( k&'kg "#$% . !
, 'kg m k0a,) )!""
.
+ +
+
R
P
T
v
1ince the pressure stays constant,
# ($$&) , (  . 23+ )
m 
m .
.
.
+
+
!
!
T T
V
V
and the work integral e4pression gives
k& 2""
m k0a +
k& +
m ,  k0a,). )!"" , )
.
.
+ !
!
+
out ,
,
_
V V V P d P W
b
That is,
"* 4++
in , b
W
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+
P
)k0a,
V )m
.
,
!""
! +
. 
46 The boundary work done during the process shown in the figure is to be determined.
Assumptions The process is quasiequilibrium.
Analysis :o work is done during the process !. since
the area under process line is ;ero. Then the work done
is equal to the area under the process line +!<
"* ,++
,
_
+
.
.
+ !
! +
out ,
m k0a +
k& +
'kg ".,m kg,)+." )!
!
,k0a "" )+""
, )
!
*rea v v m
P P
W
b
47E The boundary work done during the process shown in the figure is to be determined.
Assumptions The process is quasiequilibrium.
Analysis The work done is equal to the area under the
process line +!<
Btu %%%
,
_
+
.
.
+ !
! +
out ,
ft psia .2"2
=tu +
.",ft ! )2."
!
,psia "" )+""
, )
!
*rea V V
P P
W
b
48 * pistoncylinder device contains nitrogen gas at a specified state. The boundary work is to be
determined for the polytropic e4pansion of nitrogen.
Properties The gas constant for nitrogen is ".!%$3 k&'kg.( )Table *!,.
Analysis The mass and volume of nitrogen at the initial state are
kg "#3"! . "
(, !#. !" k&'kg.(,)+ !%$3 . " )
, m k0a,)"."# )+."
.
+
+ +
+
RT
P
m
V
.
.
!
!
!
m "3$.# . "
k0a +""
(, !#. 'kg.(,)+"" k0a.m kg,)".!%$3 "#3"! . " )
+
P
mRT
V
The polytropic inde4 is determined from
!2% . + , m .# k0a,)"."3$ )+"" , m k0a,)"."# )+."
. .
! ! + +
n P P
n n n n
V V
The boundary work is determined from
"* %&$
!2% . + +
, m k0a,)"."# )+." , m .# k0a,)"."3$ )+""
+
. .
+ + ! !
n
P P
W
b
V V
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2!
:
!
+." k0a
+!"8
P
)k0a,
v )m
.
'kg,
+""
!
+
". +
2""
""
.
P
)psia,
V )ft
.
,
+""
+
! 2
""
!
49 * pistoncylinder device with a set of stops contains steam at a specified state. :ow, the steam is
cooled. The compression work for two cases and the final temperature are to be determined.
Analysis )a, The specific volumes for the initial and final states are )Table *$,
'kg m !.!# . "
8 !"
60a +
'kg m ."$$+ . "
8 2""
60a +
.
!
!
! .
+
+
+
v v
T
P
T
P
:oting that pressure is constant during the process, the boundary
work is determined from
"* ((&% 'kg m , !.!# . " ."$$+ . " k0a,) kg,)+""" . . " ) , )
.
! +
v v mP W
b
)b, The volume of the cylinder at the final state is $"> of initial
volume. Then, the boundary work becomes
"* ,&.) 'kg m , ."$$+ . " $" . " ."$$+ . " k0a,) kg,)+""" . . " ) , $" . " )
.
+ +
v v mP W
b
The temperature at the final state is
C %'%&$
!
.
!
!
'kg m , ."$$+ . " $" . " )
60a  . "
T
P
v
)Table *,
410 * pistoncylinder device contains nitrogen gas at a specified state. The
final temperature and the boundary work are to be determined for the
isentropic e4pansion of nitrogen.
Properties The properties of nitrogen are R ".!%$3 k&'kg.( , k
+.2 )Table *!a,
Analysis The mass and the final volume of nitrogen are
kg "#3"! . "
(, !#. !" k&'kg.(,)+ !%$3 . " )
, m k0a,)"."# )+."
.
+
+ +
+
RT
P
m
V
.
!
2 . +
!
2 . + .
! ! + +
m "322. . " k0a, )+"" , m k0a,)"."# )+." V V V V
k k
P P
The final temperature and the boundary work are determined as
# ,4&
'kg.(, k0a.m kg,)".!%$3 "#3"! . " )
, m 2. k0a,)"."32 )+""
.
.
! !
!
mR
P
T
V
"* %&4
2 . + +
, m k0a,)"."# )+." , m 2. k0a,)"."32 )+""
+
. .
+ + ! !
k
P P
W
b
V V
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2.
1team
".. kg
+ 60a
2""8
Q
:
!
+." k0a
+!"8
411 1aturated water vapor in a cylinder is heated at constant pressure until its temperature rises to a
specified value. The boundary work done during this process is to be determined.
Assumptions The process is quasiequilibrium.
Properties :oting that the pressure remains constant during this process, the specific volumes at the
initial and the final states are )Table *2 through *$,
'kg m .#+$2. "
8 !""
k0a "" .
'kg m ".$"3!
vapor 1at.
k0a .""
.
!
!
!
.
k0a ."" ? +
+
;
v
v v
T
P
P
g
Analysis The boundary work is determined from its definition to be
"* %'&)
,
_
.
.
+ ! + !
!
+
out ,
m k0a +
k& +
'kg m ".$"3!, 2. k0a,)".#+$ kg,)."" )
, ) , ) v v V V V mP P d P W
b
Discussion The positive sign indicates that work is done by the system )work output,.
412 @efrigerant+.2a in a cylinder is heated at constant pressure until its temperature rises to a specified
value. The boundary work done during this process is to be determined.
Assumptions The process is quasiequilibrium.
Properties :oting that the pressure remains constant during this process, the specific volumes at the
initial and the final states are )Table *++ through *+.,
'kg m "."!#2+.
8 " #
k0a "" %
'kg m "."""33"
liquid 1at.
k0a "" %
.
!
!
!
.
k0a "" % ? +
+
;
v
v v
T
P
P
f
Analysis The boundary work is determined from its definition to be
kg !...+
'kg m "."""33"
m ".!
.
.
+
+
v
V
m
and
"* ''.%
,
_
.
.
+ ! + !
!
+
out ,
m k0a +
k& +
'kg m "."""33", 2+. k0a,)"."!# kg,)%"" )!...+
, ) , ) v v V V V mP P d P W
b
Discussion The positive sign indicates that work is done by the system )work output,.
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educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
22
v
P
(kPa)
%""
+ !
P
(kPa
)
V
.""
+ !
413 EES 0roblem 2+! is reconsidered. The effect of pressure on the work done as the pressure varies
from 2"" k0a to +!"" k0a is to be investigated. The work done is to be plotted versus the pressure.
*nalysis The problem is solved using AA1, and the solution is given below.
"Knowns"
Vol_1L=200 [L]
x_1=0 "saturated liquid state"
P=900 [kPa]
T_2=70 []
"!olution"
Vol_1=Vol_1L"#on$ert%L&'()*
"T+e work is t+e ,oundar work done , t+e ./1)0a durin1 t+e #onstant 2ressure
2ro#ess3"
4_,oundar=P"%Vol_2/Vol_1*
"T+e 'ass is5"
Vol_1='"$_1
$_1=$olu'e%.1)0a&P=P&x=x_1*
Vol_2='"$_2
$_2=$olu'e%.1)0a&P=P&T=T_2*
"Plot in6or'ation5"
$[1]=$_1
$[2]=$_2
P[1]=P
P[2]=P
T[1]=te'2erature%.1)0a&P=P&x=x_1*
T[2]=T_2
P
[kPa]
4,oundar
[k7]
000 880)
900 8009
800 81:)
700 9972
:00 9789
900 9971
1000 9)77
1100 91:7
1200 0999
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2
%+
/4
%+
/,
%+
/(
%+
/%
/'+
/('
+
('
'+
.'
%++
%('
%'+
v 01
,
2"g3
T
0
4
C
3
900 kPa
R%,4a
%
(
%+
/4
%+
/,
%+
/(
%+
/%
%+
%
%+
(
%+
,
%+
4
%+
'
v 01
,
2"g3
5
0
"
5
a
3
R%,4a
%
(
'+ + .+ $+ )+ %++ %%+ %(+ %,+
'+++
'4'+
')++
,'+
$++
.('+
T0(3 0C3
!
6
o
u
n
d
a
r
0
"
*
3
5 7 $++ "5a
4++ '++ ++ .++ $++ )++ %+++ %%++ %(++
'.'+
%++
4'+
$++
.%'+
.'++
5 0"5a3
!
6
o
u
n
d
a
r
0
"
*
3
T
(
7 %++ C
4++ '++ ++ .++ $++ )++ %+++ %%++ %(++
4'++
'+++
''++
+++
'++
.+++
5 0"5a3
!
6
o
u
n
d
a
r
0
"
*
3
T
(
7 .+ C
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2$
414E 1uperheated water vapor in a cylinder is cooled at constant pressure until #"> of it condenses. The
boundary work done during this process is to be determined.
Assumptions The process is quasiequilibrium.
Properties :oting that the pressure remains constant during this process, the specific volumes at the
initial and the final states are )Table *2A through *$A,
'lbm ft .+$!. .
"."+#+, "..)+"."+ "."+#+
. . "
psia " 2
'lbm ft $3$ . +
B "" $
psia " 2
.
! !
!
!
.
+
+
+
+
+
fg f
x
x
P
T
P
v v v
v
Analysis The boundary work is determined from its definition to be
ft psia 2".% . 
=tu +
'lbm .$3$,ft + !. psia,)..+$ lbm,)2" )+$
, ) , )
.
.
+ !
!
+
+ ! out ,
Btu %4$,
,
_
v v V V V mP P d P W
b
Discussion The negative sign indicates that work is done on the system )work input,.
415 *ir in a cylinder is compressed at constant temperature until its pressure rises to a specified value.
The boundary work done during this process is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The process is quasiequilibrium. 2 *ir is an ideal gas.
Properties The gas constant of air is R ".!3# k&'kg.( )Table *+,.
Analysis The boundary work is determined from its definition to be
kJ 272
k0a $""
k0a +"
ln (, (,)!3 k&'kg kg,)".!3# )!.2
ln ln
!
+
!
+
+
!
+ + ou ,
P
P
mRT P d P W
t b
V
V
V V
Discussion The negative sign indicates that work is done on the system )work input,.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2#
P
V
+
!
T +!8
v
P
)psia,
2"
+ !
416E * gas in a cylinder is heated and is allowed to e4pand to a specified pressure in a process during
which the pressure changes linearly with volume. The boundary work done during this process is to be
determined.
Assumptions The process is quasiequilibrium.
Analysis )a, The pressure of the gas changes linearly with volume, and thus the process curve on a 0V
diagram will be a straight line. The boundary work during this process is simply the area under the
process curve, which is a trape;oidal. Thus,
*t state +<
psia !"
, ft ,)# psia'ft ) psia +
. .
+ +
+
+
b
b
b a P V
*t state !<
.
!
!
.
! !
ft !2
psia, !" ) , psia'ft ) psia +""
+
+
V
V
V b a P
and,
Btu 181
,
_
+
+
.
.
+ !
! +
out ,
ft psia .2".%
=tu +
#,ft )!2
!
psia +, )+""
, )
!
*rea V V
P P
W
b
Discussion The positive sign indicates that work is done by the system )work output,.
417 [Also solved by EES on enclosed CD] * gas in a cylinder e4pands polytropically to a specified
volume. The boundary work done during this process is to be determined.
Assumptions The process is quasiequilibrium.
Analysis The boundary work for this polytropic process can be determined directly from
k0a +!.#2
m ".!
m ".".
k0a, )+"
+..
.
.
!
+
+ !
,
_
,
_
n
P P
V
V
and,
kJ 651
,
_
.
.
!
+
+ + ! !
out ,
m k0a +
k& +
+.. +
m k0a "."., +" ".! )+!.#2
+ n
P P
d P W
b
V V
V
Discussion The positive sign indicates that work is done by the system )work output,.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
23
V
)ft
.
,
P
)psia,
+
+
! +""
#
P aV C b
P
)k0a,
V
)m
.
,
+
!
PV
+
"
".!
418 EES 0roblem 2+# is reconsidered. The process described in the problem is to be plotted on a PV
diagram, and the effect of the polytropic e4ponent n on the boundary work as the polytropic e4ponent
varies from +.+ to +.$ is to be plotted.
Analysis The problem is solved using AA1, and the solution is given below.
;un#tion <ound4ork%P[1]&V[1]&P[2]&V[2]&n*
"T+is 6un#tion returns t+e <oundar 4ork 6or t+e 2oltro2i# 2ro#ess3 T+is 6un#tion is
required
sin#e t+e ex2ression 6or ,oundar work de2ens on w+et+er n=1 or n=>1"
?6 n=>1 t+en
<ound4ork5=%P[2]"V[2]/P[1]"V[1]*@%1/n*"Ase Bquation )/22 w+en n=1"
else
<ound4ork5= P[1]"V[1]"ln%V[2]@V[1]* "Ase Bquation )/20 w+en n=1"
endi6
end
"?n2uts 6ro' t+e dia1ra' window"
Cn=13)
P[1] = 190 [kPa]
V[1] = 030) ['()]
V[2] = 032 ['()]
DasE=FG?.FH
"!ste'5 T+e 1as en#losed in t+e 2iston/#linder de$i#e3"
"Pro#ess5 Poltro2i# ex2ansion or #o'2ression& P"V(n = "
P[2]"V[2](n=P[1]"V[1](n
"n = 13)" "Poltro2i# ex2onent"
"?n2ut Iata"
4_, = <ound4ork%P[1]&V[1]&P[2]&V[2]&n*"[k7]"
"?6 we 'odi6 t+is 2ro,le' and s2e#i6 t+e 'ass& t+en we #an #al#ulate t+e 6inal
te'2erature o6
t+e 6luid 6or #o'2ression or ex2ansion"
'[1] = '[2] "onser$ation o6 'ass 6or t+e #losed sste'"
"LetFs sol$e t+e 2ro,le' 6or '[1] = 0309 k1"
'[1] = 0309 [k1]
";ind t+e te'2eratures 6ro' t+e 2ressure and s2e#i6i# $olu'e3"
T[1]=te'2erature%1asE&P=P[1]&$=V[1]@'[1]*
T[2]=te'2erature%1asE&P=P[2]&$=V[2]@'[2]*
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2%
+&+( +&+4 +&+ +&+$ +&% +&%( +&%4 +&% +&%$ +&(
+
(+
4+
+
$+
%++
%(+
%4+
%+
8 01
,
3
5
0
"
5
a
3
n 4,
[k7]
131 73778
13198 73)9)
13211 730)9
13287 837
13)22 83):7
13)7: 83090
130)) 93:2
130:9 93980
13900 93)2)
138 93097
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+"
%&% %&( %&, %&4 %&' %&
'
'&'

