b
on the lateral boundary x
3
= 0 x
3
= .
(1.5)
Under these circumstances, the total amount of thermal energy
E
th
=
_
T
2
_

0
dx = [[ is a constant of motion.
The main goal of the present paper is to show that the system of equations
(1.1)(1.3) supplemented with the boundary conditions (1.4), (1.5) can be ob-
tained as an asymptotic limit of the full NavierStokesFourier system provided
the Mach and Froude numbers tend to zero (see Theorem 1.1 below). Note that
the OberbeckBoussinesq approximation is used when the density is nearly con-
stant but the density dierences exist due to temperature changes, causing an
imbalance of the hydrostatic equilibrium. Such a situation occurs with many con-
vection problems where the temperature dierences are introduced independent
of the ow dynamics. The requirement that the Mach number tends to zero is
needed, allowing the density to approach a constant except in the gravita-
tional body force rescaled by a suitable choice of the Froude number. Accordingly,
the temperature dierences are not caused by the ow but exist independent of
the ow.
1.2. The NavierStokesFourier system with small Mach and Froude
numbers
The time evolution of the density , the velocity u, and the absolute temperature
of a general viscous, compressible, and heat conducting uid is governed by the
full NavierStokesFourier system ((NSF) system):

t
+ div(u) = 0, (1.6)
276 E. Feireisl and A. Novotn y JMFM

t
(u) + div(u u) +
1
Ma
2

x
p(, ) = div S
1
Fr
2
j, (1.7)

t
_
s(, )
_
+ div(s(, )u) + div
_
q

_
= , (1.8)
d
dt
_

_
Ma
2
2
[u[
2
+e(, ) +
Ma
2
Fr
2
x
3
_
= 0, (1.9)
with the viscous stress tensor
S = ()
_

x
u +

x
u
2
3
divu I
_
+()divuI, (1.10)
the heat ux
q = ()
x
, (1.11)
and the entropy production rate
=
1

_
Ma
2
S :
x
u
q
x

_
. (1.12)
The pressure p, the specic entropy s, and the specic internal energy e are
dierentiable functions of the scalar state variables and interrelated through
Gibbs equation
Ds(, ) = De(, ) +p(, )D
_
1

_
. (1.13)
Similarly to Section 1.1, system (1.6)(1.13) will be considered on a bounded
strip specied in (1.4), and supplemented with the conservative boundary con-
ditions
uj = 0, (Sj)j = 0, qj = 0 on the lateral boundary x
3
= 0x
3
= (1.14)
in agreement with the total energy conservation principle expressed through (1.9).
In contrast with (1.5), the full system is assumed to be thermally isolated with no
heat ux through the lateral boundary.
The symbol Ma denotes the Mach number and Fr stands for the Froude number
physical parameters obtained via dimensional analysis (see, for instance, Klein
 or the survey paper by Klein at al. ). Here, we introduce a small parameter
> 0 and assume Ma , Fr

. Writing

= +
(1)

= +
(1)

(1.15)
we will show that, in a certain sense,
u

u,
(1)

(1)
,
(1)

(1)
as 0,
where the resulting quantities
u, r
(1)
, +
(1)
solve (OB) system (1.1)(1.3), (1.4)(1.6) for a suitable heat ux F
b
prescribed
on the lateral boundary.
Vol. 11 (2009) OberbeckBoussinesq Approximation 277
Conformably to (1.15), (NSF) system has to be supplemented with initial
conditions
(0, ) =
0
, (u)(0, ) =
0
u
0
, s(, )(0, ) =
0
s(
0
,
0
), (1.16)
where the initial data

0
=
,0
= +
(1)
,0
, u
0
= u
,0
,
0
=
,0
= +
(1)
,0
(1.17)
are chosen so that
=
1
[[
_

,0
dx > 0, =
1
[[
_

,0
dx > 0, (1.18)
with the quantities
(1)
,0
, u
,0
,
(1)
,0
bounded uniformly with respect to 0.
Relation (1.17) reveals a crucial aspect of the problem: If we desire to recover
(OB) system as the asymptotic limit of (NSF) system, then we have to deal
with the so-called ill-prepared initial data, that means, the functions
(1)
,0
,
(1)
,0
must not vanish in the asymptotic limit for 0. In particular, the solutions of
(NSF) system develop high frequency acoustic waves considered harmless in
the asymptotic limit but still producing large amplitude velocity eld oscillations
in (NSF) system (cf. the survey paper by Schochet ). In other words, unless
we are satised with local solutions existing only on a possibly very short time in-
terval (see Alazard  or Danchin  for relevant results and techniques), we have
to consider global-in-time large data solutions of (NSF) system. To the best of
our knowledge, the only existence theory so far available is based on the concept
of variational (weak) solutions introduced in the seminal work by Leray .
1.3. Variational solutions
In order to understand the specic choice of the function spaces appearing in Def-
initions 1.1, 1.2 below, it seems convenient to start with the structural restrictions
imposed on the thermodynamics functions as well as the transport coecients. In
accordance with the existence theory developed in , the uid considered in this
paper will be a general monoatomic gas, with the equation of state taking into
account the eect of radiation. More specically, we set
p(, ) = p
R
() + p
F
(, ), with p
R
=
a
4

4
, p
F
=
5
2
P
_

3
2
_
, (1.19)
e(, ) = e
R
(, ) +e
F
(, ), where e
R
= a

, e
F
=
3
2
P
_

3
2
_

3
2

, (1.20)
and, in accordance with (1.13),
s(, ) = s
R
(, ) +s
F
(, ), with s
R
=
4a
3

, s
F
= S
_

3
2
_
, (1.21)
278 E. Feireisl and A. Novotn y JMFM
S

(Z) =
3
2
5
3
P(Z) P

(Z)Z
Z
2
(cf. Chapter 4 in ).
The terms p
R
, e
R
, s
R
are of course related to radiation (see Bues and Despres
, Oxenius [16, Chapter 4], among others). As the latter is usually very small,
we shall assume a in the asymptotic limit.
In addition, we impose the standard thermodynamics stability conditions as-
serting positivity of the specic heat at constant volume:
c
v
(, ) =
e
F
(, )

=
9
4
5
3
P(Z) P

(Z)Z
Z
> 0, Z =

3
2
; (1.22)
and strict monotonicity of the pressure:
p
F
(, )

= P

(Z) > 0, Z =

3
2
(1.23)
(cf. Bechtel et al. ).
Furthermore, we assume the uid behaves like a classical perfect gas for mod-
erate values of the degeneracy parameter Z = /
3
2
, that means,
P(0) = 0, lim
Z0+
P(Z)
Z
= P

## (0) > 0; (1.24)

and obeys (like most of the real gases) the FermiDirac statistical law in the
degenerate regime Z >> 1:
lim
Z
P(Z)
Z
5
3
= p

