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Sobre els efectes fsics:

L'article de Karen Overall (adjunt) Animal Behavior resources Institute: http://abrionline.or /article.php!id"#$%

(t'en an&o a'ui la part on esmenta els collars)

Punishmentmaycausephysicalharmwhenadministeredat highintensity: Many punishments can cause physical harm to the animal. Choke chains can damage the trachea, especially in the many dogs with collapsing tracheas or hypoplastic tracheas. They can also occasionally cause Horners syndrome (damage to the nerve to the eye). Some dogs, especially brachycephalic breeds, have developed sudden life-threatening pulmonary edema, possibly due to the sudden upper airway obstruction leading to a rapid swing in intrathoracic pressure. And dogs prone to glaucoma may be more susceptible to the disorder since pressure by collars around the neck can increase intraocular pressure. Regardlessof the strength,punishmentcan causesomeindividualsto becomeextremelyfearful, and this fear can generalizeto othercontexts: Some punishments may not cause physical harm and may not seem severe, but they can cause the animal to become fearful, and this fear may generalize to other contexts. For instance, some dogs on which the citronella or electronic collar are used with a preceding tone may react fearfully to alarm clocks, smoke detectors, or egg timers.

L'estudi de Anders (all ren sobre problemes d'es'uena: http://))).andershall*s.php Al respecte t'adjunto tamb+ l'article de l',mma on resumei& una mica el 'ue diu el llibre. -i vols te'l puc dei&ar marcant les p. ines on posa la in/ormaci0 'ue ens interessa1 o si pre/erei&es puc mirar d'escanejar2ho i t'ho envio.

-obre els e/ectes del c.sti : http://))). 3ompartir+ amb tu la carpeta on tenim tot el material recollit per si t'ho vols mirar. 4'adjunto tamb+ una ordenan5a del 3onsell /ederal su6s1 on prohibei& l'us d'a'uests collars1 he marcat amb ''/os/orito'' la part on els esmenta (pp.%7) ,spero 'ue et pu ui servir d'ajut a'uesta in/ormaci01 i si necessites res m+s no dei&is de dir2m'ho. 8r.cies per tot i una abra5ada1 http://blo .smartanimaltrainin .com/%9#:/9$/:#/ne)2/indin s2on2shoc*2collars2)h;2the2u*2)ants2to2ban2 them/

New findings on shock collars: why the UK wants to ban them In the do )orld1 /e) subjects are as controversial as the debate on shoc* collars (electronic or e2collars). Advocates /or their use claim that such devices don<t hurt but mostl; emit an unpleasant vibration. 4he;<re o/ten the last resort /or do s )ith behavior drives that are di//icult to control1 li*e recall or chasin problems. Opponents to their use believe the; can be harm/ul to do s and should not be available to the public. 4he; lead to abuse and don<t o//er better results than re)ard based methods. 3oncerned about the )el/are

conse'uences on do s1 man; countries have alread; banned these devices. =ith the release o/ t)o e&tensive studies /rom the >epartment /or ,nvironment ?ood and @ural A//airs (>,?@A) in the AK1 the; could soon be banned throu hout ,n land and -cotland. =ith close to 7991999 do o)ners in Britain usin electronic collars and the Kennel 3lub campai nin /or their ban across the countr;1 >,?@A has allocated close to B7:C1D%7 ( EC%#1DFC A-) to stud; their impact on the do <s )el/are as )ell as their e//ectiveness in trainin . =ith such an impressive bud et1 the; )ere determined to et objective ans)ers to this on oin debate. 4here are close to #$9 di//erent models o/ shoc* collars )ith di//erent /unctions controlled b; a remote. -ome collars come )ith a tone or a vibration meant to )arn the do o/ the eminent shoc* or the; can be used independentl; o/ the shoc*. -ome collars ive a short electrical shoc* that lasts bet)een Gms and 799ms )here others also ive continuous stimulation that can last /or as lon as the button on the remote is pressed. 4here are considerable di//erences bet)een collars in shoc* delivered1 /rom ##9v (at 7 *=)1 to F999v (at 799*=) and the e//ect on the do s )ill depend on their s*in resistance. 4he /irst stud; b; Bristol Aniversit;1 3entral -cience Laborator; and Lincoln Aniversit; /ocused on assessin the ph;sical and emotional impact these collars have on the do s (A=#G9%). (o) the do s e&perience these electric pulses )ill o/ course depend on the intensit; o/ the stimulus1 but also on the sensitivit; o/ the individual do s. :7 do s )ere tested under the supervision o/ a veterinarian to assess )hether the; )ere a/raid1 in pain or distressed )hen shoc*ed. 4he researchers )atched /or behaviors such as: stoppin pla;1 redirected attention1 head1 e;e or ear movements and vocaliHation. All do s )ere over F months old1 social and pla;/ul )ith no nervous1 /ear/ul or a ressive disposition. Ione o/ them had been previousl; e&posed to electronic collars.

4he behavior and learnin durin trainin )as measured bet)een do s )earin shoc* collars and do s )ithout them. In eneral1 o)ners reported better success )ith positive rein/orcement based trainin but the research could not determine i/ this )as a di//erence due to perception or an actual /act since most o)ners )ho used the shoc* collars )ere ratin their do <s problematic behavior as severe. @esults su est an increase o/ the do <s /ocus on the trainer )hen /itted )ith a shoc* collar but the overall trainin success )as better )ith re)ard based trainin 1 includin /or recall and chasin problems (Blac*)ell J al. %9#%). =hen measurin salivar; cortisol levels (related to stress) o/ the do s )ith or )ithout shoc* collars1 the researchers /ound a si ni/icant increase o/ cortisol levels in the do s e&posed to shoc* collars1 )hen the;<re /itted )ith a collar a second time. 4his indicates that the anticipation o/ the stimulation immediatel; increases the stress level o/ the do s. Behavior chan es also indicated that the do s )ere more stressed and tense than do s trained usin positive rein/orcement. 4he do s trained )ith shoc* collars also spent more time 7 meters or more a)a; /rom their o)ner and )ere more distracted )hen trained b; the researcher and active than the control roup. 4he stud; also investi ated the in/ormation contained in the manual that comes )ith the purchase o/ these collars. All o/ them e&plain ho) to adapt the level o/ stimulation to the do and describe )hat behaviors to

e&pect )hen the do notices the stimulation. Onl; three ho)ever )arn about the level set too hi h i/ the do vocaliHes. All o/ them also )arn about potential s*in irritation and pressure necrosis i/ improperl; /itted. A /e) also discoura e the use o/ the collar on a ressive do s and su est the help o/ a pro/essional trainer (harsh punishment can increase a ression in do s). 4he manuals provide in/ormation about usin the shoc* collars /or basic obedience trainin but also about dealin )ith behavior issues. Kan; provide su estions to alternative strate ies /irst. 4o assess the ri ht level o/ stimulation1 some su est )atchin /or behavior chan es such as attention redirection1 )hile others su est loo*in /or out)ard si ns o/ discom/ort and con/usion. ,ven more concernin is the absence o/ e&planation as to )hen to use short over continuous stimulation or ho) to use the tone or vibration modes. Kan; also emphasiHe the application and use o/ ne ative rein/orcement1 )hich can lead to prolon ed electrical stimulation until the do per/orms the desired behavior. Overall1 most collars seem to lac* su//icient in/ormation /or the basic users. -urve;s /rom users also sho)ed that :FL o/ do s vocaliHed )hen the collars )ere /irst used and that the levels o/ stimulation applied )ere not necessaril; those su ested b; the manual. ,ven more concernin is that %FL o/ the do s )ere reported to still vocaliHe on subse'uent use1 indicatin that the levels )ere *ept hi her than recommended. -ome o)ners even reported that the; started at the hi hest level then either adjusted do)n or just *ept usin the collar at the hi hest level. Kan; simpl; didn<t read the manual or /ailed to /ollo) the uidelines. 4he availabilit; o/ such devices to t;pical o)ners1 )ithout the need to )or* )ith a pro/essional trainer1 clearl; leads to poor timin and misuse and could have disturbin e//ects on the do <s )el/are.

Advocates /or the use o/ shoc* collars have o/ten ar ued that most studies do not o//er objective data based on the appropriate use o/ such devices. As con/irmed b; the stud; above1 o)ners don<t al)a;s use shoc* collars in the )a; su ested b; the manu/acturers. In a second stud; b; Lincoln Aniversit; but also involvin ,3KA (,lectronic 3ollar Kanu/acturers Association)1 meant to measure the lon term e//ects o/ usin shoc* collars in trainin and its potential )el/are conse'uences1 three roups o/ do s )ere compared )hile the shoc* collars )ere used b; e&perienced trainers and as speci/ied b; the manu/acturers: roup A do s )ere trained )ith shoc* collars1 b; trainers e&perienced in their use1 roup B do s )ere e'uipped )ith dumm; collars and trained b; pro/essionals e&perienced in the use o/ shoc* collars and roup 3 do s )ere trained b; AM>4 trainers throu h positive rein/orcement and no shoc* collar (A=#G9%a). In eneral1 the do s /rom roup 3 spent more time e&plorin their environment )ere less tense and ;a)ned less than the do s in the t)o other roups. 4he do s /rom roups A and B carried their tail lo) more o/ten1 ;elped more o/ten1 panted more and moved a)a; /rom the trainer more o/ten than those o/ roup 3. 4his stud; also sho)ed that the trainer<s eneral approach1 as )ell as the tools that the; use1 a//ect the do <s emotional response to trainin . =hen do s are trained throu h more traditional methods1 the; sho) more si ns o/ stress1 an&iet; and aversion than )hen trained throu h positive rein/orcement techni'ues. ,ven )hen

used b; pro/essional and e&perienced trainers1 the researchers conclude that usin shoc* collars did have ne ative conse'uences on some do s durin trainin . ?inall;1 this stud; also pointed to the /act that usin shoc* collars alon )ith treats did not ma*e a di//erence in the e//icac; o/ the trainin over usin treats alone. 4his )as true even /or livestoc* chasin protocols1 )hich is one o/ the most common reasons /or usin such devices. Asin shoc* collars on do s ma; be e//ective in trainin or treatin certain problematic behaviors. But i/ their e//icac; is not better than re)ard based trainin alone and presents ph;sical and emotional ris*s to some do s1 their use alto ether becomes hi hl; 'uestionable. 4he results /rom these studies point out1 that at the ver; least1 such devices do indeed have )el/are implication on the do s and should not be available to the public at lar e. 4heir ease o/ use and immediate e//icienc; over more time2consumin re)ard based protocols ma*e them ver; attractive to the user. An/ortunatel;1 the; ma; /orce the do into behavin a certain )a; but the; do not address the underl;in reason /or the problem in the /irst place. Inducin /ear and discom/ort also has the potential to cause /urther behavior issues. Other methods are just as e//icient1 do not increase the chances o/ problematic behaviors to develop1 promote a desire to respond and enhance the relationship bet)een humans and their do s. ?or all those reasons1 man; animal )el/are or aniHations1 includin the Kennel 3lub are no) pushin /or the ban o/ shoc* collars in the AK. Nenni/er 3attet Mh.>. http://))).altale&.com/inde&.php!idnot"FG$D7 el te&te inte re dels collars a italia 3ommenta -tampa -e nala Oietato l'utiliHHo del collare anti2abbaio 3assaHione penale 1 seH. III1 sentenHa #$.9D.%9#: nP :C9:G (-imone Karani) L'utiliHHo del collare anti2abbaio costituisce la condiHione di detenHione di animali in condiHioni incompatibili con la loro natura1 nonch+ di maltrattamento di animali. ,' 'uanto emer e dalla sentenHa #$ settembre %9#:1 n. :C9:G della 4erHa -eHione Menale della 3assaHione. -econdo li ermellini1 il collare elettronico certamente incompatibile con la natura del cane, fondandosi sulla produzione di scosse o altri impulsi elettrici che, tramite un comando a distanza, si trasmettono all animale pro!ocando reazioni !arie. 4rattasi1 in/atti1 Qdi un addestramento basato esclusivamente sul dolore, lieve o forte che sia, e che incide sull'integrit psicofisica del cane poich la somministrazione di scariche elettriche per condizionarne i riflessi ed indurlo tramite stimoli dolorosi ai comportamenti desiderati produce effetti collaterali quali paura, ansia, depressione ed anche aggressivitQ. 3ome precisato sempre dalla 4erHa -eHione Menale della 3assaHione1 nella sentenHa #7 aprile %99$1 n. #79F#1 l<uso del collare anti2abbaio rientra nella previsione del codice penale che vieta il maltrattamento di animali1 ai sensi dell<art. 7GG2ter c.p. 4ale strumento costituisce1 inoltre1 incrudelimento senHa necessit.1 nei con/ronti di animali1 suscettibile di dare luo o al reato di cui all<art. $%$ c.p.1 in 'uanto comportamento che produce nell<animale so//erenHe che non sono iusti/icate dall<esi enHa di tutelare terHe persone. In tale sede i iudici di le ittimit. precisarono come l<uso del collare anti2abbaio non potesse trovare iusti/icaHione nel caso in cui eventuali comportamenti molesti dell<animale potessero essere corretti con trattamenti educativi privi di o ni /orma di violenHa ed accanimento. Iella /attispecie1 il cane dell'imputato1 al momento del rinvenimento1 mentre va ava incustodito sulla pubblica via1 era provvisto di collare con dispositivo elettrico1 l'utiliHHo del 'uale1 come relaHionato dal veterinario1 era in rado di produrre e//etti di//icilmente valutabili sul comportamento dell'animale1 talvolta reversibili1 altre volte permanenti1 ma comun'ue considerabili maltrattamento. (Altale&1 %G ottobre %9#:. Iota di Simone "arani) (ace tiempo publicamos un par de vRdeos con opciones para el uso del collar el+ctrico 'ue eran bastante... e&plicativos. (o; os dejamos este /antSstico vRdeo sobre el collar de casti o.

An border collie lo prueba ; deja bastante clara su opini0n al respecto. -e trata de una iniciativa de -onja Keibur 1 una educadora canina en alemania para concienciar a los dueTos de perro1 para 'ue intercambiaran el collar de casti o por cursos de educaci0n canina. 3uando lo public0 en /aceboo*1 se Un cuenta1 tuvo una enorme aceptaci0n ; ahora la iniciativa ha sido reco ida por otros centros en Austria1 -uiHa1 ,slovenia1 Lu&embur o... >e hecho1 los collares de castigo son ilegales en Suiza y en #ustria1 pero no en Alemania (ni en ,spaTa). V los impulsores de esta interesante iniciativa estSn reco iendo /irmas para intentar 'ue cambie la le; ermana al respecto. ,n 8ales tambi$n es ilegal el uso de los collares el$ctricos (shoc* collars)1 otro dispositivo 'ue no es ile al en ,spaTa. M>: ,l vRdeo lo hemos encontrado en el muro de Naime Oidal Q-antiQ1 el conocido educador canino en positivo1 ; absolutamente contrario al uso de este tipo de collares. %od$is conocer su opini&n al respecto en este otro artculo 'ue escribi& para Sr%erro( Q@ecientemente he leido al uien 'ue de/endRa el uso del collar de casti o. -e Un esta persona1 era el Qmal llamado collar de pinchos o de casti o1 ;a 'ue ni era de pinchos1 ni era para casti arQ. W3omo 'ue mal llamado! WAcaso no son pinchos 'ue duelen1 el perro deja de tirar por'ue se le clavan! Westo no es un casti o! WAcaso el perro no deja de tirar por dolor o malestar! O mejor 'ue le llamemos collar para premiar1 o collar de masaje a radable en el cuello... MO@ ?AOO@1 llamemos a las cosas por su nombreX AUn 'uerran hacer creer 'ue es a radable o no pasa nada por llevar este collarXQ


+ampaig * n

#ffiliated %rong "arkertrainin %res -egal * * * * * * * Schools +ollar ,einforcement g %etition s +ontact Notice

Welcome friend!

Nice to see, that you're interested in our movement Trade Your Dog's Prong Collar for Training. Sonja Mei urg, o!ner of the Dog School "olledau !as the #erson !ho's idea it !as to start a movement to trade training for o!ners' #rong collars, cho$e collar and all sorts of shoc$ collars. This idea gre! out of her schools summer festival. The idea caught fire !hen she #osted the idea as #art of this very festival on her %ace oo$ calendar. &n the meantime, this movement has ta$en on international dimensions. Sonja did not e'#ect the enormous initial res#onse to this announcement and is grateful that Tina M(ller )%reundschaft"und * +emeinsam durchs ,e en, Trainings-entrum und "undeverhaltens#ra'is, .remen, +ermany/ too$ over the entire res#onsi ilities of dealing !ith the Press as !ell as creating the first !e site for the movement. Sonja and Carmen Trautmann )"undetraining "unter unt, 0eg erg, +ermany/ ta$e care of organising affiliated dog training schools as !ell as loo$ing after the aforementioned %ace oo$ #age 1Tausche Stachelhals and gegen Training1. "ei$e "ille rand )hille rand hilft hundehaltern, Mo ile "undeschule 2 3erhaltens#ra'is, +ermany/ is in charge of creating the majority of the te'ts needed for the movement. Since it's ince#tion, over 455 dog training schools have align themselves !ith this movement, not only in +ermany ut also in 6ustria, ,u'em urg, S!it-erland and Slovenia. 6nd ecause of this immediate and s#ontaneous res#onse, Tina decided to regenerate the already once failed attem#t at a #etition to cause legislative action to for id #rong collars in +ermany, having this clause at long last inserted into the e'isting animal cruelty la!s. Tina and "ei$e are therefore !or$ing #arallel to the initial movement to raise the necessary 45,555 !ithin three !ee$s of #u lici-ing the on*line #etition. &f this is successful, the goal can then e #resented to the #olitical ody res#onsi le for further action on such #u lic #etitions. %or further information a out this very #etition, #lease clic$ onto the menu #oint Petition. You'll find there the actual te't of the #etition as !ell as ans!ers to #rocedural 7uestions. &f !e are to to get rid of #rong collars from our dogs' nec$s, from our stores, from internet sho#s, training esta lishments and from our street, !e need Y89: hel#.