&'
.
.&'
$
n
!
6
0
"
*
3
419 :itrogen gas in a cylinder is compressed polytropically until the temperature rises to a specified
value. The boundary work done during this process is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The process is quasiequilibrium. 2 :itrogen is an ideal gas.
Properties The gas constant for nitrogen is R ".!%$3 k&'kg.( )Table *!a,
Analysis The boundary work for this polytropic process can be
determined from
kJ 890
+.2 +
."",( (,).$" k&'kg kg,)".!%$3 )!
+
, )
+
+ !
!
+
+ + ! !
out ,
n
T T mR
n
P P
d P W
b
V V
V
Discussion The negative sign indicates that work is done on
the system )work input,.
420 [Also solved by EES on enclosed CD] * gas whose equation of state is T R P
u
+ , ' +" )
!
v v
e4pands in a cylinder isothermally to a specified volume. The unit of the quantity +" and the boundary
work done during this process are to be determined.
Assumptions The process is quasiequilibrium.
Analysis )a, The term
!
' +" v
must have pressure units
since it is added to P.
Thus the quantity +" must have the unit k0aJm
$
'kmol
!
.
)b, The boundary work for this process can be determined from
!
!
! !
+"
, ' )
+"
'
+"
V
V
V
V
v
v
N T NR
N
N
T R T R
P
u u u
and
kJ 864
,
_
,
_
,
_
,
_
. . .
! ! $
.
.
+ !
!
+
!
!
+
!
!
!
+
out ,
m k0a +
k& +
m !
+
m 2
+
kmol, ,)". 'kmol m k0a )+"
m !
m 2
(,ln (,)."" k&'kmol 2 kmol,)3..+ )".
+ +
+" ln
+"
V V V
V
V
V V
V N T NR d
N T NR
d P W
u
u
b
Discussion The positive sign indicates that work is done by the system )work output,.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2++
P
V
+
!
PV
n
C
P
V
T ."" (
!
2
421 EES 0roblem 2!" is reconsidered. /sing the integration feature, the work done is to be calculated
and compared, and the process is to be plotted on a PV diagram.
Analysis The problem is solved using AA1, and the solution is given below.
"?n2ut Iata"
K=039 [k'ol]
$1_,ar=2@K "['()@k'ol]"
$2_,ar=0@K "['()@k'ol]"
T=)00 [K]
._u=:3)10 [k7@k'ol/K]
"T+e quation o6 state is5"
$_,ar"%PL10@$_,ar(2*=._u"T "P is in kPa"
"usin1 t+e BB! inte1ral 6un#tion& t+e ,oundar work& 4_,BB!& is"
4_,_BB!=K"inte1ral%P&$_,ar& $1_,ar& $2_,ar&0301*
"4e #an s+ow t+at 4_,+and= inte1eral o6 Pd$_,ar is
%one s+ould sol$e 6or P=;%$_,ar* and do t+e inte1ral F, +andF 6or 2ra#ti#e*3"
4_,_+and = K"%._u"T"ln%$2_,ar@$1_,ar* L10"%1@$2_,ar/1@$1_,ar**
"To 2lot P $s $_,ar& de6ine P_2lot =6%$_,ar_2lot& T* as"
C$_,ar_2lot"%P_2lotL10@$_,ar_2lot(2*=._u"TH
" P=P_2lot and $_,ar=$_,ar_2lot Must to 1enerate t+e 2ara'etri# ta,le 6or 2lottin1
2ur2oses3 To 2lot P $s $_,ar 6or a new te'2erature or $_,ar_2lot ran1e& re'o$e t+e
FCF and FHF 6ro' t+e a,o$e equation& and reset t+e $_,ar_2lot $alues in t+e
Para'etri# Ta,le3 T+en 2ress ;) or sele#t !ol$e Ta,le 6ro' t+e al#ulate 'enu3
Kext sele#t Kew Plot 4indow under t+e Plot 'enu to 2lot t+e new data3"
P2lot $2lot
82239 0
98037 03000
9093: 03::9
0873) 93)))
0)130 9377:
00038 83222
)7)39 83887
)9039 73111
)2939 73998
)1138 :
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+!
3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
v
p9ot
01:,2"1o93
5
p
9
o
t
0
"
5
a
3
P vs v
bar
T = 300 K
Area = W
boundar
1
2
422 8D! gas in a cylinder is compressed until the volume drops to a specified value. The pressure
changes during the process with volume as
!
V a P
. The boundary work done during this process is to
be determined.
Assumptions The process is quasiequilibrium.
Analysis The boundary work done during this
process is determined from
kJ 533
,
_
,
_
,
_
,
_
. . .
$
+ !
!
+
!
!
+
out ,
m k0a +
k& +
m "..
+
m ".+
+
, m k0a )3
+ +
V V
V
V
V a d
a
d P W
b
Discussion The negative sign indicates that work is done on the system )work input,.
423 1everal sets of pressure and volume data are taken as a gas e4pands. The boundary work done
during this process is to be determined using the e4perimental data.
Assumptions The process is quasiequilibrium.
Analysis 0lotting the given data on a PV diagram on a graph paper and evaluating the area under the
process curve, the work done is determined to be 025 kJ.
424 * pistoncylinder device contains nitrogen gas at a specified state. The boundary work is to be
determined for the isothermal e4pansion of nitrogen.
Properties The properties of nitrogen are R ".!%$3 k&'kg.( , k +.2 )Table *!a,.
Analysis Ee first determine initial and final volumes from ideal gas relation, and find the boundary work
using the relation for isothermal e4pansion of an ideal gas
.
+
+
m !!2. . "
k0a, )+."
(, !#. !" k&'kg.(,)+ !%$3 . " ) kg, ! . " )
+
P
mRT
V
.
!
!
m !%+$ . "
k0a, )+""
(, !#. !" k&'kg.(,)+ !%$3 . " ) kg, ! . " )
+
P
mRT
V
"* .&'
,
_
,
_
.
.
.
+
!
+ +
m !!2. . "
m !%+$ . "
ln , m . k0a,)".!!2 )+." ln
V
V
V P W
b
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+.
P
V
)m
.
,
P aV
!
".+ "..
+
!
:
!
+." k0a
+!"8
425 * pistoncylinder device contains air gas at a specified state. The air undergoes a cycle with three
processes. The boundary work for each process and the net work of the cycle are to be determined.
Properties The properties of air are R ".!3# k&'kg.( , k +.2 )Table *!a,.
Analysis Bor the isothermal e4pansion process<
.
+
+
m "+.2+ . "
k0a, )!"""
(, !#. " k&'kg.(,). !3# . " ) kg, + . " )
+
P
mRT
V
.
!
!
m ".$2 . "
k0a, )""
(, !#. " k&'kg.(,). !3# . " ) kg, + . " )
+
P
mRT
V
"* ,.&%$
,
_
,
_
.
.
.
+
!
+ + ! + ,
m "+.2+ . "
m ".$2 . "
ln , m 2+ k0a,)"."+. )!""" ln
V
V
V P W
b
Bor the polytropic compression process<
.
.
! . +
.
! . + .
. . ! !
m "+$%" . " k0a, )!""" , m $2 k0a,)".". )"" V V V V
n n
P P
"* /,4&$
! . + +
, m $2 k0a,)".". )"" , m %" k0a,)"."+$ )!"""
+
. .
! ! . .
. ! ,
n
P P
W
b
V V
Bor the constant pressure compression process<
"* /&).
.
. + . + . ,
"."+$%",m 2+ k0a,)"."+. )!""" , ) V V P W
b
The net work for the cycle is the sum of the works for each process
"* /4&' + + + +
, %# . $ ) , 3$ . .2 ) +3 . .#
+ . , . ! , ! + , net b b b
W W W W
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+2
*ir
! 60a
."8
426 * saturated water mi4ture contained in a springloaded pistoncylinder device is heated until the
pressure and temperature rises to specified values. The work done during this process is to be determined.
Assumptions The process is quasiequilibrium.
Analysis The initial state is saturated mi4ture at %"8. The
pressure and the specific volume at this state are )Table *2,,
'kg m !.$3$ . "
, ""+".$ . " .%. . ! ,) +" . " ) ""+".$ . "
k0a +3. . #"
.
+
+
+
+
fg f
x
P
v v v
The final specific volume at 3"" k0a and !"F8 is )Table *$,
'kg m !%.!+ . "
.
!
v
1ince this is a linear process, the work done is equal to the area under the process line +!<
"* (4&'(
,
_
+
.
.
+ !
! +
out ,
m k0a +
k& +
,m !.$3$ . " + kg,)".!%.! )+
!
,k0a 3"" )#".+3.
, )
!
*rea v v m
P P
W
b
427 * saturated water mi4ture contained in a springloaded pistoncylinder device is cooled until it is
saturated liquid at a specified temperature. The work done during this process is to be determined.
Assumptions The process is quasiequilibrium.
Analysis The initial state is saturated mi4ture at + 60a. The
specific volume at this state is )Table *,,
'kg m "!"2" . "
, ""++!# . " +%2.$ . " ,) +" . " ) ""++!# . "
.
+
+
+
fg f
xv v v
The final state is saturated liquid at +""F8 )Table *2,
'kg m ""+"2. . "
k0a 2! . +"+
.
!
!
f
P
v v
1ince this is a linear process, the work done is equal to the area under the process line +!<
"* '&,4
,
_
+
.
.
+ !
! +
out ,
m k0a +
k& +
,m "!"2" . " 2. kg,)".""+" )".
!
,k0a 2! . +"+ )+"""
, )
!
*rea v v m
P P
W
b
The negative sign shows that the work is done on the system in the amount of ..2 k&.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+
P
v
+
!
3"" k0a
P
v
!
+
+ 60a
428 *rgon is compressed in a polytropic process. The final temperature is to be determined.
Assumptions The process is quasiequilibrium.
Analysis Bor a polytropic e4pansion or compression process,
8onstant
n
Pv
Bor an ideal gas,
RT P v
8ombining these equations produces
# 444&.
,
_
,
_
! . + ' ! . "
+ )
+
!
+ !
k0a +!"
k0a +!""
(, .". )
!"n n
P
P
T T
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+$
C9o;ed S;te1 Energ Ana9;i;
429 1aturated water vapor is isothermally condensed to a saturated liquid in a pistoncylinder device. The
heat transfer and the work done are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The cylinder is stationary and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are ;ero. 2
There are no work interactions involved other than the boundary work. 3 The thermal energy stored in the
cylinder itself is negligible. 4 The compression or e4pansion process is quasiequilibrium.
Analysis Ee take the contents of the cylinder as the system. This is a closed system since no mass enters
or leaves. The energy balance for this stationary closed system can be e4pressed as
, )
", 0A (A )since , )
+ ! in , out
+ ! out in ,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
u u m W Q
u u m # Q W
E E E
b
b
!
!
The properties at the initial and final states are )Table *2,
k&'kg 2$ . 3"
kg ' m ""++# . "
"
8 " !"
k0a % . +2
k&'kg ! . !%2
kg ' m +!#!+ . "
+
8 " !"
!
.
!
!
!
! +
+
.
+
+
+
f
f
g
g
u u x
T
P P
u u x
T
v v
v v
The work done during this process is
k&'kg " . +%$
m k0a +
k& +
'kg m ".+!#!+, +# k0a,)".""+ )+2.% , )
.
.
+ !
!
+
out ,
,
_
v v V P d P $
b
That is,
"*2"g %)&+
in , b
$
1ubstituting the energy balance equation, we get
"*2"g %)4+ + + # . +#2. " . +%$ , )
in , + ! in , out fg b b
u $ u u $ %
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+#
T
v
! +
Heat
Eater
!""8
sat. vapor
430E The heat transfer during a process that a closed system undergoes without any internal energy
change is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The system is stationary and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are ;ero. 2 The
compression or e4pansion process is quasiequilibrium.
Analysis The energy balance for this stationary closed system can be e4pressed as
out in
out in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
", 0A (A )since "
W Q
# W Q
E E E
!
!
Then,
Btu (+'
,
_
ft lbf ##3.+#
=tu +
ft lbf +" $ . +
$
in
Q
431 The table is to be completed using conservation of energy principle for a closed system.
Analysis The energy balance for a closed system can be e4pressed as
, )
+ ! + ! out in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
e e m E E W Q
E E E
!
!
*pplication of this equation gives the following completed table<
Qin
)k&,
Wout
)k&,
E+
)k&,
E!
)k&,
m
)kg,
e! e+
)k&'kg,
!3" 44+ +"!" 3$" . /',&,
." +." " .+  /)
/4+ !$" ."" + ! +"
."" ''+ #" "" + /('+
/4++ !"" '++ ."" ! +""
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+3
432 * substance is contained in a wellinsulated, rigid container that is equipped with a stirring device.
The change in the internal energy of this substance for a given work input is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The tank is stationary and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are ;ero. 2 The
tank is insulated and thus heat transfer is negligible.
Analysis This is a closed system since no mass enters or
leaves. The energy balance for this stationary closed system
can be e4pressed as
", 0A (A )since
in sh,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
# W
E E E
!
!
Then,
"* %' #
433 6otor oil is contained in a rigid container that is equipped with a stirring device. The rate of specific
energy increase is to be determined.
Analysis This is a closed system since no mass enters or leaves. The energy balance for closed system can
be e4pressed as
E W Q
E E E
!
!
+
in sh, in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
Then,
E !.  . !  . + +
in sh, in
+ + W Q E
Gividing this by the mass in the system gives
; *2"g %&.
kg +.
&'s !.
m
E
e
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educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+%
434E @+.2a contained in a rigid vessel is heated. The heat transfer is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The system is stationary and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are ;ero. 2
There are no work interactions involved 3 The thermal energy stored in the vessel itself is negligible.
Analysis Ee take @+.2a as the system. This is a closed system since no
mass enters or leaves. The energy balance for this stationary closed
system can be e4pressed as
", 0A (A )since , )
+ ! in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
u u m # Q
E E E
!
!
The properties at the initial and final states are )Tables *++A, *+.A,
=tu'lbm ." . +++
lbm ' ft %$+%$ . "
B " +"
=tu'lbm 3+ . !% , 3#2 . 3 ,) !## . " ) "+% . $
lbm ' ft %$+%$ . " , "++$ . " 22!$ . . ,) !## . " ) "++$ . "
!## . "
B !"
!
.
+ !
!
+
.
+
+
+
+ +
+ +
u
T
xu u u
x
x
T
fg f
fg f
v v
v v v
:ote that the final state is superheated vapor and the internal energy at
this state should be obtained by interpolation using " psia and $" psia
mini tables )+""B line, in Table *+.A. The mass in the system is
lbm ".% . +
'lbm ft %$+%$ . "
ft +
.
.
+
+
v
V
m
1ubstituting,
Btu $4&. =tu'lbm , 3+ . !% " lbm,)+++.. ".% . + ) , )
+ ! in
u u m Q
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2!"
T
v
!
+
@+.2a
+ ft
.
!"FB
x ".!##
Q
435 *n insulated rigid tank is initially filled with a saturated liquidvapor mi4ture of water. *n electric
heater in the tank is turned on, and the entire liquid in the tank is vapori;ed. The length of time the heater
was kept on is to be determined, and the process is to be shown on a Pv diagram.
Assumptions 1 The tank is stationary and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are ;ero. 2 The
device is wellinsulated and thus heat transfer is negligible. 3 The energy stored in the resistance wires,
and the heat transferred to the tank itself is negligible.
Analysis Ee take the contents of the tank as the system. This is a closed system since no mass enters or
leaves. :oting that the volume of the system is constant and thus there is no boundary work, the energy
balance for this stationary closed system can be e4pressed as
, ) H
", 0A (A )since , )
+ !
+ ! in ,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
u u m t &
Q u u m # W
E E E
e
!
!
The properties of water are )Tables *2 through *$,
( ) [ ]
( )
k&'kg !$.!
vapor sat.
'kg m ".2!2.+
k&'kg %.%.2 !"33.! ".! 2+#.2"
'kg m ".2!2.+ ".""+"2. +.$%2+ ".! ".""+"2.
k&'kg !"33.! , 2" . 2+#
'kg m +.$%2+ , ""+"2. . "
! . "
k0a +""
'kg m ".2!2.+ ?
!
.
+ !
+ +
.
+ +
.
+
+
.
+ +
+ +
g
fg f
fg f
fg f
g f
u u
u x u u
x
u u x
P
v v
v v v
v v
1ubstituting,
1in %',&%
,
_
s %+3$
k&'s +
H* +"""
g %.%.2,k&'k kg,)!$.! ) , * 3 ,) H ++" )
t
t
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2!+
v
T
+
!
H
!
D
V const.
W
e
436 EES 0roblem 2. is reconsidered. The effect of the initial mass of water on the length of time
required to completely vapori;e the liquid as the initial mass varies from + kg to +" kg is to be
investigated. The vapori;ation time is to be plotted against the initial mass.
Analysis The problem is solved using AA1, and the solution is given below.
P.NBIA.B P2O2%$[1]5P[2]&x[2]*
;luidE=F!tea'_?GP4!F
?6 $[1] > V_.?T%;luidE* t+en
P[2]=2ressure%;luidE&$=$[1]&x=1*
x[2]=1
else
P[2]=2ressure%;luidE&$=$[1]&x=0*
x[2]=0
Bnd?6
Bnd
"Knowns"
C'=9 [k1]H
P[1]=100 [kPa]
=0379 "'oisture"
Volts=110 [V]
?=: [a'2]
"!olution"
"onser$ation o6 Bner1 6or t+e #losed tank5"
B_dot_in/B_dot_out=IBLTGB_dot
B_dot_in=4_dot_ele "[k4]"
4_dot_ele=Volts"?"NKVB.T%7@s&k4* "[k4]"
B_dot_out=0 "[k4]"
IBLTGB_dot='"%u[2]/u[1]*@IBLTGt_s "[k4]"
IBLTGt_'in=IBLTGt_s"#on$ert%s&'in* "['in]"
"T+e qualit at state 1 is5"
;luidE=F!tea'_?GP4!F
x[1]=1/
u[1]=?KTBKB.DP%;luidE&P=P[1]& x=x[1]* "[k7@k1]"
$[1]=$olu'e%;luidE&P=P[1]& x=x[1]* "['()@k1]"
T[1]=te'2erature%;luidE&P=P[1]& x=x[1]* "[]"
"+e#k to see i6 state 2 is on t+e saturated liquid line or saturated $a2or line5"
all P2O2%$[1]5P[2]&x[2]*
u[2]=?KTBKB.DP%;luidE&P=P[2]& x=x[2]* "[k7@k1]"
$[2]=$olu'e%;luidE&P=P[2]& x=x[2]* "['()@k1]"
T[2]=te'2erature%;luidE&P=P[2]& x=x[2]* "[]"
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educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2!!
%+
/,
%+
/(
%+
/%
%+
+
%+
%
%+
(
%+
,
+
%++
(++
,++
4++
'++
++
.++
v 01
,
2"g3
T
0
4
C
3
437.9 kPa
100 kPa
0.05 0.1 0.2 0.5
Stea1
%
(
t'in
['in]
'
[k1]
)038) 1
81328 2
913:9 )
12239 0
19)32 9
1:)3: 8
21030 7
209 :
27937 9
)083) 10
% ( , 4 '  . $ ) %+
+
'+
%++
%'+
(++
('+
,++
,'+
1 0"g3
t
1
i
n
0
1
i
n
3
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educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2!.
437 * cylinder is initially filled with @+.2a at a specified state. The refrigerant is cooled at constant
pressure. The amount of heat loss is to be determined, and the process is to be shown on a Tv
diagram.
Assumptions 1 The cylinder is stationary and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are ;ero. 2
There are no work interactions involved other than the boundary work. 3 The thermal energy stored in the
cylinder itself is negligible. 4 The compression or e4pansion process is quasiequilibrium.
Analysis Ee take the contents of the cylinder as the system. This is a closed system since no mass enters
or leaves. The energy balance for this stationary closed system can be e4pressed as
, )
", 0A (A )since , )
+ ! out
+ ! ou , out
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
' ' m Q
u u m # W Q
E E E
t b
!
!
since # C Wb ( during a constant pressure quasi
equilibrium process. The properties of @+.2a are
)Tables *++ through *+.,
k&'kg #!..2
8 +
k0a 3""
k&'kg .33 ."$
8 " #
k0a 3""
8 + ? !
!
!
+
+
+
f
' '
T
P
'
T
P
1ubstituting,
Qout  ) kg,)#!..2  ."$.33, k&'kg 1173 kJ
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2!2
T
v
!
+
@+.2a
3"" k0a
Q
438E * cylinder contains water initially at a specified state. The water is heated at constant pressure. The
final temperature of the water is to be determined, and the process is to be shown on a Tv diagram.
Assumptions 1 The cylinder is stationary and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are ;ero. 2
The thermal energy stored in the cylinder itself is negligible. 3 The compression or e4pansion process is
quasiequilibrium.
Analysis Ee take the contents of the cylinder as the system. This is a closed system since no mass enters
or leaves. The energy balance for this stationary closed system can be e4pressed as
