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Black In White Out (BIWO) Concept of Linear Inequalities Azizah binti Othman SMK Jitra 06000 Jitra Kedah,

, Malaysia 013-4235640 (mobile) 04-9179660 (fax) azizanothman5534@yahoo.com Abstract


I was called to conduct this study based on my past experience. There are many students who fail to understand the basic concepts of inequality. Hence they consider this topic very difficult even to understand the basic usage of the inequality symbols which is used with a very clear and simple purpose. Thus a study with the medium class students (3 KREATIF) was conducted on the concept of the inequalities line number involving the use of black and white dot (BLACK IN WHITE OUT BIWO) that support and enhance students' understanding of the phase 1 study carried out previously. Thus the effectiveness of the first study that was considered a success and achieved the goals and outcomes that satisfy the reflection was seen so i worked out the next phase which I considere is more and challenging not only to the students but to my own credibility. This study was conducted on 28 respondents from the medium class as this classs student s achievement in mathematics is in average, not too good or too weak. I chose this class based on their mathematics achievement of various levels andI frequently face difficulities because I need to diversify the teaching techniques to deliver the planned concept skills. I use a tool that is designed to show not only the symbols that are represented by coloured magnetic pieces but also magnetic arrows which shows the direction to explain the purpose and concept of linear inequalities which are then used by my respondents to answer related relevant questions. I increase the use of teaching aids such as that shown to combine both skills and concepts of Simultaneous Linear Inequalities and Linear Inequalities on number lines at various values by the students themselves to clarify students' understanding of linear inequalities which was presented. In performing this review, I was so excited to welcome the students that really shows the commitment required in the teaching and learning process. However, overall, I find that this research has achieved the desired objectives and indirectly I can relate the R & D session with the students' daily lives. Initial survey was carried out using an emotion survey form and the Pre/Post test. Test results showed no increase on the ability of students to answer questions which are the focus of the study properly and this percentage is the lowest among other question forms. [Review Problems Method To Collect The Data - Analysis of findings].Comparing the results before the activity is carried out and after the activities was carried out was very encouraging. Number of students who have mastered the skills and create relevant solutions in the form of questions focus on the post test studies have raised the bar considerably. This means that innovative action taken in this action research is accurate and effective. [Assessment Methods To Collect The Data - Comparison of Pre-Post]

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PAST TEACHING & LEARNING REFLECTION

I was called to conduct this study based on past experience. There are many students who fail to understand the basic concepts of inequality. Hence they consider this topic very difficult even to understand the basic usage of the inequality symbols which is used with a very clear and simple purpose. Thus a study with the medium class students (3 KREATIF) was conducted on the concept of the inequalities line number involving the use of black and white dot (BLACK IN WHITE OUT BIWO) that support and enhance students' understanding.
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FOCUS OF STUDY

The focus of my research is to enhance the skills and understanding of the concepts of linear inequalities line number with a simple method of understanding the concept of white dot and black dot symbol to convey the concept of linear inequalities and applications in solving problems related to the results from the concept presented efficiently and confidently. The focus of my research involves the understanding and meaning of the symbol , used which

will then be applied to questions and solutions related to the value on line number. Skills to understand the meaning of the symbol is shown to be important in determining the success or failure to make the solution given later. Previously, I only use the symbols and explain the purpose of which is then used by my respondents to answer questions related. This time I increase the use of teaching aids that is the line numbers that varied with the use of portable magnetic black and white beads with a specific purpose with the arrows show the direction to clarify students' understanding of linear inequalities which is presented. Studies was conducted to identify current skill levels of students for a better impact in preparation for the next concept. Respondents were not only given the test questions but is also interviewed and asked to answer a questionnaire to obtain more accurate information and clear understanding of the level and their tendency to solve problems involving the use of lines of Mathematics numbers.

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OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

The main objective Enhance understanding and proficiency in solving linear inequalities line numbers more efficiently thus helping students to gain self-confidence and change the perception that mathematics is a subject which is difficult to understand.