> 0, sup
Z>0
5
3
P(Z) P

(Z)Z
Z
< (1.25)
(see, for instance, Ruggeri and Trovato ).
Finally, we suppose the transport coecients , , and satisfy the growth
restrictions
0 < c
1
(1 + ) () c
2
(1 +), 0 () c
2
(1 +), (1.26)
0 < c
1
(1 +
3
) () c
2
(1 +
3
), (1.27)
where the polynomial growth in (1.27) is enforced by the presence of radiation
(see Oxenius [16, Chapter 4]). Here and in what follows, we should always keep
in mind that the absence of the density in the transport coecients is required by
the existence theory and does not play any signicant role in the present paper.
Denition 1.1. We shall say that a trio , u, is a variational solution of
(NSF) system (1.6)(1.13), (1.14), (1.16) on a time interval (0, T) if the following
conditions are satised:
the density is a non-negative function, L

_
0, T; L
5
3
()
_
, the velocity
eld u belongs to the space L
2
_
0, T; W
1,2
(; R
3
)
_
,
u
3
= 0 on the lateral boundary x
3
= 0 x
3
= ,
Vol. 11 (2009) OberbeckBoussinesq Approximation 279
and the integral identity
_
T
0
_

_
B()
t
+B()u
x
b() divu
_
dxdt
=
_

0
B(
0
)(0, ) dx (1.28)
holds for any test function T
_
[0, T)
_
, and any b such that
b L

## C[0, ), B() = B(1) +

_

1
b(z)
z
2
dz; (1.29)
the momentum u belongs to L

_
0, T; L
5
4
(; R
3
)
_
, the absolute temperature
is positive a.a. on the set (0, T) ,

L
2
_
0, T; W
1,2
()
_
for all
_
1,
3
2
_
,
and the integral identity
_
T
0
_

_
u
t
+ (u u) :
x
+
1
Ma
2
p(, ) div
_
dxdt
=
_
T
0
_

_
S :
x
+
1
Fr
2

x
x
3

_
dxdt
_

0
u
0
(0, ) dx (1.30)
is satised for any T([0, T) ; R
3
), n = 0 on , where the viscous stress
tensor S and the pressure p are integrable functions on (0, T) related to the
state variables , , u through (1.10), (1.19);
the entropy s(, ) belongs to the space L

_
0, T; L
1
()
_
, the terms s(, )u,
()

x
are integrable on the set (0, T) ), log() L
2
_
0, T; W
1,2
()
_
, and the
integral inequality
_
T
0
_

_
s(, )
t
+s(, )u
x

()

x

x

_
dxdt
+
_
T
0
_

_
Ma
2
S :
x
u +
()

[
x
[
2
_
dxdt

_

0
s(
0
,
0
)(0, ) dx (1.31)
holds for any non-negative test function T([0, T) );
the total energy balance
E() =
_

_
Ma
2
2
[u[
2
+e(, ) +
Ma
2
Fr
2
x
3
_
dx
=
_

_
Ma
2
2

0
[u
0
[
2
+
0
e(
0
,
0
) +
Ma
2
Fr
2

0
x
3
_
dx = E
0
(1.32)
holds for a.a. (0, T).
280 E. Feireisl and A. Novotn y JMFM
The existence of variational solutions in the sense of Denition 1.1 was estab-
lished in [9, Theorem 2.4] for R
3
a bounded spatial domain, where both the
velocity eld and the normal component of the heat ux were supposed to vanish
on the boundary (see also  for the necessary modications of the proof in order
to accommodate the growth conditions (1.26)). Note that (1.28) is the so-called
renormalized formulation of equation (1.6) introduced by DiPerna and Lions .
It is easy to check that (NSF) system is invariant with respect to the sym-
metry transformations:
_

_
(t, x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = (t, x
1
, x
2
, x
3
),
(t, x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = (t, x
1
, x
2
, x
3
),
u
1
(t, x
1
, x
2
, x
3
)=u
1
(t, x
1
, x
2
, x
3
), u
2
(t, x
1
, x
2
, x
3
)=u
2
(t, x
1
, x
2
, x
3
),
u
3
(t, x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = u
3
(t, x
1
, x
2
, x
3
).
_

_
(1.33)
Accordingly, the boundary conditions (1.14) can be conveniently recast in terms
of the additional symmetry properties specied in (1.33) provided all functions
appearing in (NSF) system are considered to be spatially periodic, that means,
= T
3
=
_
[, ][
{,}
_
3
,
with the gravitational body force replaced by j =
x
[x
3
[ (cf. Ebin ).
Now, it is easy to see that the existence of variational solutions in the spatially
periodic case can be established in the same way as in . An essential ingredient of
this approach is replacing the entropy balance (1.8), (1.12) by the inequality (1.31)
anticipating possible singularities concentrated on sets of zero Lebesgue measure
(for relevant discussion see , ). However, as shown in , both formulations
(classical and variational) are entirely equivalent provided the variational solutions
are suciently smooth.
In order to conclude this part, we introduce a concept of variational solutions
to (OB) system.
Denition 1.2. We shall say that functions r, u, represent a variational
solution of (OB) system (1.1)(1.3), supplemented with the boundary conditions
(1.4)(1.5) and the initial conditions
u(0, ) = u
0
, (0, ) =
0
, (1.34)
if the following conditions are satised:
u L

_
0, T; L
2
(; R
3
)
_
L
2
_
0, T; W
1,2
(; R
3
)
_
, r L

_
0, T; L
2
()
_
,
divu = 0 a.a. on (0, T) , u n[

= 0,
and the integral identity
_
T
0
_

_
u
t
+(u u) :
x

_
dxdt
=
_
T
0
_

_
(
x
u +

x
u) :
x
+r
x
x
3

_
dxdt
_

u (0, ) dx (1.35)
Vol. 11 (2009) OberbeckBoussinesq Approximation 281
holds for any test function
T([0, T) ; R
3
), div = 0, n[

= 0;
L

_
0, T; L
2
()
_
L
2
_
0, T; W
1,2
()
_
,
r +
_

1
[[
_

dx
_
= 0 a.a. on (0, T) , (1.36)
and the integral identity
_
T
0
_

_
c
p
(
t
+ u
x
)
x

x

_
dxdt
=
__
{x3=0}
F
b
d
_
{x3=}
F
b
d
_

c
p

0
(0, ) dx (1.37)
is satised for any test function T([0, T) ).
1.4. The main result asymptotic limit
Having introduced all the necessary material we are ready to state the main result
concerning the asymptotic limit of solutions to (NSF) system for low values of
the Mach and Froude numbers.
Theorem 1.1. Let

, u

>0
be a family of variational solutions to (NSF)
system in the sense of Denition 1.1, with
Ma = , Fr =