, )
", 0A (A )since , )
+ ! in
+ ! out , in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
' ' m Q
u u m # W Q
E E E
b
!
!
since # C Wb ( during a constant pressure quasiequilibrium
process. The properties of water are )Tables *$A,
=tu'lbm +!+#."
'lbm ft 2
psia +!"
'lbm ft 2
lbm ".
ft !
+
.
+
+
.
.
+
+
'
P
m
v
V
v
1ubstituting,
Then,
F %%%&4
!
!
!
!
!
=tu'lbm +$+#."
psia +!"
=tu'lbm +$+#."
'lbm +!+#.",=tu lbm,) )". =tu !""
T
'
P
'
'
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2!
H
!
D
+!" psia
Q
T
v
!
+
439 * cylinder is initially filled with saturated liquid water at a specified pressure. The water is heated
electrically as it is stirred by a paddlewheel at constant pressure. The voltage of the current source is to be
determined, and the process is to be shown on a Pv diagram.
Assumptions 1 The cylinder is stationary and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are ;ero. 2
The cylinder is wellinsulated and thus heat transfer is negligible. 3 The thermal energy stored in the
cylinder itself is negligible. 4 The compression or e4pansion process is quasiequilibrium.
Analysis Ee take the contents of the cylinder as the system. This is a closed system since no mass enters
or leaves. The energy balance for this stationary closed system can be e4pressed as
, ) , )
, )
", 0A (A )since
+ ! in pw,
+ ! in pw, in e,
out b, in pw, in e,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
' ' m W t &
' ' m W W
Q # W W W
E E E
+
+
+
8
!
!
since # C Wb ( during a constant pressure quasiequilibrium
process. The properties of water are )Tables *2 through *$,
( )
kg 2.#.+
'kg m ".""+"#
m ".""
k&'kg +%..$ + . !!+.  . " "+ . 23#
 . "
k0a +#
'kg m ".""+"#
k&'kg 23#."+
liquid sat.
k0a +#
.
.
+
+
! !
!
!
.
k0a +# ? +
k0a +# ? +
+
+ +
;
v
V
v v
m
' x ' '
x
P
' '
P
fg f
f
f
1ubstituting,
8 ((,&)
,
_
+
k&'s +
H* +"""
s, $" *,)2 )3
k& 23.
k& 23.
kg 23#."+,k&' kg,)+%..$ )2.#.+ k&, )2""
!
!
!
t &
t &
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2!$
H
!
D
P const.
W
pw
W
e
v
P
+ !
440 [Also solved by EES on enclosed CD] * cylinder equipped with an e4ternal spring is initially filled
with steam at a specified state. Heat is transferred to the steam, and both the temperature and pressure
rise. The final temperature, the boundary work done by the steam, and the amount of heat transfer are to
be determined, and the process is to be shown on a Pv diagram.
Assumptions 1 The cylinder is stationary and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are ;ero. 2
The thermal energy stored in the cylinder itself is negligible. 3 The compression or e4pansion process is
quasiequilibrium. 4 The spring is a linear spring.
Analysis Ee take the contents of the cylinder as the system. This is a closed system since no mass enters
or leaves. :oting that the spring is not part of the system )it is e4ternal,, the energy balance for this
stationary closed system can be e4pressed as
out , + ! in
+ ! out ,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
, )
", 0A (A )since , )
b
b )n
W u u m Q
u u m # W Q
E E E
+
!
!
The properties of steam are )Tables *2 through *$,
k&'kg 2.!.!
'kg m +.!%$$
k0a ""
'kg m +.!%$$
kg ".2$!3
m ".$
kg ".2$!3
'kg m +."3"2%
m ".
k&'kg !$2.$
'kg m +."3"2%
8 !""
k0a !""
!
!
.
!
!
.
.
!
!
.
.
+
+
+
.
+
+
+
u
T
P
m
m
u
T
P
C %%,(
v
V
v
v
V
v
)b, The pressure of the gas changes linearly with volume, and thus the process curve on a 0H diagram
will be a straight line. The boundary work during this process is simply the area under the process curve,
which is a trape;oidal. Thus,
( ) "* ,'
,
_
+
+
.
.
+ !
! +
m k0a +
k& +
m "., )".$
!
k0a "", )!""
!
V V
P P
A*ea W
b
)c, Brom the energy balance we have
Qin )".2$!3 kg,)2.!.!  !$2.$,k&'kg C . k& $+$ "*
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2!#
P
v
!
+
H
!
D
!"" k0a
!""8
Q
441 EES 0roblem 22" is reconsidered. The effect of the initial temperature of steam on the final
temperature, the work done, and the total heat transfer as the initial temperature varies from +"F8 to
!"F8 is to be investigated. The final results are to be plotted against the initial temperature.
Analysis The problem is solved using AA1, and the solution is given below.
"T+e 2ro#ess is 1i$en ,5"
"P[2]=P[1]Lk"x"G@G& and as t+e s2rin1 'o$es FxF a'ount& t+e $olu'e #+an1es ,
V[2]/V[1]3"
P[2]=P[1]L%!2rin1_#onst*"%V[2] / V[1]* "P[2] is a linear 6un#tion o6 V[2]"
"w+ere !2rin1_#onst = k@G& t+e a#tual s2rin1 #onstant di$ided , t+e 2iston 6a#e
area"
"onser$ation o6 'ass 6or t+e #losed sste' is5"
'[2]='[1]
"T+e #onser$ation o6 ener1 6or t+e #losed sste' is"
"B_in / B_out = IeltaB& ne1le#t IeltaKB and IeltaPB 6or t+e sste'"
Q_in / 4_out = '[1]"%u[2]/u[1]*
IBLTGA='[1]"%u[2]/u[1]*
"?n2ut Iata"
P[1]=200 [kPa]
V[1]=039 ['()]
"T[1]=200 []"
P[2]=900 [kPa]
V[2]=038 ['()]
;luidE=F!tea'_?GP4!F
'[1]=V[1]@s2$ol[1]
s2$ol[1]=$olu'e%;luidE&T=T[1]& P=P[1]*
u[1]=intener1%;luidE& T=T[1]& P=P[1]*
s2$ol[2]=V[2]@'[2]
"T+e 6inal te'2erature is5"
T[2]=te'2erature%;luidE&P=P[2]&$=s2$ol[2]*
u[2]=intener1%;luidE& P=P[2]& T=T[2]*
4net_ot+er = 0
4_out=4net_ot+er L 4_,
"4_, = inte1ral o6 P[2]"dV[2] 6or 039=V[2]=038 and is 1i$en ,5"
4_,=P[1]"%V[2]/V[1]*L!2rin1_#onst@2"%V[2]/V[1]*(2
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educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2!3
Qin
[k7]
T1
[]
T2
[]
4out
[k7]
77:32 190 979 )9
79)32 179 1090 )9
:0: 200 11)1 )9
:2237 229 1209 )9
:)731 290 12:9 )9
10
"3
10
"2
10
"1
10
0
10
1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
v 01
,
2"g3
5
0
"
5
a
3
200 #
1132 #
Stea1
%
(
Area 7 !
6
%'+ %.+ %)+ (%+ (,+ ('+
+
%+
(+
,+
4+
'+
T0%3 0C3
!
o
u
t
0
"
*
3
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educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2!%
150 170 190 210 230 250
770
780
790
800
810
820
830
840
T0%3 0C3
<
i
n
0
"
*
3
150 170 190 210 230 250
950
1000
1050
1100
1150
1200
1250
1300
T0%3 0C3
T
0
(
3
0
C
3
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2."
442 Two tanks initially separated by a partition contain steam at different states. :ow the partition is
removed and they are allowed to mi4 until equilibrium is established. The temperature and quality of the
steam at the final state and the amount of heat lost from the tanks are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The tank is stationary and thus the kinetic and
potential energy changes are ;ero. 2 There are no work
interactions.
Analysis )a, Ee take the contents of both tanks as the system.
This is a closed system since no mass enters or leaves. :oting
that the volume of the system is constant and thus there is no
boundary work, the energy balance for this stationary closed
system can be e4pressed as
[ ] [ ] ", 0A (A )since , ) , )
+ ! + ! out
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
+ +
W u u m u u m # # Q
E E E
+ A + A
!
!
The properties of steam in both tanks at the initial state are )Tables *2 through *$,
k&'kg # . !#%.
'kg m !#%% . "
8 .""
k0a +"""
, +
.
, +
, +
, +
A
A
A
A
u T
P
v
( ) [ ]
( ) k&'kg 2 . +% 2 . +%!# "." .$$ $.+
'kg m ".+%$#% ".""+"%+ "..%!23 "." ".""+"%+
k&'kg 2 . +%!# , $$ . $.+
'kg m ..%!23 " , ""+"%+ . "
" . "
8 +"
+ , +
.
+ , +
.
+
, +
+ +
+ +
fg f +
fg f +
fg f
g f +
u x u u
x
u u x
T
v v v
v v
The total volume and total mass of the system are
kg  ! .
m +"$ . + 'kg, m +%$#% . " kg,) . ) 'kg, m !#%% . " kg,) ! )
. . .
, + , +
+ +
+ + +
+ A
+ + A A + A
m m m
m m v v V V V
:ow, the specific volume at the final state may be determined
'kg m !!+!# . "
kg 
m +"$ . +
.
.
!
m
V
v
which fi4es the final state and we can determine other properties
( ) k&'kg 3 . +!3! + . +%3! "..$2+ .++ $+
""+"#. . " $"3! . "
""+"#. . " !!+!# . "
'kg m !!+!# . "
k0a "" .
! !
!
!
k0a ."" ? sat !
.
!
!
+ +
fg f
f g
f
u x u u
x
T T
P
+&,4%
C %,,&'
v v
v v
v
)b, 1ubstituting,
[ ] [ ]
k& .%% k&'kg , 2 . +% 3 . +!3! ) kg, . ) k&'kg , # . !#%. 3 . +!3! ) kg, ! )
, ) , )
+ ! + ! out
+
+ +
+ A + A
u u m u u m # # Q
or "* ,)')
out
Q
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2.+
T*:( *
! kg
+ 60a
.""8
T*:( =
. kg
+"8
x".
Q
443 * room is heated by an electrical radiator containing heating oil. Heat is lost from the room. The
time period during which the heater is on is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 *ir is an ideal gas since it is at a high temperature and low pressure relative to its critical
point values of +2+8 and ..## 60a. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible,
" Ipe Ike
. 3 8onstant specific heats at room temperature can be used for air. This assumption results
in negligible error in heating and airconditioning applications. 4 The local atmospheric pressure is +""
k0a. 5 The room is airtight so that no air leaks in and out during the process.
Properties The gas constant of air is R ".!3# k0a.m
.
'kg.( )Table *+,. *lso, cv ".#+3 k&'kg.( for air
at room temperature )Table *!,. Dil properties are given to be , %" kg'm
.
and c !.! k&'kg.8.
Analysis Ee take the air in the room and the oil in the radiator to
be the system. This is a closed system since no mass crosses the
system boundary. The energy balance for this stationary constant
volume closed system can be e4pressed as
, " 0A (A )since ,J ) K ,J ) K
, )
oil + ! air + !
oil air out in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
+
+
T T mc T T mc
# # t Q W
E E E
 v
!
!
The mass of air and oil are
kg " . !3 , m ,)"."." kg'm )%"
kg .! . $!
(, !#. (,)+" 'kg m k0a )".!3#
, m k0a,)" )+""
. .
oil oil oil
.
.
+
air
air
+
V
V
m
RT
P
m
1ubstituting,
1in ,4&+ ; (+,$
+
t
t 8 +", 8,)" k&'kg kg,)!.! )!3." 8 +", 8,)!" k&'kg kg,)".#+3 )$!..! k&'s, . . " 3 . + )
Discussion In practice, the pressure in the room will remain constant during this process rather than the
volume, and some air will leak out as the air e4pands. *s a result, the air in the room will undergo a
constant pressure e4pansion process. Therefore, it is more proper to be conservative and to using (
instead of use # in heating and airconditioning applications.
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2.!
+"8
Q
@adiator
@oom
444 1aturated liquid water is heated at constant pressure to a saturated vapor in a pistoncylinder device.
The heat transfer is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The cylinder is stationary and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are ;ero. 2
There are no work interactions involved other than the boundary work. 3 The thermal energy stored in the
cylinder itself is negligible. 4 The compression or e4pansion process is quasiequilibrium.
Analysis Ee take the contents of the cylinder as the system. This is a closed system since no mass enters
or leaves. The energy balance for this stationary closed system can be e4pressed as
, )
, )
", 0A (A )since , )
+ ! in
+ ! ou , in
+ ! ou , in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
' ' m Q
u u m W Q
u u m # W Q
E E E
t b
t b
+
!
!
since # C Wb ( during a constant pressure quasi
equilibrium process. 1ince water changes from saturated
liquid to saturated vapor, we have
"* 4(($ , k&'kg kg,)!++..3 ! )
in fg
m' Q
since
2,  * )Table k&'kg 3 . !++.
8 ?+"
fg
'
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educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2..
T
v
+ !
Eater
! kg
+"F8
Q
445 * saturated water mi4ture contained in a springloaded pistoncylinder device is heated until the
pressure and volume rise to specified values. The heat transfer and the work done are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The cylinder is stationary and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are ;ero. 2
There are no work interactions involved other than the boundary work. 3 The thermal energy stored in the
cylinder itself is negligible. 4 The compression or e4pansion process is quasiequilibrium.
Analysis Ee take the contents of the cylinder as the system.
This is a closed system since no mass enters or leaves. The
energy balance for this stationary closed system can be
e4pressed as
, )
", 0A (A )since , )
+ ! ou , in
+ ! ou , in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
u u m W Q
u u m # W Q
E E E
t b
t b
+
!
!
The initial state is saturated mi4ture at # k0a. The specific
volume and internal energy at this state are )Table *,,
k&'kg 3% . $3 , 3 . !+++ ,) +. . " ) .$ . .32
'kg m !3%+2 . " , ""+".# . " !+#! . ! ,) +. . " ) ""+".# . "
+
.
+
+ +
+ +
fg f
fg f
xu u u
xv v v
The mass of water is
kg %+#" . $
'kg m !3%+2 . "
m !
.
.
+
+
v
V
m
The final specific volume is
'kg m #!!3 . "
kg %+#" . $
m 
.
.
!
!
m
V
v
The final state is now fi4ed. The internal energy at this specific volume and ."" k0a pressure is )Table *
$,
k&'kg ! . !$#
!
u
1ince this is a linear process, the work done is equal to the area under the process line +!<
"* '(&'
,
_
+
+
.
.
+ !
! +
out ,
m k0a +
k& +
,m ! )
!
,k0a ."" )#
, )
!
*rea V V
P P
W
b
1ubstituting into energy balance equation gives
"* %4=,$' + + k&'kg , 3% . $3 kg,)!$#.! %+#" . $ ) k&  . $! , )
+ ! out , in
u u m W Q
b
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educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2.2
P
v
+
!
."" k0a
# k0a
446 @+.2a contained in a springloaded pistoncylinder device is cooled until the temperature and
volume drop to specified values. The heat transfer and the work done are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The cylinder is stationary and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are ;ero. 2
There are no work interactions involved other than the boundary work. 3 The thermal energy stored in the
cylinder itself is negligible. 4 The compression or e4pansion process is quasiequilibrium.
Analysis Ee take the contents of the cylinder as the system. This is a closed system since no mass enters
or leaves. The energy balance for this stationary closed system can be e4pressed as
, )
", 0A (A )since , )
+ ! in , out
+ ! out in ,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
u u m W Q
u u m # Q W
E E E
b
b
!
!
The initial state properties are )Table *+.,
k&'kg %$ . .#
kg ' m "!! . "
8 +
k0a $""
+
.
+
+
+
u T
P
v
The mass of refrigerant is
kg 2".. . 
'kg m "!! . "
m "..
.
.
+
+
v
V
m
The final specific volume is
'kg m "+3"# . "
kg 2".. . 
m ".+
.
.
!
!
m
V
v
The final state at this specific volume and at ."8 is a saturated mi4ture. The properties at this state are
)Table *++,
k0a 2. . 32
k&'kg 22 . !3 , ! . !"" ,) "#%"!2 . " ) % . +!
"#%"!2 . "
"""#!". . " !!3" . "
"""#!". . " "+3"# . "
!
! !
!
!
+ +
P
u x u u
x
fg f
f g
f
v v
v v
1ince this is a linear process, the work done is equal to the area under the process line +!<
"* $&44
,
_
+
+
.
.
! +
! +
in ,
m k0a +
k& +
,m + . " )"..
!
,k0a 2. . 32 )$""
, )
!
*rea V V
P P
W
b
1ubstituting into energy balance equation gives
"* %$4) k&'kg , %$ . .# kg,)!3.22 2".. .  ) k& 22 . $3 , )
+ ! in , out
u u m W Q
b
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2.
P
v
!
+
$"" k0a
447E 1aturated @+.2a vapor is condensed at constant pressure to a saturated liquid in a pistoncylinder
device. The heat transfer and the work done are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The cylinder is stationary and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are ;ero. 2
There are no work interactions involved other than the boundary work. 3 The thermal energy stored in the
cylinder itself is negligible. 4 The compression or e4pansion process is quasiequilibrium.
Analysis Ee take the contents of the cylinder as the system. This is a closed system since no mass enters
or leaves. The energy balance for this stationary closed system can be e4pressed as
, )
", 0A (A )since , )
+ ! in , out
+ ! out in ,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
u u m W Q
u u m # Q W
E E E
b
b
!
!
The properties at the initial and final states are )Table *++A,
=tu'lbm #$3 . 22
lbm ' ft "+.3$ . "
"
B " +"
=tu'lbm 2 . +"#
lbm ' ft .2"2 . "
+
B " +"
!
.
!
!
!
+
.
+
+
+
f
f
g
g
u u x
T
u u x
T
v v
v v
*lso from Table *++A,
=tu'lbm "3" . #+
=tu'lbm $3. . $!
psia %. . +.3
! +
fg
fg
'
u
P P
The work done during this process is
=tu'lbm .%$ . 3
ft psia .2"2
=tu +
'lbm ft "..2"2, .3$ psia,)"."+ )+.3.%. , )
.
.
+ !
!
+
out ,
,
_
v v v P d P $
b
That is,
Btu2961 $&,)
in , b
$
1ubstituting into energy balance equation gives
Btu2961 .%&+$+ + + $3. . $! .%$ . 3 , )
in , + ! in , out fg b b
u $ u u $ %
Discussion The heat transfer may also be determined from
=tu'lbm "3" . #+
out
+ ! out
fg
' %
' ' %
since # C Wb ( during a constant pressure quasiequilibrium process.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2.$
T
v
! +
@+.2a
+""FB
Q
448 1aturated @+.2a liquid is contained in an insulated pistoncylinder device. Alectrical work is
supplied to @+.2a. The time required for the refrigerant to turn into saturated vapor and the final
temperature are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The cylinder is stationary and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are ;ero. 2
There are no work interactions involved other than the boundary work. 3 The thermal energy stored in the
cylinder itself is negligible. 4 The compression or e4pansion process is quasiequilibrium.
Analysis Ee take the contents of the cylinder as the system. This is a closed system since no mass enters
or leaves. The energy balance for this stationary closed system can be e4pressed as
fg e
fg e
b e
b e
m' t W
m' ' ' m ( ( W
u u m W W
u u m # W W
E E E
+
in ,
+ ! + ! in ,
+ ! out , in ,
+ ! out , in ,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
, )
, )
", 0A (A )since , )
!
!
since # C Wb ( during a constant pressure quasi
equilibrium process. The electrical power and the enthalpy of
vapori;ation of @+.2a are
++,  * )Table k&'kg %$ . !"
E !" *, H,)! +" )
8 +" ?
in ,
fg
e
'
& W !
1ubstituting,
h '&.( s %$ , !" k&'kg, kg,)!".%$ ! ) k&'s, "!" . " ) t t
The temperature remains constant during this phase change process<
C %+
+ !
T T
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2.#
T
v
+ !
Spe>i?i> @eat;= u and h o? Idea9 Ga;e;
449C It can be used for any kind of process of an ideal gas.
450C It can be used for any kind of process of an ideal gas.
451C The desired result is obtained by multiplying the first relation by the molar mass /,
/R /c /c