.he "o!ement .rade your dogs prong collar for training is supported by: 2 4A--O e.v. (ab Metitionsbe inn) 2 B(O (Beru/sverband der (undeerHieher/innen und Oerhaltensberater/innen e.O.) 2 BOd( (Beru/sverband der (undeps;cholo en) 2 Ibh (Internationaler Beru/sverband der (undetrainer) 2 I82(undeschulen (Interessen emeinscha/t unabhYn i er (undeschulen e.O.) 2 4ierta/el >eutschland

2 e)alt/reies (undetrainin 2 (undelobb; (olledau 2 Karen o (ab Metitionsbe inn) 2 bv/t Beru/s/achverband /Zr 4ierheilpra*ti*er1 4ierph;siotherapeuten und 4ierverhaltenstherapeuten 2 do -pot (unde23ommunit; +ollars which deli!er an electric shock for up to /0 seconds can harm dogs and don t beat traditional training

Kennel Club calls for controversial electric collars to be banned immediately Government research finds 'e-collars' no more effective than rewards The collars emit 30-second shocks and are used by 00!000 owners

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7F Oie) comments

Ban: 4he 'e2collar'1 /avoured b; celebrities includin (oll;)ood actress Nessica Biel1 are no more e//ective than traditional /orms o/ do trainin 3ollars that ive do s electric shoc*s should be outla)ed immediatel; a/ter 8overnment research concluded the; )ere no better /or trainin do s than traditional methods o/ re)ard. 4hat is the vie) o/ the Kennel 3lub in response to t)o reports commissioned b; the >epartment /or ,nvironment1 ?ood and @ural A//airs (>e/ra)1 )hich /ound the; could actuall; cause harm to people's pets rather than chan e their behaviour. 4he devices1 used b; (oll;)ood do )hisperer 3esar Killan and actress Nessica Biel1 have alread; been banned in =ales and pressure is no) mountin on ministers to e&tend this to the rest o/ the AK. 4he Kennel 3lub is campai nin hard /or action on the rounds the 'e2collars' are cruel and harm/ul and has )ritten to ministers callin /or action. 4he controversial collars can deliver a shoc* lastin as lon as :9 seconds. Ap to 7991999 British o)ners are said to use them. Kennel 3lub secretar; 3aroline Kis*o ar ued the reports1 )hich cost B7G919991 proved the devices hurt do s and )ere less e//icient than manu/acturers claimed. -he said: '4here is no den;in the results o/ these t)o surve;s. 'Action needs to be ta*en no) to prevent /urther harm bein done to the AK's do s.


Cure for cat allergies '!ill e availa le !ithin 4 years' after scientists !or$ out !hat triggers a reaction "ouse$ee#er, 4;, fights for life after #ac$ of <4 stray dogs 'eat her to the one' as she !aited for a us in road daylight Slender =essica .iel $ee#s her ig dogs under control !ith 'controversial shoc$ collars' on their daily !al$ies Yes, & give dogs electric shoc$s and use s#i$e cho$ers... ut &'m N8T cruel, says "olly!ood's favourite #et guru Cesar Millan

',ven )ith industr; trained pro/essionals1 and the project bein conducted b; an or anisation (,3KA) )ith a clear a enda1 it )as still /ound that electric shoc* collars o/ten had a detrimental e//ect on do s and did not prove to be a better alternative than trainin usin positive rein/orcement.' -he added the devices /ailed to address underl;in behaviour and could lead to /urther behaviour problems b; trainin a do to respond out o/ /ear o/ /urther punishment rather than a natural )illin ness to obe;.

?an: >o =hisperer 3esar Killan uses electric shoc* collars to help train ne lected canines1 althou h the Kennel 3lub believes the; are harm/ul

8ood bo;: 4raditional re)ards )or* just as )ell as the punishment meted out b; electric shoc*s >O8 4@AIIII8 -3(OOLIn the /irst o/ the t)o studies1 scientists at the Aniversities o/ Bristol and Lincoln1 and the ?ood and ,nvironment @esearch A enc;1 concluded the use o/ e\collars 'can lead to a ne ative impact on )el/are at least in a proportionate (number) o/ animals trained usin this techni'ue'. It /ound that man; o)ners used the devices )ithout adherin to the instructions.

3ruel: ,lectric collars1 such as these pictured here1 can emit shoc*s lastin :9 seconds 4he second /ollo)\up stud; )as conducted b; the Lincoln team in conjunction )ith the ,lectronic 3ollar Kanu/acturers Association (,3KA). It sho)ed that the devices )ere no more e//ective than other methods o/ trainin 1 such as ivin re)ards /or do s )ho have problems chasin other animals1 a common reason iven /or usin shoc* collars. But ,3KA denied that the collars caused pain1 althou h spo*es)oman An ela 3ritchle; admitted >e/ra o//icials had been in contact )ith its members since the publication o/ the reports. -he told the 4ele raph: '>e/ra has approached ,3KA to ensure that its members' products continue to be manu/actured to set standards and to /urther educate users on ho) to operate the trainin products responsibl;.' ',3KA members have si ned up to a robust code o/ practice )here all products meet the latest technical re'uirements and provide user uides )ith consistent instructions to improve the 'ualit; o/ lives o/ do s )hile protectin animal )el/are.' A spo*esman /or >e/ra said its research sho)ed the collars 'cause no lon \term harm to do )el/are )hen manu/actured to a hi h standard and used appropriatel;' but that those usin the devices 'to in/lict unnecessar; su//erin ma; be prosecuted under animal )el/are la)s'.

:ead more> htt#>??!!!$?ne!s?article*;@AA4;A?.an*electric*shoc$* collars*hurt*dogs*re#orts*claim.htmlBi'--;lC.$C8Dh %ollo! us> EMail8nline on T!itter F DailyMail on %ace oo$

htt#>??!!!!s?7ueensland?dog*lovers*call*for* an*on*cruel* torture*collars*used* y*raaf*and*others?story*eCfreoof*<;;C<545;GH4C htt#>?? ar$sfromtheguild.!$e*and*#rong*collars*health*concerns*call* for*e7ui#ment*change*in*dog*training? The #rong collar )or #inch collar/ is anned from use in Ne! Iealand y the +overnment of the country. The national NI Dennel Clu has decreed that #rong collars are not to e used in or around its com#etitions and sho!s ecause the collar is deemed cruel, #ain or discomfort #roducing, un*necessary and contravenes the la! of the land. htt#>??$*the*use*of*electronic*dog*collars*legalJ;AH.html

2s the use of electronic dog collars legal5 6rticle &D> ;AH ,ast u#dated> 5; 6ug, ;5<@ Print K'#ort to PD% Su scri e Kmail to friend 6dd comment 3ie!s> <G5CA Comments> 5

%ta &es' te (o 6CT No

name of relevant act's)ecial conditions and re*uirements 6nimal 0elfare 6ct Section <C of the 6ct, Section <@ and Schedule < of the Prevention of Cruelty to 6nimals )+eneral/ :egulation <HHC and Schedule < ma$e the use of electric dog collars illegal. 8ne e'ce#tion to this rule is electric collars associated !ith canine invisi le oundaries. These are not illegal #rovided the canine invisi le oundary is used to confine dogs, ut only used inside a fence through !hich dogs cannot #ass

NS0 No

and that is not less than <.4 metres high. NT L,D S6 T6S No Yes No Yes 6nimal 0elfare 6ct 6nimal 0elfare 6ct <HH@ )6s long as there is no #ain to the animal/ su ject to e'em#tions under :eg AK);/ Yes Permitted under #rescri ed circumstances Prevention of Cruelty to 6nimals :egulations <HHA ):eg AK);//. See !!!!elfare for details. 6nimal 0elfare )+eneral / :egulations ;55@ 6nimal 0elfare 6ct




htt#>??!!!. anshoc$ 63S6. Position Statement on Punishment htt#>??!!!. anshoc$$JCollarsJ.urn.#df

S.U423S .6 #SS3SS .)3 3773+. 67 %3. .,#2N2N8 #24S, S%3+272+#--9 ,3"6.3 S.#.2+ %U-S3 S9S.3"S 6N .)3 :3-7#,3 67 46"3S.2+ 468S; 723-4 S.U49 67 468S 2N .,#2N2N8 9D De#artment for Knvironment %ood and :ural 6ffairs Project Study %inal :e#ort 1The #roject had a single aim, namely to assess the im#act of use of remote static #ulse electric training aids )e* collars/ during the training of dogs in com#arison to dogs referred for similar ehavioural #ro lems ut !ithout e* collar training.1 K'cer#tM 1The results of this study sho! that that oth the trainersN general a##roach and the tools they use in training affect the dog's emotional res#onses to training. &t !ould therefore e of value to further investigate the !elfare conse7uences of the s$ill levels of e*collar o#erator as !ell as the tools they use. Nevertheless the study did find ehavioural evidence that use of e*collars negatively im#acted on the !elfare of some dogs during training even !hen training !as conducted y #rofessional trainers using relatively enign training #rogrammes advised y e*collar advocates.1 %ull re#ort "K:K.

start of #age .,#2N2N8 468S :2.) )3-% 67 .)3 S)6+K +6--#,: S)6,. #N4 -6N8 .3," 13)#<26U,#- 3773+.S Matthijs ..". Schilder a, ,O, =oanne 6.M. van der .org a

De#artment of Clinical Sciences of Com#anion 6nimals, 9niversity of 9trecht, 9trecht, The Netherlands De#artment of Kthology and Socio*Kcology, 9niversity of 9trecht, 9trecht, The Netherlands

6cce#ted ;@ 8cto er ;55@ Abstract .ehavioural effects of the use of a shoc$ collar during guard dog training of +erman she#herd dogs !ere studied. Direct reactions of @; dogs to <5A shoc$s sho!ed reactions )lo!ering of ody #osture, high #itched yel#s, ar$s and s7ueals, avoidance, redirection aggression, tongue flic$ing/ that suggest stress or fear and #ain. Most of these immediate reactions lasted only a fraction of a second. The ehaviour of <C dogs that had received shoc$s in the recent #ast )S*dogs/ !as com#ared !ith the ehaviour of <4 control dogs that had received similar training ut never had received shoc$s )C* dogs/ in order to investigate #ossi le effects of a longer duration.

8nly training sessions !ere used in !hich no shoc$s !ere delivered and the ehaviour of the dogs )#osition of ody, tail and ears, and stress*, #ain* and aggression*related ehaviours/ !as recorded in a !ay that ena led com#arison et!een the grou#s. During free !al$ing on the training grounds S*dogs sho!ed a lo!er ear #osture and more stress*related ehaviours than C*dogs. During o edience training and during man!or$ )i.e. e'cercises !ith a !ould* e criminal/ the same differences !ere found. Kven a com#arison et!een the ehaviour of C*dogs !ith that of S*dogs during free !al$ing and o edience e'ercises in a #ar$ sho!ed similar differences. Differences et!een the t!o grou#s of dogs e'isted in s#ite of the fact that C*dogs also !ere trained in a fairly harsh !ay.

6 com#arison et!een the ehaviour during free !al$ing !ith that during o edience e'ercises and man!or$, sho!ed that during training more stress signals !ere sho!n and ear #ositions !ere lo!er. The conclusions, therefore are, that eing trained is stressful, that receiving shoc$s is a #ainful e'#erience to dogs, and that the S*dogs evidently have learned that the #resence of their o!ner )or his commands/ announces rece#tion of shoc$s, even outside of the normal training conte't. This suggests that the !elfare of these shoc$ed dogs is at sta$e, at least in the #resence of their o!ner. Conclusions and recommendations 0e concluded that shoc$s received during training are not only un#leasant ut also #ainful and frightening. %urthermore, !e found that shoc$ed dogs are more stressful on the training grounds than controls, ut also in a #ar$. This im#lies, that !henever the handler is around, the dog seems to e'#ect an aversive event to occur. 6 second un!anted association might e that the dogs have learned to associate a s#ecific command !ith getting a shoc$. 6#art from the acute #ain and fear, these e'#ectations may influence the dogPs !ell eing in the long term in a negative !ay. To counter misuse of the shoc$ collar, it is #ro#osed to an its use for Qs#ortsR, ut save it for thera#eutic a##lications, such as for su##ressing hunting and $illing shee#. The effects !e found occurred in s#ite of the fact that control dogs also under!ent fairly harsh training regimes. Trainers and handlers should study learning theory far etter and revie! the structure of the training in order to teach the let go command in an earlier #hase and to reduce the num er of mista$es. They should incor#orate more re!ards during e'ercises. 6lso, less tem#eramental and less forceful dogs should e red. This also !ould decrease the chance that dogs ma$e mista$es for !hich they could receive #unishment. Clic$ here for full article. start of #age =+#N #88,3SS26N 2N 468S 13 3-2+2.34 .),6U8) .)3 US3 67 3-3+.,6N2+ %3. +6N.#2N"3N. S9S.3"S5= 6uthorsDr. :ichard Pols$y, Ph.D. in animal ehaviour.=ournal=ournal of 6##lied 6nimal 0elfare Science ;555 3ol. @ No. S ##. @S4*@4A 6 stract %ive cases are descri ed that involve severe attac$s on humans y dogs !ho !ere eing trained or maintained on an electronic #et containment system. The system is designed to oundary train a dog through the use of electric shoc$ in an esca#e* avoidance conditioning #aradigm. Data !ere collected from legal documents filed in #ersonal injury la!suits. 6nalysis of the findings sho! that all dogs lac$ed a mar$ed history of aggressive res#onding, all !ere adult males, and most !ere re#roductively intact. 6ll attac$s ha##ened near the oundary of the #ro#erty. &n every case, the system !as o#erational at the time of attac$. Moreover, in most cases, the dog received shoc$. %indings lend themselves to #ossi le inter#retation in terms of unconditioned aggression as a result of a dog having received electronic shoc$ and

avoidance*motivated aggression mediated through fear reduction to!ard human stimuli. %or full commentary and study clic$ Klectronic Pet Containment Systems start of #age .)3 US3 67 S)6+K +6--#,S #N4 .)32, 2"%#+. 6N .)3 :3-7#,3 67 468S( 6 revie! of the current literature Dr Kmily .lac$!ell .Sc PhD CC6. and Dr :achel Casey .3MS PhD Di#KC3.M*C6 Di#)6S/C6.C CC6. M:C3SDe#artment of Clinical 3eterinary Science 9niversity of .ristol ;55C e'cer#tM There is little dou t that high intensity electrical stimulation causes a #hysiological stress res#onse in dogs )Schal$e, ;554/. 6##lication of initial high intensity shoc$s has also een found to elicit ehavioural res#onses associated !ith fear and distress in the dog, including yel#ing, struggling, iting, free-ing, !ithdra!al, hiding, running to the o!ner, co!ering, trem ling, defecation and urination )Tortora, <HG;a/. 0hilst the stress res#onse is a normal?ada#tive #hysiological res#onse that allo!s an animal to co#e !ith changes in its environment, this can e detrimental !here the animal cannot #redict and control the situation, for e'am#le if the dog eing trained is una le to learn ho! to avoid the shoc$. 0here cortisol levels in dogs e'#osed to #redicta le?un#redicta le and controlla le?uncontrolla le e'#osure to shoc$s have een measured, they have sho!n an increased cortisol res#onse in dogs that !ere una le to avoid the shoc$ )Dess et al, <HG@/ To read full revie! Clic$ here start of #age 42773,3N.2#- 42#8N6S2S #N4 "#N#83"3N. 67 )U"#N>42,3+.34 #88,3SS26N 2N 468S( &lana : :eisner, D3M, PhD The author states, Q6versive tools such as electric stimulation )shoc$/, #rong, or training )cho$e/ collars that re7uire #ulling and jer$ing to !or$, hitting and scolding can increase an'iety and therefore increase the ris$ of itingT in addition, they are li$ely to lead to treatment failureR #urchase full article here start of #age =1#+K %,61-3"S 2N 468S= .y 6nders "allgren 6 study that sho!ed that it is as usual that dogs have #ro lems related to the s#inal, as !e humans. &n a normal #o#ulation of S55 dogs there !ere C@U that had some sort of defect as defined y the chiro#ractors that !ere coo#erating to do this #iece of research. &n many cases there !ere #ro lematic ehavior correlated to the ac$ defect.