, a = ,
p, e, s determined in terms of

## by (1.19)(1.21), where the function P

C
1
[0, ) C
2
(0, ) meets the structural restrictions (1.22)(1.25), and the trans-
port coecients , , and continuously dierentiable functions of obeying
the growth restrictions (1.26)(1.27). Furthermore, assume the solutions emanate
from the initial state

,0
= +
(1)
,0
, u
,0
,
,0
= +
(1)
,0
satisfying (1.18), where

(1)
,0

(1)
0
, u
,0
u
0
,
(1)
,0

(1)
0
weakly-() in L

(). (1.38)
Then

in C
_
[0, T]; L
1
()
_
L

_
0, T; L
5
3
()
_
, (1.39)

in L
2
_
0, T; W
1,2
()
_
, (1.40)
and, passing to a subsequence if necessary,
u

u weakly in L
2
_
0, T; W
1,2
(; R
3
)
_
, (1.41)
282 E. Feireisl and A. Novotn y JMFM

(1)

(1)
weakly-() in L

_
0, T; L
5
3
()
_
, (1.42)

(1)

(1)
weakly in L
2
_
0, T; W
1,2
()
_
, (1.43)
where the trio
u, r =
(1)
+
_
1

p
F
(, )

2
c
p
__
x
3

2
_
,
= +
(1)
+

c
p
_
x
3

2
_
represents a (weak) solution of (OB) system, with the initial data
u(0, ) = H[u
0
], (0, ) = +
c
v
c
p

(1)
0

2
3
c
v
c
p

(1)
0
,
and the heat ux through the boundary given by
F
b
=

c
p
on the lateral boundary x
3
= 0, x
3
= .
Here the symbol H stands for the Helmholtz projection onto the space of diver-
genceless vector elds.
Remark 1.1. As already observed, one can get rid of the boundary conditions
(1.14) extending all relevant quantities as periodic functions dened on the torus
T
3
in such a way that they belong to the symmetry class specied in (1.33).
Accordingly, the Helmholtz projection can be dened through formula
H[v] = v
x

1
[div v], H

=
x

1
[div v] for v L
2
(T
3
),
where the symbol stands for the Laplace operator considered on the space of
spatially periodic functions with zero mean. Introducing the Fourier coecients
[v]
k
=
1
2
< v, exp(ik x) >, k Z
3
, for any v T

(T
3
),
we have
_
H[v]
_
k
= [v]
k

k
[k[
2
k [v]
k
,
_
H

[v]
_
k
=
k
[k[
2
k [v]
k
, k Z
3
0.
Remark 1.2. Let us recall the standard denition of the thermodynamics con-
stants:
c
v
= c
v
(, ) =
e
F
(, )

, =
1

p
F
(, )

p
F
(, )
_
, c
p
c
v
=
2
3
c
v
. (1.44)
The rest of the paper is devoted to the proof of Theorem 1.1. In accordance
with what has been said in Section 1.3, we shall assume that the quantities

,
Vol. 11 (2009) OberbeckBoussinesq Approximation 283
u

## have been extended as spatially periodic functions belonging to the symmetry

class specied in (1.33). In other words, we can set
= T
3
, j =
x
[x
3
[. (1.45)
The present paper is a continuation of a programme on singular limits of so-
lutions to the full NavierStokesFourier system started in . Section 2 focuses
on uniform estimates of the family of solutions

, u

>0
derived on the ba-
sis of the so-called dissipation inequality. Besides the standard energy estimates
resulting from the particular form of the initial data specied in (1.17), we obtain
a uniform bound on the entropy production rate represented by a non-negative
measure

## in agreement with (1.31). The problem of convergence of the sequence

, u

>0
is examined in Section 3. In particular, we shall show that the sets
of points where

## are far from the limit values , are negligible, more

precisely, the Lebesgue measure of these sets tend to zero as
2
. In Section 4
the heart of the paper we discuss the acoustic equation governing the behaviour
of the gradient part of the velocity H

[u

## ] together with the rescaled density and

temperature components (

)/, (

## )/. At this point, the eective depen-

dence of the pressure on the temperature makes the analysis much more delicate
than in the barotropic case studied by Lions and Masmoudi  or Desjardins et
al. . In the presence setting, the acoustic equation contains a measure the en-
tropy production rate as a forcing term. The proof of Theorem 1.1 is completed
in Section 5 devoted to careful analysis of the limit equation resulting from the
entropy balance inequality (1.31).
2. Uniform estimates
The uniform estimates to be established in this section are based upon a trio of
interrelated arguments: (i) the dissipation inequality derived from (1.31), (1.32);
(ii) the specic form of the initial data given through (1.17); (iii) the basic fact
that any non-negative distribution can be represented by a Radon measure.
2.1. Total mass conservation
The integral identity (1.28) represents a (weak) renormalized formulation of equa-
tion of continuity (1.6) (see DiPerna and P.-L. Lions ). It is well-known that

C
_
[0, T]; L
1
(T
3
)
_
, (2.1)
and the total mass
_
T
3

,0
dx =
_
T
3

(t) dx = [T
3
[ is a constant of motion, (2.2)
284 E. Feireisl and A. Novotn y JMFM
in particular,
_
T
3
(

(t) )

_
e s
_
(, ) dx = 0 for all > 0. (2.3)
2.2. Energy estimates
Evoking the Riesz representation theorem on bounded non-negative functionals on
C
loc
([0, T)T
3
) we deduce there exists a non-negative measure

/
+
([0, T]T
3
)
such that

, )
_
T
0
_
T
3
1

2
S

:
x
u

+
(

[
x

[
2
_
dxdt (2.4)
for any non-negative C([0, T) T
3
), and the integral identity
_
T
0
_
T
3
_

s(

)
t
+

s(

)u

_
dxdt +

, )
=
_
T
3

,0
s(
,0
,
,0
)(0, ) dx (2.5)
holds for any T([0, T) T
3
).
Moreover, as a straightforward consequence of (2.5), we get
_
T
3

,0
s(
,0
,
,0
) dx
_
T
3

s(

)() dx +

_
[0, ) T
3
_
= 0 (2.6)
for a.a. (0, T), where
_
T
3

s(

## )() dx = ess lim

t
_
T
3

s(

)(t) dx.
Next, combining (2.6) together with the total energy balance (1.32) we arrive
at the dissipation equality
1

2
_
E

(t)
_
T
3

s(

)(t) dx
_
+

_
[0, t) T
3
_
=
1

2
_
E
,0

_
T
3

,0
s(
,0
,
,0
) dx
_
, (2.7)
where
E

=
_
3
T
_

2
2

[u

[
2
+

e(

) +

[x
3
[
_
dx
and
E
,0
=
_
3
T
_

2
2

,0
[u
,0
[
2
+
,0
e(
,0
,
,0
) +
,0
[x
3
[
_
dx.
Vol. 11 (2009) OberbeckBoussinesq Approximation 285
In order to simplify the forthcoming calculations, it is convenient to normalize
the specic entropy s setting
s(, ) = 0, (2.8)
where , represent the integral means of the initial conditions introduced in
(1.18).
Now relation (2.7) can be written in the form
_
T
3
1
2