+
v
or u 
R c c +
v
452C Hery close, but no. =ecause the heat transfer during this process is Q mcT, and c varies with
temperature.
453C It can be either. The difference in temperature in both the ( and 8 scales is the same.
454C The energy required is mcT, which will be the same in both cases. This is because the c of an
ideal gas does not vary with pressure.
455C The energy required is mcT, which will be the same in both cases. This is because the c of an
ideal gas does not vary with volume.
456C 6odeling both gases as ideal gases with constant specific heats, we have
T c '
T c u

v
1ince both gases undergo the same temperature change, the gas with the greatest cv will e4perience the
largest change in internal energy. 1imilarly, the gas with the largest cp will have the greatest enthalpy
change. Inspection of Table *!a indicates that air will e4perience the greatest change in both cases.
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2.3
457 * springloaded pistoncylinder device is filled with nitrogen. :itrogen is now heated until its
volume increases by +">. The changes in the internal energy and enthalpy of the nitrogen are to be
determined.
Properties The gas constant of nitrogen is R ".!%$3 k0am
.
'kg(. The specific heats of nitrogen at
room temperature are cv ".#2. k&'kg( and c +.".% k&'kg( )Table *!a,.
Analysis The initial volume of nitrogen is
.
.
+
+
+
m ""#2! . "
k0a +!"
(, !#. (,)!# 'kg m k0a kg,)".!%$3 )"."+"
+
P
mRT
V
The process e4perienced by this system is a linear Pv process. The equation for this line is
, )
+ +
V V c P P
where P+ is the system pressure when its specific volume is v+. The spring equation may be written as
, ) , )
+
!
+
!
+
+ ,
+
V V
A
k
x x
A
kA
A
x x
k
A
0 0
P P
s s
8onstant c is hence