8ne of the most alarming findings !ere that as many as H<U of the dogs that had een #ulled hard on the leash, or themselves #ulled hard, had defects in the nec$V Pulling and jer$ing on leash as !ell as tethering dogs may increase the ris$ of a s#inal injury. 6 dog can easily forget the oundaries of the chain or ro#e, accelerate, and suddenly come to a halt, !ith all the sto##ing #o!er concentrated around the dog's nec$. The results of this study have een s#read !orld!ide and have made dog clu s change training methods and not use hard #ulls on the leash any longer. Many dog o!ners no! shift to use a harness instead of a collar )es#ecially cho$e chain/ to avoid hurting the nec$ of their dogs. start of #age =3773+.S 67 .)3 #%%-2+#.26N 67 N3+K %,3SSU,3 19 # +6--#, 6, )#,N3SS 6N 2N.,#6+U-#, %,3SSU,3 2N 468S(= Pauli 6M, .entley K, Diehl D6, Miller PK. De#artment of Surgical Sciences, School of 3eterinary Medicine, 9niversity of 0isconsin*Madison, Madison, 0isconsin 4@A5C, 9S6. Abstract The effect on intraocular #ressure )&8P/ from dogs #ulling against a collar or a harness !as evaluated in 4< eyes of ;C dogs. The force each dog generated !hile #ulling against a collar or a harness !as measured. &ntraocular #ressure measurements !ere o tained during a##lication of corres#onding #ressures via collars or harnesses. &ntraocular #ressure increased significantly from aseline !hen #ressure !as a##lied via a collar ut not via a harness. .ased on the results of the study, dogs !ith !ea$ or thin corneas, glaucoma, or conditions for !hich an increase in &8P could e harmful should !ear a harness instead of a collar, es#ecially during e'ercise or activity. start of #age =27 96U ,3 #88,3SS2<3, 96U, 468 :2-- 13 .66, S#9S <3.3,2N#,9 S.U49(= ScienceDaily )%e . <A, ;55H/ W &n a ne!, year*long 9niversity of Pennsylvania survey of dog o!ners !ho use confrontational or aversive methods to train aggressive #ets, veterinary researchers have found that most of these animals !ill continue to e aggressive unless training techni7ues are modified. The study, #u lished in the current issue of 6##lied 6nimal .ehavior Science, also sho!ed that using non*aversive or neutral training methods such as additional e'ercise or re!ards elicited very fe! aggressive res#onses. 1Nation!ide, the No. < reason !hy dog o!ners ta$e their #et to a veterinary ehaviorist is to manage aggressive ehavior,1 Meghan K. "erron, lead author of the study, said. 18ur study demonstrated that many confrontational training methods, !hether staring

do!n dogs, stri$ing them or intimidating them !ith #hysical mani#ulation does little to correct im#ro#er ehavior and can elicit aggressive res#onses.1 The team from the School of 3eterinary Medicine at Penn suggest that #rimary*care veterinarians advise o!ners of the ris$s associated !ith such training methods and #rovide guidance and resources for safe management of ehavior #ro lems. "erron, %rances S. Shofer and &lana :. :eisner, veterinarians !ith the De#artment of Clinical Studies at Penn 3et, #roduced a @5*item survey for dog o!ners !ho made ehavioral service a##ointments at Penn 3et. &n the 7uestionnaire, dog o!ners !ere as$ed ho! they had #reviously treated aggressive ehavior, !hether there !as a #ositive, negative or neutral effect on the dogs' ehavior and !hether aggressive res#onses resulted from the method they used. 8!ners !ere also as$ed !here they learned of the training techni7ue they em#loyed. 8f the <S5 surveys com#leted, the most fre7uently listed recommendation sources !ere 1self1 and 1trainers.1 Several confrontational methods such as 1hit or $ic$ dog for undesira le ehavior1 )S@ #ercent/, 1gro!l at dog1 )S< #ercent/, 1#hysically force the release of an item from a dog's mouth1 )@H #ercent/, 1al#ha roll1#hysically ** rolling the dog onto its ac$ and holding it )@< #ercent/, 1stare at or stare do!n1 )@5 #ercent/, 1dominance do!n1 W* #hysically forcing the dog do!n onto its side );H #ercent/ and 1gra dog y jo!ls and sha$e1 );C #ercent/ elicited an aggressive res#onse from at least ;4 #ercent of the dogs on !hich they !ere attem#ted. &n addition, dogs rought to the hos#ital for aggressive ehavior to!ards familiar #eo#le !ere more li$ely to res#ond aggressively to some confrontational techni7ues than dogs rought in for other ehavioral reasons. 1This study highlights the ris$ of dominance* ased training, !hich has een made #o#ular y T3, oo$s and #unishment* ased training advocates,1"erron said. 1These techni7ues are fear*eliciting and may lead to o!ner*directed aggression.1 Prior to see$ing the counsel of a veterinary ehaviorist, many dog o!ners attem#t ehavior*modification techni7ues suggested y a variety of sources. :ecommendations often include the aversive*training techni7ues listed in the survey, all of !hich may #rovo$e fearful or defensively aggressive ehavior. Their common use may have gro!n from the idea that canine aggression is rooted in the need for social dominance or to a lac$ of dominance dis#layed y the o!ner. 6dvocates of this theory therefore suggest o!ners esta lish an 1al#ha1 or #ac$*leader role. The #ur#ose of the Penn 3et study !as to assess the ehavioral effects and safety ris$s of techni7ues used historically y o!ners of dogs !ith ehavior #ro lems. =ournal :eference> "erron et al. Survey of the use and outcome of confrontational and non*confrontational training methods in client*o!ned dogs sho!ing undesired ehaviors. 6##lied 6nimal .ehaviour Science, ;55HT <<A )<*;/> SA D8&> <5.<5<C?j.a##lanim.;55G.<;.5<< start of #age

=468 .,#2N2N8 "3.)64S: .)32, US3, 3773+.2<3N3SS #N4 2N.3,#+.26N :2.) 13)#<26U, #N4 :3-7#,3= K% "i yX, N= :ooney and =0S .radsha! 6nthro-oology &nstitute, De#artment of Clinical 3eterinary Science, 9niversity of .ristol, ,angford, .ristol .SS5 4DT, 9D ;55S 6 stract "istorically, #et dogs !ere trained using mainly negative reinforcement or #unishment, ut #ositive reinforcement using re!ards has recently ecome more #o#ular. The methods used may have different im#acts on the dogs' !elfare. 0e distri uted a 7uestionnaire to @CS dog o!ners in order to e'amine the relative effectiveness of different training methods and their effects u#on a #et dog's ehaviour. 0hen as$ed ho! they trained their dog on seven asic tas$s, CCU re#orted using vocal #unishment, <;U used #hysical #unishment, C5U #raise )social re!ard/, 4<U food re!ards and <<U #lay. The o!ner's ratings for their dog's o edience during eight tas$s correlated #ositively !ith the num er of tas$s !hich they trained using re!ards )P Y 5.5</, ut not using #unishment )P Z 5.4/. 0hen as$ed !hether their dog e'hi ited any of <C common #ro lematic ehaviours, the num er of #ro lems re#orted y the o!ners correlated !ith the num er of tas$s for !hich their dog !as trained using #unishment )P Y 5.55</, ut not using re!ards )P Z 5.<A/. K'hi ition of #ro lematic ehaviours may e indicative of com#romised !elfare, ecause such ehaviours can e caused y or result in a state of an'iety and may lead to a dog eing relin7uished or a andoned. .ecause #unishment !as associated !ith an increased incidence of #ro lematic ehaviours, !e conclude that it may re#resent a !elfare concern !ithout concurrent enefits in o edience. 0e suggest that #ositive training methods may e more useful to the #et*o!ning community. start of #age .)3 US3 67 3-3+.,6N2+ +6--#,S 76, .,#2N2N8 46"3S.2+ 468S: 3S.2"#.34 %,3<#-3N+3, ,3#S6NS #N4 ,2SK 7#+.6,S 76, US3, #N4 6:N3, %3,+32<34 SU++3SS #S +6"%#,34 .6 6.)3, .,#2N2N8 "3.)64S Kmily = .lac$!ell, Christine .olster, +emma :ichards, .ethany 6 ,oftus and :achel 6 Casey +ack,round The use of electronic training devices for dog training is controversial. The aims of this study !ere to give an indication of the e'tent to !hich dog o!ners use these devices in Kngland, identify factors associated !ith their use, and com#are o!ner re#ort of outcomes. 6 convenience sam#le of dog o!ners in Kngland !as used to identify num ers using electronic training devices and identify reasons for use. %actors associated !ith use of remote e*collars only !ere determined y com#aring dogs trained using these devices !ith t!o control #o#ulations matched for reason of use )recall ? chasing #ro lems/. Com#arison grou#s !ere> those using other 'negative reinforcement ? #ositive #unishment' training techni7ues, and those using '#ositive reinforcement ? negative #unishment' ased methods. 6 multinominal logistic

regression model !as used to com#are factors et!een categories of training method. 8!ner re#orted success for use !as com#ared using chi*s7uared analysis. Conclusions &n conclusion, a fairly lo! #ro#ortion of o!ners select to use electronic training devices. %or a #o#ulation matched y reason for training method use, characteristics of dogs, including occurrence of undesired ehaviours do not a##ear to distinguish et!een training methods. :ather, o!ner gender and attendance at training classes a##ear more im#ortant, although e'#laining a relatively small amount of variance et!een grou#s. More o!ners using re!ard ased methods for recall ? chasing re#ort a successful outcome of training than those using e*collars. %ull Study here. start of #age S3<3,3 1,#2N 4#"#83 #7.3, %UN2.2<3 .,#2N2N8 .3+)N2?U3 :2.) # +)6K3 +)#2N +6--#, 2N # 83,"#N S)3%)3,4 468 > @6U,N#- 67 <3.3,2N#,9 13)#<26, > +-2N2+#- #%%-2+#.26NS #N4 ,3S3#,+) :eceived A 8cto er ;5<<T acce#ted S Decem er ;5<;. #u lished online ;A %e ruary ;5<@. 6 stract The features of severe ischemic rain damage after strangulation y the o!ner of a <* year*old +erman she#herd dog are descri ed. The dog !as disci#lined y the o!ner during training y holding the dog off the ground y his cho$e chain collar. 6t first, the dog ehaved normally, ut he ecame increasingly ata'ic and started circling to the left and sho!ed reduced consciousness. The neurological e'amination revealed severe disorientation, left lateral #leurothotonus, and circling. The neurological findings !ere consistent !ith a multifocal rain lesion. 6 magnetic resonance imaging scan !as #erformed and sho!ed changes in the T;* and diffusion*!eighted images, consistent !ith severe cere ral edema resulting from ischemia. .ecause of the severity of the clinical features, the dog !as later euthani-ed. To the author's $no!ledge, this is the first re#ort of a severe rain ischemia after strangulation in a dog. %or full article start of #age :)9 3-3+.,2+ S)6+K 2S N6. 13)#<26, "64272+#.26N =ournal of 3eterinary .ehavior );55A/ Kditorial y Daren ,. 8verall, Philadel#hia, P6 e'cer#t...These conclusions give lie to the assertions that 1ta#s1 are 1im#erce#ti le1 and 1tic$le1 human eings )+old erg, online/, and that !hen fitted !ith electronic collars #eo#le are sur#rised that they feel so little. &n short, if the <?<555 of a second

1ta#1 )no information on ho! such data !ere ac7uired or validated/ only generates a reaction so su tle that a dog might only loo$ at you or flic$ his ear )+old erg, online/, !hy are !e not using a clic$er or a voice to get that res#onse[ &f the 1stimulus1 is just to get attention )Courtney, ;554T , ;55S, onlineT "assen, n.d./, this ecomes all a out timing and getting the dog's attention. Do !e really need an electric collar or shoc$ to do that[ &f so, !e have li$ely overridden many of the dog's normal res#onses. &n such cases the o vious conclusion is that these dogs !ould have res#onded and !ill res#ond to clear signaling and humane training designed to #rovide them !ith a clear, conte'tual set of instructions....%or %ull Kditorial start of #age :)#. #,3 .)3 2"%-2+#.26NS 67 US2N8 .,#2N2N8 .3+)N2?U3S :)2+) 2N4U+3 73#, 6, %#2N 2N 468S5 -rticle from Welfare in .o, Trainin, &f a dog sho!s a ehaviour !hich results in a #erceived #ositive outcome, he or she is more li$ely to sho! the ehaviour again on su se7uent occasions \ this is $no!n as reinforcement. &f a ehaviour results in a #erceived negative outcome, the dog is less li$ely to sho! the ehaviour again \ this is #unishment. Sim#listically, in order to change a ehaviour, one could either #unish an undesired ehaviour or reinforce the desired one. ]PunishmentP tends to e an emotive !ord, ut scientifically this just means a reduced chance of a ehaviour occurring again. "ence, de#ending on the characteristics and e'#erience of the animal, and the choices of the trainer, a ]#unisherP could vary from a mild ]noP to a very aversive stimulus such as a tightened #rong collar around a dogPs nec$. Punishment has een used in animal training since animals have lived in close #ro'imity !ith #eo#le. "o!ever, just ecause training techni7ues ased on the induction of fear or #ain have een used for a long time, does not necessarily mean that they are the est o#tion in terms of efficacy or animal !elfare. &n fact, training a dog using such techni7ues carries num er of ris$s. These are>

&ncreasing the dogs fear or an'iety a out the situation in !hich it is used Decrease the dogPs a ility to learn 6ssociate other, coincidental events !ith a fear #rovo$ing event &nhi it ehaviour, ut leave the underlying emotional res#onse unchanged increasing the chance of future #ro lems &nduce an ne! avoidance, or aggressive res#onse Cause confusion as to !hich ehaviour is re7uired Cause #hysical injury

effective res#onse &n addition, since training techni7ues are !idely used that do not re7uire the use of severe #unishment, there is no need to use techni7ues !hich im#act

negatively on the !elfare of dogs. The relative safety and effectiveness of using re!ard ased or #unitive training techni7ues must also e ta$en into consideration. /ncreasin, 0ear and -n1iety Most #ro lematic ehaviours, including aggression, develo# ecause the dog learns to sho! an effective res#onse to a #erceived threat. Causing further an'iety to the dog y a##lying a #unishment !ill not achieve the aim of ma$ing the dog less !orried a out !hatever it is res#onding to> in fact it !ill almost inevita ly ma$e it more fearful in that conte't. 0hen a dog sho!s aggression to something that is #erceived as a threat, it is #ossi le to do something to it !hich is even more aversive )e.g. y #inning to the floor !ith your foot on its throat, or lasting an air*horn in its face/, that may inhi it its e'#ected ehaviour tem#orarily. .ecause #eo#le often loo$ for ]instant fi'esP this a##roach may loo$ li$e a cure, and a##ear im#ressive on T3, ut it does not resolve the cause of the original ehaviour. .ecause the dog remains fearful of the original #erceived threat, and indeed !ill often e more an'ious ecause they are no! !orried a out the original threat and !hat their o!ner !ill do to them in that conte't, the ehaviour !ill often recur, or different ehavioural res#onses to avoid the threat may develo#. This ma$es sense if you thin$ a out it from a human #ers#ective. %or e'am#le, if you are scared of s#iders, you !ill res#ond to this fear y trying to avoid close contact !ith them. No! imagine that someone dragged you u# to a s#ider y #ulling you u# to a s#ider y the nec$*tie so that it !as cho$ing you, and held you there until you sto##ed struggling \ !ould you feel any different a out s#iders[ 8r !ould you no! e !orried a out s#iders and y the #resence of the #erson !ho tried to ]cureP you[ %tress and 2earnin, 9sing harsh #unishment ased techni7ues to change ehaviour is fre7uently counter#roductive. There is a com#le' relationshi# et!een #hysiological stress res#onses and learning a ility, ut in general mild stress tends to enhance learning, ut higher or more chronic levels of stress actually inhi it the a ility of animals to learn, and #articularly to consolidate and retrieve memories )=oels et al. ;55CT Mendl, <HHH/. :esearch suggests that high levels of stress may influence a dogPs a ility to learn )0al$er et al.,<HHA/, therefore the a##lication of severe #unishers may also result in a stress res#onse that im#edes learning. 3isk of the .o, -ssociatin, the 4unishment with %omethin, 5lse 6n'ious and fearful res#onses a##ear to #articularly occur !here the #unishment is #oorly synchronised !ith the action of the animal )Schal$e et al., ;554/, in other !ords !hen the #unishment is #oorly timed. 6fter a significant event, such as the a##lication of #ressure from a cho$e chain, the dog !ill try to identify !hat events might have #redicted this occurrence, either related to its o!n activity, or things ha##ening in the environment. This means that although the trainer may intend the dog to associate #ulling on the lead !ith the #ressure on the nec$, the dog may associate the latter !ith something com#letely different. Luite often, for e'am#le, dogs !ill associate the #ressure from a cho$e chain !ith the !ord ]heelP, ut not !ith their #ulling. So, !hen they hear ]heelP they tense u# and race themselves for the antici#ated #ressure. &n

#ractice, anything else #resent !hen the #unishment is used may serve as a discriminative stimulus for the #unishment )Pols$y, <HHS/. &n other !ords there is a real danger of an un!anted association eing made et!een the un#leasant #unishment and some coincidental stimuli, such as the #resence of a #erson or other animal. Kven !hen a dog is ]caught in the actP and #unished, he or she may still not associate the #unishment !ith the undesira le ehaviour. This is commonly seen, for e'am#le, !hen #u##ies are smac$ed y o!ners for toileting indoors> they donPt associate this !ith !here they are #eeing, ut instead !ith the #resence of the o!ner, so sim#ly find a #lace to #ee a!ay from the o!ner rather than learning to go outside. &n addition ina##ro#riate levels of #unishment may result in an intense fear and avoidance of the location e.g. the ac$ garden. 8f course unintended associations, due to #oor trainer timing, or the chance association !ith another, random, stimulus, occurs as fre7uently !ith re!ard ased training as it does !ith #unishment techni7ues. %or e'am#le, if an o!ner recalls their dog, ut ta$es a !hile getting the toy out of their #oc$et !hen he or she returns, they may end u# thro!ing the toy !hen the dog ha##ens to e turning in a circle, resulting in a dog that comes ac$ and then turns a circle for its re!ard. "o!ever, the long term conse7uences of these ]re!ard mista$esP is much less serious than !hen #unishers are associated !ith unintended stimuli. 6voidance res#onse to things that are #erceived as aversive are li$ely to e long lasting and resistant to change com#ared to those occurring as a result of #ositive reinforcement ).rush, <H4AT Solomon et al., <H4@/. The difficulty in correcting errors !hen using aversive methods is significant considering the o##ortunities for unintended associations, and the #otential develo#ment of fear. /ncreasin, -,,ression and 3isk to 6wners 6nother dra! ac$ of the use of harsh #unishment in training dogs is the ris$ of eliciting or !orsening aggression. %or e'am#le, #u##ies that are trained using #unishment ased a##roaches !ill have an increased ris$ of eing fearful of hand movement as adults, and have an increased ris$ of iting )"unthausen ;55H/. 6lthough some authors have advocated the use of #unishment in the treatment of certain ty#es of aggression in dogs, as #ain is a #rimary cause of aggression )=ohnson, <HA;/, it is clear that the #otential e'ists for a dog to res#ond aggressively to a near y #erson or animal on a##lication of a #ainful stimulus. The mis#laced elief in ]dominance theoryP can lead to o!ners using #unitive ty#es of training !hich #redis#oses to aggression )De Deuster and =ung ;55H/. :eisner et al. );55A/, for e'am#le, found that 4HU of dog ites ha##ened as a conse7uence of o!ners attem#ting to disci#line their dogs. 8!ners should e #articularly cautious of using confrontational or #unitive techni7ues !ith dogs that have an esta lished aggressive res#onse. 6ggression develo#s as a res#onse to #erceived threat either to itself or a valued resource. "o!ever, once esta lished, dogs !ill often have a strong e'#ectation that their aggressive ehaviour !ill e successful to avoid the #erceived threat. Trying to sto# or interru#t such a res#onse has a high ris$ that the dog !ill sho! an increased level of aggression.