[u

[
2
(t) +
1

2
_

e(

s(

) e(, )
_
(t) dx
+
_
T
3

(t)[x
3
[ dx +

_
[0, t) T
3

=
_
T
3
1
2

,0
[u
,0
[
2
(t) +
1

2
_

,0
e(
,0
,
,0
)
,0
s(
,0
,
,0
) e(, )
_
dx
+
_
T
3

,0

[x
3
[ dx. (2.9)
By virtue of hypotheses (1.18), (1.38), the quantities

(1)
,0
=

,0

,
(1)
,0
=

,0

have zero integral mean and are uniformly bounded with respect to . Conse-
quently, as the functions s, e are twice continuously dierentiable on (0, )
(0, ), one can use the Taylor expansion formula in order to conclude that
sup
>0
__
T
3
1
2

,0
[u
,0
[
2
(t) +
1

2
_

,0
e(
,0
,
,0
)
,0
s(
,0
,
,0
) e(, )
_
dx
+
_
T
3

,0

[x
3
[ dx
_
< . (2.10)
On the other hand, setting
H(, ) = e(, ) s(, ) ( )

_
e s
_
(, ) e(, )
and taking (2.3) together with (2.8) into account, relation (2.9) gives rise to
sup
>0
_
ess sup
t(0,T)
__
T
3
_
1
2

[u

[
2
(t) +
1

2
H(

)(t) +

(t)[x
3
[
_
dx
+

_
[0, t) T
3

__
< . (2.11)
Now, denoting
M
r
=
_
(, ) [ /2 < < 2, /2 < < 2
_
the set of regular states , and
M
s
=
_
(0, ) (0, )
_
M
r
286 E. Feireisl and A. Novotn y JMFM
its singular complement, we report the following auxiliary result on the struc-
tural properties of H:
Lemma 2.1. There exists a positive constant c = c(, ) such that
H(, )
_
c
_
[ [
2
+[ [
2
_
if (, ) M
r
,
c
_
e(, ) +[s(, )[
_
if (, ) M
s
.
(2.12)
Moreover,
inf
(,)Ms
H(, ) = inf
(,)Mr
H(, ) c > 0. (2.13)
Remark 2.1. As a matter of fact, the function H depends on the parameter = a
through the quantities related to radiation. However, the value of the constant
c = c(, ) in the conclusion of Lemma 2.1 is independent of .
Proof. As a direct consequence of Gibbs equation (1.13), we obtain

2
H

2
(, ) =
1

(, ),
H

(, ) = ( )
s

(, ), (2.14)
where both

p and

## s are strictly positive for all > 0, > 0 in accordance

with the thermodynamics stability hypothesis (1.23).
Therefore, for any xed > 0, the mapping H(, ) is strictly decreasing for
< and strictly increasing for > , in particular, the function H(, )
attains a strict global minimum at = . On the other hand, the function
H(, ) is strictly convex and, since
H

(, ) = 0, (2.15)
the function H(, ) attains its (strict) global minimum at (, ). Conse-
quently,
H(, ) H(, ) > H(, ) = 0 for all > 0 and 0 < ,= . (2.16)
Now, a similar argument can be used to show that for each (, ) M
s
there
exists ( ,

) M
s
= M
r
such that
H(, ) H( ,

).
In particular, we deduce that
inf
(,)Ms
H(, ) = inf
(,)Mr
H(, ) c(, ) > 0,
where one can easily check that the constant c can be chosen independent of a = .
This observation completes the proof of formula (2.13).
Vol. 11 (2009) OberbeckBoussinesq Approximation 287
Consider an auxiliary function
H
d
(, ) = e(, ) ds(, ) e(, ), d > 0.
It can be shown, by means of the same arguments already used for H, that the
function H
d
(, ) is strictly decreasing for < d and strictly increasing for
> d, and H
d
(, d) is strictly convex. In particular, we have
H
d
(, ) H
d
(, d) c
1
(, d) for all > 0, > 0 (2.17)
where c
1
> 0. From (2.17), taking successively d = 2 and d =

2
, we easily deduce
c
1
(, 2) +H

(, ) s(, ), c
1
_
,

2
_
+H

(, )
1
2
s(, ),
and
c
1
(, 2) + 2H

(, ) e(, ).
Thus we conclude that
c
2
(, ) + ( )

_
e s
_
(, ) +H(, ) e(, ) +[s(, )[, (2.18)
with c
2
> 0.
Evoking (1.21)(1.23) we easily verify that
H(, ) c
3

5
3
for all > 2 with some c
3
= c
3
(, ) > 0; (2.19)
whence the term

( )

_
e s
_
(, )

## can be bounded from above by c

4
+
H(, ), where c
4
= c
4
(, ) > 0. This observation, together with (2.13), (2.16),
yields the second lower bound claimed in (2.12).
It remains to show the rst estimate in (2.12). Since P C
2
(0, ), both

2
H

2
and
s

## are continuous functions on (0, ) (0, ). Hence, by virtue of (2.14),

they admit strictly positive minima on M
r
. Consequently, due to (2.15), (2.16),
H(, )
1
2
_
min

2
2

2
H

2
(, )
_
[ [
2
, (, ) M
r
and, thanks to the second estimate in (2.14),
H(, ) =
_

( )
s

(, ) d

4
_
min
(,)Mr
s

(, )
_
[[
2
, (, ) M
r
.
This completes the proof of Lemma 2.1.
Now, relation (2.11) together with Lemma 2.1 gives rise to the uniform esti-
mates:
_

_
>0
is bounded in L

_
0, T; L
2
(T
3
; R
3
)
_
, (2.20)
and
|

|
M
+
([0,T]T
3
)

2
c, (2.21)
288 E. Feireisl and A. Novotn y JMFM
ess sup
t(0,T)
_
T
3
H(

) dx
2
c. (2.22)
In what follows, it is convenient to consider the singular and regular parts
of various functions in question separately, more exactly, we decompose
h = h
reg
+h
sg
,
with
h
reg
(t, x) = char(t, x) [ [

(t, x),

(t, x)] M
r
h(t, x),
h
sg
= char(t, x) [ [

(t, x),

(t, x)] M
s
h(t, x),
where char stands for the characteristic function.
Combining estimates (2.12), (2.22) we get
__