2 ! 2 !
!
!
k:'m !++ , +$
m, + . " )
k:'m, + ,) +$ ) 2
D
k
A
k
c
The final pressure is then
( )
k0a " . +.!
, m ""#2! . " ,) k:'m !++ , +$ ) + . " k0a +!"
+ . " + . + , )
. 
+ + + + + + ! + !
+
+ + + V V V V V c P c P c P P
The final temperature is
( .$.
(, 'kg m k0a kg,)".!%$3 )"."+"
, m ".""#2! k0a,)+.+ )+.!."
.
.
! !
!
mR
P
T
V
/sing the specific heats,
"*2"g '&'
"*2"g 4&$
( , ."" (,).$. k&'kg )+.".%
( , ."" (,).$. k&'kg )".#2.
T c '
T c u

v
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educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2.%
P
v
!
+
458E The internal energy change of air is to be determined for two cases of specified temperature
changes.
Assumptions *t specified conditions, air behaves as an ideal gas.
Properties The constantvolume specific heat of air at room temperature is cv ".+#+ =tu'lbm@ )Table *
!Aa,.
Analysis /sing the specific heat at constant volume,
Btu2961 %.&% @ , +"" @,)!"" =tu'lbm )".+#+ T c u
v
If we use the same room temperature specific heat value, the internal energy change will be the same for
the second case. However, if we consider the variation of specific heat with temperature and use the
specific heat values from Table *!Ab, we have cv ".+#! =tu'lbm@ at +"B and cv ".+#+! =tu'lbm
@ at "B. Then,
Btu2961 %.&(' @ , +"" @,)!"" =tu'lbm )".+#!
+ +
T c u
v
Btu2961 %.&%( @ , " @,)+"" =tu'lbm )".+#+!
! !
T c u
v
The two results differ from each other by about ".3>.
459 The internal energy changes for neon and argon are to be determined for a given temperature
change.
Assumptions *t specified conditions, neon and argon behave as an ideal gas.
Properties The constantvolume specific heats of neon and argon are ".$+#% k&'kg( and "..+!! k&'kg(,
respectively )Table *!a,.
Analysis The internal energy changes are
"*2"g )$&) ( , !" (,)+3" k&'kg )".$+#%
neon
T c u
v
"*2"g '+&+ ( , !" (,)+3" k&'kg )"..+!!
argon
T c u
v
460 The enthalpy changes for neon and argon are to be determined for a given temperature change.
Assumptions *t specified conditions, neon and argon behave as an ideal gas.
Properties The constantpressure specific heats of argon and neon are ".!". k&'kg( and +."!%% k&'kg(,
respectively )Table *!a,.
Analysis The enthalpy changes are
"*2"g %'&% ( , +"" (,)2"" k&'kg )".!".
argon
T c '

"*2"g ,+)&+ ( , +"" (,)2"" k&'kg )+."!%%
neon
T c '

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educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
22"
461 :eon is compressed isothermally in a compressor. The specific volume and enthalpy changes are to
be determined.
Assumptions *t specified conditions, neon behaves as an ideal gas.
Properties The gas constant of neon is R ".2++% k&'kg( and the constantpressure specific heat of neon
is +."!%% k&'kg( )Table *!a,.
Analysis *t the compressor inlet, the specific volume is
'kg m !"# . +
k0a +""
(, !#. (,)!" 'kg m k0a )".2++%
.
.
+
+
+
P
RT
v
1imilarly, at the compressor e4it,
'kg m !2+2 . "
k0a ""
(, !#. (,)!" 'kg m k0a )".2++%
.
.
!
!
+
P
RT
v
The change in the specific volume caused by the compressor is
2"g 1 +&)
,
!"# . + !2+2 . "
+ !
v  v v
1ince the process is isothermal,
"*2"g + T c '

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educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
22+
P
v
!
+
462E The enthalpy change of o4ygen gas during a heating process is to be determined using an
empirical specific heat relation, constant specific heat at average temperature, and constant specific heat
at room temperature.
Analysis )a, /sing the empirical relation for
, )T c
 from Table *!Ac,
. !
dT cT bT a c

+ + +
where a $."3, b ".!"+#+"
!
, c "."!#+"

, and d ".".#!+"
%
. Then,
[ ]
Btu"#$% 1701
lbm'lbmol .+.%%%
=tu'lbmol 22!..
=tu'lbmol 22!..
, 3"" +"" ,) +" ".#! . " ) , 3"" +"" ,) +" "!# . " )
, 3"" +"" ,) +" !"+# . " ) , 3"" +"" ) "3 . $
, ) , ) , ) , )
, )
2 2 %
2
+ . . 
.
+
! ! !
!
+
2
+
2
!
2
+ .
+
.
!
.
+ !
+
!
!
!
+
+ !
!
+
. !
!
+
+
+
+ + + +
+ + +
/
'
'
T T d T T c T T b T T a
dT dT cT bT a dT T c '

)b, /sing the constant c value from Table *!Ab at the average temperature of ++" @,
Btu"#$% 1785
@ 3"", @,)+"" =tu'lbm )".! , )
@ =tu'lbm ".!
+ ! avg ,
@ ++" ? avg ,
T T c '
c c

 
)c, /sing the constant c value from Table *!Aa at room temperature,
Btu"#$% 1533 3"",@ @,)+"" =tu'lbm )".!+% , )
@ =tu'lbm ".!+%
+ ! avg ,
@ .# ? avg ,
T T c '
c c

 
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22!
463 The internal energy change of hydrogen gas during a heating process is to be determined using an
empirical specific heat relation, constant specific heat at average temperature, and constant specific heat
at room temperature.
Analysis )a, /sing the empirical relation for
, )T c
 from Table *!c and relating it to , )T c
v
,
( )
. !
, ) dT cT bT R a R c T c
u u 
+ + +
v
where a !%.++, b ".+%+$+"
!
, c ".2"".+"

, and d ".3#"2+"
%
. Then,
( ) [ ]
( )
kJ"k& 6194
+
+ + + +
+ + +
kg'kmol !."+$
k&'kmol +!,23#
k&'kmol +!,23#
, !"" 3"" ,) +" 3#"2 . " ) , !"" 3"" ,) +" 2"". . " )
, !"" 3"" ,) +" +%$+ . " ) , !"" 3"" ,) .+2 . 3 ++ . !% )
, ) , ) , ) , )
, )
2 2 %
2
+ . . 
.
+
! ! !
!
+
2
+
2
!
2
+ .
+
.
!
.
+ !
+
!
!
!
+
+ !
!
+
. !
!
+
/
u
u
T T d T T c T T b T T R a
dT dT cT bT R a dT T c u
u
u v
)b, /sing a constant c value from Table *!b at the average temperature of "" (,
kJ"k& 6233
!"",( (,)3"" k&'kg )+"..3% , )
( k&'kg +"..3%
+ ! avg ,
( "" ? avg ,
T T c u
c c
v
v v
)c, /sing a constant c value from Table *!a at room temperature,
kJ"k& 6110
!"",( (,)3"" k&'kg )+".+3. , )
( k&'kg +".+3.
+ ! avg ,
( ."" ? avg ,
T T c u
c c
v
v v
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22.
C9o;ed S;te1 Energ Ana9;i;A Idea9 Ga;e;
464C :o, it isnLt. This is because the first law relation Q  W # reduces to W " in this case since
the system is adiabatic )Q ", and # " for the isothermal processes of ideal gases. Therefore, this
adiabatic system cannot receive any net work at constant temperature.
465E The air in a rigid tank is heated until its pressure doubles. The volume of the tank and the amount
of heat transfer are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 *ir is an ideal gas since it is at a high temperature and low pressure relative to its critical
point values of +2+8 and ..## 60a. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible,
pe ke 0
. 3 8onstant specific heats at room temperature can be used for air. This assumption results
in negligible error in heating and airconditioning applications.
Properties The gas constant of air is R "..#"2 psia.ft
.
'lbm.@ )Table *+A,.
Analysis )a, The volume of the tank can be determined from the ideal gas relation,
3
't 800
psia "
@, @,)2" 'lbm ft psia 2 lbm,)"..#" )!"
.
+
+
P
mRT
V
)b, Ee take the air in the tank as our system. The energy balance for this stationary closed system can be
e4pressed as
, ) , )
+ ! + ! in
in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
T T mC u u m Q
# Q
E E E
v
!
!
The final temperature of air is
@ +"3" @, )2" !
+
+
!
!
!
!
+
+
T
P
P
T
T
P
T
P V V
The internal energies are )Table *+#A,
u u
u u
+
!
?
?
2" @
+"3" @
%!."2 =tu ' lbm
+3$.%. =tu ' lbm
1ubstituting,
Qin )!" lbm,)+3$.%.  %!."2,=tu'lbm 1898 Btu
Alternative solutions The specific heat of air at the average temperature of Tavg )2"C+"3",'! 3+" @
."B is, from Table *!Ab, cv,avg ".+# =tu'lbm.@. 1ubstituting,
Qin )!" lbm,) ".+# =tu'lbm.@,)+"3"  2", @ 1890 Btu
Discussion =oth approaches resulted in almost the same solution in this case.
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222
*ir
!" lbm
" psia
3"B
Q
466 * resistance heater is to raise the air temperature in the room from # to !.F8 within + min. The
required power rating of the resistance heater is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 *ir is an ideal gas since it is at a high temperature and low pressure relative to its critical
point values of +2+8 and ..## 60a. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible,
ke pe 0
. 3 8onstant specific heats at room temperature can be used for air. This assumption results
in negligible error in heating and airconditioning applications. 4 Heat losses from the room are
negligible. 5 The room is airtight so that no air leaks in and out during the process.
Properties The gas constant of air is R ".!3# k0a.m
.
'kg.( )Table *+,. *lso, cv ".#+3 k&'kg.( for air
at room temperature )Table *!,.
Analysis Ee take the air in the room to be the system. This is a closed system since no mass crosses the
system boundary. The energy balance for this stationary constantvolume closed system can be e4pressed
as
, " 0A (A )since , )
+ ! avg , in e,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
Q T T mc # W
E E E
v
!
!
or,
, )
+ ! avg , in ,
T T mc t W
e
v
RT
P
m
V
V
1ubstituting, the power rating of the heater becomes
( k 191
s $" +
8 #, 8,)!. k&'kg kg,)".#+3 )+2%..
in ,
e
W
Discussion In practice, the pressure in the room will remain constant during this process rather than the
volume, and some air will leak out as the air e4pands. *s a result, the air in the room will undergo a
constant pressure e4pansion process. Therefore, it is more proper to be conservative and to use (
instead of using # in heating and airconditioning applications.
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22
2$ m
.
#8
*I@
W
e
467 * student living in a room turns her +"E fan on in the morning. The temperature in the room
when she comes back +" h later is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 *ir is an ideal gas since it is at a high temperature and low pressure relative to its critical
point values of +2+8 and ..## 60a. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible,
ke pe 0
. 3 8onstant specific heats at room temperature can be used for air. This assumption results
in negligible error in heating and airconditioning applications. 4 *ll the doors and windows are tightly
closed, and heat transfer through the walls and the windows is disregarded.
Properties The gas constant of air is R ".!3# k0a.m
.
'kg.( )Table *+,. *lso, cv ".#+3 k&'kg.( for air
at room temperature )Table *!,.
Analysis Ee take the room as the system. This is a closed system since the doors and the windows are said
to be tightly closed, and thus no mass crosses the system boundary during the process. The energy balance
for this system can be e4pressed as
, ) , )
+ ! + ! ,
,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
T T mc u u m W
# W
E E E
)n e
)n e
out )n
v
!
!
The mass of air is
kg +#2.!
(, (,)!33 'kg m k0a )".!3#
, m k0a,)+22 )+""
m +22 $ $ 2
.
.
+
+
.
RT
P
m
V
V
The electrical work done by the fan is
W W t
e e
v
!
!
The initial volume is
,
1 +&4'('
k0a $""
(, (,)2#. 'kg m k0a kg,)".!3# )!
.
+
+
+
P
mRT
V
/sing the boundary work relation for the isothermal process of an ideal gas gives
"* '4.&%
k0a 3"
k0a $""
(,ln (,)2#. 'kg m k0a kg,)".!3# ! )
ln ln
.
!
+
!
+
+
!
!
+
out ,
P
P
mRT mRT
d
mRT Pd m W
b
v
v
v
v
v
Brom energy balance equation,
"* '4.&%
out , in b
W Q
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educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2"
Q
*ir
$"" k0a
!""F8
473 *rgon in a pistoncylinder device undergoes an isothermal process. The mass of argon and the work
done are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 *rgon is an ideal gas since it is at a high temperature and low pressure relative to its
critical point values of ++ ( and 2.3$ 60a. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible,
" pe ke .
Properties The gas constant of argon is R ".!"3+k&'kg( )Table *+,.
Analysis Ee take argon as the system. This is a closed system since no mass crosses the boundaries of the
system. The energy balance for this system can be e4pressed as
out , in
! + out , in
+ ! out , in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
, )since "
, )
b
b
b
W Q
T T W Q
T T mc # W Q
E E E
v
!
!
Thus,
"* %'++
in out ,
Q W
b
/sing the boundary work relation for the isothermal process of an ideal gas gives
!
+
!
+
+
!
!
+
out ,
ln ln
P
P
mRT mRT
d
mRT Pd m W
b
v
v
v
v
v
1olving for the mass of the system,
"g %,&)4
k0a "
k0a !""
(,ln (,).#. 'kg m k0a )".!"3+
k& +""
ln
.
!
+
out ,
P
P
RT
W
m
b
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educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+
Q
*rgon
!"" k0a
+""F8
474 *rgon is compressed in a polytropic process. The work done and the heat transfer are to be
determined.
Assumptions 1 *rgon is an ideal gas since it is at a high temperature and low pressure relative to its
critical point values of ++ ( and 2.3$ 60a. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible,
" pe ke .
Properties The properties of argon are R ".!"3+k&'kg( and cv "..+!! k&'kg( )Table *!a,.
Analysis Ee take argon as the system. This is a closed system since
no mass crosses the boundaries of the system. The energy balance for
this system can be e4pressed as
, )
+ ! out , in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
T T mc # W Q
E E E
b
v
!
!
/sing the boundary work relation for the polytropic process of an
ideal gas gives
k&'kg +2#. +
+!"
+!""
+.!  +
(, .". ,) ( k&'kg !"3+ . " )
+
+
! . + ' ! . "
' , + )
+
! +
out ,
1
1
]
1
,
_
1
1
]
1
,
_
n n
b
P
P
n
RT
$
Thus,
"*2"g %4.&'
in , b
$
The temperature at the final state is
( 222.#
k0a +!"
k0a +!""
(, .". )
! . + ' ! . "
+ )
+
!
+ !
,
_
,
_
!"n n
P
P
T T
Brom the energy balance equation,
k&'kg +"... ( , .". (,)222.# k&'kg .+!! . " ) k&'kg  . +2# , )
+ ! out , in
+ + T T c $ %
b v
Thus,
"*2"g %+,&,
out
%
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2!
Q
*rgon
+!" k0a
."F8
Pv
n
constant
475E 8arbon dio4ide contained in a pistoncylinder device undergoes a constantpressure process. The
work done and the heat transfer are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 8arbon dio4ide is an ideal gas since it is at a high temperature and low pressure relative to
its critical point values of 2#. @ and +"#+ psia. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are
negligible, " pe ke . 3 8onstant specific heats at room temperature can be used for 8D!.
Properties The properties of 8D! at room temperature are R "."2+. =tu'lbm@ and cv ".+3 =tu'lbm
@ )Table *!Aa,.
Analysis Ee take 8D! as the system. This is a closed system since no
mass crosses the boundaries of the system. The energy balance for this
system can be e4pressed as
, )
+ ! out , in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
T T mc # W Q
E E E
b
v
!
!
/sing the boundary work relation for the isobaric process of an ideal
gas gives
Btu2961 '&4% @ , 3" !"" ,) @ =tu'lbm "2+. . " ) , ) , )
+ ! + ! out ,
T T R P $
b
v v
1ubstituting into energy balance equation,
Btu2961 (4&,$ + + @ , 3" @,)!"" =tu'lbm +3 . " ) =tu'lbm 2+$ .  , )
+ ! out , in
T T c $ %
b v
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2.
Q
8D
!
+ psia
3"FB
476 Helium contained in a springloaded pistoncylinder device is heated. The work done and the heat
transfer are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Helium is an ideal gas since it is at a high temperature relative to its critical temperature
of .. (. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible, " pe ke .
Properties The properties of helium are R !."#$%k&'kg( and cv ..++$ k&'kg( )Table *!a,.
Analysis Ee take helium as the system. This is a closed
system since no mass crosses the boundaries of the system.
The energy balance for this system can be e4pressed as
, )
+ ! out , in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
T T mc # W Q
E E E
b
v
!
!
The initial and final specific volumes are
.
.
+
+
+
m .".2!#
k0a +""
(, (,)!%. 'kg m k0a kg,)!."#$% )
P
mRT
V
.
.
!
!
!
m $!+ . 
k0a 3""
(, !#. (,)+$" 'kg m k0a kg,)!."#$% )
+
P
mRT
V
0ressure changes linearly with volume and the work done is equal to the area under the process line +!<
k& ++,+$.
m k0a +
k& +
,m 2!# . ." ).$!+
!
,k0a 3"" )+""
, )
!
*rea
.
.
+ !
! +
out ,
,
_
+
V V
P P
W
b
Thus,
"* %%&%,
in , b
W
/sing the energy balance equation,
k& 3%3! ( , !" (,)+$" k&'kg ++$ . . ) kg,  ) k& +$. , ++ , )
+ ! out , in
+ + T T mc W Q
b v
Thus,
"* $)$(
out
Q
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22
P
)k0a,
V )m
.
,
+""
+
!
3""
477 * pistoncylinder device contains air. * paddle wheel supplies a given amount of work to the air. The
heat transfer is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 *ir is an ideal gas since it is at a high temperature and low pressure relative to its critical
point values of +.!. ( and ..## 60a. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible,
" pe ke . 3 8onstant specific heats can be used for air.
Analysis Ee take the air as the system. This is a closed system since no mass crosses the boundaries of the
system. The energy balance for this system can be e4pressed as
out , in pw, out
! + out out , in pw,
+ ! out out , in pw,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
, )since "
, )
b
b
b
W W Q
T T Q W W
T T mc # Q W W
E E E
v
!
!
The initial and final specific volumes are
'kg m ".+#!!
k0a ""
(, (,)."" 'kg m k0a )".!3#
.
.
+
+
+
P
RT
v
'kg m +$$ . " , +#!! . " ) . .
.
+ !
v v
/sing the boundary work relation for the isobaric process of an ideal gas gives
k&'kg +#!.! 'kg m , +#!! . " $ k0a,)".+$ "" ) , )
.
+ ! out ,
v v P $
b
1ubstituting into the energy balance equation gives
k&'kg ! . +!! ! . +#! "
out , in pw, out
b
$ $ %
The negative sign shows that heat is actually transferred to the air. Thus,
"*2"g %((&(
in
%
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2
Q
*ir
"" k0a
!#F8
W
pw
478 * cylinder equipped with a set of stops for the piston to rest on is initially filled with helium gas at a
specified state. The amount of heat that must be transferred to raise the piston is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Helium is an ideal gas with constant specific heats. 2 The kinetic and potential energy
changes are negligible,
ke pe 0
. 3 There are no work interactions involved. 4 The thermal energy
stored in the cylinder itself is negligible.
Properties The specific heat of helium at room temperature is cv ..++$ k&'kg.( )Table *!,.
Analysis Ee take the helium gas in the cylinder as the system. This is a closed system since no mass
crosses the boundary of the system. The energy balance for this constant volume closed system can be
e4pressed as
, ) , )
, )
+ ! + !
+ !
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
T T mc u u m Q
u u m # Q
E E E
)n
)n
out )n
v
!
!
The final temperature of helium can be determined from the ideal gas relation to be
( +2%" (, )!%3
k0a +""
k0a ""
+
+
!
!
!
!
+
+
T
P
P
T
T
P
T
P V V
1ubstituting into the energy balance relation gives
Qin )". kg,)..++$ k&'kg(,)+2%"  !%3,( 1857 kJ
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2$
He
+"" k0a
!8
)
"" k0a
479 * cylinder is initially filled with air at a specified state. *ir is heated electrically at constant pressure,
and some heat is lost in the process. The amount of electrical energy supplied is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The cylinder is stationary and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are ;ero. 2 *ir
is an ideal gas with variable specific heats. 3 The thermal energy stored in the cylinder itself and the
resistance wires is negligible. 4 The compression or e4pansion process is quasiequilibrium.
Properties The initial and final enthalpies of air are )Table *+#,
h h
h h
1
2
@
@
298 K
350 K
298.18 kJ / kg
350.49 kJ / kg
Analysis Ee take the contents of the cylinder as the system. This is a
closed system since no mass enters or leaves. The energy balance for
this closed system can be e4pressed as
out + ! in e, out b, out in e,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
, ) Q ' ' m W # W Q W
E E E
out )n
+
!
!
since # C Wb ( during a constant pressure quasiequilibrium process. 1ubstituting,
We,in )+ kg,).".2%  !%3.+3,k&'kg C )$" k&, 32 k&
or,
k(* 0235
k& .$""
kEh +
k&, )32
,
,
_
)n e
W
Alternative solution The specific heat of air at the average temperature of Tavg )!C ##,'! +8 .!2
( is, from Table *!b, c,avg +.""$ k&'kg.8. 1ubstituting,
k& 32 k& $" 8 ! ## 8, k&'kg. kg,)+.""$ )+ , )
out + ! in e,
+ ) ( + Q T T mc W