Confusion as to Which +ehaviour is 3e*uired &magine that you needed to learn a ne! ehaviour as a ne! em#loyee, ut in order to teach you this ehaviour, your ne! colleagues only shouted at you !hen you did the !rong thing. You might try a !hole range of different #ossi le res#onses, ut may never identify the e'act thing that they !anted you to do. 0here o!ners rely mainly on #unishment for ina##ro#riate ehaviours, it is very difficult for a dog to !or$ out !hat it is su##osed to do. 6s !ould also ha##en to you in your !or$*#lace, dogs !ill tend to either end u# ecoming very frustrated and sho!ing one of the ehavioural conse7uence of this emotion, such as aggression, or give u# entirely and sto# trying any ehaviours at all. 3isk of 4hysical /n7ury There is also an increased ris$ of #hysical injury to the dog !here harsh handling is used. Cho$e?chec$ chains and #rong collars can result in laryngeal, eso#hageal, thyroidal, and tracheal damage ).rammeier et al. ;55C/. 5fficacy of .ifferent Trainin, -))roaches &n order for any form of training to e successful, it is im#ortant that the reinforcer or #unisher is a##lied very 7uic$ly after the animalPs action, in order for the animal to ma$e an association et!een its o!n ehaviour and the conse7uence of it. &n addition, the reinforcer or #unisher must e a##lied at such a level that it either increases or decreases su se7uent dis#lays of the ehaviour. &n the case of #ositive reinforcement, this re7uires the re!ard to e something that the animal values, and !hich creates a #ositive emotional res#onse. 0here #unishment is used, it must e aversive enough to create a negative emotional res#onse. 6 further #ro lem !ith the use of aversive stimuli, therefore, lies in the trainerPs a ility to achieve the o#timum level of #ain?discomfort re7uired to su##ress the target ehaviour. 9nderstanda ly, o!ners tend to egin !ith a lo! level of #unishment and gradually increase the level of #unishment to find the level re7uired to sto# the ehaviour. This is unli$ely to e effective as animals can ha ituate to aversive stimuli !hen they are incrementally increased. &n order to effectively su##ress a ehaviour, the initial level of #unishment needs to e of sufficient severity to su##ress the ehaviour and avoid immediate rea##earance. There are ethical concerns and #ractical #ro lems that arise from this as there is no !ay of $no!ing in advance ho! intense the initial #unishment should e for each individual animal, due to large individual differences et!een dogs. Kven !ithin a single reed, dogs have een sho!n to have a varia le ca#acity for co#ing !ith aversive stimuli )3incent 2 Mitchell, <HHC/. This leads to the #ro lem of determining and administering an a##ro#riate level of #unishment )high enough to su##ress the ehaviour, ut not so high that it causes a #rolonged fear or an'iety res#onse/ for each individual dog. :esearch also suggests that training using #ositive reinforcement ased methods is more li$ely to e successful than those ased on #unishment )"i y et al., ;55S/. The study also found that the use of #unishment techni7ues in the training of dogs !as associated !ith an increase in the incidence of #ro lem ehaviours.

Conclusions 6ccurately determining the underlying motivation for a ehaviour re7uires s#ecialist e'#ertise, as does assessing the ris$ that an aversive e'#erience might actually increase the severity of a #ro lem ehaviour or induce ne! ones. .ecause of the serious ris$s of using #unishment ased techni7ues, even !hen a##lied ]accuratelyP, most #rofessional ehavioural clinicians very rarely advocate the use of any #unishment ased training techni7ues in the modification of dog ehaviour. 6s o!ners, trainers or clinical ehaviourists, !e all share a res#onsi ility to the !elfare our dogs to use the least aversive methods availa le to us to change our dogPs ehaviour !ithout the need for #ain or fear. 3eferences8 .rammeier et al. );55C/ +ood trainers> "o! to identify one and !hy this is im#ortant to your #ractice of veterinary medicine. =ournal of 3eterinary .ehavior, <, SA*4;. .rush, %.:. )<H4A/ Kffects of shoc$ intensity on the ac7uisition and e'tinction of an avoidance res#onse in dogs. =ournal of Com# Physiol Psychol 45, 4SA*44; De Deuster, T. and =ung, ". );55H/. 6ggression to!ards familiar #eo#le and animals. &n "or!it-, D.%. and Mills, D.S. .S636 Manual of Canine and %eline .ehavioural Medicine. ;nd ed. <G;*;<5. "i y K%, :ooney N=, .radsha! =0S );55S/. Dog training methods> their use, effectiveness and interaction !ith ehaviour and !elfare. 6nimal 0elfare, <@ )</> C@*CH "unthausen, 0. );55H/. Preventative ehavioural medicine for dogs. &n "or!it-, D.%. and Mills, D.S. .S636 Manual of Canine and %eline .ehavioural Medicine. ;nd ed. C4*AS =oels, M., Pu, I., 0iegart, 8. et al. );55C/. ,earning under stress> ho! does it !or$[ Trends in Cognitive Science, <5, <4;*<4G. =ohnson, :.,. )<HA;/ 6ggression in man and animals, Saunders, Philadel#hia. Mendl, M., )<HHH/. Performing under #ressure> stress and cognitive function. 6##lied 6nimal .ehaviour Science, C4, ;;<*;SS

Pols$y :" )<HHS/. Klectronic shoc$ collars \ are they !orth the ris$s[ =ournal of the 6merican 6nimal "os#ital 6ssociation, @5 )4/, SC@*SCG :eisner, &.:., Shofer %.S., Nance, M.,., );55A/ .ehavioral assessment of child*directed canine aggression, &njury Prevention, <@, @SG*@4< Schal$e, K., Stichnoth, =. and =ones*.aade, :. );554/ Stress sym#toms caused y the use of electric training collars on dogs )Canis %amiliaris/ in everyday life situations.Current &ssues and :esearch in 3eterinary .ehavioural Medicine> Pa#ers #resentedat the 4th &nternational 3eterinary .ehaviour meeting. Purdue 9niversity Press, 0est ,afayette, &ndiana.

Solomon :. ,., Damin, ,.=. and 0ynne ,. C. )<H4@/ Traumatic avoidance learning> The outcomes of several e'tinction #rocedures !ith dogs. =ournal of 6 normal and Social Psychology SG );/, ;H<*@5; 3incent &.C and Mitchell 6.:. )<HHC/ :elationshi# et!een lood #ressure and stress #rone tem#erament in dogs. Physiol .ehav C5, <@4*<@G. 0al$er, :., %isher, =. and Neville, P. )<HHA/. The treatment of #ho ias in the dog. 6##lied 6nimal .ehaviour Science, 4;, ;A4\;GH. The follo!ing oo$s are good sources of information on training techni7ues and their a##lication> K'cel*elerated ,earning y Pamela :eid. "o! Dogs ,earn y Mary .urch and =on .ailey 6rticle from 0elfare in Dog Training 4he American 3olle e o/ Oeterinar; Behaviorists (A3OB) is primaril; devoted to the educational re'uirements and certi/ication o/ veterinarians in animal behavior. =e do not have positions statements relative to speci/ic thin s. 4he American Oeterinar; -ociet; on Animal Behavior (AO-AB) does have some position statements on their )ebsite http://avsabonline.or and I have included the lin* to the article ;ou are speci/icall; interested in. http://avsabonline.or /uploads/position]statements/3ombined]Munishment]-tatements.pd/ start of #age Together !e can #rotect the most vulnera le among us y disa ling the a user. .an outright the sale and use of shoc$ collars on all animals. Please sign Petition

6ur 6bAecti!e 4he intent o/ this site is in the short term to discoura e people /rom usin shoc* devices and in the lon er term to promote a ban on the sale and use o/ shoc* collars as other enli htened countries such as =ales have done. Assembled are policies1 advisements1 ne)s stories and editorials that e&pose shoc* collars as )eapons o/ mass su//erin b; usin pain to train. Our aim is to motivate people to see* out humane non2violent alternatives o/ interactin )ith animals. =e believe people )ho have been misled )ill see /rom the evidence )e present here that there are healthier )a;s to interact )ith their pets1 )ill rise to the occasion1 and thro) a)a; their shoc* collars. It ta*es a uts; person to do this but )e *no) ;ou are out there. 4he content on this site is not a re/lection o/ one person's opinion. It is a collection o/ man; )orld2reno)ned animal e&perts1 ps;cholo ists1 veterinarians1 behaviorists1 cruelt; investi ation o//icers and animal )el/are or aniHations committed to helpin better the lives o/ animals. -ome ma; thin* our site a little on the dar*

side1 but un/ortunatel; )e didn't ma*e this stu// up. It is the dar* side )here man; animals live. =e are just tr;in to reduce their su//erin . (O= -(O3K 3OLLA@- A@, A-,>. 3lic* here Q4(, 4(@,A4 O? MAII I- NA-4 A- 3AMABL, O? II>A3II8 -4@,--1 ?,A@ AI> ,KO4IOIAL >AKA8, A- 4(, MAII I4-,L?Q Althou h there are man; or aniHations usin terms and names that impl; the; are dedicated to the )ell bein o/ animals1 the; are in /act1 simpl; mone;ma*in ventures. 4here )ill also be those individuals )ho use animal )el/are or aniHations simpl; as a )a; o/ ainin emplo;ment or a means to pad their resumes. It is di//icult to )eed out those individuals and or aniHations /rom those )ho are sincere1 enuine and con ruent in their )ords and actions. It is a/ter all the reason )e need animal )el/are roups in the /irst place1 to protect animals /rom people. Our belie/ is that the policies presented here come /rom esteemed or aniHations and individuals )ho are coura eous enou h to spea* out. 3ollectivel; the; represent hundreds o/ ;ears o/ e&perience and *no)led e in the course o/ their service to the )el/are o/ animals throu hout the )orld. 4his is not about our di//erences this is about our commonalities. Anited )e could be a movement that can ma*e reat chan e. =e e&tend a deep than* ;ou to ever;one )ho has contributed. READ WHAT WORLD RESPECTED ORGANIZATIONS PS!CHOLOGISTS AND SCIENCE SA! A"O#T THE #SE O$ SHOC% DE&ICES ON ANI'ALS((( ...^there is never an; reason /or a pet to be shoc*ed_... ...^)e condemn their use_... ...^ine//ective method o/ teachin _... ...^inhumane_... ...^do s live in /ear o/ bein electrocuted /or normal behaviors_... ...^)e are adamantl; opposed_... ...^it is )ron _... ...^shoc* collars have no place in a civilised societ;_... 3lic* here to read the MOLI3I,-

4he Kennel 3lub AK1 the oldest reco niHed *ennel club in the )orld1 believes shoc* collars have no place in a civiliHed societ;. 4he; do not endorse the use o/ remote shoc* collars1 shoc* leashes1 anti2bar* collars1 electric /ences or mats. 4he Kennel 3lub )as instrumental in the =elsh overnment's recent ban o/ shoc* collars and is dili entl; campai nin /or a similar ban in the AK. I/ ;ou have relatives and /riends in the AK1 please as* them to et involved and support 4he Kennel 3lub's admirable e//orts in this re ard. 3lic* here to read more about 4(, K,II,L 3LAB'- ,L,34@I3 -(O3K 3OLLA@ 3AKMAI8I Di))erential dia*nosis and mana*ement o) +uman,directed a**ression in do*s( Ilana @ @eisner1 >OK1 Mh> 4he author states1 ^Aversive tools such as electric stimulation (shoc*)1 pron 1 or trainin (cho*e) collars that re'uire pullin and jer*in to )or*1 hittin and scoldin can increase an&iet; and there/ore increase the ris* o/ bitin ` in addition1 the; are li*el; to lead to treatment /ailure_ /ull article here 4o read more -tudies and their conclusive anal;sis that the conse'uences o/ shoc* use causes both ps;cholo ical and ph;sical pain and su//erin ... clic* on -4A>I,Correct #sa*e )or All E Trainin* Collars S+oc- Collars,t+e #*l. Trut+ b; Oalerie Barr;1 Mro/essional >o 4rainer1 3anada I/ ;ou are considerin usin such a dama in piece o/ e'uipment li*e a shoc* collar1 doesn<t ;our do deserve to have ;ou put the time and e//ort into /indin out the truth! /ull article here

4o ether )e can protect the most vulnerable amon us b; disablin the abuser. Ban outri ht the sale and use o/ shoc* collars on all animals. Mlease si n Metition $i*+t $or Tou*+er Le*islation In Canada As a civiliHed nation1 )e are accountable /or those in our )orld that need protection. An/ortunatel;1 3anada<s cruelt; la)s enacted in #CD% are ine//ective. 4he; allo) animal e&ploiters the loopholes the; need to escape prosecution1 allo)in them to continue to hurt animals. (o) /rustratin must

this be /or la) en/orcement and animal )el/are roups )or*in tirelessl; to stop animal abuse! A//licted animals have no escape. 4he; must rel; on us to relieve their su//erin . 4hose causin their pain are rel;in on us to do nothin . Let<s disappoint them. htt#>??!!!.youtu!atch[vZ,TC6=C=;,e5 Kennedy Stewart %resenting a %etition on Shock +ollars ill Siksay presents ban shock collar petition to %arliament( "arch BC march B0CC -ibby %resenting a %etition to 1an Shock +ollars -ibby presents a petition from concerned citizens asking for the ban of shock collars( @une D, B0CC( htt#>??!!!.youtu!atch[vZ07JCT5Do*Tg

4he term shock collar is a term used in order to describe a /amil; o/ trainin collars (also called e> collars, 3collars, remote training collars, Eap collars, or electronic collars) that deliver electrical shoc*s o/ var;in intensit; and duration to the nec* o/ a do (the; can also be applied to other places on the do 's bod;) via a radio controlled electronic device incorporated into a do collar. -ome collar models also include a tone or vibrational settin 1 as an alternative to or in conjunction )ith the shoc*. Others include inte ration )ith Internet mappin capabilities and 8M- to locate the do or alert an o)ner o/ its )hereabouts. Ori inall; used in the late #DF9s to train huntin do s1 earl; collars )ere ver; hi h po)ered. Kan; modern versions are capable o/ deliverin ver; lo) levels o/ shoc*. -hoc* collars are no) readil; available and have been used in a ran e o/ applications1 includin behavioral modi/ication1 obedience trainin 1 and pet containment1 as )ell as militar;1 police and service trainin . =hile similar s;stems are available /or other animals1 the most common are the collars desi ned /or domestic do s. 4he use o/ shoc* collars is controversial and scienti/ic evidence /or their sa/et; and e//icac; is mi&ed. A /e) countries have enacted bans or controls on their use. -ome animal )el/are or aniHations )arn a ainst their use or activel; support a ban on their use or sale. -ome )ant restrictions placed on their sale. -ome pro/essional do trainers and their or aniHations oppose their use and some support them. -upport /or their use or calls /or bans /rom the eneral public is mi&ed.


< Ty#es of devices o <.< Pet containment systems

o o

<.; .ar$ control collars <.@ Training collars or remote trainers

; %rame of reference @ Technical considerations S Scientific studies


S.< Christiansen et al study );55<a/

o o o o o o o

S.; Christiansen et al study );55< / S.@ Pols$y study );555/ S.S Salgirli dissertation );55G/ S.4 Schal$e et al. study );55A/ S.C Schilder 2 van der .org study );55S/ S.A Steiss et al. study );55A/ S.G Tortora Study )<HG@/

4 Criticism C Praise A Pu lic control G :eferences

T./es o) de0ices
4et containment systems
4he most common use o/ shoc* collars is pet containment s;stems that are used to *eep a do inside the perimeter o/ the residence )ithout the construction o/ a ph;sical barrier. 4his use o/ shoc* collars is increasin l; popular in areas )here local la)s or homeo)ners' associations prohibit the construction o/ a ph;sical /ence. Available s;stems include: in2 round installation to preserve the aesthetics o/ the ;ard` above round installation to rein/orce an e&istin barrier that )as not su//icient in containin the do ` and )ireless s;stems to allo) /or indoor use. Kost pet containment s;stems )or* b; installin a )ire around the perimeter o/ the ;ard. 4he )ire carries no current (as opposed to electric /ences )hich do carr; a current at hi h volta e that ma; be lethal in the event o/ unauthoriHed or de/ective installation or e'uipment) but /orms a closed loop )ith a circuit bo& that transmits a radio si nal to the receiver collar )orn b; the do (Lindsa; %9971 p. 7$:). As the do approaches the perimeter the collar )ill activate. A Qscat matQ1 is a batter; operated or plu in pad that delivers a shoc* i/ the animal )al*s on it. 4hese pads are used on /urniture1 )indo)sills1 counters or in hall)a;s to prevent an animal /rom touchin or accessin an area. 4he animal learns to avoid receivin a shoc* b; avoidin contact )ith the mat.

+ark control collars

Bar* control collars are used to curb e&cessive or nuisance bar*in b; deliverin a shoc* at the moment the do be ins bar*in . Bar* collars can be activated b; microphone or vibration1 and some o/ the most advanced collars use both sound and vibration to eliminate the possibilit; o/ e&traneous noises activatin a response.