The specific objectives 1. To increase the skills of students in a settlement related to the number of linear inequalities line more effectively using the "BIWO" shown. 2. Help students understand the concept of linear inequalities to create an efficient and correct solution. 3. To improve students' confidence and change the perception that the topic of using symbols is often difficult and not interesting to learn.

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TARGET GROUP

This study was conducted at the Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Jitra ,Darul Aman and respondents were selected from middle-class students ,Form 3 Kreatif consisting of 33 people that are 10 boys and 23 girls. Respondents were chosen from the 2011 Mid-year examination results. All students who were chosen have average results in the tests despite the fact that I think many students have the potential to get A in Mathematics, if given motivation and stimulation.

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IMPLEMENTING OF THE PROGRAMME

Overview of Problem a) The interview session was held on 3 Cemerlang students who were identified that 60% of them not doing homework and studying. The majority of students found it difficult to answer math questions and less interested in the subject because of the difficulty in understanding the concept. Many students do better in subjects that have to memorize or read a lot than thinking or applying the concept adopted by the teacher in teaching and learning.

b) The problem solving session using English medium is sometimes difficult for those who are weak in English and teaching have to be delivered in English which is then translated to Malay. There are a small number of respondents who can answer the question but it takes too long to resolve.

c)Exercise in worksheets and exercise books have also shown the tendency of students to fail to answer and difficult to master the concept using symbols. Of the 20 questions that the teachergave only 12 or less are able to answer correctly.

d) In my opinion actually mathematics symbol phobia facilitate the process of teaching and learning, but because of past experiences that make it difficult to understand the concepts presented make students lose interest in mathematics in general

Overview of Problem Analysis Pre Test Score GRADE/LEVEL Brilliant 1A & 2A Honours 3B & 4B Good 5C & 6C Pass 7D & 8E Fail 9G MARKS Number of students 75 100 65 74 55 64 50 -54 0 49 4 12 9 2 6 Percentage of student 12 36 27 6 19

Actions Activity 1: In early July the number of students involved in this study of 28 people from the class 3 Creative, I give a description of the technique "BIWO" to students in teacher-centered. Information covers all aspects of the use and meaning of the symbol to move the white or black beads in the direction specified in control. Equipment on display teaching aids will clarify the purpose of observation and acceptance of inequality presented. Students try to answer according to the instructions of teachers and the settlement made within the time frame.

Observations In this activity I change position in a particular group of students who embodies all of the students' level of achievement of high, medium and weak. I believe that these students can support and enhance their own self-confidence and instill good values to help the weaker partner. I noticed that the modification only position in this group had pose a positive situation among students. A brief description of the activities of teachers and teacher expectations after this activity be also emphasized.

Reflection Students showed great interest in promoting seen and willing to listen and pay attention to teachers' explanations in carrying out further activities.

Activity 2 Each group was given a Module Activity 1. (Refer to Appendix Module 1). Based on the module, teachers show one or two examples of ways to express common values in two linear inequalities in one unknown given in its simplest form based on the tools 'BIWO' shown. Step 1: Students are required to state the common value that should result from observations orally and in writing. Step 2: Disparity values vary according to the position black or white beads made of beads., and write the correct disparity. Step 3: Students write the answers obtained in the space provided in the modules and activity sheet of paper given while being monitored by the teacher. Step 4: Group Chief then directed the repositioning beads according to their needs and monitor answers whether right or wrong. Step 5: All the correct answers marked wrong and made further correction to correct the error that occurred. Observations During the implementation of the activities, teachers oversee each group and provide guidance and assistance to groups or students who have problems. Reflection At the end of the activity, the teacher gives questions on the blackboard and ask the pupils to answer spontaneously. Teachers found that students can answer quickly and accurately. This situation suggests that interventions that have taken action had been successful in achieving its objectives.

