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Key Points In the context of this assessment, radicalization is defined as the process by which an individual progresses to an islamist extremist viewpoint where violence is a jusiflable means to achieve ideological objectives. One of the key radicalizing elements in this process is Islarnist extremist messaging promoting violentjihad. T iis messaging can be ohtaiiwd from 1 literature and statements by key Islarnist extremist ideologues.


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Introduction 1. This assessment examines key ideologues whose works have contributed to Islamist radicalization in Canada. In the context of this assessment, radicalization is defined as the process by which an individual progresses to an Islamist extremist viewpoint where violence is a justifiable means to achieve ideological objectives. One of the key radicalizing elements in this process is exposure to Islamist extremist messaging which promotes violent jihad. A reLatively small number of Islamist extremist authors are the source of this type of messaging. which includes literature, speeches and statements, and can be obtained from newspapers and other publications, public audio and video broadcasts, and extremist. forums on the Internet. The annex contains definitions of the terms in italics. Key Ideologues Ibn Taymiyyah (1263-1328) 2. Ibn Taymiyyah (Taqi ad-Din Ahrnad ibn Taymiyyah) was a scholar from Harran (now Turkey) t1, who lived during the ll and 12 centuries during the period of the Mongol invasions. In the war against the Mongols, he issued ajtwa directing Muslims to kill the Mongols, as he did not consider them to be true Muslims. In his writings, including the seminal A Message to the Believers, Taymiyyah outlines the moral imperative ofjihad not only against the enemy aggressor, but against apostates, and those who oppose clear cut rulings of Islam. In The Religious and Moral Doctrine of Jihad, he writes prescribed for you is fighting, though it be hateful to you. Taymiyyahs large body of work is quoted extensively by Islamist extremists.

3. Taymiyyah was jailed several times for his views, which conflicted with prominent jurists and spiritualists of the time. In one such instance, he protested a religious ruling against a Christian accused of insulting Muhammad. Taymiyyah died in confinement after condemning popular visitations to saints tombs, despite having been asked by government officials not to do so. Sajnid QuIb (1906-1966)

4. Sayyid Qutb was a leading Islarnist extremist ideologue known in the Muslim world for his descriptions of the social and political roles of Islam. He sought to transform Islam into a political movement in order to create a new society based on ancient Koranic principles. His seminal works Milestones and In the Shade of the Quuran played an influential ile in defining the concepts ofjihad,jahthyyah and ;nah.Qutb is also kncwn for articJating the concept of globaljihad.


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5. After serving for a time in Egypts Ministry of Education, Qutb went to the United States (US) for two more years of post-secondary study (1948-1950). His experience led to his writing America As I Saw It, a book which reflects his exposure to and rejection of US culture during his stay in that country. He especially decried materialism, individual freedom, the economic system, racism, brutal boxing matches, restrictions on divorce and animal-like mixing of the sexes. Qutbs exposure to US culture is believed to have been a key factor in his decision to join the Islamist extremist organization, the Muslim Brotherhood, in the early I 950s upon his return to Egypt. He was executed in 1966 for his involvement in a plot to assassinate Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser.
6. After his death, Qutb s influence grew through the efforts of his younger brother Muhammad. Also accused in the assassination plot, Muhammad was not released from an Egyptian prison until 1972, Muhammad Qutb then moved to Saudi Arabia, where he edited and published his brothers books and gave a weekly lecture at King Abdul Aziz University in Jeddah. Both Usama Bin Laden (UBL) and Ayrnan al-Zawahiri reportedly attended these lectures regularly while students at the University.

Abdullah Azzam (194 1.1989)

7. Abdullah Azzam was a key inujahideen figure in Afghanistan during the Soviet occupation. In 1979, Azzarn issued a jtwa entitled Defence of the Muslim Lands: the First Obligation after Iman (Faith), which outlined the obligations of Muslims to defend their homeland against the Soviets.

8. Azzarn also urged TJL to come to Afghariistar. and lend himself and his significant financial resources to the jihad there. Like Muhammad Qutb, Azzarn was a lecturer at King Abdul Aziz University, where he met UBL between 1976 and 1979. His other two popular works espousing violentjihad are Join the Caravan and Bestowing the Virtues of Jihad Upon the Believers. On 1989 11 24, Azzarn was murdered by unknown assassins on his way to a mosque in Peshawar. 9. Azzam not only preached violent jihced, stating famously that one hour spent fighting in the path cf Allah is worth more than seventy years spent in praying at home, but elaborated in more practical terms on how to actually wage war. His years on the front lines of the battle in Afghanistan against the Soviets taught him skiil; vhich had considerable impact on extremists. He brought modern warfare to the concept cf global jihaa and passed on his acquired skills to his many proteges, including UBL. His paramilitary manuals were widely circulated on the Internet until after the 9/ti attacks, when his own web site was deactivatci


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Impact on Extremists in Canada 19. Radicalizing literature in the possession of individuals of interest to Canadian authorities indicates the ongoing influence and popularity of the works of Islamist extremist ideologues.

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ANNEX Glossary of Islamic Terms

An Islamic religious ruling or scholarly opinion on a matter of islamic law issued by a recognized religious authority.

Jahili)yah Islamic concept of ignorance of divine guidance or the state of ignorance of the guidance from God, referring to the condition Arabs found themselves in before the revelation of the Quuran to Muhammad. By extension, this term also refers to any individual who does not follow Islam and the Quuran. Jihad Translated as struggle or battle. Islam distinguishes four ways by which the duty ofjihad can be fulfilled: by the heart, the tongue, the hand and the sword. The first way, the heart, consists of a spiritual purification of ones own heart by doing battle with the devil and overcoming his inducements to evil. The propagation of Islam by the tongue and the hand is accomplished in large measure by supporting what is right and correcting what is wrong. The fourth way the sword involves the fulfillment of ones duty to physically wage war against unbelievers and enemies of the Islamic faith.

Fighters who seek to propagate or defend Islam; an organization or group of such fighters.

In the context of Islam, the Muslim community or people considered to extend from Mauritania to Pakistan.