Trainin, collars or remote trainers

4rainin collars can be activated b; a handheld device. Better 'ualit; remote trainers have a lar e variet; o/ levels and /unctions1 can ive var;in duration o/ stimulation1 better 'ualit; stimulation1

and have a beep or vibration option use/ul /or ettin the do <s attention. Mroper trainin is an imperative /or remote collar use1 as misuse can cause ne ative behavioral /allout (Mols*; %999). Kan; recommend consultin a behaviorist or a trainin pro/essional )ho is e&perienced )ith shoc* collars /or success/ul usa e and application. But there are >O>s available and )ebsites that ive Qstep2b;2stepQ instructions /or proper use that can also be /ollo)ed. -hoc* collars ma; be used in conjunction )ith positive rein/orcement and / or utiliHin other principles o/ operant conditionin 1 dependin on the trainer's methods either as a /orm o/ positive punishment1 )here the shoc* is applied at the moment an undesired behavior occurs1 in order to reduce the /re'uenc; o/ that behavior` or as a /orm o/ ne ative rein/orcement1 )here a continuous stimulation is applied until the moment a desired behavior occurs1 in order to increase the /re'uenc; o/ that behavior. -ome trainers use a lo) level o/ shoc* as a mar*er and pair it )ith a re)ard1 ma*in the collar a conditioned rein/orcer1 similar to clic*er trainin . -ome shoc* collars include vibration or tone2onl; settin s1 )hich can be used as a Qneutral stimulusQ /or most do s. A special application e&ists /or the positive rein/orcement and mar*er trainin o/ dea/ do s. 4his happens )hen the trainin is to Qpair the mild shoc* produced b; the collar )ith /ood and other re)ards. As a conse'uence1 the shoc* can then be used to rein/orce desirable behaviors conditionall; in much the same manner as appl;in other common conditioned rein/orcers (e. . Q8oodQ).Q a#b

$rame o) re)erence
QAt lo) levels1 the term shoc* is hardl; /ittin to describe the e//ects produced b; electronic trainin collars1 since there is virtuall; no e//ect be;ond a pulsin tin lin or tic*lin sensation on the sur/ace o/ the s*in ... the )ord shoc* is loaded )ith biased connotations1 ima es o/ convulsive spasms and burns1 and implications associated )ith e&treme ph;sical pain1 emotional trauma1 ph;siolo ical collapse1 and laborator; abuses ... the stimulus or si nal enerated b; most modern devices is hi hl; controlled and presented to produce a speci/ic set o/ behavioral and motivational responses to it.Q a%b -ome trainers )ho use shoc* collars )ill compare the sensation the; deliver to the Qstatic shoc*Q that people sometimes et )hen reachin /or a door *nob or car door. 4his is not to impl; that shoc* collars emit static electricit; but rather to ive the potential user an idea o/ )hat a shoc* collar /eels li*e. It's o/ten startlin 1 sometimes pain/ul1 but has never been sho)n to cause ph;sical injur;. 3omparin the e//ects o/ shoc* collars )ith other electrical stimulation products1 >r. >ieter Klein has stated that1 QKodern devices ... are in a ran e in )hich normall; no or anic dama e is bein in/licted. 4he electric properties and per/ormances o/ the modern lo) current remote stimulation devices ... are comparable to the electric stimulation devices used in human medicine. Or anic dama e1 as a direct impact o/ the applied current1 can be e&cluded._ a:b -hoc* o/ this nature carries little ener ; (on the order o/ millijoules1 # millijoule " 9.99# joule ). QAt 9.D#G joules the electric muscle stimulation and contractions a human receives /rom an 'abdominal ener iHer' /itness product is e&ponentiall; stron er c more than #1$%G times stron erc than the impulse a do receives /rom a pet containment collar set at its hi hest level.Q.aGb

6 1remote trainer1 set on a lo! level emits 5.555554 joules )4 microjoules/. 6 1 ar$ collar1 set on a high level emits 5.555@ joules )@55 microjoules/. 6 1muscle stimulation machine1 set on a 1normal level1 emits ;.5 joules.

Set on a 1high level1 it emits C.5 joules. 6n electric fence energi-er ^a 1charged fence1 \ not a #et containment system_ emits @.; joules. 6 modern defi rillator can emit u# to @C5 joules.^4_

Tec+nical considerations
,lectric shoc* can be characterised in terms o/ volta e1 current1 )ave/orm1 /re'uenc; (o/ )ave/orm)1 pulse rate and duration. Althou h volta e1 current and duration o/ shoc* can be used to calculate the amount o/ ener ; applied (in Noules)1 these are not indicators o/ the intensit; o/ the stimulus or ho) it ma; be perceived b; the recipient. -tatic electric shoc*s that are e&perienced in dail; li/e are o/ the order o/ #91999 volts1 and ;et are not pain/ul or ph;sicall; dama in because the; are o/ ver; lo) current. Kodern shoc* collars can be set so that the current the; ive o// is onl; mildl; uncom/ortable. Io shoc* collar on the mar*et toda; is limited to deliver shoc*s o/ such lo) intensit;. 4he lac* o/ such limits is because variable settin s are essential1 so that the shoc* collar can be adjusted to the level that the do re'uires1 and adjusted as situations chan e. 4he shoc*1 and the animal's perception o/ it1 can be a//ected b; a number o/ /actors. Individual variations in temperament1 pain sensitivit; and susceptibilit; to startle o/ do s1 means that shoc* settin s must be care/ull; adjusted to produce a shoc* that is perceived b; the do as aversive enou h to stop the do en a in in the un)anted behaviour. 4he sin le most important /actor is the animal's level o/ arousal durin trainin . Iormall; salient stimuli1 such as noises1 commands and even shoc*s1 ma; have no e//ect on a do that is hi hl; aroused and /ocused on an activit; such as huntin . In order to deliver consistent shoc*s1 ood contact must be made bet)een the collar electrodes and the do 's s*in (the collar must be /itted accordin to the manu/acturer's instructions). Local humidit; and individual variation in coat densit;1 s*in thic*ness and sur/ace conductivit;1 )ill also a//ect the deliver; o/ the shoc*. 4he )ave/orm1 its /re'uenc;1 the pulse rate1 ampera e1 volta e and impedance are important determinants o/ li*el; response. QKan; edcollars appear to shi/t intensit; levels b; alterin the pulse duration or repetition rate )hile *eepin the output current and volta e relativel; constant1 dependin on the electrodeds*in load.Q (Lindsa; %9971 p. 7$:). -hoc* collars are sometimes re/erred to as deliverin a Qstatic shoc*Q` ho)ever1 static electricit; is direct current and carries little ener ; (order o/ millijoules). -hoc* collars ma*e use o/ alternatin current. It is there/ore inappropriate to re/er to shoc* collars as deliverin a static shoc*. Io re ulations e&ist speci/;in the per/ormance characteristics or reliabilit; o/ these devices1 so there is considerable variation in shoc* level and )ave/orm characteristics bet)een manu/acturers1 and perhaps even bet)een batches o/ collars /rom a sin le manu/acturer. 4he lac* o/ re ulation or standards1 and the /act that some o/ the sa/et; /eatures o/ shoc* collars are patented b; speci/ic manu/acturers1aFb means that the sa/et; and operational characteristics o/ individual products cannot be veri/ied. Over :# ;ears a o1 in the A-A1 the 3enter /or Oeterinar; Kedicine (3OK)1 a branch o/ the A.-. ?ood and >ru Administration (?>A)1 QconcurredQ in re ulator; action a ainst a manu/acturer o/ a

bar* collar1 statin Q3omplaints received1 )hich )ere later corroborated b; our o)n testin 1 included severe burns in the collar area and possible personalit; adjustment injuries to the do s. 4he shoc*in mechanism )as /ound to be activated not onl; b; bar*in but b; vehicle horns1 slammin doors or an; other loud noise. 3OK concurred in re ulator; action a ainst the device since it )as deemed to be dan erous to the health o/ the animal.Q a$b (o)ever1 toda;'s 'ualit; bar* collars are activated onl; b; the bar*in o/ the do that is )earin the collar and no research stud; has sho)n an; ph;sical injuries /rom the current produced b; an; o/ these devices.

Scienti)ic studies
Christiansen et al study 9:00;a<
3hristiansen et al.1 loo*ed at behavioural di//erences bet)een three breeds o/ do s )hen con/ronted b; domestic sheep (#:C do s` ,l*hounds1 hare huntin do s and ,n lish setters).aCb 4)o testin procedures )ere used and shoc* collars )ere used to deter attac*s on sheep. 4he /irst1 a path test1 involved observin the do s' reactions to a set o/ novel stimuli (ra pulled across the trac*1 bundle o/ cans thro)n do)n1 tethered sheep at 7m) as it )as )al*ed. 4he second test involved monitorin the do 's reaction to a /ree2roamin sheep /loc* in a /ield. In this stud; the; identi/ied several /actors that predicted a hi h huntin motivation and attac* severit;. 4hese )ere lac* o/ previous opportunit; to chase sheep1 lo) /ear/ulness to)ards unshots and un/amiliar people and eneral interest in sheep )hen encounterin them. Voun er do s (e: ;ears o/ a e) sho)ed more pronounced initial huntin motivation and more /re'uent attac*s. ,l*hounds sho)ed more huntin behaviour1 more attac*s and )ere more /re'uentl; iven electric shoc*s durin the tests. A shoc* collar )as used to deter attac*s on the sheep durin the e&periments. -hoc*s (:999O1 9.GA1 duration # second) )ere delivered )hen do s came )ithin a distance o/ #2%m o/ the sheep1 and )ere repeated until the do s le/t the area. 4he objective )as to suppress an attac*1 but not to dama e the huntin abilit; o/ the do s. >espite /re'uentl; initiated chases and attac*s1 /e) shoc*s )ere delivered. 4his )as because /e) do s approached closer than #\% m1 and the intention )as to deter pro&imit; to sheep rather than to associate huntin behaviour )ith an aversive shoc*1 )hich )ould impair /uture huntin behaviour in other conte&ts.

Christiansen et al study 9:00;b<

4he do s used in the /irst stud; )ere re2tested usin the same procedures in order to assess the lon term impact o/ the trainin on their reaction to sheep.aDb A ain1 in the /ree2runnin tests the do s )ere /itted )ith a shoc* collar1 )hich )as used to deter approaches to )ithin #2%m o/ the sheep. >o s that had previousl; been shoc*ed in ;ear # sho)ed a si ni/icant increased in latenc; to approach a person durin the path test (pe9.99#)1 even thou h this )as not a condition under )hich shoc*s had been delivered. O)ners reported behavioral di//erences bet)een ;ear # and % in %G o/ the do s. #C o/ the %G do s had sho)n no interest in sheep durin that period1 even thou h the; had been interested in them durin the /irst ;ear tests. (o)ever1 onl; one o/ those do s had received shoc*s1 so the chan e in behaviour could not be attributed to the use o/ the shoc* collar. =hen comparin o)ners< reports /or the t)o ;ears1 the do s sho)ed a )ea*er inclination /or chasin sheep and other pre; than previousl; (p e 9:99#)1 but this variable )as not a//ected b; shoc* e&perience. >o s that had sho)n interest in sheep in ;ear # sho)ed a persistent interest in ;ear %. Io do s chased or attac*ed sheep as their /irst response1 )hile hal/ o/ them did so the /irst ;ear. >urin the entire test period1 the proportion o/ do s attac*in sheep )as reduced to almost one /ourth. 4he number o/ shoc*s administered per do )as reduced b; the second ;ear1 and onl; one o/ the do s )hich received el. shoc*s the /irst ;ear needed el. shoc*s also the second ;ear.4he observations that both receivers and

non2receivers o/ el. shoc*s the /irst ;ear sho)ed a reduction in the probabilit; o/ chasin sheep1 but the receivers sho)in a lar er reduction1 sho) that el. shoc* treatment provides an additional learnin response. Io adverse e//ects on the do s )ere observed )ith this trainin procedure1 but in their discussion the authors commented QIn order to ensure no ne ative e//ects1 )e recommend that the electronic do collar ma; be used /or such purposes onl; i/ it is used b; s*illed trainers )ith special competence on do behaviour1 learnin mechanisms1 and o/ this particular device.Q

4olsky study 9:000<

Mols*; presented a set o/ /ive case reports based on data /rom le al documents relatin to personal injur; la)suits involvin severe attac*s on humans b; do s )ho )ere bein trained or maintained on an electronic pet containment s;stem (usin a shoc* collar).a#9b In ever; incident1 the do )as )ithin the Qshoc* HoneQ and all /ences )ere )or*in ` the do s must then have received a shoc*. ?our o/ the /ive do s )ere not subject to threatenin behavior b; the victims prior to the attac*. Ione o/ the do s ave an; *ind o/ )arnin prior to bitin 1 and all bit their victims repeatedl; and seriousl; in the head1 /ace1 bac* and nec*. 4he anal;sis su ests that the do s' a ression )as caused b; the shoc*. 4here are several un*no)n /actors to the cases1 includin the trainin used to introduce the do to the /ence1 the amount o/ time the do spent outside unsupervised1 and )hat level o/ shoc* intensit; the do s received. (o)ever1 the reaction o/ the do s1 and especiall; the severit; o/ the attac*s1 )as inconsistent )ith their past behavior. Mols*; concluded a Qpossible interpretation in terms o/ unconditioned a ression as a result o/ a do havin received electronic shoc* and avoidance2motivated a ression mediated throu h /ear reduction to)ard human stimuli.Q

%al,irli dissertation 9:00"<

4he aim o/ -al irli's stud; )as investi ate )hether an; stress is caused b; the use o/ speci/ic conditioned si nal1 'uittin si nal1 and/or pinch collars as alternatives to electric trainin collars1 and i/ the; do so1 )hether the stress produced in the process is comparable to the one )ith electric trainin collars.Q.a##b 4he stud; population )ere a roup o/ G% adult police do s. 4he 'uittin si nal )as a conditioned /rustration e'uivalent to ne ative punishment. It )as conditioned b; associatin /ailure to obtain an anticipated /ood re)ard )ith a speci/ic vocal si nal. In the test1 do s )ere )al*ed past a QprovocateurQ )ho attempted to taunt the do into a reaction. I/ the do reacted1 it )as punished1 and i/ it /ailed to react on subse'uent provocations then the punishment )as deemed to have had a learnin e//ect. 4he stud; is there/ore a comparison o/ ne ative and positive punishment methods1 and not a comparison o/ punishment )ith positive rein/orcement. Learnin e//ect )as measured b; assessin the number o/ do s that learned to 'uit a behaviour a/ter application o/ the punishin stimulus. 4here )as no statistical di//erence in learnin e//ect bet)een the pinch and shoc* collar1 but the 'uittin si nal produced a si ni/icantl; poorer learnin e//ect compared to shoc* or pinch collars (p e 9.9# in both cases). QAlthou h the pinch collar caused more behavioral reactions1 in the /orm o/ distress1 than the electronic trainin collar1 the electronic trainin collar elicits more vocal reactions in do s than the pinch collarsQ` the e&planation /or increased vocalisation in the shoc* collar roup )as that this )as due to a startle response rather than pain reactions. -alivar; cortisol )as monitored to measure the stress levels o/ the do s1 but this data )as not presented in the dissertation` behavioral observation )as the sole measure o/ stress. 4he stud; concluded that the electronic trainin collar induces less distress and sho)s stron er ^learnin e//ect_ in do s in comparison to the pinch collar. 3ommentin on the 'uittin si nal1 the author

stated QIt should particularl; be mentioned1 that the 'uittin si nal trainin )as implied onl; on adult do s )ithin the /rame o/ this stud;. 4here/ore1 the results should not be interpreted as that the 'uittin si nal can not be a suitable method in police do trainin . As previousl; stated trainin o/ the 'uittin si nal re'uires a hard and a structured procedure. 4hus1 i/ the trainin 1 namel; the conditionin 1 be ins in pupp;hood1 the 'uittin si nal can also be an e//ective method in police do trainin Q. 3omparin the e//ects o/ the three punishment methods` Q4hese results can probabl; be e&plained b; that electronic trainin collar complies completel; )ith the punishment criteria1 )hich )ere de/ined b; 4O@4O@A (#DC%)1 in case o/ proo/ o/ the pro/icient and e&perienced user. On the other hand )hen appl;in the pinch collar1 these criteria can not be met even thou h per/ect timin is applied since reactions o/ the do and e//ectiveness o/ the method depends on several di//erent /actors such as the )illin ness1 stren th and motivation o/ the handler1 as )ell as his/her pro/icienc;. In addition to that1 the visibilit; o/ the administrator and1 thus1 o/ the punishment is another important /actor in/luencin the e//icienc; o/ the pinch collar because the do directl; lin*s the punishment )ith its o)ner. 4here/ore this method does not satis/; the ffpunishment criteria<< at all. 4he 'uittin si nal on the other hand re'uires criteria1 such as ood timin and structured trainin procedure1 on account o/ complete conditionin in order to achieve e//ective results. ,ven i/ these criteria are met1 the personalit; trait o/ the do is another /actor1 )hich in/luences the e//icienc; o/ the si nal.Qa##b

%chalke et al$ study 9:00=<

-chal*e et al. conducted a $2month stud; to investi ate the e//ect o/ shoc* collars on stress parameters1 in a series o/ di//erent trainin situations.a#%b (eart rate and saliva cortisol )ere used to determine the stress levels in three roups o/ do s. 8roup A received the electric shoc* )hen the; touched the Qpre;Q (a rabbit dumm; attached to a motion device)1 8roup ( (QhereQ command) received the electric shoc* )hen the; did not obe; a previousl; trained recall command durin huntin 1 and 8roup @ (random) received random shoc*s that )ere unpredictable and out o/ conte&t. 8roup A did not sho) a si ni/icant rise in cortisol levels` the other t)o roups (@ J () did sho) a si ni/icant rise1 )ith roup @ sho)in the hi hest level o/ cortisol. -alivar; cortisol )as measured1 as this procedure is less li*el; to cause stress related rise in cortisol. ?rom this the researchers concluded that the do s )ho could clearl; associate the shoc* )ith their action (i.e. touchin the pre;) and as a result )ere able to predict and control )hether the; received a shoc*1 did not sho) considerable or persistent stress. 4he evidence o/ increased stress in the other roups )as /elt to support earlier /indin s that poor timin and/or inappropriate use o/ a shoc* collar puts the do at hi h ris* o/ severe and on oin stress. 4he; conclude that Q4he results o/ this stud; su est that poor timin in the application o/ hi h level electric pulses1 such as those used in this stud;1 means there is a hi h ris* that do s )ill sho) severe and persistent stress s;mptoms. =e recommend that the use o/ these devices should be restricted )ith proo/ o/ theoretical and practical 'uali/ication re'uired and then the use o/ these devices should onl; be allo)ed in strictl; speci/ied situations.Q