or,
k(* 0235
k& .$""
kEh +
, k& 32 )
in e,
,
_
W
Discussion :ote that for small temperature differences, both approaches give the same result.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2#
*I@
P const.
W
e
Q
480 *n insulated cylinder initially contains 8D! at a specified state. The 8D! is heated electrically for +"
min at constant pressure until the volume doubles. The electric current is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The cylinder is stationary and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are ;ero. 2
The 8D! is an ideal gas with constant specific heats. 3 The thermal energy stored in the cylinder itself
and the resistance wires is negligible. 4 The compression or e4pansion process is quasiequilibrium.
Properties The gas constant and molar mass of 8D! are R ".+33% k0a.m
.
'kg.( and / 22 kg'kmol
)Table *+,. The specific heat of 8D! at the average temperature of Tavg )."" C $"",'! 2" ( is c,avg
".%#3 k&'kg.8 )Table *!b,.
Analysis Ee take the contents of the cylinder as the system. This is a closed system since no mass enters
or leaves. The energy balance for this closed system can be e4pressed as
, ) , )
+ ! + ! in e,
out b, in e,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
T T mc ' ' m W
# W W
E E E

out )n
!
!
since # C Wb ( during a constant pressure quasiequilibrium
process. The final temperature of 8D! is
( $"" (, )."" ! +
+
+
!
+
!
!
!
! !
+
+ +
T
P
P
T
T
P
T
P
V
V V V
The mass of 8D! is
kg "% . +
(, (,)."" 'kg m k0a )".+33%
, m k0a,)".. )!""
.
.
+
+ +
RT
P
m
V
1ubstituting,
We,in )+."% kg,)".%#3 k&'kg.(,)$""  ."",( .++ k&
Then,
A 47
!
+
k&'s +
H* +"""
s, $" H,)+" )++"
k& .++
in e,
,
_
t
W
&
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
23
8D
!
!"" k0a
!#8
W
e
481 * cylinder initially contains nitrogen gas at a specified state. The gas is compressed polytropically
until the volume is reduced by onehalf. The work done and the heat transfer are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The cylinder is stationary and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are ;ero. 2
The :! is an ideal gas with constant specific heats. 3 The thermal energy stored in the cylinder itself is
negligible. 4 The compression or e4pansion process is quasiequilibrium.
Properties The gas constant of :! are R ".!%$3 k0a.m
.
'kg.( )Table *+,. The cv value of :! at the
average temperature ).$%C."",'! .. ( is ".#22 k&'kg.( )Table *!b,.
Analysis Ee take the contents of the cylinder as the system. This is a closed system since no mass crosses
the system boundary. The energy balance for this closed system can be e4pressed as
, )
, )
+ ! out in b,
+ ! out in b,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
T T mc Q W
u u m # Q W
E E E
v
!
!
The final pressure and temperature of nitrogen are
( .$%.. (, )."" ".
k0a +""
k0a !2$.!
k0a !2$.! k0a, )+"" !
+
+
!
+
!
!
!
! !
+
+ +
+..
+
. . +
!
+
!
. . +
+ +
. . +
! !
,
_
T
P
P
T
T
P
T
P
P P P P
V
V V V
V
V
V V
Then the boundary work for this polytropic process can be determined from
kJ 548
+.. +
."",( (,).$%.. k&'kg kg,)".!%$3 )".3
+
, )
+
+ ! + + ! !
!
+
in b,
n
T T mR
n
P P
d P W
V V
V
1ubstituting into the energy balance gives
kJ 136
.$",( $%.. k&'kg.(,). kg,)".#22 )".3 k& 2.3
, )
+ ! in b, out
T T mc W Q
v
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2%
:
!
+"" k0a
!#8
PV
+..
8
Q
482 EES 0roblem 23+ is reconsidered. The process is to be plotted on a PV diagram, and the effect of
the polytropic e4ponent n on the boundary work and heat transfer as the polytropic e4ponent varies from
+.+ to +.$ is to be investigated. The boundary work and the heat transfer are to be plotted versus the
polytropic e4ponent.
Analysis The problem is solved using AA1, and the solution is given below.
Pro#edure 4ork%P[2]&V[2]&P[1]&V[1]&n5412*
?6 n=1 t+en
412=P[1]"V[1]"ln%V[2]@V[1]*
Blse
412=%P[2]"V[2]/P[1]"V[1]*@%1/n*
endi6
Bnd
"?n2ut Iata"
Vratio=039 "V[2]@V[1] = Vratio"
n=13) "Poltro2i# ex2onent"
P[1] = 100 [kPa]
T[1] = %27L27)* [K]
'=03: [k1]
RR='olar'ass%nitro1en*
._u=:3)10 [k7@k'ol/K]
.=._u@RR
V[1]='"."T[1]@P[1]
"Pro#ess equations"
V[2]=Vratio"V[1]
P[2]"V[2]@T[2]=P[1]"V[1]@T[1]"T+e #o',ined ideal 1as law 6or
states 1 and 2 2lus t+e 2oltro2i# 2ro#ess relation 1i$e P[2] and T[2]"
P[2]"V[2](n=P[1]"V[1](n
"onser$ation o6 Bner1 6or t+e #losed sste'5"
"B_in / B_out = IeltaB& we ne1le#t Ielta KB and Ielta PB 6or t+e sste'& t+e
nitro1en3"
Q12 / 412 = '"%u[2]/u[1]*
u[1]=intener1%K2& T=T[1]* "internal ener1 6or nitro1en as an ideal 1as& k7@k1"
u[2]=intener1%K2& T=T[2]*
all 4ork%P[2]&V[2]&P[1]&V[1]&n5412*
"T+e 6ollowin1 is required 6or t+e P/$ 2lots"
CP_2lot"s2$_2lot@T_2lot=P[1]"V[1]@'@T[1]"T+e #o',ined ideal 1as law 6or
states 1 and 2 2lus t+e 2oltro2i# 2ro#ess relation 1i$e P[2] and T[2]"
P_2lot"s2$_2lot(n=P[1]"%V[1]@'*(nH
Cs2V_2lot=."T_2lot@P_2lot"['()]"H
n Q12 [k7] 412 [k7]
1 /093)7 /093)7
13111 /)7 /913)2
13222 /2)399 /9)3):
13))) /93087 /99390
13000 838:9 /973:2
13998 2)3:1 /8032)
13887 0230: /82378
1377: 823:9 /8930)
13::9 :9327 /8:329
2 10939 /7132)
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educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2$"
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
;pv
p9ot
01:,2"g3
5
p
9
o
t
0
"
5
a
3
n7%&+
5
p
9
o
t
n7%&,
n7(
5re;;ure v;& ;pe>i?i> vo9u1e a; ?un>tion o? po9tropi> eBponent
% %&( %&4 %& %&$ (
/'+
/%'
(+
''
)+
%('
n
<
%
(
0
"
*
3
% %&( %&4 %& %&$ (
/.'
/.+
/'
/+
/''
/'+
/4'
n
!
%
(
0
"
*
3
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2$+
483 It is observed that the air temperature in a room heated by electric baseboard heaters remains
constant even though the heater operates continuously when the heat losses from the room amount to $""
k&'h. The power rating of the heater is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 *ir is an ideal gas since it is at a high temperature and low pressure relative to its critical
point values of +2+8 and ..## 60a. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible,
ke pe 0
. 3 The temperature of the room is said to remain constant during this process.
Analysis Ee take the room as the system. This is a closed system since no mass crosses the boundary of
the system. The energy balance for this system reduces to
out in e, out in e,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
" Q W # Q W
E E E
!
!
since # mcvT " for isothermal processes of ideal gases. Thus,
k( 181
,
_
k&'h .$""
kE +
k&'h, $"" )
out in e,
Q W
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educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2$!
T
air
const.
W
e
@DD6
Q
484 * cylinder equipped with a set of stops for the piston is initially filled with air at a specified state.
Heat is transferred to the air until the volume doubled. The work done by the air and the amount of heat
transfer are to be determined, and the process is to be shown on a Pv diagram.
Assumptions 1 *ir is an ideal gas with variable specific heats. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes
are negligible,
ke pe 0
. 3 The thermal energy stored in the cylinder itself is negligible. 4 The
compression or e4pansion process is quasiequilibrium.
Properties The gas constant of air is R ".!3# k0a.m
.
'kg.( )Table *+,.
Analysis Ee take the air in the cylinder as the system. This is a closed system since no mass crosses the
boundary of the system. The energy balance for this closed system can be e4pressed as
out b, + . in
+ . out b, in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
, )
, )
W u u m Q
u u m # W Q
E E E
+
!
!
The initial and the final volumes and the final temperature of air are
( +!"" (, )."" !
k0a !""
k0a 2""
m !.3 !% . + ! !
m +.!%
k0a !""
(, (,)."" 'kg m k0a kg,)".!3# ).
+
+
.
+
.
.
.
. .
+
+ +
.
+ .
.
.
+
+
+
T
P
P
T
T
P
T
P
P
mRT
V
V V V
V V
V
:o work is done during process +! since V+ V!. The pressure
remains constant during process !. and the work done during
this process is
kJ 516
.
! . !
!
+
out b,
+.!%,m k0a,)!.3 )2"" , ) V V V P d P W
The initial and final internal energies of air are )Table *+#,
k&'kg
k&'kg
%.....
!+2."#
( +!"" ? .
( ."" ? +
u u
u u
Then from the energy balance,
Qin ). kg,)%.....  !+2."#,k&'kg C +$ k& 2674 kJ
Alternative solution The specific heat of air at the average temperature of Tavg )."" C +!"",'! #" (
is, from Table *!b, cv,avg ".3"" k&'kg.(. 1ubstituting,
out b, + . out b, + . in
, ) , ) W T T mc W u u m Q + +
v
Qin ). kg,)".3"" k&'kg.(,)+!""  ."", ( C +$ k& 2676 kJ
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2$.
*I@
!"" k0a
Q
2"" k0a
!
+
.
P
v
485 [Also solved by EES on enclosed CD] * cylinder equipped with a set of stops on the top is initially
filled with air at a specified state. Heat is transferred to the air until the piston hits the stops, and then the
pressure doubles. The work done by the air and the amount of heat transfer are to be determined, and the
process is to be shown on a Pv diagram.
Assumptions 1 *ir is an ideal gas with variable specific heats. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes
are negligible,
ke pe 0
. 3 There are no work interactions involved. 3 The thermal energy stored in
the cylinder itself is negligible.
Properties The gas constant of air is R ".!3# k0a.m
.
'kg.( )Table *+,.
Analysis Ee take the air in the cylinder to be the system. This is a closed system since no mass crosses the
boundary of the system. The energy balance for this closed system can be e4pressed as
out b, + . in
+ . out b, in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
, )
, )
W u u m Q
u u m # W Q
E E E
+
!
!
The initial and the final volumes and the final temperature of
air are determined from
( +!"" (, )."" !
k0a !""
k0a 2""
m !.3 !% . + ! !
m +.!%
k0a !""
(, (,)."" 'kg m k0a kg,)".!3# ).
+
+
.
+
.
.
.
. .
+
+ +
.
+ .
.
.
+
+
+
T
P
P
T
T
P
T
P
P
mRT
V
V V V
V V
V
:o work is done during process !. since V! V.. The pressure
remains constant during process +! and the work done during this
process is
kJ 258
m k0a +
k& +
m +.!%, k0a,)!.3 )!""
, )
.
.
! . !
!
+
,
_
V V V P d P W
b
The initial and final internal energies of air are )Table *+#,
u u
u u
1
2
@
@
300 K
1200 K
214.07
933.33
kJ / kg
kJ / kg
1ubstituting,
Qin ). kg,)%.....  !+2."#,k&'kg C !3 k& 2416 kJ
Alternative solution The specific heat of air at the average temperature of Tavg )."" C +!"",'! #" (
is, from Table *!b, cvavg ".3"" k&'kg.(. 1ubstituting
kJ 2418 k& !3 C ( ."", !"" k&'kg.(,)+ kg,)".3"" ).
, ) , )
out b, + . out b, + . in
+ + W T T mc W u u m Q
v
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educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2$2
*I@
!"" k0a
Q
! +
.
P
v
C9o;ed S;te1 Energ Ana9;i;A So9id; and LiCuid;
486 *n iron block is heated. The internal energy and enthalpy changes are to be determined for a given
temperature change.
Assumptions Iron is an incompressible substance with a constant specific heat.
Properties The specific heat of iron is ".2 k&'kg( )Table *.b,.
Analysis The internal energy and enthalpy changes are equal for a solid. Then,
"* (. ( , !" (,)3" k&'kg )".2 , kg + ) T mc # (
487E 9iquid water e4periences a process from one state to another. The internal energy and enthalpy
changes are to be determined under different assumptions.
Analysis )a, /sing the properties from compressed liquid tables
#A,  * )Table
=tu'lbm ." . #.
=tu'lbm .$ . $#
B +""
psia !"""
=tu'lbm 3# . +3 psia , +#3+! . " " ) 'lbm, ft "+$"! . " ) =tu'lbm "# . +3
, )
2A,  * )Table =tu'lbm "# . +3
!
!
!
!
.
? sat B " ? +
B " ? +
+
+
'
u
T
P
P P v ' '
u u
T f f
f
Btu2961 '4&4,
Btu2961 4)&()
3# . +3 ." . #.
"# . +3 .$ . $#
+ !
+ !
' ' '
u u u
)b, /sing incompressible substance appro4imation and property tables )Table *2A,,
=tu'lbm ". . $3
=tu'lbm ". . $3
=tu'lbm "# . +3
=tu'lbm "# . +3
B +"" ? !
B +"" ? !
B " ? +
B " ? +
f
f
f
f
' '
u u
' '
u u
Btu2961 4)&)
Btu2961 4)&)
"# . +3 ". . $3
"# . +3 ". . $3
+ !
+ !
' ' '
u u u
)c, /sing specific heats and taking the specific heat of water to be +."" =tu'lbm@ )Table *.Aa,,
Btu2961 '+ @ , " @,)+"" =tu'lbm )+."" T c u '
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2$
488E * person shakes a canned of drink in a iced water to cool it. The mass of the ice that will melt by
the time the canned drink is cooled to a specified temperature is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The thermal properties of the drink are constant, and are taken to be the same as those of
water. 2 The effect of agitation on the amount of ice melting is negligible. 3 The thermal energy capacity
of the can itself is negligible, and thus it does not need to be considered in the analysis.
Properties The density and specific heat of water at the average temperature of )#C2,'! $"B are
$!.. lbm'ft
.
, and c +." =tu'lbm.B )Table *.A,. The heat of fusion of water is +2.. =tu'lbm.
Analysis Ee take a canned drink as the system. The energy balance for this closed system can be
e4pressed as
, ) , )
! + out + ! drink canned out
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
T T mc Q u u m # Q
E E E
!
!
:oting that + gal +!3 o; and + ft
.
#.23 gal %#. o;,
the total amount of heat transfer from a ball is
=tu'can 2 . !. B , 2 # ) B, =tu'lbm. " . + ,) lbm'can #3+ . " ) , )
lbm'can #3+ . "
o; fluid +!3
gal +
gal #.23
ft +
o;'can, +! ,) lbm'ft . . $! )
! + out
.
.
,
_
,
_
T T mc Q
m V
:oting that the heat of fusion of water is +2.. =tu'lbm, the amount of ice that will melt to cool the drink
is
drink, of can )per
=tu'lbm +2..
=tu'can 2 . !.
out
ice
#$% 0163
)f
'
Q
m
since heat transfer to the ice must be equal to heat transfer from the can.
Discussion The actual amount of ice melted will be greater since agitation will also cause some ice to
melt.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2$$
8ola
#B
489 *n iron whose base plate is made of an aluminum alloy is turned on. The minimum time for the
plate to reach a specified temperature is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 It is given that 3 percent of the heat generated in the resistance wires is transferred to the
plate. 2 The thermal properties of the plate are constant. 3 Heat loss from the plate during heating is
disregarded since the minimum heating time is to be determined. 4 There are no changes in kinetic and
potential energies. 5 The plate is at a uniform temperature at the end of the process.
Properties The density and specific heat of the aluminum alloy plate are given to be !##" kg'm
.
and
c 3# k&'kg.8.
A+,#./. The mass of the ironLs base plate is
kg 2+ . " , m ". . " ,) m "" . " ,) kg'm !##" )
! .
1A m V
:oting that only 3 percent of the heat generated is transferred to the plate, the rate of heat transfer to the
ironLs base plate is
. Q
in
E E "3 +""" 3"
Ee take plate to be the system. The energy balance for this
closed system can be e4pressed as
, ) , )
+ ! in + ! plate in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
T T mc t Q u u m # Q
E E E
!
!
1olving for t and substituting,
&'s 3"
8 , !! +2" ,) 8 &'kg. 3# ,) kg 2+ . " )
in
plate
. 505
Q
T mc
t
which is the time required for the plate temperature to reach the specified temperature.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2$#
*ir
!!8
I@D:
+""" E
490 1tainless steel ball bearings leaving the oven at a specified uniform temperature at a specified rate
are e4posed to air and are cooled before they are dropped into the water for quenching. The rate of heat
transfer from the ball bearing to the air is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The thermal properties of the bearing balls are constant. 2 The kinetic and potential
energy changes of the balls are negligible. 3 The balls are at a uniform temperature at the end of the
process
Properties The density and specific heat of the ball bearings are given to be 3"3 kg'm
.
and c
".23" k&'kg.8.
Analysis Ee take a single bearing ball
as the system. The energy balance for
this closed system can be e4pressed as
, )
, )
! + out
+ ! ball out
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
T T mc Q
u u m # Q
E E E
!
!
The total amount of heat transfer from a ball is
k&'ball +#$ . " 8 , 3" %"" ) 8, k&'kg. 23" . " ,) kg ""#.+ . " ) , )
kg ""#.+ . "
$
m, "+! . " )
, kg'm 3"3 )
$
! + out
.
.
.
T T mc Q
D
m
V
Then the rate of heat transfer from the balls to the air becomes
k( 234 kJ"%/+ 1405 , k&'ball +#$ . " ) balls'min, 3"" )
ball, )per out ball total
Q n Q
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educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2$%
1teel balls, %""8
*ir, .8
Burnace
492 *n electronic device is on for  minutes, and off for several hours. The temperature of the device at
the end of the min operating period is to be determined for the cases of operation with and without a
heat sink.
Assumptions 1 The device and the heat sink are isothermal. 2 The thermal properties of the device and of
the sink are constant. 3 Heat loss from the device during on time is disregarded since the highest possible
temperature is to be determined.
Properties The specific heat of the device is given to be c 3" &'kg.8. The specific heat of aluminum
at room temperature of ."" ( is %"! &'kg.8 )Table *.,.
Analysis Ee take the device to be the system. :oting that electrical energy is
supplied, the energy balance for this closed system can be e4pressed as
, )
, )
+ ! in e,
+ ! device in e,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
T T mc t W
u u m # W
E E E
!
!
1ubstituting, the temperature of the device at the end of the process is determined to be
( ( . )( )( ) 30 0 020 850 25
2 2
J / s)(5 60 s) = kg J / kg. C C T T 0 554 C )without the heat sink,
C,.1 2 Ehen a heat sink is attached, the energy balance can be e4pressed as
sink heat + ! device + ! in e,
sink heat device in e,
, ) , ) T T mc T T mc t W
# # W
+
+
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2#!
Agg
38
=oiling
Eater
0lates
#B
496 9ong cylindrical steel rods are heattreated in an oven. The rate of heat transfer to the rods in the
oven is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The thermal properties of the rods are constant. 2 The changes in kinetic and potential
energies are negligible.
Properties The density and specific heat of the steel rods are given to be #3.. kg'm
.
and c ".2$
k&'kg.8.
Analysis :oting that the rods enter the oven at a velocity of . m'min and e4it at the same velocity, we can
say that a .m long section of the rod is heated in the oven in + min. Then the mass of the rod heated in +
minute is
kg $ . +32 J 2 ' , m + . " ) K m, . ,) kg'm #3.. ) , 2 ' )
! . !
D 1 1A m V
Ee take the .m section of the rod in the oven
as the system. The energy balance for this closed
system can be e4pressed as
, ) , )
+ ! + ! rod in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
T T mc u u m # Q
E E E
!
!
1ubstituting,
k& +! , # 8 , ." #"" ) 8, k&'kg. 2$ . " ,) kg $ . +32 ) , )
+ ! in
T T mc Q
:oting that this much heat is transferred in + min, the rate of heat transfer to the rod becomes
k( 9585 k&'min #,+! min, k&,')+ +! , # ) '
in in
t Q Q
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2#.
O31+2 900C
1teel rod, ."8
Spe>ia9 Topi>A Bio9ogi>a9 S;te1;
497C 6etabolism refers to the chemical activity in the cells associated with the burning of foods. The
basal metabolic rate is the metabolism rate of a resting person, which is 32 E for an average man.
498C The energy released during metabolism in humans is used to maintain the body temperature at .#
8.
499C The food we eat is not entirely metaboli;ed in the human body. The fraction of metaboli;able
energy contents are %.> for carbohydrates, ##.> for proteins, and %#.#> for fats. Therefore, the
metaboli;able energy content of a food is not the same as the energy released when it is burned in a bomb
calorimeter.
4100C Yes. Aach body reMects the heat generated during metabolism, and thus serves as a heat source.
Bor an average adult male it ranges from 32 E at rest to over +""" E during heavy physical activity.
8lassrooms are designed for a large number of occupants, and thus the total heat dissipated by the
occupants must be considered in the design of heating and cooling systems of classrooms.
4101C + kg of natural fat contains almost 3 times the metaboli;able energy of + kg of natural
carbohydrates. Therefore, a person who fills his stomach with carbohydrates will satisfy his hunger
without consuming too many calories.
4102 1i4 people are fast dancing in a room, and there is a resistance heater in another identical room.
The room that will heat up faster is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The rooms are identical in every other aspect. 2 Half of the heat dissipated by people is in
sensible form. 3 The people are of average si;e.
Properties *n average fast dancing person dissipates $"" 8al'h of energy )sensible and latent, )Table 2!,.
Analysis Three couples will dissipate
E )$ persons,)$"" 8al'h.person,)2.+3$3 k&'8al, +,"#! k&'h 2+%" E
of energy. )*bout half of this is sensible heat,. Therefore, the room with the 4154#1 6,+7/+& will warm up
much faster than the room with a !kE resistance heater.
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2#2
4103 Two men are identical e4cept one Mogs for ." min while the other watches TH. The weight
difference between these two people in one month is to be determined.
Assumptions The two people have identical metabolism rates, and are identical in every other aspect.
Properties *n average $3kg person consumes 2" 8al'h while Mogging, and #! 8al'h while watching TH
)Table 2!,.
Analysis *n 3"kg person who Mogs ". h a day will have Mogged a total of + h a month, and will
consume
k& .2,#3
kg $3
kg 3"
8al +
k& 2.+3$3
h, 8al'hJ)+ , #! 2" K)
consumed
,
_
,
_
E
more calories than the person watching TH. The metaboli;able energy content of + kg of fat is ..,+"" k&.
Therefore, the weight difference between these two people in +month will be
k& 1045
k&'kg ..,+""
k& .2,#3
fat of content Anergy
consumed
fat
E
m
4104 * classroom has ." students, each dissipating +"" E of sensible heat. It is to be determined if it is
necessary to turn the heater on in the room to avoid cooling of the room.
Properties Aach person is said to be losing sensible heat to the room air at a rate of +"" E.
Analysis Ee take the room is losing heat to the outdoors at a rate of
( ) kE .$
s .$""
h +
k&'h !","""
loss
,
_
which is less than the rate of heat loss from the room. Therefore, it is +171..,8 to turn the heater on to
prevent the room temperature from dropping.
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2#
4105 * bicycling woman is to meet her entire energy needs by eating ."g candy bars. The number of
candy bars she needs to eat to bicycle for +h is to be determined.
Assumptions The woman meets her entire calorie needs from candy bars while bicycling.
Properties *n average $3kg person consumes $.% 8al'h while bicycling, and the energy content of a !"
g candy bar is +" 8al )Tables 2+ and 2!,.
Analysis :oting that a !"g candy bar contains +" 8alories of metaboli;able energy, a ."g candy bar
will contain
( ) 8al +#.
g !"
g ."
8al +"
candy
,
_
E
of energy. If this woman is to meet her entire energy needs by eating ."g candy bars, she will need to eat
$,8."* 7,+6 4
8al +#.
8al'h $.%
candy
N
4106 * kg man eats +9 of ice cream. The length of time this man needs to Mog to burn off these
calories is to be determined.
Assumptions The man meets his entire calorie needs from the ice cream while Mogging.
Properties *n average $3kg person consumes 2" 8al'h while Mogging, and the energy content of a +""
ml of ice cream is ++" 8al )Tables 2+ and 2!,.
Analysis The rate of energy consumption of a kg person while Mogging is
( ) 8al'h 2.#
kg $3
kg 
8al'h 2"
consumed
,
_
:oting that a +""ml serving of ice cream has ++" 8al of metaboli;able energy, a +liter bo4 of ice cream
will have ++"" 8alories. Therefore, it will take
t
++"" 8al
2.# 8al ' h
25 *
of Mogging to burn off the calories from the ice cream.
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2#$
4107 * man with !"kg of body fat goes on a hunger strike. The number of days this man can survive on
the body fat alone is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The person is an average male who remains in resting position at all times. 2 The man
meets his entire calorie needs from the body fat alone.
Properties The metaboli;able energy content of fat is ..,+"" 8al'kg. *n average resting person burns
calories at a rate of #! 8al'h )Table 2!,.
Analysis The metaboli;able energy content of !" kg of body fat is
( )( ) k& $$!,""" kg !" k&'kg ..,+""
fat
E
The person will consume
( )( ) k&'day #!.
8al +
k& 2.+3$3
h !2 8al'h #!
consumed
,
_
E
Therefore, this person can survive
t
$$!,""" k&
#!. k& ' day
915 6,.
on his body fat alone. This result is not surprising since people are known to survive over +"" days
without any food intake.
4108 Two "kg women are identical e4cept one eats her baked potato with 2 teaspoons of butter while
the other eats hers plain every evening. The weight difference between these two woman in one year is to
be determined.
Assumptions 1 These two people have identical metabolism rates, and are identical in every other aspect.
2 *ll the calories from the butter are converted to body fat.
Properties The metaboli;able energy content of + kg of body fat is ..,+"" k&. The metaboli;able energy
content of + teaspoon of butter is . 8alories )Table 2+,.
Analysis * person who eats 2 teaspoons of butter a day will consume
( )( ) 8al'year +,+""
year +
days .$
day teaspoons' 2 on 8al'teaspo .
consumed
,
_
E
Therefore, the woman who eats her potato with butter will gain
k& 65
8al +
k& 2.+3$3
k&'kg ..,+""
8al +,+""
fat
,
_
m
of additional body fat that year.
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2##
4109 * woman switches from +9 of regular cola a day to diet cola and ! slices of apple pie. It is to be
determined if she is now consuming more or less calories.
Properties The metaboli;able energy contents are ."" 8al for a slice of apple pie, 3# 8al for a !""ml
regular cola, and " for the diet drink )Table 2.,.
Analysis The energy contents of ! slices of apple pie and +9 of cola are
( )
( ) 8al 2. 8al 3# 
8al $"" 8al ."" !
cola
pie
E
E
Therefore, the woman is now consuming %581 7,#58/1..
4110 * person drinks a +!o; beer, and then e4ercises on a treadmill. The time it will take to burn the
calories from a +!o; can of regular and light beer are to be determined.
Assumptions The drinks are completely metaboli;ed by the body.
Properties The metaboli;able energy contents of regular and light beer are +" and +"" 8al, respectively.
A4ercising on a treadmill burns calories at an average rate of #"" 8al'h )given,.
Analysis The e4ercising time it will take to burn off beer calories is determined directly from
)a, @egular beer<
%/+ 129 h ".!+2
8al'h #""
8al +"
beer regular
t
)b, 9ight beer<
%/+ 86 h ".+2.
8al'h #""
8al +""
beer light
t
4111 * person has an alcoholic drink, and then e4ercises on a crosscountry ski machine. The time it
will take to burn the calories is to be determined for the cases of drinking a bloody mary and a martini.
Assumptions The drinks are completely metaboli;ed by the body.
Properties The metaboli;able energy contents of bloody mary and martini are ++$ and +$ 8al,
respectively. A4ercising on a crosscountry ski machine burns calories at an average rate of $"" 8al'h
)given,.
Analysis The e4ercising time it will take to burn off beer calories is determined directly from
)a, =loody mary< t
Bloody Mary
116 Cal
600 Cal / h
0.193 h 116 %/+
)b, 6artini< t
martini
156 Cal
600 Cal / h
0.26 h 156 %/+
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4112E * man and a woman have lunch at =urger (ing, and then shovel snow. The shoveling time it will
take to burn off the lunch calories is to be determined for both.
Assumptions The food intake during lunch is completely metaboli;ed by the body.
Properties The metaboli;able energy contents of different foods are as given in the problem statement.
1hoveling snow burns calories at a rate of .$" 8al'h for the woman and 23" 8al'h for the man )given,.
Analysis The total calories consumed during lunch and the time it will take to burn them are determined
for both the man and woman as follows<
/an9 9unch calories #!"C2""C!! +.2 8al.
1hoveling time< t
shoveling, man
1345 Cal
480 Cal / h
280 *
Woman9 9unch calories .."C2""C" #." 8al.
1hoveling time< t
shoveling, woman
730 Cal
360 Cal / h
203 *
4113 Two friends have identical metabolic rates and lead identical lives, e4cept they have different
lunches. The weight difference between these two friends in a year is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The diet and e4ercise habits of the people remain the same other than the lunch menus. 2
*ll the e4cess calories from the lunch are converted to body fat.
Properties The metaboli;able energy content of body fat is ..,+"" 8al'kg )te4t,. The metaboli;able energy
contents of different foods are given in problem statement.
Analysis The person who has the double whopper sandwich consumes +$"" N 3"" 3"" 8al more every
day. The difference in calories consumed per year becomes
8alorie consumption difference )3"" 8al'day,).$ days'year, !%!,""" 8al'year
Therefore, assuming all the e4cess calories to be converted to body fat, the weight difference between the
two persons after + year will be
k&"8 369
,
_
8al +
k& 2.+3$3
k&'kg ..,+""
8al'yr !%!,"""
fat of content Anegy
difference intake 8alorie
difference Eeight
fat
intake
e
E
or about 3" pounds of body fat per year.
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4114E * person eats dinner at a fastfood restaurant. The time it will take for this person to burn off the
dinner calories by climbing stairs is to be determined.
Assumptions The food intake from dinner is completely metaboli;ed by the body.
Properties The metaboli;able energy contents are !#" 8al for regular roast beef, 2+" 8al for big roast
beef, and +" 8al for the drink. 8limbing stairs burns calories at a rate of 2"" 8al'h )given,.
Analysis The total calories consumed during dinner and the time it will take to burn them by climbing
stairs are determined to be
Ginner calories !#"C2+"C+" 3." 8al.
1tair climbing time< t
830 Cal
400 Cal / h
208 *
4115 Three people have different lunches. The person who consumed the most calories from lunch is to
be determined.
Properties The metaboli;able energy contents of different foods are ." 8al for the =ig 6ac, $2" 8al for
the whopper, ." 8al for french fries, and  for each olive )given,.
Analysis The total calories consumed by each person during lunch are<
Pe*son +9 9unch calories ." 8al
Pe*son !9 9unch calories 640 C,#
Pe*son .9 9unch calories ."C" $"" 8al
Therefore, the person with the Ehopper will consume the most calories.
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23"
4116 * +""kg man decides to lose  kg by e4ercising without reducing his calorie intake. The number of
days it will take for this man to lose  kg is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The diet and e4ercise habits of the person remain the same other than the new daily
e4ercise program. 2 The entire calorie deficiency is met by burning body fat.
Properties The metaboli;able energy content of body fat is ..,+"" 8al'kg )te4t,.
Analysis The energy consumed by an average $3kg adult during fastswimming, fast dancing, Mogging,
biking, and rela4ing are 3$", $"", 2", $.%, and #! 8al'h, respectively )Table 2!,. The daily energy
consumption of this +""kg man is
( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] 8al %%%
kg $3
kg +""
h !" 8al'h #! h + 8al'h $.% 2" $"" 3$"
,
_
+ + + +
Therefore, this person burns %%%.""" !%%% more 8alories than he takes in, which corresponds to
kg "..#%
8al +
k& 2.+3$3
k&'kg ..,+""
8al !%%%
fat
,
_
m
of body fat per day. Thus it will take only
da; %,&(
kg "..#%
kg 
t
for this man to lose  kg.
4117E The range of healthy weight for adults is usually e4pressed in terms of the body mass )ndex )=6I,
in 1I units as
=6I
kg
m
!
W
(
) ,
) ,
!
. This formula is to be converted to Anglish units such that the weight is
in pounds and the height in inches.
Analysis :oting that + kg !.! lbm and + m .%..# in, the weight in lbm must be divided by !.! to
convert it to kg, and the height in inches must be divided by .%..# to convert it to m before inserting them
into the formula. Therefore,
BMI
kg
m
lbm
in
lbm
in
2 2 2
W
H
W
H
W
H
( )
( )
( ) / .
( ) / ( . )
( )
( )
2 2 2 2
2 2
39 37
705
Avery person can calculate their own =6I using either 1I or Anglish units, and determine if it is in the
healthy range.
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23+
4118 * person changes his'her diet to lose weight. The time it will take for the body mass inde4 )=6I, of
the person to drop from ." to ! is to be determined.
Assumptions The deficit in the calori intake is made up by burning body fat.
Properties The metaboli;able energy contents are ." 8al for a slice of pi;;a and 3# 8al for a !""ml
regular cola. The metaboli;able energy content of + kg of body fat is ..,+"" k&.
Analysis The lunch calories before the diet is
8al +!!2 8al, 3# ) ! 8al, " . ) . ! .
coke pi;;a old
+ + e e E
The lunch calories after the diet is
8al #3# 8al, 3# ) + 8al, " . ) ! + !
coke pi;;a old
+ + e e E
The calorie reduction is
8al 2.# #3# +!!2
reduction
E
The corresponding reduction in the body fat mass is
kg "!3 . "
8al +
k& +3$3 . 2
k&'kg ..,+""
8al 2.#
fat
,
_
m
The weight of the person before and after the diet is
kg ! . #! m, # . + ) ! =6I
kg #" . 3$ m, # . + ) ." =6I
!
pi;;a
!
! !
!
pi;;a
!
+ +
' W
' W
Then it will take
6,. 2614
kg'day "."!3
kg , ! . #! #" . 3$ )
Time
fat
! +
m
W W
for the =6I of this person to drop to !.
4119 The effect of supersi;ing in fast food restaurants on monthly weight gain is to be determined for a
given case.
Properties The metaboli;able energy content of + kg of body fat is ..,+"" k&.
Analysis The increase in the body fat mass due to e4tra +""" calories is
"g21onth ,&.)
,
_
, days'month " . )
8al +
k& +3$3 . 2
k&'kg ..,+""
8al'day +"""
fat
m
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23!
RevieE 5ro69e1;
4120 The compression work from P+ to P! using a polytropic process is to be compared for neon and air.
Assumptions The process is quasiequilibrium.
Properties The gas constants for neon and air R ".2++% and ".!3# k&'kg(, respectively )Table *!a,.
Analysis Bor a polytropic process,
8onstant
n
Pv
The boundary work during a polytropic process of an ideal gas is
1
1
]
1
,
_
1
1
]
1
,
_
+
+
+
+
8onstant
' , + )
+
! +
+
+
! + +
!
+
!
+
out ,
n n n
n
b
P
P
n
RT
n
P
d Pd $
v
v v
v v v
The negative of this e4pression gives the compression work during a polytropic process. Inspection of this
equation reveals that the gas with the smallest gas constant )i.e., largest molecular weight, requires the
least work for compression. In this problem, air will require the least amount of work.
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23.
4121 :itrogen is heated to e4perience a specified temperature change. The heat transfer is to be
determined for two cases.
Assumptions 1 :itrogen is an ideal gas since it is at a high temperature and probably low pressure relative
to its critical point values of +!$.! ( and ...% 60a. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are
negligible, " pe ke . 3 8onstant specific heats can be used for nitrogen.
Properties The specific heats of nitrogen at the average temperature of )!"C!",'!+.82"3 ( are c
+."2 k&'kg( and cv ".#23 k&'kg( )Table *!b,.
Analysis Ee take the nitrogen as the system. This is a closed system since no mass crosses the boundaries
of the system. The energy balance for a constantvolume process can be e4pressed as
, )
+ ! in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
T T mc # Q
E E E
v
!
!
The energy balance during a constantpressure process )such as
in a pistoncylinder device, can be e4pressed as
, )
+ ! in
out , in
out , in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
T T mc ( Q
# W Q
# W Q
E E E

b
b
+
!
!
since # C Wb ( during a constant pressure quasi
equilibrium process. 1ubstituting for both cases,
%.(+"*
T