_
reg
_
>0
bounded in L

_
0, T; L
2
(T
3
)
_
, (2.23)
__

_
reg
_
>0
bounded in L

_
0, T; L
2
(T
3
)
_
. (2.24)
In addition, hypotheses (1.20), (1.24), (1.25) yield

e(

) c
_

+
5
3

_
(compare with (2.19)); whence, similarly to the above,
ess sup
t(0,T)
_
_
_
_
_

_
sg
_
_
_
_
L
5
3 (T
3
)

1
5
c (2.25)
ess sup
t(0,T)
_
_
_
_
_

s(

_
sg
_
_
_
_
L
1
(T
3
)
c (2.26)
and
ess sup
t(0,T)
|

sg
|
L
5
3 (T
3
)

6
5
c, ess sup
t(0,T)
|

sg
|
L
4
(T
3
)

1
4
c. (2.27)
2.3. Estimates based on dissipation
We exploit boundedness of the entropy production rate specied in (2.21). Relation
(2.4) together with hypotheses (1.26), (1.27) give rise to

x
u

>0
bounded in L
2
_
0, T; L
2
(T
3
; R
33
)
_
, (2.28)
_

x
_

__
>0
bounded in L
2
_
0, T; L
2
(T
3
; R
3
)
_
, (2.29)
Vol. 11 (2009) OberbeckBoussinesq Approximation 289
and
_

x
_
log(

) log()

__
>0
bounded in L
2
_
0, T; L
2
(T
3
; R
3
)
_
. (2.30)
Moreover, by virtue of (2.13), (2.22), we have
ess sup
t(0,T)
meas
_
T
3

_
xT
3

/2 <

(t, x)<2

, /2<

(t, x)<2

_
_

2
c.
(2.31)
Consequently, by virtue of the Poincare inequality together with estimates (2.28)
(2.30), we obtain
u

>0
bounded in L
2
_
0, T; W
1,2
(T
3
; R
3
)
_
, (2.32)
_

_
>0
bounded in L
2
_
0, T; W
1,2
(T
3
)
_
, (2.33)
and
_
log(

) log()

_
>0
bounded in L
2
_
0, T; W
1,2
(T
3
)
_
. (2.34)
3. Convergence
3.1. Continuity equation
Our next goal is to pass to the limit for 0 in the equation of continuity (1.6).
From (2.1), (2.23), (2.25) we get immediately

in C
_
[0, T]; L
1
(T
3
)
_
L

_
0, T; L
5
3
(T
3
)
_
, (3.1)
and

(1)

=
_

_

(1)
L

_
0, T; L
2
(T
3
)
_
weakly-() in L

_
0, T; L
5
3
(T
3
)
_
.
(3.2)
Note that, in accordance with (1.28) (with b = 0) and (1.18), the limit function

(1)
has zero integral mean. In the present setting, the uniform convergence in
time of the sequence
(1)

## is not expected, not even in a weak sense, because of

possible presence of fast time oscillations of the acoustic waves.
In addition, we deduce from (2.32) that
u

u weakly in L
2
_
0, T; W
1,2
(T
3
; R
3
)
_
(3.3)
passing to a subsequence as the case may be, where, as a result of the asymptotic
limit for 0 performed in (1.28),
div u = 0. (3.4)
290 E. Feireisl and A. Novotn y JMFM
In particular, in terms of the Helmholtz projection,
H[u

] u weakly in L
2
_
0, T; W
1,2
(T
3
; R
3
)
_
(3.5)
while
H

[u

] 0 weakly in L
2
_
0, T; W
1,2
(T
3
; R
3
)
_
. (3.6)
Finally, by virtue of H olders inequality, the L
p
continuity of H, and the uni-
form estimates established in (2.23), (2.25), we infer that
H[

] u weakly in L
2
_
0, T; L
30
23
(T
3
; R
3
)
_
, (3.7)
H

] 0 weakly in L
2
_
0, T; L
30
23
(T
3
; R
3
)
_
. (3.8)
3.2. The balance of thermal energy
The next issue to be discussed is the asymptotic limit in the entropy equation
(1.31). To begin with, it follows from (2.33) that

(1)

=
_

_

(1)
weakly in L
2
_
0, T; W
1,2
(T
3
)
_
, (3.9)
in particular,

in L
2
_
0, T; W
1,2
(T
3
)
_
. (3.10)
More precisely, writing

reg
+

sg
and using (2.24), (2.27), we get

reg
in L

_
0, T; L
2
(T
3
)
_
,

sg
0 in L

_
0, T; L
4
(T
3
)
_
.
(3.11)
Similarly, we have
_

s(

_
=
_

s(

_
reg
+
_

s(

_
sg
,
where, in accordance with (2.26),
_

s(

_
sg
0 in L

_
0, T; L
1
(T
3
)
_
. (3.12)
In accordance with hypothesis (1.25), the specic heat at constant volume c
v
is uniformly bounded, therefore it is a routine matter to deduce from (1.21) that
[s(, )[ c
_
1 +
3
+[ log()[ +[ log() log()[
_
for all 0, > 0.
Thus relations (2.27) together with (2.31) give rise to
_
1

(1 +
3

[ log(

)[)
_
sg
0 in L

_
0, T; L
4
3
(T
3
)
_
; (3.13)
Vol. 11 (2009) OberbeckBoussinesq Approximation 291
whence, by virtue of (2.32),
_
1

(1 +
3

[ log(

)[)u

_
sg
0 in L
2
_
0, T; L
12
11
(T
3
; R
3
)
_
. (3.14)
Similarly one can combine (2.20), (2.27), with (2.32), (2.34) in order to deduce
that
_

[ log(

) log [

_
sg
0 in L
2
_
0, T; L
30
23
(T
3
; R
3
)
_
, (3.15)
and
_

[ log(

) log [

_
sg
0 in L
2
_
0, T; L
30
29
(T
3
; R
3
)
_
, (3.16)
which, together with (3.14), yields the desired conclusion
_

s(

_
sg
0 in L
2
_
0, T; L
30
29
(T
3
; R
3
)
_
. (3.17)
On the other hand, keeping in mind (2.8), we can write
s(, )

=
s

(, )
_

_
+
s

(, )
_

_
+

2
_

2
(s)(y, z)
__

_
,
_

__
;
__

_
,
_

___
, (3.18)
(, ) M
r
for a suitable (y, z) belonging to M
r
. Consequently, relations (2.23), (2.24), (3.1),
(3.2), (3.9) imply
_

s(

_
reg

s
F

(, )
(1)
+
s
F

(, )
(1)
=
2
3
c
v

(1)
+

c
v

(1)
weakly-() in L

_
0, T; L
2
(T
3
)
_
, (3.19)
where the specic heat at constant volume c
v
is determined by (1.22).
Since
_
s(,)