Activity 3 Drills are being conducted to further strengthen students' understanding of the concepts presented. Correction and recovery can also be made in small batches with the help of students who are more intelligent method of guiding the compilation of the inequalities involved. After a teacher-centered explanation done, students will be asked to try this technique in answering questions that test skills modules and their understanding is assisted by a team of teachers. Observations Take the role of team leader is effective because of high student performance is able to lead their groups and build a positive relationship among them when requested to help students weakened. Reflection Observation result is students' understanding of the concepts presented increased, but there are students who can help other partners in understanding the concept of inequality well. Students then answer the module provided by the teacher and found the end results are good and encouraging. Many students can answer the question correctly modules within the prescribed time.
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Activity 4 Examples of activities and questions like the attached modules. Students are also asked to set up discussion groups, where students can help students who are weak. Cooperative learning methods are applied when students discuss with their groups. In this group there is a relatively high level of student kognatifnya can be the leader of the group. In addition, it also helps the teacher to explain the use of "BIWO" in detail to others in the group. Therefore, the method of peer group can be applied indirectly. Information and discussion was done about 40 minutes. Reflection In this group activity is fun students organize and change the board provided the inequality

Activity 5 Student responses are monitored by teachers and assessment will be done together with students in discussions to get the right answer and look for errors in answering questions. Next the students are assessed by giving dignostik questions for the title and conclusions of linear inequalities and improvement can be made or planned for this topic later. Observations Although the test provided by the PPD dignostik District Exhilarate diibuat the next day found the concept derived from the activity "BIWO" This helps students with a better memory because students often forget the concept if the test is conducted in a long time.

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Assessment Intervention Action

DATA COLLECTION In this study, I use four types of instruments as follows: A. Test Questions Pre / Post B. Action effectiveness questionnaire C. Questionnaire. D. Interview with resoponden Test Pre / Post At the end of activities, teachers provide post-test questions and ask the students to reply within the stipulated period. This test contains 30 questions that involve 3 Excellent skills in accordance with criteria it deems relevant to the study teacher found the students can answer quickly and betul.Hal This implies that intervention action taken has been successful in achieving its objectives. Teachers also found the students to actively participate and there are changes in behavior and students' perceptions regarding the title of this linear inequalities which are considered difficult in the beginning is wrong. Those who were initially not very happy with this topic have shown interest and given skills
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and change the perception of the use of symbols in mathematics learning is easier if we knew how. Table 1 and Figure 1 shows a comparison of student achievement; pre and post test. Data is in the form of marks. Marks-test scores were categorized into five levels, namely the level of Distinction, Merit, Good, Pass and Fail. The effectiveness of the action was evident when many of the respondents showed an increase in the levels of the post-test. Student confidence in making training available also on the rise as skills acquired to improve and hopefully improvements can change the perception of teachers and students to improve their achievement in PMR 2011 can be increased to maximum levels. Pre Test Results (before activity) and post test (after activity) Pre Test Scores GRADE/LEVEL MARKS Number of students Brilliant 1A & 2A Honours 3B & 4B Good 5C & 6C Pass 7D & 8E Fail 9G 75 100 65 74 55 64 50 -54 0 49 4 12 9 2 6 Percentage of student 12 36 27 6 19 Number of students 12 15 6 0 0 Percentage of student 37 45 18 0 0 Post test scores

GRAFH BAR SHOWS THE PERCENTAGE OF ACHIEVEMENT MARKS PRE/POST TEST


PERCENTAGE

50 40 30 20 10 0 PRE POST
DISTINCTION MERIT GOOD PASS FAIL

Overall Pre-and Post-test results showed an increase in student achievement. The findings showed that the activities "BIWO" will help students master the skills desired in the title of this inequality. From the results of pre / post which it was found there was clear changes in the level of student achievement, and this indicated assist in determining the recovery made for students who still do not master the concept of linear inequalities given.

The interview In this study, I interviewed 10 respondents of a progressive and eloquent speaking. In this interview, the questions raised are related to the effectiveness of actions to be implemented. The interview was made outside the teaching time to get feedback from students about the effectiveness of teaching and learning carried out and the advantages and disadvantages of activity "BIWO" and suggestions from the respondents in order to improve their performance in the future.