T
'
c
and the specific heat at constant pressure has no meaning. The specific heat at constant volume does have
a meaning since
finite
finite
finite
v
v
T
u
c
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
23
*ir
+ lbm
." psia
2"FB
W
pw
4124 * gas mi4ture contained in a rigid tank is cooled. The heat transfer is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The gas mi4ture is an ideal gas. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible,
" pe ke . 3 8onstant specific heats can be used.
Properties The specific heat of gas mi4ture is given to be cv ".#23 k&'kg(.
Analysis Ee take the contents of the tank as the system. This is a closed system since no mass crosses the
boundaries of the system. The energy balance for this system can be e4pressed as
, )
, )
! + out
+ ! out
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
T T c %
T T mc # Q
E E E
v
v
!
!
*s the specific volume remains constant during this process, the
ideal gas equation gives
(  . !.$
k0a !""
k0a +""
(, )2#.
+
!
+ !
P
P
T T
1ubstituting,
"*2"g %.. ,(  . !.$ (,)2#. k&'kg #23 . " ) , )
! + out
T T c %
v
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
23$
7as mi4ture
!"" k0a
!""F8
Q
4125 * wellinsulated rigid vessel contains saturated liquid water. Alectrical work is done on water. The
final temperature is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The tank is stationary and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are ;ero. 2 The
thermal energy stored in the tank itself is negligible.
Analysis Ee take the contents of the tank as the system. This is a closed system since no mass enters or
leaves. The energy balance for this stationary closed system can be e4pressed as
, )
+ ! in ,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
u u m # W
E E E
e
!
!
The amount of electrical work added during ." minutes period is
k& %"" & %"","""
H* +
E +
s, $" *,)." H,)+" " )
in e,
,
_
t & W !
The properties at the initial state are )Table *2,
'kg.. m ""+""3 . "
k&'kg . . +$#
.
8 ?2" +
8 ?2" +
f
f
u u
v v
1ubstituting,
k&'kg . . 2$#
kg .
k& %""
k&'kg . . +$# , )
in ,
+ ! + ! in ,
+ +
m
W
u u u u m W
e
e
The final state is compressed liquid. :oting that the specific volume is constant during the process, the
final temperature is determined using AA1 to be
AA1, )from
'kg m ""+""3 . "
k&'kg . . 2$#
!
.
+ +
!
C %%$&)
T
u
v v
Discussion Ee cannot find this temperature directly from steam tables at the end of the book.
*ppro4imating the final compressed liquid state as saturated liquid at the given internal energy, the final
temperature is determined from Table *2 to be
8 +++.
k&'kg 2$#.. sat? !
u
T T
:ote that this appro4imation resulted in an answer, which is not very close to the e4act answer determined
using AA1.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
23#
P
v
+
!
4126 The boundary work e4pression during a polytropic process of an ideal gas is to be derived.
Assumptions The process is quasiequilibrium.
Analysis Bor a polytropic process,
8onstant
! ! + +
n n
P P v v
1ubstituting this into the boundary work e4pression gives
1
1
]
1
,
_
,
_
+
+
, + )
+
+
, )
+
+
+
! +
+
+
+
!
+ +
+
+
+
+
!
! +
+
+
+
!
+ +
!
+
+ +
!
+
out ,
n
n n
n
n
n
n
n n n n
b
n
RT
n
P
n
P
n
P
d P Pd $
v
v
v v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v v
v
v v v v
Ehen the specific volume ratio is eliminated with the e4pression for the constant,
1
1
]
1
,
_
+
+
' , + )
+
! +
out ,
n n
b
P
P
n
RT
$
where + n
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
233
4127 * cylinder equipped with an e4ternal spring is initially filled with air at a specified state. Heat is
transferred to the air, and both the temperature and pressure rise. The total boundary work done by the air,
and the amount of work done against the spring are to be determined, and the process is to be shown on a
Pv diagram.
Assumptions 1 The process is quasiequilibrium. 2 The spring is a linear spring.
Analysis )a, The pressure of the gas changes linearly with volume during this process, and thus the
process curve on a P2 diagram will be a straight line. Then the boundary work during this process is
simply the area under the process curve, which is a trape;oidal. Thus,
( )
kJ 150
,
_
+
.
.
+ !
! +
out b,
m k0a +
k& +
m , ".! ". )
!
k0a , 3"" !"" )
!
*rea V V
P P
W
)b, If there were no spring, we would have a
constant pressure process at 0 !"" k0a. The
work done during this process is
( )
( )( )
k& $"
m k0a +
k& +
'kg m ".! ". k0a !""
.
.
+ !
!
+
spring no out, b,
,
_
V V V P d P W
Thus,
kJ 90 $" +"
spring no b, spring
W W W
b
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
23%
V
)m
.
,
P
)k0a,
!""
+
! 3""
".! ".
*ir
!"" k0a
".! m
.
Q
4128 * cylinder equipped with a set of stops for the piston is initially filled with saturated liquidvapor
mi4ture of water a specified pressure. Heat is transferred to the water until the volume increases by !">.
The initial and final temperature, the mass of the liquid when the piston starts moving, and the work done
during the process are to be determined, and the process is to be shown on a Pv diagram.
Assumptions The process is quasiequilibrium.
Analysis )a, Initially the system is a saturated mi4ture at +! k0a pressure, and thus the initial
temperature is
C 1060
k0a +! ? sat +
T T
The total initial volume is
.
+
m .+!# 2 .#" . + . ""+"23 . " ! + +
g g f f
m m v v V
Then the total and specific volumes at the final state are
'kg m .%%" "
kg 
m 2.%.
m .%. 2 .+!# 2 +.! ! . +
.
.
.
.
.
+ .
m
V
v
V V
Thus,
C 3736
.
.
.
.
'kg m .%%" "
k0a .""
T
v
P
)b, Ehen the piston first starts moving, P! ."" k0a and V!
V+ 2.+!# m
.
. The specific volume at this state is
'kg m .3!2 "
kg 
m 2.+!#
.
.
!
!
m
V
v
which is greater than vg ".$"3! m
.
'kg at ."" k0a. Thus +5 #/:u/6 is left in the cylinder when the
piston starts moving.
)c, :o work is done during process +! since V+ V!. The pressure remains constant during process !.
and the work done during this process is
( ) ( )( ) kJ 2476
,
_
.
.
! . !
.
!
m k0a +
k& +
m +!# . 2 2.%. k0a ."" V V V P d P W
b
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2%"
H
!
D
 kg
!
+
.
P
v
4129E * spherical balloon is initially filled with air at a specified state. The pressure inside is
proportional to the square of the diameter. Heat is transferred to the air until the volume doubles. The
work done is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 *ir is an ideal gas. 2 The process is quasiequilibrium.
Properties The gas constant of air is R "."$3 =tu'lbm.@ )Table *+A,.
Analysis The dependence of pressure on volume can be e4pressed as
. !
! !
. +
.
$
$
$
+
,
_
,
_
V
V
V
k kD P D P
D D
or,
. !
! !
. !
+ +
. !
$
,
_
V V P P k
*lso, 3# . + !
. !
. !
+
!
+
!
,
_
V
V
P
P
and
( ) @ !.% @ 3"" ! +.3#
+
+ +
! !
!
!
! !
+
+ +
T
P
P
T
T
P
T
P
V
V V V
Thus,
( )
Btu 715
,
_
,
_
@ , 3"" !.% ,) @ =tu'lbm "."$3 ,) lbm +" )

.
, )

.
, )

. $

. $
+ !
+ + ! !
. 
+
. 
!
. !
!
+
. !
!
+
T T mR
P P
k
d k d P W
b
V V V V V
V
V
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2%+
*I@
+" lbm
." psia
3"" @
4130E EES 0roblem 2+!%A is reconsidered. /sing the integration feature, the work done is to be
determined and compared to the Lhand calculatedL result.
Analysis The problem is solved using AA1, and the solution is given below.
K=2
'=10 [l,']
P_1=)0 [2sia]
T_1=:00 [.]
V_2=2"V_1
.=1909"[6t/l,6@l,'ol/.]"@'olar'ass%air*"[6t/l,6@l,'/.]"
P_1"on$ert%2sia&l,6@6t(2*"V_1='"."T_1
V_1=0"2i"%I_1@2*()@)"[6t()]"
=P_1@I_1(K
%I_1@I_2*()=V_1@V_2
P_2="I_2(K"[2sia]"
P_2"on$ert%2sia&l,6@6t(2*"V_2='"."T_2
P="I(K"on$ert%2sia&l,6@6t(2*"[6t(2]"
V=0"2i"%I@2*()@)"[6t()]"
4_,oundar_BB!=inte1ral%P&V&V_1&V_2*"#on$ert%6t/l,6&<tu*"[<tu]"
4_,oundar_TGKI=2i"@%2"%KL)**"%I_2(%KL)*/I_1(%KL)**"#on$ert%6t/
l,6&<tu*"#on$ert%6t(2&in(2*"[<tu]"
K 4,oundar
[<tu]
0 90:3)
03)))) 97239
038887 99:31
1 829
13))) 89)39
13887 8:)37
2 71939
23))) 70932
23887 7:03:
) :2239
+ +&' % %&' ( (&' ,
'++
''+
++
'+
.++
.'+
$++
$'+
N
!
6
o
u
n
d
a
r
0
B
t
u
3
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2%!
4131 * cylinder is initially filled with saturated @+.2a vapor at a specified pressure. The refrigerant is
heated both electrically and by heat transfer at constant pressure for $ min. The electric current is to be
determined, and the process is to be shown on a Tv diagram.
Assumptions 1 The cylinder is stationary and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.
2 The thermal energy stored in the cylinder itself and the wires is negligible. 3 The compression or
e4pansion process is quasiequilibrium.
Analysis Ee take the contents of the cylinder as the system. This is a closed system since no mass enters
or leaves. The energy balance for this stationary closed system can be e4pressed as
, ) , H )
, )
", 0A (A )since
+ ! in
+ ! in e, in
, in e, in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
' ' m t & Q
' ' m W Q
Q # W W Q
E E E
out b
+
+
+
!
!
since # C Wb ( during a constant pressure quasi
equilibrium process. The properties of @+.2a are
)Tables *++ through *+.,
k&'kg .+2.+
8 #"
k0a !2"
k&'kg !2#.!3
vapor sat.
k0a !2"
!
+
!
k0a !2" ? +
+
;
'
T
P
' '
P
g
1ubstituting,
( )( )( ) ( )( )
A %(&$
,
_
+
&
&
k&'s +
H* +"""
k&'kg !2#.!3 .+2.+ kg +! s $" $ H ++" H* ."","""
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2%.
T
v
!
+
@+.2a
P const.
W
e
4132 * cylinder is initially filled with saturated liquidvapor mi4ture of @+.2a at a specified pressure.
Heat is transferred to the cylinder until the refrigerant vapori;es completely at constant pressure. The
initial volume, the work done, and the total heat transfer are to be determined, and the process is to be
shown on a Pv diagram.
Assumptions 1 The cylinder is stationary and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.
2 The thermal energy stored in the cylinder itself is negligible. 3 The compression or e4pansion process is
quasiequilibrium.
Analysis )a, /sing property data from @+.2a tables )Tables *++ through *+.,, the initial volume of
the refrigerant is determined to be
( ) ( )
,
1 +&++'%+
+ +
+
+
;
g
g
u u
v v P
( )
( )( )( )
kJ 297
,
_
.
.
+ ! + !
!
+
out ,
m k0a +
k& +
'kg m "."!. "."%%3# k0a !"" kg ".!
, ) v v V V V mP P d P W
b
)c, Ee take the contents of the cylinder as the system. This is a closed system since no mass enters or
leaves. The energy balance for this stationary closed system can be e4pressed as
out b, + ! in
out b, in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
, )
W u u m Q
# W Q
E E E
+
!
!
1ubstituting,
Qin )".! kg,)!!2.23  32.3.,k&'kg C !.%# 309 kJ
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2%2
@+.2a
!"" k0a
Q
P
v
! +
4133 * cylinder is initially filled with helium gas at a specified state. Helium is compressed
polytropically to a specified temperature and pressure. The heat transfer during the process is to be
determined.
Assumptions 1 Helium is an ideal gas with constant specific heats. 2 The cylinder is stationary and thus
the kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. 3 The thermal energy stored in the cylinder itself
is negligible. 4 The compression or e4pansion process is quasiequilibrium.
Properties The gas constant of helium is R !."#$% k0a.m
.
'kg.( )Table *+,. *lso, cv ..++$ k&'kg.(
)Table *!,.
Analysis The mass of helium and the e4ponent n are determined to be
( ) ( )
( )( )
.$ . +
!$2 . "
 . "
+"
2""
m ".!$2 m ".
k0a 2""
k0a +"
( !%.
( 2+.
kg ".+!.
( !%. ( 'kg m k0a !."#$%
m ". k0a +"
!
+
+
!
+ + ! !
. .
+
! +
+ !
!
!
! !
+
+ +
.
.
+
+ +
,
_
,
_
,
_
n
P
P
P P
P T
P T
RT
P
RT
P
RT
P
m
n
n
n n
V
V
V V
V V
V V
V
Then the boundary work for this polytropic process can be determined from
( )
k& #.!
+..$ +
( !%., )2+. , ( k&'kg !."#$% ,) kg ".+!. )
+ +
+ ! + + ! !
!
+
in b,
n
T T mR
n
P P
d P W
V V
V
Ee take the contents of the cylinder as the system. This is a closed system since no mass enters or leaves.
Taking the direction of heat transfer to be to the cylinder, the energy balance for this stationary closed
system can be e4pressed as
in b, + !
in b, + ! in
+ ! in b, in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
, )
, )
, )
W T T mc
W u u m Q
u u m # W Q
E E E
+
v
!
!
1ubstituting,
Qin )".+!. kg,)..++$ k&'kgO(,)2+.  !%.,(  )#.! k&, 112 kJ
The negative sign indicates that heat is lost from the system.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2%
He
PV
n
8
Q
4134 :itrogen gas is e4panded in a polytropic process. The work done and the heat transfer are to be
determined.
Assumptions 1 :itrogen is an ideal gas since it is at a high temperature and low pressure relative to its
critical point values of +!$.! ( and ...% 60a. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible,
" pe ke . 3 8onstant specific heats can be used.
Properties The properties of nitrogen are R ".!%$3 k&'kg( and cv ".#2. k&'kg( )Table *!a,.
Analysis Ee take nitrogen in the cylinder as the system. This is a
closed system since no mass crosses the boundaries of the system.
The energy balance for this system can be e4pressed as
, )
+ ! out , in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
T T mc # W Q
E E E
b
v
!
!
/sing the boundary work relation for the polytropic process of an
ideal gas gives
"*2"g '(&)
1
1
]
1
,
_
1
1
]
1
,
_
+
!"""
+!"
+..  +
(, +!"" ,) ( k&'kg !%$3 . " )
+
+
. . + ' . . "
' , + )
+
! +
out ,
n n
b
P
P
n
RT
$
The temperature at the final state is
( $ . #3
k0a !"""
k0a +!"
(, +!"" )
. . + ' . . "
+ )
+
!
+ !
,
_
,
_
!"n n
P
P
T T
1ubstituting into the energy balance equation,
"*2"g '&( + + ( , +!"" (,)#3.$ k&'kg #2. . " ) k&'kg % . !$ , )
+ ! out , in
T T c $ %
b v
4135 The e4pansion work from P+ to P! in a closed system polytropic process is to be compared for neon
and air.
Assumptions The process is quasiequilibrium.
Properties The gas constants for neon and air are R ".2++% and ".!3# k&'kg(, respectively )Table *
!a,.
Analysis Bor a polytropic process,
8onstant
n
Pv
The boundary work during a polytropic process of an ideal gas is
1
1
]
1
,
_
1
1
]
1
,
_
+
+
+
+
8onstant
' , + )
+
! +
+
+
! + +
!
+
!
+
out ,
n n n
n
b
P
P
n
RT
n
P
d Pd $
v
v v
v v v
Inspection of this equation reveals that the gas with the largest gas constant )i.e., smallest molecular
weight, will produce the greatest amount of work. Hence, the neon gas will produce the greatest amount
of work.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2%$
Q
:
!
! 60a
+!"" (
4136 * cylinder and a rigid tank initially contain the same amount of an ideal gas at the same state. The
temperature of both systems is to be raised by the same amount. The amount of e4tra heat that must be
transferred to the cylinder is to be determined.
Analysis In the absence of any work interactions, other than the boundary work, the ( and # represent
the heat transfer for ideal gases for constant pressure and constant volume processes, respectively. Thus
the e4tra heat that must be supplied to the air maintained at constant pressure is
T mR T c c m T mc T mc # ( Q
 