%childer > van der +or, study 9:00?<

-childer and van der Bor conducted a stud; to compare the behavior o/ police service do s that had previousl; been trained usin a shoc* collar (8roup -) )ith those )hich had not (8roup 3).a#:b In the trainin test no shoc*s )ere applied1 but the animal's behavior )as observed durin trainin tas*s. 4he intention )as to investi ate )hether shoc* collar based trainin mi ht have a lon term e//ect on stress2related behavior even in the absence o/ shoc*1 and )hether this related to speci/ic /eatures o/

the trainin conte&t. Behaviors recorded included reco nised indicators o/ stress (pantin 1 lip2lic*in 1 ;a)nin 1 pa) li/tin and bod; posture) as )ell as ;elpin 1 s'uealin 1 snappin and avoidance. >urin /ree )al*s on the trainin rounds1 roups - do s sho)ed si ni/icantl; more stress related behaviors and a lo)er bod; posture than roup 3 do s. >urin trainin 1 the same di//erences )ere /ound. 4he di//erence bet)een the roups )as more si ni/icant )hen trainin too* place on the /amiliar trainin round1 indicatin a conte&tual e//ect. 4he presence o/ the trainer )as considered to be part o/ this conte&t. 4he authors concluded Q=e concluded that shoc*s received durin trainin are not onl; unpleasant but also pain/ul and /ri htenin .Q Lindsa; sa;s o/ this stud;1 Q-childer and Oan der Bor (%99G) have published a report o/ disturbin /indin s re ardin the short2term and lon 2 term e//ects o/ shoc* used in the conte&t o/ )or*in do s that is destined to become a source o/ si ni/icant controvers;.... 4he absence o/ reduced drive or behavioral suppression )ith respect to critical activities associated )ith shoc* (e. .1 bite )or*) ma*es one s*eptical about the lastin adverse e//ects the authors claim to document. Althou h the; o//er no substantive evidence o/ trauma or harm to do s1 the; provide loads o/ speculation1 anecdotes1 insinuations o/ ender and educational inade'uacies1 and dero ator; comments re ardin the motivation and competence o/ IMO trainers in its place.Q a#Gb

%teiss et al$ study 9:00=<

-teiss1 et al.1 conducted a /our2)ee* stud; o/ adult shelter do s< ph;siolo ical and behavioral responses to bar* control collars. Mlasma cortisol )as used as the stress measure. >o s )ere randoml; assi ned to either a shoc* collar1 a spra; collar1 or a dumm; collar (control roup). >o s that )ere *no)n to bar* at an un/amiliar do )ere used /or the stud;. 4est conditions involved presentation o/ an un/amiliar do . >o s )ore activated collars /or period o/ :9 minutes per da; /or three da;s in t)o consecutive )ee*s. 4he amount o/ bar*in )as si ni/icantl; reduced startin on the second da; )ith both the spra; and shoc* collars. 4here )as no si ni/icant di//erence in e//ect bet)een the t)o collar t;pes. 4he treatment roup do s sho)ed a mild ;et statisticall; si ni/icant increase in blood cortisol level (an indicator o/ stress) onl; on the /irst da; o/ )earin the collars (as compared to the 3ontrol 8roup.)a#7b At the conclusion o/ the stud;1 >r. -teiss and her team concluded that QIn the present stud;1 )ith do s )earin bar* control collars intermittentl; over a %2)ee* period1 the collars e//ectivel; deterred bar*in )ithout statisticall; si ni/icant elevations in plasma cortisol1 compared to controls1 at an; o/ the time points measured.Q

Tortora %tudy 9;@"3<

4ortora applied a method called Qsa/et; trainin Q to treat a ression in :F cases e&hibitin a /orm o/ Qinstrumental a ressionQ1 selected a/ter screenin a population o/ G$F cases. QInstrumental a ressionQ )as de/ined as describin a ressive acts that Qdo not have a clear evolutionar; si ni/icance1 are not directl; related to emotional arousal1 do not have speci/ic releasin stimuli1 are not directl; modulated b; hormones1 and do not have an identi/iable /ocus in the brainQ. 4ortora states that in the conte&t o/ the article Qinstrumental a ressionQ )as speci/icall; de/ined as Qa ressive responses that have Qa speci/iable learnin histor;1 sho) a ro)th /unction over time and are modulated b; their conse'uences. 4hese do s had /e) operant alternatives to ain rein/orcement b; compliance and )ere channeled do)n a path that allo)ed their innate a ressiveness to come under the control o/ the ne ativel; rein/orcin contin encies in the environmentQ. 4he do s initiall; behaved as thou h the; Qe&pectedQ aversive events and that the onl; )a; to prevent these events )as throu h a ression. 4he do s )ere there/ore a hi hl; selected subset that had not learned strate ies /or copin )ith threat.

,ach do )as trained to respond to a set o/ #7 commands ta*en /rom the AK3 standard /or 3>g obedience. 4he commands )ere selected to provide control over the do 1 and included QheelQ1 QstandQ Q oQ1 QcomeQ1 QholdQ1 QdropQ and QsitQ. 4hese behaviors )ere termed Qsa/et; behaviorsQ. 4rainin )as divided into D sta es1 each o/ )hich )as composed o/ 72%9 t)ice dail; trainin sessions. >o s could onl; pro ress to the ne&t sta e a/ter passin a test. On avera e1 do s too* #92#7 sessions to complete each sta e. A/ter trainin basic commands1 the do s )ere trained to per/orm the behaviors the; had alread; learned in order to avoid pro ressivel; increasin electric shoc*. A/ter that1 the; )ere conditioned to per/orm a sa/et; behavior in order to avoid a Qsa/et; toneQ that allo)ed them to anticipate the shoc*. In the later sta es o/ trainin 1 do s )ere e&posed to provocation b; a distractor do 1 and )ere punished usin /ull intensit; shoc* i/ the; /ailed to per/orm a sa/et; behavior or i/ the; sho)ed a ression. A/ter trainin )as complete1 and the do 's )ere choosin to per/orm the sa/et; behaviors instead o/ a ression1 o)ners )ere tau ht to use the shoc* collar and the trainin )as trans/erred into ever;da; situations. 4he trainin resulted in a lon 2 lastin and complete suppression o/ a ressive behaviour in the do s. >o s )ere /ollo)ed up : ;ears a/ter the end o/ trainin 1 and the reduction in a ression )ere maintained.a#Fb

In an editorial /or the Nournal O/ Oeterinar; Behavior1 Karen Overall1 Associate Mro/essor o/ Behavioral Kedicine at the Aniversit; o/ Menns;lvania -chool o/ Oeterinar; Kedicine1 and diplomate o/ the American 3olle e o/ Oeterinar; Behavioural Kedicine has criticised the use o/ shoc* collars1 sa;in QAbsolutel;1 )ithout e&ception1 I oppose1 )ill not recommend1 and enerall; spend lar e amounts o/ time tellin people )h; I oppose the use o/ shoc* collars1 pron collars1 cho*e collars1 and an; other t;pe o/ device that is rooted in an adversarial1 con/rontational interaction )ith the do . =ithout e&ception1 such devices )ill ma*e m; an&ious patients )orse and allo) the an er level o/ m; clients to reach levels that are not help/ul and ma; be dan erousQ.a#$b M,4A opposes the use o/ shoc* collars1 statin Q>o s )earin shoc* collars can su//er /rom ph;sical pain and injur; (ran in /rom burns to cardiac /ibrillation) and ps;cholo ical stress1 includin severe an&iet; and displaced a ression. Individual animals var; in their temperaments and pain thresholds` a shoc* that seems mild to one do ma; be severe to another. 4he an&iet; and con/usion caused b; repeated shoc*s can lead to chan es in the heart and respiration rate or astrointestinal disorders. ,lectronic collars can also mal/unction1 either administerin nonstop shoc*s or deliverin no shoc*s at allQ.a#Cb Io scienti/ic stud; supports M,4A's position that shoc* collars can cause Qinjur; (ran in /rom burns to cardiac /ibrillation)1 and ps;cholo ical stress...Q or that a shoc* collar can Qlead to chan es in the heart and respiraton rate or astrointestinal disorders.Q 4he 3ompanion Animal Behaviour 4herap; -tud; 8roup (3AB4-8)1 an a//iliate roup o/ the British -mall Animal Oeterinar; Association (B-AOA) has produced a polic; statement on the use o/ shoc* collars1 statin Q4heir e//ectiveness depends upon the pain and /ear e&perienced b; the animal1 but to use them correctl; re'uires detailed understandin o/ behaviour and its motivation1 as )ell as ver; precise timin . ?e) operators are able to achieve an; reliable success )ith these devices and the conse'uences o/ /ailure can be a )orsenin o/ the problem behaviour.4he indiscriminate use o/ shoc* collars there/ore poses a threat to the sa/et; o/ the eneral public1 as )ell as to the )el/are o/ the animal. =e believe that su//icient alternative methods o/ treatment e&ist that such electronic trainin devices are redundant. 4here/ore1 as an association a//iliated to B-AOA1 it is our dut; to recommend that shoc* collars and all other related trainin and control aids should be banned /rom sale or useQ.a#Db

4he B-AOA itsel/ produced a statement on the ris*s associated )ith collars QIn principle1 the British -mall Animal Oeterinar; Association (B-AOA) opposes the use o/ electronic shoc* collars /or trainin and containment o/ animals. -hoc*s received durin trainin ma; not onl; be acutel; stress/ul1 pain/ul and /ri htenin /or the animal but also ma; produce lon term adverse e//ects on behavioural and emotional responses.Q.a%9b 4here is no scienti/ic stud; that supports the B-AOA's claim o/ potential Qlon term adverse e//ects on behavioral and emotional responses.Q 4he Association o/ 3hie/ Molice O//icers (A3MO)1 in the AK1 called on all /orces to suspend use o/ the collars on the advice o/ the @-M3A and other animal )el/are roups.a%9b 4he Kennel 3lub has an on oin campai n to achieve a ban on the sale and use o/ shoc* collars` Q4he Kennel 3lub in callin upon the 8overnment and -cottish Marliament to introduce an outri ht ban on this barbaric method o/ trainin do s.Q.a%#b 4he =orld Anion o/ 8erman -hepherd 3lubs (=A-O) has joined the Kennel 3lub in callin /or a complete ban on shoc* collars1 and passed a motion to e&clude this e'uipment /rom an; o/ its trainin branches a%%b 4he @o;al -ociet; /or the Mrevention o/ 3ruelt; to Animals commissioned a revie) o/ the e//ects o/ shoc* collars /rom the >epartment o/ Oeterinar; Kedicine at Bristol Aniversit;1 )hich is available online. It states Q8iven the lac* o/ scienti/ic evidence /or the e//icac; o/ behavioural modi/ication usin shoc* collars1 particularl; in the lon term1 in addition to the potential /or mista*es or deliberate abuse and the di//icult; in correctin such errors1 the )idespread use o/ these devices must be care/ull; considered.Q a%:b 4he (umane -ociet; o/ the Anited -tates ((-A-) provides the /ollo)in comment on the use o/ aversive collars (cho*e chains1 pinch collars and shoc* collars): Q-ome trainers use aversive collars to train Qdi//icultQ do s )ith correction or punishment. 4hese collars rel; on ph;sical discom/ort or even pain to teach the do )hat not to do. 4he; suppress the un)anted behavior but don't teach him )hat the proper one is. At best1 the; are unpleasant /or ;our do 1 and at )orst1 the; ma; cause ;our do to act a ressivel; and even bite ;ou. Mositive trainin methods should al)a;s be ;our /irst choice.Q 4he; o on to comment on shoc* collars speci/icall;: Q4he least humane and most controversial use o/ the shoc* collar is as a trainin device. 4he trainer can administer a shoc* to a do at a distance throu h a remote control. 4here is a reater chance /or abuse (deliver; o/ shoc*s as punishment) or misuse (poor timin o/ shoc*s). Vour do also ma; associate the pain/ul shoc* )ith people or other e&periences1 leadin to /ear/ul or a ressive behaviorQ.a%Gb 4he potential /or shoc* collars to have a ne ative impact on behaviour has been reco nised b; the AK courts. In %99# Ostarra Lan rid e )as prosecuted a/ter one o/ her do s attac*ed and *illed a shitHu )hilst on a )al*. A control order1 rather than a destruction order1 )as imposed as the ma istrates accepted the de/ense that Ks. Lan rid e's do 's a ressive behaviour )as attributable to the e//ects o/ the shoc* collar. QKs. Lan rid e sou ht the help o/ a behaviourist )hen her do s started to run a)a; /rom her on their )al*s alon the beach. 4he do s )ere iven shoc* collars1 )hich Kiss Lan rid e )as told to *eep on /or three months and activate )henever the; misbehaved. But the /irst time the do s ot a shoc* )as b; mista*e1 a/ter a small do the; )ere )al*in past made Kiss Lan rid e jump. ?rom then on her pets associated the shoc*s )ith small do s and became a/raid o/ them. =hen Kiss Lan rid e described the da; in Nul; )hen her do s turned on a shihtHu she had tears in her e;es.Q. -he stated QQ4he; connected the pain o/ the electric shoc* )ith

little do s because o/ the /irst time I used the collar. 4he da; that machine came in this house I re ret.Q a%7b 4he Ior)e ian 3ouncil on Animal ,thics Qrecommends the introduction o/ a ban electric trainin collars and similar remote2controlled or automatic electronic devices that cause ;our do substantial discom/ort. It should nevertheless be ranted an e&emption /or such trainin carried out b; authoriHed persons in order to prevent huntin o/ livestoc* and )ildli/e.Q a%Fb 4he AM>4 sa;s1 Qa,lectronicb trainin collars should not be used b; novice do o)ners or b; trainers )ho are not properl; instructed in their use. Ase o/ electronic trainin collars can result in trauma to ;our do and enerall; are not recommended b; positive rein/orcement trainersQ.a%$b 4he American Oeterinar; -ociet; o/ Animal Behavior has produced a position statement titled Q4he use o/ punishment /or behavior modi/ication in animalsQ1 the openin para raph o/ )hich reads QAO-AB<s position is that punishment (e. . cho*e chains1 pinch collars1 and electronic collars) should not be used as a /irst2line or earl;2use treatment /or behavior problems. 4his is due to the potential adverse e//ects )hich include but are not limited to: inhibition o/ learnin 1 increased /ear2 related and a ressive behaviors1 and injur; to animals and people interactin )ith animals.Q a%Cb -teven Lindsa;'s boo*1 mentioned belo)1 )as published t)o ;ears be/ore the papers b; -chal*e (et al.) and -teiss (et al.).