_
reg
is bounded in L
2
_
0, T; L
3
2
(T
3
; R
3
)
_
, we deduce from
(3.17) and (3.19)

s(

s(, )

u L
2
_
0, T; L
3
2
(T
3
; R
3
)
_
weakly in L
2
_
0, T; L
30
29
(T
3
; R
3
)
_
,
(3.20)
at least for a suitable subsequence.
Moreover, in virtue of (3.9), (3.11) and (1.27)
_
(

_
reg

()

(1)
weakly in L
2
_
0, T; L
2
(T
3
; R
3
)
_
; (3.21)
292 E. Feireisl and A. Novotn y JMFM
while relations (3.11), (2.33), (2.34), together with (2.31), yield

_
(

_
sg

c
_

x
log(

_
sg

2
sg

_
0 (3.22)
in L
p
((0, T) T
3
) for any 1 p < 2.
Thus our ultimate goal in this section is to show that the quantity on the right-
hand side of (3.20) can be written as the product of the corresponding weak limits.
To this end, we use the Div-Curl lemma of compensated compactness applied to
vector elds in space-time. Specically, setting
U

=
__

s(

_
reg
,

s(

_
,
V

=
_
u

, 0, 0, 0

,
we deduce from (2.5) that
DIV
t,x
U

t
_

s(

_
sg
,
where, by virtue of (2.21), (3.12), (3.13), and (3.15), the right-hand side of the
last equation is precompact in W
1,p
((0, T) T
3
) for a certain p > 1. Moreover,
in view of (2.28),
CURL
t,x
u

is bounded in L
2
_
0, T; L
2
(T
3
; R
33
)
_
and thus precompact e.g. in W
1,2
((0, T) T
3
). Consequently, one can use the
Div-Curl lemma (see, for instance, Tartar ) in order to conclude that
_

s(

_
reg
u

2
3
c
v
(, )
(1)
+

c
v
(, )
(1)
_
u
L
2
_
0, T; L
3
2
(T
3
)
_
weakly in L
2
_
0, T; L
30
29
(T
3
)
_
.
Thus letting 0 in (2.5) we recover
c
p
_

t
+ div(u)
_
div
_
()
x

(1)
_
= 0, (3.23)
where c
p
is dened in (1.44), and
=
2
3

c
v
c
p

(1)
+
c
v
c
p

(1)
. (3.24)
Furthermore, C
weak
_
[0, T]; L
2
(T
3
)
_
and, in accordance with hypothesis
(1.38),
(0, ) =
2
3

c
v
c
p

(1)
0
+
c
v
c
p

(1)
0
(3.25)
in the sense specied in Denition 1.2 and in agreement with conclusion of Theo-
rem 1.1.
Finally, as
(1)
has zero integral mean and since
(1)
,0
satises (1.18), we deduce
from (3.23) that
(1)
enjoys the same property.
Vol. 11 (2009) OberbeckBoussinesq Approximation 293
4. The acoustic equation
4.1. The Helmholtz decomposition of the velocity eld
The choice of H[], T([0, T) T
3
; R
3
) as a test function in the momentum
balance (1.30) yields
_
T
0
_
T
3
_
H[

]
t
+ (

) :
x
H[]
_
dxdt
=
_
T
0
_
T
3
_
S

:
x
H[] +

x
[x
3
[ H[]
_
dxdt

_
T
3
H[
,0
u
,0
] (0, ) dx. (4.1)
In particular, we have
H[

] precompact in C
weak
_
[0, T]; L
5
4
(T
3
; R
3
)
_
;
whence, using the convergence results (3.2), (3.3), and (3.4) established above, we
obtain
H[

] u in C
weak
_
[0, T]; L
5
4
(T
3
; R
3
)
_
and strongly in L
2
_
0, T; W
1,2
(T
3
; R
3
)
_
,
(4.2)
where
_
T
0
_
T
3
_
u
t
H[] + (u u) :
x
H[]
_
dxdt
=
_
T
0
_
T
3

x
u +

x
u
_
:
x
H[] +
(1)

x
[x
3
[ H[]
_
dxdt

_
T
3
H[
0
u
0
] (0, ) dx, (4.3)
H[
0
u
0
] can be identied as a weak limit of
_
H[
,0
u
,0
]
_
>0
, and

u u weakly in L
2
_
0, T; L
30
29
(T
3
; R
33
)
_
. (4.4)
Moreover,

= H[

] u

+H

] u

## where, by virtue of (3.3), (4.2), and the compact embedding L

5
4
(T
3
)
W
1,2
(T
3
),
H[

] u

H[u] u = u u weakly in L
2
_
0, T; L
30
29
(T
3
; R
33
)
_
, (4.5)
and, by the same token,
H[

] H[u

] [H[u][
2
weakly in L
2
_
0, T; L
30
29
(T
3
; R
33
)
_
. (4.6)
294 E. Feireisl and A. Novotn y JMFM
Since

>0
converges strongly, relation (4.6) yields
H[u

] H[u] = u in L
2
_
0, T; L
2
(T
3
; R
3
)
_
,
in particular,
H

] H[u

] 0 weakly in L
2
_
0, T; L
30
29
(T
3
; R
33
)
_
. (4.7)
Taking (4.3), (4.5), together with (4.7) into account one can see that the limit
quantities will satisfy the momentum equation in (1.1) as soon as we show that
_
T
0
_
T
3
(H

] H

[u

]) :
x
dxdt 0 (4.8)
for any test function T((0, T) T
3
; R
3
) such that div = 0. To this end,
following the seminal work by Schochet  we derive an evolutionary equations
governing the behaviour of the gradient component H

].
4.2. The acoustic limit
Projecting equation (1.30) on the space of gradients we obtain
_
T
0
_
T
3
_
H

]
t
+
_
p(

) p(, )

_
div
_
dxdt
=
_
T
0
_
T
3

x
[x
3
[ H

[] dxdt
_
T
3
H

[
,0
u
,0
] (0, ) dx
+
_
T
0
_
T
3
_
S

:
x
H

[]
+
_

x
[x
3
[ H

[] (

) :
x
H

[]
_
dxdt (4.9)
to be satised for any T([0, T) T
3
; R
3
).
Revoking the methodology and notation employed in Section 2.2 we have
p(

) p(, )

=
_
p(

) p(, )

_
reg
+
_
p(

) p(, )

_
sg
,
where, in accordance with (2.12), (2.13), (2.22), (2.27), and hypothesis (1.19),
ess sup
t(0,T)
_
_
_
_
_
p(

) p(, )

_
sg
_
_
_
_
L
1
(T
3
)
c. (4.10)
Recall that the contribution of the radiation component is proportional to .
Similarly,

s(

=
_

s(

_
reg
+
_

s(

_
sg
,
Vol. 11 (2009) OberbeckBoussinesq Approximation 295
with the singular component estimated in (2.26).
On the other hand, with the help of Taylors expansion formula, we get
_
p(

) p(, )