Analysis of Interviews I made this method involves face interaction with students.I provide a few questions and formal interviews with three students were selected because they are my mentee in the mentor program and this opportunity allows me to get an honest response based on observations during the activity "BIWO" is the Very Active, Active and Less Active. I asked for permission to the respondent to record the interview. Interviews were carried out after the event "BIWO" which is at rest in my MATHEMATICS CLINIC room for 20 minutes. Reflection of student interviews Results from interviews with three people who do activities mentee "BIWO" I found some things that need serious attention in instructional techniques that I do. 1. Not all topics fit using the LCD and CD materials supplied by the councils. Because

sometimes students can understand that I can manually pass. This is expressed by the students whose performance is quite high and this surprised me because in my opinion they like to watch the show CD. 2. There are also students who said about my personality that are considered not paying enough

attention or praise when needed and I will try to change this attitude in my P & P to come. 3. Overall this interview is good and beneficial for many comments and new information that I

got in the face and improve themselves as teachers.

Questionnaires results Questionnaires were used to obtain the respondents' perception of the effectiveness of the "BIWO" carried out in teaching and learning of this inequality. The questionnaire contains items that are thought to give the true picture of students' response to the topic being taught. Questions given to all students 3 Excellent to answer in 30 minuutes.
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Reflection Study At the end of activities, teachers provide post-test questions and ask the students to reply within the stipulated period. Teachers found that students can answer quickly and correctly. This implies that intervention action taken has been successful in achieving its objectives. Teachers also found the students to actively participate and there are changes in behavior and students' perceptions regarding the title of this linear inequalities which are considered difficult in the beginning is wrong. Those who were initially not very happy with this topic have shown interest and given skills and change the perception of the use of symbols in mathematics learning is easier if we knew how. Questionnaire that was given before the activity is carried out again to the disciples. The result is shown in the following table. Based on the Post Assessment test, shows the students have passed all the skills tested. 1. Linear inequalities can be read with the correct meaning clearly. 2. 3. Can state the inequality in accordance with the questions correctly. Were able to solve linear inequalities given correctly in their dignostics test.

In performing this review, I was so excited to welcome the students that really shows the commitment required in the teaching and learning. However, overall, I find I do this research has achieved the desired objectives and it is true what people say we will get satisfaction if our earnest help of the students we can not expressed in words. 7. FURTHER STUDY PROPOSAL

In carrying out this action research are many lessons that I feel. I am more concerned in understanding students' problems in providing understanding of the concepts may be easy for us but it is very difficult to understand by students. Hopefully, this will give an example to all the teachers start action research, in teaching and learning. It's early in the preparation of this session I felt very heavy, but when it saw the results of local research appears to give a stimulus to me to continue to make this a culture of action research. At this point even I advise my friends to start their research studies and insyaalah I am willing to assist them in continuing this noble aspiration. Alhamdulillah I managed to motivate and coach 2 colleagues to start their own action research. Hopefully my efforts to convince our teachers to make action research as a culture of continuous improvement in R & D, respectively.

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REFERENCES Department of State of Education, Consistent Chow Fook Meng and Jaizah Mohamad, (2004.2 nd edition). Guide Tindakan.Kangar study, Perlis Teachers Training College Perlis. Madzniyah Md.Jaafar, Muhammad Hussain, Choo Suet Lan, Haji Mohd Zubair Embung, Aminuddin Mohd Sani, and Zakian Idris, (1995). Module Tindakan.Kuala study Lumpur: Educational Planning and Research, Ministry of Education Malaysia.
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APPENDIX Documentation of the activities carried out during the teaching and learning and teaching aids used were:

Students are currently doing to change the value of black beads, white beads conducted in each group

They are busy and having fun to change the black and white beads

Weak students will be assisted by a student who is more proficient in making a settlement

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It was a challenge but fun to change the value of the technique "BIWO Interview between the teacher and the respondent performed for obtain information about the effectiveness of current activities carried out

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Teaching aids used in the activity "BIWO" consist of magnetic white board, magnetic beads black and white, various colors magnetic indicator arrows, white board marker and line number

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