In his %997 te&tboo* on trainin and behavior1 -teven Lindsa; )rites QInstead o/ instillin social aversion and an&iet; ... animal and human research supports the notion that competent shoc* acollarb trainin appears to promote positive social attachment1 sa/et;1 and re)ard e//ects that ma; be provided and ampli/ied via a//ectionate pettin and reassurin praise. 4he preponderance o/ scienti/ic evidence su ests that aelectrical stimulationb escape/avoidance and pain reduction should promote lon 2term e//ects that are incompatible )ith /ear and stress1 ma*in the trainer an object o/ si ni/icant e&trinsic re)ard that actuall; enhances the do 's )el/are via an improved capacit; /or social copin 1 learnin 1 and adaptationQ.a#Gb -teven Lindsa; states QI/ minimiHin the intensit;1 duration1 and /re'uenc; o/ aversive stimulation durin trainin is reco niHed as a si ni/icant /actor in the de/inition o/ humane do trainin 1 then the radio controlled e2collar must be ran*ed as one o/ the most humane do 2trainin tools currentl; availableQ a%Db @andall Loc*)ood Mh>1 -enior Oice Mresident1 Anti2cruelt; Initiatives and Le islative -ervices1 4he American -ociet; /or the Mrevention o/ 3ruelt; to Animals (A-M3A) )as 'uoted in a %99$ =hite Maper titled Q4he ?acts About Kodern ,lectronic 4rainin >evices1Q produced b; @adio -;stems1 a manu/acturer o/ shoc* collars1 Q=e reco niHe that older products )ere o/ten unreliable and di//icult to use humanel;. But )e /eel that ne) technolo ; emplo;ed b; responsible manu/acturers has led to products that can be and are bein used sa/el; and e//ectivel; to preserve the sa/et; and )ell2bein o/ man; do s and stren then the bond )ith their human companions. Qa:9b Q4he International Association o/ 3anine Mro/essionals (IA3M) stron l; opposes le islation that bans or limits the humane use o/ an; trainin tool1 sa;in It is our conviction that limitin the humane use o/ trainin tools )ould result in a hi her incidence o/ nuisance and dan erous do behavior1 and more do s bein surrendered to alread; over2burdened public shelters.... >o trainin is a ver;

diverse /ield )ith a sin le common thread: communication. >o s are trained /or man; di//erent tas*s such as assistin the disabled1 police )or*1 herdin 1 huntin 1 protection1 competition and companionship. Mro/essional trainers achieve these trainin oals b; usin a )ide variet; o/ tools to communicate )ith the do 1 both at close ran e1 and over lon distances. >one e//ectivel;1 this communication increases desirable behaviors and reduces the incidence o/ problem behaviors in do s.... An; e//orts to ban or limit the use o/ trainin tools )ould hinder this communication1 and our abilit; to train do s )ould su//er. =or*in do s )ould no lon er be able to achieve hi hl; specialiHed tas*s1 and /amilies )ith pet do s )ould have /e)er options available to correct behavioral problems.... 4rainin tools1 )hen properl; utiliHed1 are sa/e and humaneQ.a:#b 4he Iational Institute o/ 3anine ,&perts (II3,) sa;s1 QII3, reco niHes that there are man; appropriate trainin techni'ues1 methods and philosophies /or each individual do 1 dependin upon its breed1 its temperament1 its a e1 the behavioral problems it poses1 and the oals o/ its trainin . =e are a ainst arbitrar; restrictions on methods1 techni'ues or tools used in the trainin o/ do s.... 4he Iational Institute o/ >o 4rainin ,&perts1 stron l; opposes the restriction1 limitation or bannin o/ electronic do trainin e'uipment and containment products. (umanel; used electronic do trainin e'uipment had been demonstrated to be an e//ective1 e//icient1 beni n trainin tool /or a variet; o/ di//icult per/ormance venues be innin )ith its birth as a trainin device almost G9 ;ears a o /or huntin hounds1 upland bird do s and retrievers.... 4he popularit; o/ its use as a trainin device has been success/ull; implemented and demonstrated b; our nation<s militar;1 domestic la) en/orcement and most recentl; )ith its success/ul emplo;ment as a device /or behavior modi/ication and rehabilitation /or pet do s. It<s )ide acceptance and use in competitive do sports has enerated achievement at the hi hest levels o/ reco nition /or obedience competitors1 /ield trial competitors1 protection sport enthusiasts and others.... In an; area )here the per/ormance o/ the do must be @,LIABL,1 M@,3I-,1 and (I8(LV 3OI4@OLL,> o//2leash and/or at a distance /rom the handler1 modern electronic do trainin e'uipment is reco niHed as the premier trainin tool that humanel; and e//ectivel; achieves such di//icult oals.... In addition1 activities )here the preservation o/ human li/e depends on the do s< per/ormance o// leash in real2)orld environments in a precise and reliable manner1 electronic do trainin methods remain the most e//icient techni'ue /or attainin such e&cellence.a:%b

Public control
4here are some or aniHations )hich promote and support the use o/ shoc* collars and are opposed to le al limitation1 restriction or ban on these devices. At this time1 there are li*e)ise do obedience schools and trainin pro rams that incorporate shoc* collars into their curriculum. As o/ Karch %G1 %9#91 the =elsh Assembl; voted to ban the use o/ shoc* collars in =ales. At present it is the /irst1 and onl;1 constituent countr; o/ the Anited Kin dom to do so. a::b 4his ban )as challen ed b; Metsa/e1 a manu/acturer o/ these devices1 and the ,lectronic 3ollar Kanu/acturers' Association1 on the basis that it breached Article # o/ the ?irst Mrotocol o/ the ,uropean 3onvention o/ (uman @i hts. 4he challen e )as unsuccess/ul.a:Gb On April ##1 %9##1 a GC ;ear old man /rom O more2b;2-ea became the /irst person convicted o/ ille al use o/ a shoc* collar in =alesa:7b (e )as subse'uentl; /ined B%1999 and assessed B#1999 /or court costs.a:Fb

<. Aum) u) B ),indsay ;555, #. <@C/

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Aum) u) B ,indsay, Steven :. );554/, Handbook, 6mes, &o!a> .lac$!ell Pu lishing, #. 4CH Aum) u) B Dlein, Dieter :., ;555, "o! Dangerous are :emote Stimulation Devices for the Training of Dogs[R 6mtstier`r-tlicher Dienst und ,e ensmittel$ontrolle Aum) u) B ^<_, :adio Systems 0hite Pa#er ;55A. Aum) u) B ^;_, Ta le ;, :adio Systems 0hite Pa#er ;55A. Aum) u) B &nnote$. 1&nnote$ #atent1. Aum) u) B %D6. 1%D6 Com#liance enforcement1. Aum) u) B Christiansen, %ran$ 8., .a$$en , Morten, .raastad , .jarne 8., ;55<, .ehavioural differences et!een three reed grou#s of hunting dogs confronted !ith domestic shee# . 6##lied 6nimal .ehavior Science, 3olume A;);/, ##. <<4*<;H. . Aum) u) B Christiansen, %ran$ 8., .a$$en , Morten, .raastad , .jarne 8., ;55<, .ehavioural changes and aversive conditioning in hunting dogs y the second*year confrontation !ith domestic shee#. 6##lied 6nimal .ehavior Science, 3olume A;, ##. <@<*<S@. . Aum) u) B Pols$y, :., ;555, Can aggression in dogs e elicited through the use of electronic #et containment systems[ =ournal of 6##lied 6nimal 0elfare Science. @)S/, ##. @S4*@4A. a =um# u# to> a b htt#>??eli .tiho*!s5G.#df Aum) u) B Schal$e, K., Stichnoth, =., 8tt, S., =ones*.aade, :., ;55A, Clinical signs caused y the use of electric training collars on dogs in everyday life situations. 6##lied 6nimal .ehaviour Science <54, ##. @CH*@G5. Aum) u) B Schilder, M..."., van der .org, =.6.M, ;55S, Training dogs !ith hel# of the shoc$ collar> short and long term ehavioral effects. 6##lied 6nimal .ehaviour Science G4, ##. @<H*@@S. a =um# u# to> a b ,indsay, Steven :. );554/, Handbook, 6mes, &o!a> .lac$!ell Pu lishing, ##. C<<\C<; Aum) u) B Steiss, =.K., Schaffer, C., 6hmad, ".6., and 3oith, 3.,., ;55A, Kvaluation of Plasma Cortisol ,evels and .ehavior in Dogs 0earing .ar$ Control Collars. 6##lied 6nimal .ehaviour Science <5C, ##. HC*<5C. Aum) u) B htt#>??'.cfm[ faZ uy.o#tionTo.uy2idZ<HGS*5@<G<*55<2C%&DZAGA;SCH2C%T8DKNZ4<5455AG Aum) u) B Daren 8verall. 1Kditorial Commentary in =ournal of 3eterinary .ehavior1. Aum) u) B PKT6. 1Klectric %ences and Shoc$ Collars1. Aum) u) B C6.TS+. 1C6.TS+ Policy Statement1. a =um# u# to>
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Aum) u) B Dennel Clu . 1Dennel Clu Cam#aign1. Aum) u) B 09S3. 109S3 .an1. Aum) u) B Casey and .lac$!ell. 1:SPC6 :evie!1. Aum) u) B "S9S. 1"S9S statement1. Aum) u) B The 6rgus. 1Collars turned dogs into $illers1. Aum) u) B NC6K. 1Nor!egian Council on 6nimal Kthics1. Aum) u) B 6PDT. 16PDT1. Aum) u) B 63S6.. 163S6. Position Statement1. Aum) u) B ,indsay, Steven :. );554/, Handbook, 6mes, &o!a> .lac$!ell Pu lishing, #. 4GC Aum) u) B :adio Systems. 1:adio Systems 0hite Pa#er1. Aum) u) B &6CP. 1&6CP Position Pa#er on Training Tools1. Aum) u) B N&CK. 1N&CK Positions1. Aum) u) B 10ales the first #art of the 9D to an #et shoc$ collars1. ..C Ne!s. ;5<5*5@*;S. :etrieved ;5<;*<;*;G. Aum) u) B 0elsh .an. 10elsh .an Challenge1. Aum) u) B 1Shoc$ collar found on #et dog roaming on 3ale each1. BBC News. 6#ril <G, ;5<<. Aum) u) B 18gmore illegal shoc$ collar dog o!ner gets b;,555 fine1. BBC News. =uly <G, ;5<<. ,indsay, Steven :. );555/, Handbook of Applied Dog Behavior and Training ;, .lac$!ell, #. <@C. Schilder, Matthijs ..".T van der .org, =oanne 6.M. );55S/, 1Training dogs !ith hel# of the shoc$ collar> short and long term ehavioural effects1, Applied Animal Behaviour Science " )@\S/> @<H\@@S, doi><5.<5<C?j.a##lanim.;55@.<5.55S. ,indsay, Steven );554/, Handbook of Applied Dog Behavior Vol 3, .lac$!ell, ##. 44A\C@@. Pols$y, :.". );555/, 1Can aggression e elicited through electronic #et containment systems1, ournal of Applied Animal !elfare Science 3 )S/> @S4\@4A, doi><5.<;5A?S<4@;AC5S=60S5@5SJC. Schal$e, K.T Stichnoth, =.T 8tt, S.T =ones*.aade, :. );55A/, 1Clinical signs caused y the use of electric training collars on dogs in everyday life situations1, Applied Animal Behaviour Science ;0 )S/> @CH, doi><5.<5<C?j.a##lanim.;55C.<<.55;.

"asic collars

,eather uc$le collar !ith traditional uc$le.

+uckle collars, also called flat collars, are usually made of nylon !e ing^S_ or leather )less common materials can include #olyester, hem#, or metal/ !ith a uc$le similar to a elt uc$le, or a 7uic$*release uc$le, either of !hich holds the collar loosely around the dog's nec$. &dentification is commonly attached to such a collarT it also comes !ith a loo# to !hich a leash can e fastened.

Nylon 7uic$*release uc$le collar !ith identification and medical tags.

0lea collars are im#regnated !ith chemicals that re#el fleas.^4_ They are usually a su##lementary collar, !orn in addition to the conventional uc$le collar. 5liCabethan collars, sha#ed li$e a truncated cone, can e fitted on a dog to #revent it from scratching a !ound on its head or nec$ or lic$ing a !ound or infection on its ody.^C_ +reak-away collars loo$ similar to uc$le collars, ut have a safety mechanism installed that allo!s the dog to rea$ free of the collar if e'cessive force is a##lied. These collars are useful in situations !here a non*7uic$ release collar could get snagged and strangle the dog. ^A_ %afety %tretch Collars an elastic #anel in the sturdy nylon collar allo!s esca#e from #otential strangulation dangers such as ranches, fences, gates and other dogs. 9nli$e rea$a!ays a stretch collar acts li$e a traditional static collar !hen cli##ed !ith a leash.

%tud collars are leather collars fitted !ith dulled #oints and?or metal studs that traditionally #revented another animal from iting the dog's nec$. This ty#e of collar dates ac$ to ancient +reece, !hen shee#dogs !ere given nail*studded collars to #rotect them from !olves.^G_ &n modern societies, stud collars are more commonly considered a fashion accessory. 4ainted collars are leather collars !ith a #attern a##lied !ith safe !ater* resistant #aint. 9sually the #aint is a##lied manually. These collars are more e'#ensive than others ecause of handi!or$. 0ur saver collars are a $ind of cho$e chains that #rovide less effect on the dog's hair, thus not damaging it. %ur saver collar can e used oth for long and short*haired reeds !ithout ma$ing any harm to the dog's fur. &t can e used for training and daily life as !ell. %)iked collars are made of nylon or leather material and decorated !ith metal s#i$es. Commonly, the s#i$es are hand*set and tightly riveted for e'tra security. S#i$es #revent other animals from iting the dog's nec$ and serve as fancy accessory.

Trainin* collars
-everal t;pes o/ collars are used /or the purposes o/ trainin do s1 thou h sometimes a collar is not used at all (such as in the case o/ do a ilit; trainin 1 )here a collar could et cau ht on e'uipment and stran le the do ). ,ach trainin collar has its o)n set o/ advanta es and disadvanta es (brie/l; outlined belo)) )hich trainers mi ht consider be/ore usin a select one. 4rainin collars are t;picall; used /or trainin onl; and not le/t on the do 's nec* all the time1 as some collars can be harm/ul or dan erous i/ le/t on a do unsupervised.

0lat collars
-ome do s are trained on leash usin a buc*le or 'uic*2release collar.

Choke chains

Cho$e chain, sho!ing ho! the chain #ulls through the loo# at one end.

+hoke chains (also called slip collars1 choke collars1 or slip chains) are a len th o/ chain or n;lon rope )ith rin s at either end such that the collar can be /ormed into a loop around the top o/ the do 's nec*1 just behind the ears. 4he rin that connects to the leash oes over the top o/ the do 's nec*1 not under.aDb =hen the leash is attached to the dead ring the collar does not constrict on the do 's nec*. =hen the leash is attached to the live ring the chain slips (adjusts) ti hter )hen pulled and slips

looser )hen tension is released. A 'uic* jer* )ith an immediate release1 euphemisticall; called a leash pop1 snap1 or correction1 is used to correct the do into a 'heel' position.

4ron, collar

Prong collarT the loo#ed chain limits ho! tightly the collar can #ull in the same !ay that a Martingale functions.

%rong collars are a series o/ chain lin*s )ith blunted open ends turned to)ards the do 's nec*. 4he desi n o/ the pron collar is such that it has a limited circum/erence unli*e cho*e chains )hich do not have a limit on ho) /ar the; can constrict on a do 's nec*. 4he limited traction o/ the martin ale chain combined )ith the an le o/ the pron s prevents the pron s movin close enou h to pinch. 4he collar is desi ned to prevent the do /rom pullin b; appl;in pressure at each point a ainst the do 's nec*. Mron collars must never be turned inside out ()ith the pron s /acin a)a; /rom the do 's s*in)1 as this ma; cause injur; a ainst the bod; and head. a#9b Mlastic tips are occasionall; placed on the ends o/ the pron s to protect a ainst tu/ts /ormin in the /ur or1 in the case o/ lo) 'ualit; manu/actured collars )ith rou h chisel cut ends1 puncturin the s*in. Li*e the chec* chain1 the pron collar is placed hi h on the do 's nec*1 just behind the ears1 at the most sensitive point.a##b -ome do s can /ree themselves /rom pron collars )ith lar e )ire looped sides b; sha*in their head so that the lin*s pop out1 so some trainers have come to use a second collar (usuall; an oversiHe chec* chain) in addition to the pron collar so )hen this happens the do does not run loose.acitation

#artin,ale collar

Martingale Collar !ith Chain ,oo#T martingale collars also come !ith a fa ric loo# instead of chain as !ell as o#tional uc$les on oth styles.

Kartin ale collars are recommended /or -i hthounds because their heads are smaller than their nec*s and the; can o/ten slip out o/ standard collars. 4he; can1 ho)ever1 be used /or an; breed o/ do . 4heir no2slip /eature has made them a sa/et; standard at man; *ennels and animal sheltersacitation neededb . A martin ale collar has % loops` the smaller loop is the Qcontrol loopQ that ti htens the lar er loop )hen pulled to prevent do s /rom slippin out o/ the collar. -imilar to a pron collar1 the martin ale has limited constriction on the do 's nec* and applies even pressure.

Dead halters

The halter*style collar controls the dog's head ut does not restrict its a ility to #ant, drin$, or gras# o jects.

)ead halters1 sold under the brand names Q3om/ort 4rainerQ1Halti or Gentle Leader or Snoot Loop1 are similar in desi n to a halter /or a horse. 4his device /astens around the bac* o/ the nec* and over the top o/ the muHHle1 ivin more control over a do 's direction and the intensit; o/ pullin on a leash than collars that /it strictl; around the nec*. Mressure on this t;pe o/ collar pulls the do 's head to)ards the handler.

-upporters o/ the head halter sa; that it enables the handler to control the do 's head1 and ma*es the do unable to pull usin its /ull stren th. It is especiall; use/ul )ith reactive do s1 )hen control o/ the do 's head can be a sa/et; issue.acitation neededb 4hose )ho do not recommend use o/ the head halter sa; that some do s /ind it unnatural and uncom/ortableacitation neededb. I/ the collar is too ti ht1 it ma; di too deepl; into the s*in or the strap

around the muHHle ma; push into the do 's e;esacitation neededb. 3ranial injur; is a possible result /rom improper use o/ the head halter` i/ a do is jer*ed suddenl; b; the leash attached to the head halter1 the do 's nec* is pulled sharpl; to the side1 )hich mi ht result in nec* injur; (thou h this can be true o/ all collars). I/ the nose strap is /itted too ti htl;1 the hair on the muHHle can also be rubbed o//1 or the do mi ht pa) and scratch at its /ace1 causin injuries ran in /rom mere bare s*in to severe abrasions.

%hock collars
Shock collars (or training collars1 remote training collars1 e-collars1 electronic collarsa#%b and hunting collars) are electronic trainin aids developed to deliver an electrical si nal1 vibration1 tone1 throu h contact points attached to a do collar.a#:ba#Gb -hoc* collars are ille al in =ales.a#7b

Wolf collars
:olf collars or protection collars are metal collars /itted )ith lar e spi*es radiatin a)a; /rom the do 1 usuall; )orn b; do s protectin livestoc* in case the; are attac*ed b; )olves or other predators. -uch collars protect the nec* o/ a do /rom direct attac*. It is rare to see these collars bein used in modern societies.

0orce collar
A force collar is a leather collar )ith metal pron s sta ered alon the inside` similar to a pron collar.

2i,hted collar
A lighted collar (or collar light1 dog light) is a collar that emits li ht in order to ma*e a do more visible in the dar* to their o)ners and more importantl;1 nearb; motorists. It should be noted that it is not desi ned to help a do see at ni ht1 as it is )ell documented that do s have ver; ood vision in lo) li ht conditions.
Main article> DogB.iology

Kost li hted collars utiliHe one or more li ht emittin diodes /or the li ht source and can be o/ virtuall; an; color1 althou h red and blue are most common. Mo)er is provided b; one or more batteries1 most common t;pes bein AAA and lithium coin cells to minimiHe the added )ei ht to the collar.

0lotation collar
A flotation collar (or buo ant collar) is a buo;anc; aid desi ned /or do s. Althou h it is not desi ned to be used as a li/e preserver or li/e jac*et1 it can provide additional buo;ant support /or the head o/ a do )hen in the )ater. It is o/ten used in canine h;drotherap; services to assist in the rehabilitation o/ injured do s. 4he collar ma; be constructed o/ closed cell /oam material that is inherentl; buo;ant or be o/ a t;pe that is in/lated )ith air.