_
reg
=
_
p
F

(, )
_

_
+
p
F

(, )
_

__
reg
+
_
a
4

_
reg
+

2
__

2
p
F
(y, z)
_

_
,
_

___
reg
, (4.11)
and, by the same token,
_

s(

_
reg
=
_
(s
F
)

(, )
_

_
+
(s
F
)

(, )
_

__
reg
+
_
4a
3

_
reg
+

2
__

2
(s
F
)(y, z)
_

_
,
_

___
reg
. (4.12)
In view of (4.10)(4.12), (2.26) equation (4.9) can be written in the form
_
T
0
_
T
3
_
H

]
t
+
_
M
0

+S
0

s(

_
div
_
dxdt
=
_
T
0
_
T
3
[x
3
[ divdxdt
_
T
3
H

[
,0
u
,0
] (0, ) dx
+
_
T
0
_
T
3
_
S

:
x
H

[] +
_

x
[x
3
[ H

[]
(

):
x
H

[]
_
dxdt +
_
T
0
_
T
3
g
,1
div dxdt, (4.13)
with
M
0
=
p
F

(, ) +
4
9

e
F

(, ), S
0
=
2
3
, (4.14)
and
g
,1

>0
bounded in L

_
0, T; L
1
(T
3
)
_
. (4.15)
Here, when calculating (4.13), we replaced
__

__
reg
in (4.11) by its value
taken from (4.12) and then, in order to obtain (4.14), we used (1.13), (1.20)(1.22)
and (2.8).
Letting 0 in (4.13) and using (3.2), (3.19) we obtain
_
T
0
_
T
3
_
p
F

(, )
(1)
+
p
F

(, )
(1)
+[x
3
[
_
divdxdt = 0
296 E. Feireisl and A. Novotn y JMFM
for any T((0, T) T
3
; R
3
); in other words, as
(1)
,
(1)
have zero integral
mean,
p
F

(, )
(1)
+
p
F

(, )
(1)
+
_
[x
3
[

2
_
= 0. (4.16)
Taking into account (1.44) we deduce from (3.24) and (4.16) that
= +
(1)
+

c
p
_
[x
3
[

2
_
.
Similarly, relation (3.23) gives rise to the thermal energy (third) equation in (1.1).
Moreover, in accordance with (4.3), the quantity r in the second equation in (1.1)
can be identied with
(1)
up to a convenient function of [x
3
[. Indeed, due to
(4.16), necessarily,
r =
(1)
+
_
1

p
F
(, )

2
c
p
__
[x
3
[

2
_
.
Now, it is easy to check that (3.23), (3.25) together with the symmetry con-
ditions (1.33) give rise to the thermal energy balance in (1.1) supplemented with
the boundary conditions (1.5) provided all quantities are restricted to the strip
T
2
(0, ). In other words, in order to conclude the proof of Theorem 1.1, it is
enough to show (4.8).
Taking the sum of (1.28), (2.5) we obtain
_
T
0
_
T
3

__
M
0
_

_
+S
0
_

s(

__

t
+M
0
H

]
x

_
dxdt
=
_
T
3

_
M
0
_

,0

_
+S
0

,0
s(
,0
,
,0
)

_
(0, ) dx
+
_
T
0
_
T
3
_
S
0
(

x
_

x
S
0

s(

)u

_
dxdtS
0

, )
(4.17)
to be satised for any T([0, T) T
3
).
Relation (4.13), (4.17) represent a variational formulation of a wave equation:

t
(H

]) +
x
V

=
x
g
,1
+H

[div G
,2
] +H

[g
,3
], (4.18)

t
V

+M
0
div(H

]) = div g
,4
+S
0

(4.19)
supplemented with the initial conditions
H

](0)] =H

[
,0
u
,0
], V

(0)M
0

,0

+S
0

,0
s(
,0
,
,0
)

+
_
[x
3
[

2
_
,
(4.20)
where we have set
V

= M
0

+S
0

s(

+
_
[x
3
[

2
_
.
Here, in accordance with the uniform estimates derived in Section 2, we have
Vol. 11 (2009) OberbeckBoussinesq Approximation 297
__
[g
,1
[, [G
,2
[, [g
,3
[, [g
,4
[
_
>0
bounded in L
2
_
0, T; L
1
(T
3
)
_
,
sup |

|
M
+
([0,T]T
3
)

2
c.
_
(4.21)
The principal part of (4.18), (4.19) is termed acoustic equation (see, for in-
stance, Klein et al. , Schochet , ). In accordance with what has been
already achieved, the proof of Theorem 1.1 is complete as soon as we show that

[u

## ] satises (4.8). This problem will be treated in the

following section with the help of the approach developed by Schochet , later
adapted by P.-L. Lions and Masmoudi , and extended by Desjardins et al. 
provided the ow is isentropic. In our situation, however, there is an additional
diculty, namely, the presence of a measure the entropy production rate

.
5. The proof of Theorem 1.1
5.1. The Sobolev scale
Before commencing our analysis of system (4.18), (4.19), it seems convenient to
introduce a scale of Hilbert spaces W
,2
(T
3
), R, identied as spaces of distri-
butions on T
3
dened in the following way:
v T

(T
3
) belongs to W
,2
(T
3
) if |v|
2
W
,2
(T
3
)
=

kZ
3
[k[
2
[ [v]
k
[
2
< ,
where the symbols [v]
k
stand for the Fourier coecients introduced in Remark 1.1.
Moreover, we dene the Fourier projection
[v]
M
=

|k|M
[v]
k
exp(ik x), x T
3
.
It is easy to check that
_
_
[v]
M
v
_
_
W

1
,2
(T
3
)
M
12
|v|
W

2
,2
(T
3
)
whenever
2

1
. (5.1)
Now, the quadratic term in (4.8) can be written as
H

]H

[u

] = H

]
M
H

]
M
+H

]
M
H

[(

)u

]
M
+H

]
M

[u

].
It follows from (2.20), (3.1), (3.3) that
H

]
M
H

[(

)u

]
M
0 in, say, L
2
_
0, T; L
2
(T
3
; R
33
)
_
as 0
for any xed M. On the other hand, by virtue of (5.1), and the embedding
L
5
4
(T
3
) W

9
10
,2
(T
3
), we get
_
_
H

]
M
_
_
W
1,2
(T
3
)
c
1
M

1
10
|

|
W

9
10
,2
(T
3
)
c
2
M

1
10
|

|
L
5
4 (T
3
)
.
298 E. Feireisl and A. Novotn y JMFM
Consequently, relations (2.20), (2.28), (3.1) allow us to conclude that