See also

Collar Mu--le )device/ Shoc$ collar

<. Aum) u) B Clayden, Paul, ed. );5<<*54*;4/. The Dog "aw Handbook );nd ed./. ,ondon> S!eet 2 Ma'!ell. #. @4. &S.N HAG*5*S<S*5SG<G*G. ;. Aum) u) B "odgson, Sarah );55C/. Teach #ourself Visuall$ Dog Training. 0iley Default. &S.N 5*SA<*ASHGH*@. @. S. Aum) u) B 1Dog collar clergy 'ris$ attac$'1. ..C Ne!s. A 8cto er ;55A. :etrieved @5 Decem er ;5<<. Aum) u) B 8g urn, Phili#T Crouse, Ste#hanie, Martin, %ran$, "ou#t, Datherine )< Decem er <HHG/. 1Com#arison of ehavioral and #hysiological res#onses of dogs !earing t!o different ty#es of collars1. Applied Animal Behaviour Science E; );/> <@@\<S;. doi><5.<5<C?S5<CG*<4H<)HG/55<<@*5. Aum) u) B Cronce, P. C.T 6lden, ". S. )<< Novem er <HCG/. 1%lea*Collar Dermatitis1. A%A& 'he ournal of 'he American %edical Associa'ion :0E )A/> <4C@\<4CS. doi><5.<55<?jama.<HCG.5@<455A5<5<5;@. Aum) u) B S!aim, Steven %.T :en erg, 0alter C.T Shi$e, Dathy M. );5<5* <;*<4/. Small Animal Bandaging( Cas'ing( and Splin'ing Techni)ues . 6mes, &o!a> 0iley*.lac$!ell. &S.N HAG*5*G<@G*<HC;*S. Aum) u) B Monteiro, Melanie );55H/. Safe Dog Handbook& A Comple'e *uide 'o +ro'ec'ing #our +ooch( ,ndoors and -u' . .everly, Mass.> Luarry .oo$s. #. HC. &S.N HAG*<*4H;4@*4<H*S. Aum) u) B htt#>??!!!.dogcollars*"istory*of*Dog*Collars* s#*<A.html Aum) u) B 1Dictionary of Dog Collar Terms1. igdog :etrieved <; 6ugust ;5<;. Aum) u) B 1"erm S#renger Prong Collar Covering Ca#s1. ,$. :etrieved @5 Decem er ;5<<. Aum) u) B 1"o! to fit a Prong Collar1. ,eer urg. :etrieved @5 Decem er ;5<<. <;. <@. <S. <HAC. <4. Aum) u) B 18gmore illegal shoc$ collar dog o!ner gets b;,555 fine1. BBC News. <G =uly ;5<<. Aum) u) B 1Klectronic dog collars in stomach of alligator solve %lorida mystery1. Toledo Blade. 6ugust ;H, <HH4. Aum) u) B 1Klectric Dog Collars "a-ardous1. The %ilwaukee ournal. ;5 6#ril <HAA. Aum) u) B 1Shoc$ing dog collars recalled1. S'. +e'ersburg Times. May ;5,




G. H. <5. <<.

No. &t is not illegal to #urchase 2 train your dog !ith a #rong collar in the 9D. The electronic 1shoc$1 collar has een made illegal to o!n 2 #urchase in 0ales !ith a ma'imum #enalty of si' months im#risonment or b;5,555 fine, is an o!ner is caught using the collar to train their dog. 0ales has devolved #o!er to ma$e certain decisions that !ill not have legal effect any!here other than 0ales, 2 the an on training a dog !ith an electronic collar !ill only e in force in 0ales. htt#>??!!!$?ne!s?article*... The Dennel Clu 2 :SPC6 have een cam#aigning for #rong 2 electronic collars to e made illegal, ut there is no #olitical momentum for this to ecome la! 2 thus far has remained an issue in the long grass, !ith other more urgent matters re7uiring #arliamentary time. 9nless the majority of 0estern Kuro#ean countries reach a consensus !ith regard to ma$ing electronic 2 #rong collars illegal training tools, as they did !ith regard to the #ractice of doc$ing 2 cro##ing, & do not thin$ Kngland !ill an #rong or electronic collars in the foreseea le future.

C+o-e and /ron* collars1 are t+e. reall. as bad as t+eir re/utation2
%e ruary 4, ;5<;

3ho*e and pron collars are ver; controversial topics amon do o)ners1 do trainers1 pet lovers1 etc. and o/ten lead to /ervent discussions. 4he une&perienced do o)ner )ho has to decide )hat is best /or his do and )ho most certainl; doesn<t )ant to harm him is o/ten lost in the fsho)er< o/ so2 called ood advices. 7irst of all, what are the legal aspects5 In Austria and in -)itHerland these collars are ille al1 but not so in Lu&embour nor in 8erman;. (o)ever1 accordin to h : o/ Lu&embour and 8erman Animal Mrotection La)1 an; trainin method that causes pain or su//erin to an animal is /orbidden. An/ortunatel; animal protection la)s are enerall; not strictl; controlledi :hat are the risks for the dogFs physical and psychological health5

pron collar 4he prong collar presents considerable ris*s:

Causes damage to the s#ine and nec$ of the dog. Causes damage to the s$in and muscles. Causes #ressure on the laryn'T in addition to the damage of the laryn', further negative effects can e>

2 >ama e to the th;roid1 2 >ama e to the e;es b; an increased internal pressure o/ the e;e.

DoesnPt fi' the cause ut only the sym#tom of the #ro lem. The dog doesnPt #ull on the leash !hen hePs !earing this #articular collar. "o!ever, once he gets rid of it, he !ill resume #ulling, as he didnPt understand the #rinci#le. Due to the #ain, the dog may e conditioned negatively to other stimuli. %or e'am#le, the dog can feel the #ain at the e'act moment !hen he sees another dog or a jogger, etc. 6ccordingly, in his mind joggers, dogs, etc. are associated !ith this #ain. 0hat !ill e the outcome[ 6n aggressive dog against this #articular stimulus )redirection/V &f your dog only #ulls shortly on the leash, !ithout sho!ing any !rongdoing, in the follo!ing situations> #laying !ith other dogs, !elcoming #eo#le, jum#ing ac$!ards or side!ays in fear ? shoc$, etc. M then your dog is also #unished y the #ain caused y his #rong collar, although he has actually done nothing !rong. This is even more irres#onsi le and #ure stress for the dogV

chain cho*e collar

n;lon cho*e collar

cho*e collar )ith stop

Believe it or not: +hoke collars are even /ar more dan erous /or ;our do <s health than pron collars. 4he )ord alread; includes fcho*e<i and I assume ever;bod; a rees that can<t be fhealth;<X =hat are the ris*s!

Crushes the cervical verte rae. Crushes the laryn'. Causes damage to the trachea.

Causes damage to the s#ine.

4hese e//ects cannot be prevented i/ ;ou onl; pull entl; )ith t)o /in ers at the collar. Indeed1 ;ou could al)a;s /ace situations )here the do pulls /or)ard )ith /ull /orce1 due to lac* o/ education1 /ear1 or just )antin to chase a )ild animal or a cat. O/ten do s on the leash )earin pron or cho*e collars pla; )ith other do s or move /or)ard )hen other do s or finterestin < people pass b;. 4hese situations are unavoidable and there/ore a f entle< )a; to deal )ith pron or cho*e collars is not al)a;s possible. 4oda; )e *no) that pain induced learnin doesn<t produce lon 2lastin results. It does not onl; result in avoidance o/ the undesirable behavior but provo*es also un)anted compensation acts b; the do and present other ps;cholo ical ris*s such as pain induced /ear1 a ressive behavior1 stress1i 2ndeed prong and choke collars only work due to pain eGposure( #ccordingly, in terms of animal protection they canFt be an option for your dog( 4here are completel; painless trainin methods (such as fpositive rein/orcement<) and other painless trainin devices. 4he; can be /urther e&plained to ;ou b; a competent do trainer. K; tip: I/ a do trainin center )or*s )ith pron or cho*e collars: Leave and loo* /or one )ith 'uali/ied trainers. Mro/essional1 responsible trainers invest some o/ their time in their /urther education based on the latest scienti/ic /indin s and don<t rel; onl; on their e&perience. One last advice: =hat is especiall; true /or pron / cho*e collars is also true /or collars in eneral: Ne!er e!er use a towline or a retractable leash (leash )hich runs smoothl; in and out1 i.e. f?le&i< leash) in combination with a collarH Vour do ma; speed /or)ard to hunt /or somethin or to )elcome somebod; and then he dashes at /ull speed a /e) meters )ith his /ull )ei ht in the leashi until he is stopped b; the end o/ the leash. In such situations1 do s can roll over due to the pressure on the nec* ()hat is irresponsible i/ he )ears a do collar and especiall; a pron / cho*e collar). Onl; a harness is appropriate )hen usin lon leashes such as to)lines or retractable leashesX Vour do )ill than* ;ou !uthor" #anc $onen, !nimalbehavior %herapist, diploma of !&ademie f'r %iernaturheil&unde (!%#), *H+ ,lease e-mail -nanc &.vo+lu/ for further information+ Mlease read also Ianc; Konen<s post f=hat )ould do s bu;! 3ollar or chest harness! ,ead here about the international mo!ement Trade your dogs prong collar for trainingI. In Lu&embour the do school is ta*in part in the movement and tradin pron collars or cho*e chains /or trainin . Mlease also clic* here to read animal ps;cholo ist 4homas @iepe<s e&planations about do trainin )ith devices involvin pain and the conse'uences o/ it.
%rohibition of cruelty to animals J K( (#) ,s ist verboten1 einem 4ier un erecht/erti t -chmerHen1 Leiden oder -chYden HuHu/Z en oder es in sch)ere An st Hu versetHen. J K( (#) It is prohibited to in/lict unjusti/ied pain1 su//erin or injur; on an animal or e&pose it to heav; /ear. (%) 8e en Abs. # verstjkt insbesondere1 )er (%) Mara # is violated in particular i/ a person

#. lZchtun en vornimmt1 die /Zr das 4ier oder dessen Iach*ommen mit star*en -chmerHen1 Leiden1 -chYden oder mit sch)erer An st verbunden sind (mualHZchtun en)1 oder 4iere mit mualHuchtmer*malen importiert1 er)irbt oder )eiter ibt` #. breeds animals )hich either directl; themselves or their descendants )ill su//er /rom heav; pain1 su//erin 1 injur; or heav; /ear (inhumane breedin practices)` or imports1 purchases or passes on such animals )ith /eatures resultin /rom inhumane breedin practices` %. die A ressivitYt und Kamp/bereitscha/t von 4ieren durch einseiti e luchtaus)ahl oder durch andere Kaknahmen erhjht` %. increases a ressiveness and /i htin readiness o/ animals b; one2sided breedin selection or other methods` :. a) -tachelhalsbYnder1 KorallenhalsbYnder oder ele*trisierende oder chemische >ressur erYte ver)endet oder :. a) uses spi*e collars1 coral t;pe pron ed collar1 or animal trainin devices usin electricit; or chemical substances1 or b) technische 8erYte1 (il/smittel oder Oorrichtun en ver)endet1 die darau/ abHielen1 das Oerhalten eines 4ieres durch (Yrte oder durch -tra/reiHe Hu beein/lussen` b) uses technical e'uipment1 devices or au&iliar; means aimin at in/luencin animal behaviour b; severe approach or punishment incentives` G. ein 4ier au/ ein anderes 4ier hetHt oder an einem anderen 4ier au/ -chYr/e abrichtet` G. sets animals on other animals or trains them to be a ressive to)ards another animal` 7. 4ier*Ymp/e or anisiert oder durch/Zhrt` 7. or aniHes or per/orms animal /i hts` F. (underennen au/ Asphalt oder anderen harten BodenbelY en veranstaltet` F. or aniHes do races on asphalt or other hard2covered terrain` $. einem 4ier @eiH2 oder >opin mittel Hur -tei erun der Leistun von 4ieren1 insbesondere bei sportlichen =ett*Ymp/en oder Yhnlichen Oeranstaltun en1 Hu/Zhrt` $. administers stimulants or dopin substances to an animal in order to increase its per/ormance1 in particular durin sports competitions or similar events` C. ein 4ier Hu einer ?ilmau/nahme1 =erbun 1 -chaustellun oder Yhnlichen l)ec*en und Oeranstaltun en heranHieht1 so/ern damit -chmerHen1 Leiden1 -chYden oder sch)ere An st /Zr das 4ier verbunden sind` C. uses an animal /or /ilm shots1 advertisin 1 e&hibition or similar purposes or events i/ this is involved )ith pain1 su//erin 1 injur; or heav; /ear /or the animal` D. einem 4ier Leistun en abverlan t1 so/ern damit o//ensichtlich -chmerHen1 Leiden1 -chYden oder sch)ere An st /Zr das 4ier verbunden sind` D. demands /rom an animal an; per/ormance obviousl; involved )ith pain1 su//erin 1 injur; or heav; /ear /or the animal` #9. ein 4ier 4emperaturen1 =itterun sein/lZssen1 -auersto//man el oder einer Be)e un seinschrYn*un aussetHt und ihm dadurch -chmerHen1 Leiden1 -chYden oder sch)ere An st Hu/Z t` #9. e&poses an animal to temperatures1 )eather conditions1 lac* o/ o&; en or restriction o/ /ree movement in/lictin pain1 su//erin 1 injur; or heav; /ear on the animal` G. trainin measures /or police and militar; /orces do s /or )hich coral t;pe pron ed collars are used b; speciall; trained persons1 maintainin the principle o/ ade'uac;. A coral collar is understood to be a collar consistin o/ metal lin*s )ith lar;n eal protection1 e'uipped )ith rounded metal pins protrudin at an an le and o/ at least :17 mm diameter. (G) >er ,r)erb und der BesitH von 8e enstYnden1 die emYk Abs. % l : lit. a nicht ver)endet )erden dZr/en1 ist verboten. Aus enommen sind der ,r)erb und der BesitH von KorallenhalsbYndern /Zr die in Abs. : l G enannten l)ec*e. (G) 4he ac'uisition and possession o/ objects )hich are not allo)ed to be used accordin to para % subpara :a is prohibited. ,&cepted /rom this provision are ac'uisition and possession o/ coral collars /or the purposes named in para : subpara G. (7) >urch Oerordnun (7) B; re ulation1 #. hat der Bundesminister /Zr 8esundheit und ?rauen1 in BeHu au/ land)irtscha/tliche IutHtiere im ,invernehmen mit dem Bundesminister /Zr Land2 und ?orst)irtscha/t1 Am)elt und =asser)irtscha/t1 /estHule en1 )elche lZchtun en jeden/alls unter Abs. % l # und % /allen`

#. the ?ederal Kinister /or (ealth and =omen shall determine )hich breedin methods are in an; case covered b; para % subparas # and %1 and shall do that1 as /ar as animals /or /arm use are concerned1 in a reement )ith the ?ederal Kinister /or A riculture and ?orestr;1 ,nvironment and =ater Kana ement` %. hat der Bundesminister /Zr 8esundheit und ?rauen im ,invernehmen mit dem Bundesminister /Zr Inneres und dem Bundesminister /Zr Landesverteidi un das IYhere in BeHu au/ Kaknahmen der Ausbildun von >iensthunden der -icherheitse&e*utive bH). des Bundesheeres /estHule en. %. the ?ederal Kinister /or (ealth and =omen1 shall determine1 in a reement )ith the ?ederal Kinister /or the Interior and the ?ederal Kinister

htt#>??a!*and*#rofessional*resources?international nova -elanda

4rade Ke has emer ed an animal )el/are champion1 bannin sales o/ electric shoc* do collars and select /urs. ?urs sourced /rom overseas are no lon er )elcome on the )ebsite1 in chan es that *ic*ed in this month. Q=e accept that there are some 'uestionable practices in the lobal /ur industr; and )e don't )ant to be a part o/ those ne ative outcomes1Q Non >u//;1 4rade Ke head o/ trust and sa/et;1 said. It )as alread; ille al to sell /ur products in Ie) lealand sourced /rom an animal protected b; the 3onvention on International 4rade in ,ndan ered -pecies. (o)ever1 an; ne) item /eaturin /ur sourced /rom an overseas source1 such as /o&1 co;ote1 bear or cou ar )as no) also banned /rom 4rade Ke. Animal products obtained /rom non2protected Ie) lealand domestic species that )ere obtained in a humane )a; could still be traded on the auction site1 includin possum1 rabbit and /erret /urs. Ointa e /urs could also still be bou ht and sold as lon as the; did not come /rom protected species1 under the rationale that second2hand trade stemmed on oin *illin o/ animals1 Kr >u//; said. 4rade Ke has also announced electronic do collars and anti2bar* shoc* devices )ill join /urs on its Qbanned and restrictedQ list. >o shoc* collars are le al. (o)ever the animal )el/are code1 currentl; under 8overnment revie)1 noted opportunit; /or misuse o/ the devices that deliver var;in de rees o/ electric shoc*s via remote control or noise activation. 4he products )ould be o// limits /rom Nanuar; ne&t ;ear due to /ears o/ misuse and harm to animals. -M3A e&ecutive director Bob Kerrid e applauded 4rade Ke's stance on the devices. 4radin shoc* collars online brou ht no opportunit; to provide pro/essional advice on ho) to use them or assurances the; )eren't /allin into the )ron hands1 Kr Kerrid e said. But 3ollartron -;stems' (a)*e's Ba; o)ner1 Ka& 8ri//iths said responsible sellers )ere strict about )ho the; sold the devices to and the; )ere o/ten used to restrict harm to other animals and people.

(is primar; custom came /rom /armers )ho needed to control animals that )orried stoc*1 and Kr 8ri//iths said he re/used to sell them to o)ners o/ menacin breeds.