_
T
0
_
T
3
_
H

]
M

[u

]
_
:
x
dxdt

c()M

1
10
.
Thus in order to verify (4.8), it is enough to show
_
T
0
_
T
3
_
H

]
M
H

]
M
_
:
x
dxdt 0 (5.2)
for any xed M > 0 and an xed test function T((0, T) T
3
; R
3
), div = 0.
5.2. Time and space lifting
The observation made in the previous part, namely that (4.8) can be replaced by
(5.2), simplies considerably the analysis of the acoustic equation. Very roughly
indeed, one can say that spatial regularity of solutions does not play any essential
role. First of all, we remove the measure term in (4.19) using the method of
time lifting. More specically, in introduce the primitive

of the measure

dened as

, ) =

## , ) for any C([0, T] T

3
), where (t, x) =
_
t
0
(, x) d.
We have
[

, ) [ |

|
M([0,T]T
3
)
||
L
1
_
0,T;C(T
3
)
_
; (5.3)
whence

can be identied as

_
0, T; /
+
(T
3
)
_
. (5.4)
Accordingly, with
U

= V

+
S
0

,

t
(H

])+
x
U

=
x
g
,1
+H

[div G
,2
]+H

[g
,3
]+S
0

x
_

2
_
= F
,1
(5.5)

t
U

+M
0
div(H

]) = div g
,4
= F
,2
, (5.6)
where, thanks to estimates (2.21), (4.21), (5.3) and the embedding W
3,2
(T
3
)
C
1+
(T
3
), > 0, we have
_
F
,1

>0
bounded in L
2
_
0, T; W
3,2
(T
3
; R
3
)
_
,
F
,2

>0
bounded in L
2
_
0, T; W
3,2
(T
3
)
_
.
_
(5.7)
Finally, we can apply the method of space lifting taking the Fourier projection
of (5.5), (5.6). Denoting
Q

= H

]
M
, Y

= [U

]
M
, (5.8)
Vol. 11 (2009) OberbeckBoussinesq Approximation 299
we have to show (cf. (5.2))
_
T
0
_
T
3
(Q

) :
x
dxdt 0 for any T((0, T)T
3
; R
3
), div = 0 (5.9)
provided

t
Q

+
x
Y

= h
,1
[F
,1
]
M
, (5.10)

t
Y

+M
0
div Q

= h
,2
[F
,2
]
M
. (5.11)
5.3. Time oscillations
Following Schochet , we introduce the solution operator o of the related ho-
mogeneous problem

t
q +
x
y = 0,
t
y + divq = 0, q(0) = q
0
, y(0) = y
0
. (5.12)
It is easy to check that the mapping o(t) represents an isometry on the product
space W
,2
(T
3
; R
3
) W
,2
(T
3
) for any . Expressing Q

, Y

## with the help of

Duhamels principle we get
_
Q

(t), Y

(t)

= o
_
t

_
[Q

(0), Y

(0)] +o
_
t

_
_
t
0
o
_

_
[h
,1
(), h
,2
()] d,
(5.13)
where all functions range for xed t in the nite-dimensional space spanned by the
rst M Fourier modes. Consequently, we can assume
Q

(0) Q in W
,2
(T
3
; R
3
), Y

(0) Y in W
,2
(T
3
),
h
,1
h
1
weakly in L
2
_
0, T; W
,2
(T
3
; R
3
)
_
,
h
,2
h
2
weakly in L
2
_
0, T; W
,2
(T
3
)
_
for any R. Now,
_
Q

(0), Y

(0)

+
_
t
0
o
_

_
_
h
,1
(), h
,2
()

d [B, ]
in C
_
[0, T]; W
,2
(T
3
; R
3
) W
,2
(T
3
)
_
for any R;
whence, as o is an isometry, we can replace (5.13) as
_
Q

(t), Y

(t)

= o
_
t

_
[B(t), (t)], (5.14)
with
B C
_
[0, T]; W
,2
(T
3
; R
3
)
_
, C
_
[0, T]; W
,2
(T
3
)
_
, H[B(t)] = 0, R.
(5.15)
Now it is convenient to express (5.14) in terms of the Fourier coecients:
Q

(t) =

|k|M
_
[B(t)]
k
cos
_
[k[t

k
[k[
[(t)]
k
sin
_
[k[t

__
exp(ik x),
300 E. Feireisl and A. Novotn y JMFM
where we exploit the fact that H[B] = 0.
Now since
cos
_

nt

_
cos
_
mt

_
sin
_
nt

_
sin
_
mt

_
_

_
0 weakly in L
1
(0, T) for n ,= m,
and
cos
_
mt

_
sin
_
nt

_
0 weakly in L
1
(0, T),
we are allowed to write
Q

=
M

n=1
__
cos
_
nt

_

|k|=n
[B]
k
exp(ikx)
1
n

sin
_
nt

_

|k|=n
ik[]
k
exp(ikx)
_

_
cos
_
nt

|k|=n
[B]
k
exp(ikx)
1
n

sin
_
nt

|k|=n
ik[]
k
exp(ikx)
__
+s

,
(5.16)
where
s

0 weakly in L
1
((0, T) T
3
; R
33
).
Furthermore, using again the fact that the eld B annihilates the Helmholtz
projection H, we get

|k|=n
[B]
k
exp(ik x) = i
x

|k|=n
k
[k[
2
[B]
k
exp(ik x) = i
x
X, (5.17)

|k|=n
ik[]
k
exp(ik x) =
x

|k|=n
[]
k
exp(ik x) =
x
Y, (5.18)
where a direct computation yields
X = n
2
X, Y = n
2
Y. (5.19)
Seeing that
div(
x
Z
x
Z) =
1
2

x
_
[
x
Z[
2
nZ
2
_
for Z = X, Y,
we can combine (5.16)(5.19) in order to achieve the desired conclusion
Q

=
x

(t) +z

## for a suitable scalar function

, where
z

0 in L
1
_
0, T; W
1,1
(T
3
; R
3
)
_
.
Vol. 11 (2009) OberbeckBoussinesq Approximation 301
Accordingly, we have veried (5.9), and the proof of Theorem 1.1 is complete.
Acknowledgement. The work of E. Feireisl was supported by Grant 201/05/0164
of CSF as a part of the general research programme of the Academy of Sciences
of the Czech Republic, Institutional Research Plan AV0Z10190503. A part of the
paper was elaborated during the stay of the rst author at the Universite du Sud
Toulon-Var, which is kindly acknowledged for the nancial support. The authors
also thank A. Mielke for a helpful discussion and H. Petzeltov a for careful reading
the manuscript.
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Eduard Feireisl
Mathematical Institute of the
Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic

Zitn a 25
115 67 Praha 1
Czech Republic
e-mail: feireisl@math.cas.cz
Antonin Novotn y
Universite du Sud Toulon-Var
BP 20132
83957 La Garde
France
e-mail: novotny@univ-tln.fr
(accepted: April 21, 2007; published Online First: November 6, 2007)