, )
e4tra in, v v
where
R
R
M
u
8.314 kJ / kmol K
25 kg / kmol
0.3326 kJ / kg K
1ubstituting,
Qin, e4tra )+! kg,)"...!$ k&'kgO(,)+ (, 599 kJ
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2%#
IGA*9
7*1
P const.
Q
IGA*9
7*1
V const.
Q
4137 The heating of a passive solar house at night is to be assisted by solar heated water. The length of
time that the electric heating system would run that night with or without solar heating are to be
determined.
Assumptions 1 Eater is an incompressible substance with constant specific heats. 2 The energy stored in
the glass containers themselves is negligible relative to the energy stored in water. 3 The house is
maintained at !!F8 at all times.
Properties The density and specific heat of water at room temperature are + kg'9 and c 2.+3
k&'kgOF8 )Table *.,.
Analysis )a, The total mass of water is
( )( ) kg +""" 9 !" " kg'9 + V
$
m
Taking the contents of the house, including the water as
our system, the energy balance relation can be written as
water + ! water
air water out in e,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
, ) , )
, ) , )
T T mc #
# # # Q W
E E E
+
!
!
or,
water + ! out in e,
,J ) K T T mc Q t W
1ubstituting,
)+ k&'s,t  )",""" k&'h,)+" h, )+""" kg,)2.+3 k&'kgO8,)!!  3",8
It gives t +#,+#" s 477 *
)b, If the house incorporated no solar heating, the energy balance relation above would simplify further to
"
out in e,
Q t W
1ubstituting,
)+ k&'s,t  )",""" k&'h,)+" h, "
It gives
t ..,... s 926 *
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2%3
!!8
",""" k&'h
water
3"8
4138 *n electric resistance heater is immersed in water. The time it will take for the electric heater to
raise the water temperature to a specified temperature is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Eater is an incompressible substance with constant specific heats. 2 The energy stored in
the container itself and the heater is negligible. 3 Heat loss from the container is negligible.
Properties The density and specific heat of water at room temperature are + kg'9 and c 2.+3
k&'kgOF8 )Table *.,.
Analysis Taking the water in the container as the system, the energy balance can be e4pressed as
water + ! in e,
water in e,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
, )
, )
T T mc t W
# W
E E E
!
!
1ubstituting,
)+3"" &'s,t )2" kg,)2+3" &'kgO8,)3"  !",8
1olving for t gives
t 5573 . 0 929 %/+ 0 155 *
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2%%
@esistance Heater
Eater
4139 Dne ton of liquid water at 3"F8 is brought into a room. The final equilibrium temperature in the
room is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The room is well insulated and well sealed. 2 The thermal properties of water and air are
constant.
Properties The gas constant of air is R ".!3# k0a.m
.
'kg.( )Table *+,. The specific heat of water at
room temperature is c 2.+3 k&'kg8 )Table *.,.
Analysis The volume and the mass of the air in the room are
V 244$ +!" mP
( ) ( )
( )( )
kg +2+.#
( !% ( 'kg m k0a ".!3#"
m +!" k0a +""
.
.
+
+ +
air
RT
P
m
V
Taking the contents of the room, including the water, as
our system, the energy balance can be written as
( ) ( )
air water
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
" # # #
E E E
+
!
!
or
( ) [ ] ( ) [ ] "
air + ! water + !
+ T T mc T T mc
v
1ubstituting,
" 8 , !! ,) 8 k&'kg ".#+3 ,) kg +2+.# ) 8 3", ,) 8 k&'kg 2.+3" ,) kg +""" ) +
f f
T T
It gives
Tf 786C
where Tf is the final equilibrium temperature in the room.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+""
@DD6
!!8
+"" k0a
2 m  m $
m
Eater
3"8
Heat
4140 * room is to be heated by + ton of hot water contained in a tank placed in the room. The minimum
initial temperature of the water is to be determined if it to meet the heating requirements of this room for
a !2h period.
Assumptions 1 Eater is an incompressible substance with constant specific heats. 2 *ir is an ideal gas
with constant specific heats. 3 The energy stored in the container itself is negligible relative to the energy
stored in water. 4 The room is maintained at !"F8 at all times. 5 The hot water is to meet the heating
requirements of this room for a !2h period.
Properties The specific heat of water at room temperature is c 2.+3 k&'kgOF8 )Table *.,.
Analysis Heat loss from the room during a !2h period is
Qloss )3""" k&'h,)!2 h, +%!,""" k&
Taking the contents of the room, including the water,
as our system, the energy balance can be written as
( ) ( )
"
air water out
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
# # # Q
E E E
+
!
!
or
Qout Kmc)T!  T+,Jwater
1ubstituting,
+%!,""" k& )+""" kg,)2.+3 k&'kgO8,)!"  T+,
It gives
T+ 659C
where T+ is the temperature of the water when it is first brought into the room.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+"+
!"8
3""" k&'h
water
4141 * sample of a food is burned in a bomb calorimeter, and the water temperature rises by ..!F8 when
equilibrium is established. The energy content of the food is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Eater is an incompressible substance with constant specific heats. 2 *ir is an ideal gas
with constant specific heats. 3 The energy stored in the reaction chamber is negligible relative to the
energy stored in water. 4 The energy supplied by the mi4er is negligible.
Properties The specific heat of water at room temperature is c 2.+3 k&'kgOF8 )Table *.,. The constant
volume specific heat of air at room temperature is c$ ".#+3 k&'kgOF8 )Table *!,.
Analysis The chemical energy released during the combustion of the sample is transferred to the water as
heat. Therefore, disregarding the change in the sensible energy of the reaction chamber, the energy
content of the food is simply the heat transferred to the water. Taking the water as our system, the energy
balance can be written as
in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
# Q E E E
!
!
or
( ) ( ) [ ]
water + ! water
T T mc # Q
)n
1ubstituting,
Qin ). kg,)2.+3 k&'kgO8,)..!8, 2".+. k&
for a !g sample. Then the energy content of the food
per unit mass is
kJ"k& 202060
,
_
kg +
g +"""
g !
k& 2".+.
To make a rough estimate of the error involved in neglecting the thermal energy stored in the reaction
chamber, we treat the entire mass within the chamber as air and determine the change in sensible internal
energy<
( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) ( )( ) k& ".!. 8 ..! 8 k&'kg ".#+3 kg ".+"!
chamber + ! chamber
T T mc #
v
which is less than +> of the internal energy change of water. Therefore, it is reasonable to disregard the
change in the sensible energy content of the reaction chamber in the analysis.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+"!
Bood
@eaction
chamber
Eater
T ..!8
4142 * man drinks one liter of cold water at .F8 in an effort to cool down. The drop in the average body
temperature of the person under the influence of this cold water is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Thermal properties of the body and water are constant. 2 The effect of metabolic heat
generation and the heat loss from the body during that time period are negligible.
Properties The density of water is very nearly + kg'9, and the specific heat of water at room temperature
is C 2.+3 k&'kgOF8 )Table *.,. The average specific heat of human body is given to be ..$ k&'kg.F8.
Analysis. The mass of the water is
( )( ) kg + 9 + kg'9 + V
$
m
Ee take the man and the water as our system, and disregard any heat and mass transfer and chemical
reactions. Df course these assumptions may be acceptable only for very short time periods, such as the
time it takes to drink the water. Then the energy balance can be written as
water body
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
" # # #
E E E
+
!
!
or
( ) [ ] ( ) [ ] "
water + ! body + !
+ T T mc T T mc
v v
1ubstituting " 8 , . ,) 8 k&'kg 2.+3 ,) kg + ) 8 .%, ,) 8 k&'kg ..$ ,) kg $3 ) +
f f
T T
It gives
Tf .3.28
Then
QT.% .3.2 +&C
Therefore, the average body temperature of this person should drop about half a degree celsius.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+".
4143 * ".!9 glass of water at !"F8 is to be cooled with ice to F8. The amount of ice or cold water that
needs to be added to the water is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Thermal properties of the ice and water are constant. 2 Heat transfer to the glass is
negligible. 3 There is no stirring by hand or a mechanical device )it will add energy,.
Properties The density of water is + kg'9, and the specific heat of water at room temperature is c 2.+3
k&'kgOF8 )Table *.,. The specific heat of ice at about "8 is c !.++ k&'kgOF8 )Table *.,. The melting
temperature and the heat of fusion of ice at + atm are "8 and ....# k&'kg,.
Analysis )a, The mass of the water is
kg ".! 9, ! . " ,) kg'9 + ) V
$
m
Ee take the ice and the water as our system, and disregard any heat and
mass transfer. This is a reasonable assumption since the time period of the
process is very short. Then the energy balance can be written as
water ice
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
"
"
# #
#
E E E
+
!
!
" ,J ) K J , 8 " ) , 8 " ) K
water + ! ice liquid ! solid +
+ + + T T mc T mc m' T mc
)f
:oting that T+, ice "8 and T! 8 and substituting gives
mK" C ....# k&'kg C )2.+3 k&'kgO8,)",8J C )".! kg,)2.+3 k&'kgO8,)!",8 "
m ".".$2 kg 364 &
)b, Ehen T+, ice 38 instead of "8, substituting gives
mK)!.++ k&'kgO8,K")3,J8 C ....# k&'kg C )2.+3 k&'kgO8,)",8J
C )".! kg,)2.+3 k&'kgO8,)!",8 "
m ".".2# kg 347 &
8ooling with cold water can be handled the same way. *ll we need to do is replace the terms for ice by a
term for cold water at "8<
( ) ( )
( ) [ ] ( ) [ ] "
"
water + ! water cold + !
water water cold
+
+
T T mc T T mc
# #
1ubstituting,
Kmcold water )2.+3 k&'kgO8,)  ",8J C )".! kg,)2.+3 k&'kgO8,)!",8 "
It gives
m ".$ kg 600 &
Discussion :ote that this is +# times the amount of ice needed, and it e4plains why we use ice instead of
water to cool drinks. *lso, the temperature of ice does not seem to make a significant difference.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+"2
Eater
!"8
".! 9
Ice cubes
"8
4144 EES 0roblem 2+2. is reconsidered. The effect of the initial temperature of the ice on the final mass
of ice required as the ice temperature varies from !"F8 to "F8 is to be investigated. The mass of ice is to
be plotted against the initial temperature of ice.
Analysis The problem is solved using AA1, and the solution is given below.
"Knowns"
r+o_water = 1 [k1@L]
V = 032 [L]
T_1_i#e = 0 []
T_1 = 20 []
T_2 = 9 []
_i#e = 2311 [k7@k1/]
_water = 031: [k7@k1/]
+_i6 = )))37 [k7@k1]
T_1_old4ater = 0 []
"T+e 'ass o6 t+e water is5"
'_water = r+o_water"V "[k1]"
"T+e sste' is t+e water 2lus t+e i#e3 Gssu'e a s+ort ti'e 2eriod and ne1le#t
an +eat and 'ass trans6er3 T+e ener1 ,alan#e ,e#o'es5"
B_in / B_out = IBLTGB_ss "[k7]"
B_in = 0 "[k7]"
B_out = 0"[k7]"
IBLTGB_ss = IBLTGA_waterLIBLTGA_i#e"[k7]"
IBLTGA_water = '_water"_water"%T_2 / T_1*"[k7]"
IBLTGA_i#e = IBLTGA_solid_i#eLIBLTGA_'elted_i#e"[k7]"
IBLTGA_solid_i#e ='_i#e"_i#e"%0/T_1_i#e* L '_i#e"+_i6"[k7]"
IBLTGA_'elted_i#e='_i#e"_water"%T_2 / 0*"[k7]"
'_i#e_1ra's='_i#e"#on$ert%k1&1*"[1]"
"oolin1 wit+ old 4ater5"
IBLTGB_ss = IBLTGA_waterLIBLTGA_old4ater"[k7]"
IBLTGA_water = '_water"_water"%T_2_old4ater / T_1*"[k7]"
IBLTGA_old4ater = '_old4ater"_water"%T_2_old4ater /
T_1_old4ater*"[k7]"
'_old4ater_1ra's='_old4ater"#on$ert%k1&1*"[1]"
'i#e&1ra's
[1]
T1&i#e
[]
)138 /20
)2307 /19
))3): /10
)03)0 /9
)93)8 0
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+"
/(+ /% /%( /$ /4 +
,+
,%
,(
,,
,4
,'
,
T
%=i>e
0C3
1
i
>
e
=
g
r
a
1
;
0
g
3
4145 8arbon dio4ide is compressed polytropically in a pistoncylinder device. The final temperature is to
be determined treating the carbon dio4ide as an ideal gas and a van der Eaals gas.
Assumptions The process is quasiequilibrium.
Properties The gas constant of carbon dio4ide is R ".+33% k&'kg( )Table *+,.
Analysis )a, The initial specific volume is
'kg m "3%. . "
k0a +"""
(, (,)2#. k&'kg )".+33%
.
+
+
+
P
RT
v
Brom polytropic process e4pression,
'kg m "."2!%
."""
+"""
, 'kg m )"."3%.
.
 . + ' +
.
' +
!
+
+ !
,
_
,
_
n
P
P
v v
The final temperature is then
# $(&%
( k&'kg +33% . "
, 'kg m % k0a,)"."2! )."""
.
! !
!
R
P
T
v
)b, The van der Eaals equation of state for carbon dio4ide is
T R P
u
,
_
+ , "2!3 . " )
3 . .$
!
v
v
Ehen this is applied to the initial state, the result is
, 2#. ,) .+2 . 3 ) , "2!3 . " )
3 . .$
+"""
+
!
+
,
_
+ v
v
whose solution by iteration or by AA1 is
'kmol m 33! . .
.
+
v
The final molar specific volume is then
'kmol m 3$$ . +
."""
+"""
, 'kmol m )..33!
.
 . + ' +
.
' +
!
+
+ !
,
_
,
_
n
P
P
v v
1ubstitution of the final molar specific volume into the van der Eaals equation of state produces
# $+&)
,
_
+
,
_
!
!
since u u)T, for ideal gases, and thus u! u+ when
T+ T! . The initial volume of air is
. .
+
+
!
!
+
!
!
! !
+
+ +
m ".3" , m )".2 +
k0a !""
k0a 2""
V V
V V
T
T
P
P
T
P
T
P
The pressure at the piston face always remains constant at !"" k0a. Thus the boundary work done during
this process is
k& 3"
m k0a +
k& +
".2,m k0a,)".3 )!"" , )
.
.
+ ! !
!
+
out b,
,
_
V V V P d P W
Therefore, the heat transfer is determined from the energy balance to be
kJ 80
in out b,
Q W
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+"3
Q
*ir
T ."8
4148 * wellinsulated room is heated by a steam radiator, and the warm air is distributed by a fan. The
average temperature in the room after ." min is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 *ir is an ideal gas with constant specific heats at room temperature. 2 The kinetic and
potential energy changes are negligible. 3 The air pressure in the room remains constant and thus the air
e4pands as it is heated, and some warm air escapes.
Properties The gas constant of air is R ".!3# k0a.m
.
'kg.( )Table *+,. *lso, c +."" k&'kg.( for air
at room temperature )Table *!,.
Analysis Ee first take the radiator as the system. This is a closed system since no mass enters or leaves.
The energy balance for this closed system can be e4pressed as
, )
", 0A (A )since , )
! + out
+ ! out
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
u u m Q
W u u m # Q
E E E
!
!
/sing data from the steam tables )Tables *2 through
*$,, some properties are determined to be
( ) k&'kg !"33.! , 2" . 2+#
'kg m +.$%2+ , ""+"2. . " k0a +""
k&'kg !$2.$
'kg m +."3"2%
8 !""
k0a !""
.
+ !
!
+
.
+
+
+
fg f
g f
u u
P
u T
P
v v
v v
v
kg "."+.%
'kg m +."3"2%
m "."+
k&'kg +#23.# !"33.! ".$.#$ 2+#.2"
$.#$ . "
""+"2. . " $%2+ . +
""+"2. . " "3"2% . +
.
.
+
+
! !
!
!
+ +
v
V
v
v v
m
u x u u
x
fg f
fg
f
1ubstituting, Qout )"."+.% kg,) !$2.$ R +#23.#,k&'kg +!.3 k&
The volume and the mass of the air in the room are V 22 3" m
.
and
( ) ( )
( )( )
kg %3.
( !3. ( 'kg m k0a ".!3#"
m 3" k0a +""
.
.
+
+ +
air
RT
P
m
V
The amount of fan work done in ." min is
k& !+$ s, $" k&'s,)." +!" . " )
in fan, in fan,
t W W
Ee now take the air in the room as the system. The energy balance for this closed system is e4pressed as
, )
+ ! in fan, in
out b, in fan, in
system out in
T T mc ( W Q
# W W Q
E E E

+
+
since the boundary work and # combine into ( for a constant pressure e4pansion or compression
process. It can also be e4pressed as
, ) , )
+ ! avg , in fan, in
T T mc t W Q

+
1ubstituting, )+!.3 k&, C )!+$ k&, )%3. kg,)+."" k&'kg8,)T!  +",8
which yields T! 123C
Therefore, the air temperature in the room rises from +"8 to +!..8 in ." min.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+"%
1team
radiator
+"8
2 m 2 m  m
4149 *n insulated cylinder is divided into two parts. Dne side of the cylinder contains :! gas and the
other side contains He gas at different states. The final equilibrium temperature in the cylinder when
thermal equilibrium is established is to be determined for the cases of the piston being fi4ed and moving
freely.
Assumptions 1 =oth :! and He are ideal gases with constant specific heats. 2 The energy stored in the
container itself is negligible. 3 The cylinder is wellinsulated and thus heat transfer is negligible.
Properties The gas constants and the constant volume specific heats are R ".!%$3 k0a.m
.
'kg.( is cv
".#2. k&'kgOF8 for :!, and R !."#$% k0a.m
.
'kg.( is cv ..++$ k&'kgOF8 for He )Tables *+ and *
!,
Analysis The mass of each gas in the cylinder is
( ) ( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
kg ".3"3
( !%3 ( 'kg m k0a !."#$%
m + k0a ""
kg 2.##
( .. ( 'kg m k0a ".!%$3
m + k0a ""
.
.
He
+
+ +
He
.
.
:
+
+ +
:
!
!
,
_
,
_
RT
P
m
RT
P
m
V
V
Taking the entire contents of the cylinder as our system, the +st law relation can be written as
( ) ( )
He + ! : + !
He :
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
,J ) K ,J ) K "
"
!
!
T T mc T T mc
# # #
E E E
+
+
v v
!
!
1ubstituting,
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) " 8 ! 8 k&'kg ..++$ kg ".3"3 8 3" 8 k&'kg ".#2. kg 2.## +
f f
T T
It gives Tf 572C
where Tf is the final equilibrium temperature in the cylinder.
The answer would be the .,%1 if the piston were not free to move since it would effect only
pressure, and not the specific heats.
Discussion /sing the relation PV NRuT, it can be shown that the total number of moles in the cylinder
is ".+#" C ".!"! "..#! kmol, and the final pressure is +".$ k0a.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2++"
:
!
+ m
.
"" k0a
3"8
He
+ m
.
"" k0a
!8
4150 *n insulated cylinder is divided into two parts. Dne side of the cylinder contains :! gas and the
other side contains He gas at different states. The final equilibrium temperature in the cylinder when
thermal equilibrium is established is to be determined for the cases of the piston being fi4ed and moving
freely.
Assumptions 1 =oth :! and He are ideal gases with constant specific heats. 2 The energy stored in the
container itself, e4cept the piston, is negligible. 3 The cylinder is wellinsulated and thus heat transfer is
negligible. 4 Initially, the piston is at the average temperature of the two gases.
Properties The gas constants and the constant volume specific heats are R ".!%$3 k0a.m
.
'kg.( is cv
".#2. k&'kgOF8 for :!, and R !."#$% k0a.m
.
'kg.( is cv ..++$ k&'kgOF8 for He )Tables *+ and *
!,. The specific heat of copper piston is c "..3$ k&'kgOF8 )Table *.,.
Analysis The mass of each gas in the cylinder is
( ) ( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
kg ".3"3
( .. ( 'kg m k0a !."#$%
m + k0a ""
kg 2.##
( .. ( 'kg m k0a ".!%$3
m + k0a ""
.
.
He
+
+ +
He
.
.
:
+
+ +
:
!
!
,
_
,
_
RT
P
m
RT
P
m
V
V
Taking the entire contents of the cylinder as our system,
the +st law relation can be written as
( ) ( ) ( )
,J ) K ,J ) K ,J ) K "
"
8u + ! He + ! : + !
8u He :
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
!
!
T T mc T T mc T T mc
# # # #
E E E
+ +
+ +
v v
!
!
where
T+, 8u )3" C !, ' ! !.8
1ubstituting,
( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )( )
( ) ( )( ) " 8 !. 8 k&'kg "..3$ kg ."
8 ! 8 k&'kg ..++$ kg ".3"3 8 3" 8 k&'kg ".#2. kg 2.##
+
+
f
f f
T
T T
It gives
Tf 560C
where Tf is the final equilibrium temperature in the cylinder.
The answer would be the .,%1 if the piston were not free to move since it would effect only
pressure, and not the specific heats.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+++
:
!
+ m
.
"" k0a
3"8
He
+ m
.
"" k0a
!8
8opper
4151 EES 0roblem 2+" is reconsidered. The effect of the mass of the copper piston on the final
equilibrium temperature as the mass of piston varies from + kg to +" kg is to be investigated. The final
temperature is to be plotted against the mass of piston.
Analysis The problem is solved using AA1, and the solution is given below.
"Knowns5"
._u=:3)10 [k7@k'ol/K]
V_K2[1]=1 ['()]
$_K2=0370) [k7@k1/K] ";ro' Ta,le G/2%a* at 27"
._K2=03298: [k7@k1/K] ";ro' Ta,le G/2%a*"
T_K2[1]=:0 []
P_K2[1]=900 [kPa]
V_Te[1]=1 ['()]
$_Te=)31198 [k7@k1/K] ";ro' Ta,le G/2%a* at 27"
T_Te[1]=29 []
P_Te[1]=900 [kPa]
._Te=230789 [k7@k1/K] ";ro' Ta,le G/2%a*"
'_Pist=9 [k1]
$_Pist=03):8 [k7@k1/K] "Ase 2 6or o22er 6ro' Ta,le G/)%,* at 27"
"!olution5"
"'ass #al#ulations5"
P_K2[1]"V_K2[1]='_K2"._K2"%T_K2[1]L27)*
P_Te[1]"V_Te[1]='_Te"._Te"%T_Te[1]L27)*
"T+e entire #linder is #onsidered to ,e a #losed sste'& ne1le#tin1 t+e 2iston3"
"onser$ation o6 Bner1 6or t+e #losed sste'5"
"B_in / B_out = IBLTGB_ne1Pist& we ne1le#t IBLTG KB and IBLTG PB 6or t+e #linder3"
B_in / B_out = IBLTGB_ne1lPist
B_in =0 [k7]
B_out = 0 [k7]
"Gt t+e 6inal equili,riu' state& K2 and Te will +a$e a #o''on te'2erature3"
IBLTGB_ne1lPist= '_K2"$_K2"%T_2_ne1lPist/T_K2[1]*L'_Te"$_Te"%T_2_ne1lPist/
T_Te[1]*
"T+e entire #linder is #onsidered to ,e a #losed sste'& in#ludin1 t+e 2iston3"
"onser$ation o6 Bner1 6or t+e #losed sste'5"
"B_in / B_out = IBLTGB_wit+Pist& we ne1le#t IBLTG KB and IBLTG PB 6or t+e
#linder3"
B_in / B_out = IBLTGB_wit+Pist
"Gt t+e 6inal equili,riu' state& K2 and Te will +a$e a #o''on te'2erature3"
IBLTGB_wit+Pist= '_K2"$_K2"%T_2_wit+Pist/T_K2[1]*L'_Te"$_Te"%T_2_wit+Pist/
T_Te[1]*L'_Pist"$_Pist"%T_2_wit+Pist/T_Pist[1]*
T_Pist[1]=%T_K2[1]LT_Te[1]*@2
"Total $olu'e o6 1ases5"
V_total=V_K2[1]LV_Te[1]
";inal 2ressure at equili,riu'5"
"Ke1le#tin1 e66e#t o6 2iston& P_2 is5"
P_2_ne1lPist"V_total=K_total"._u"%T_2_ne1lPistL27)*
"?n#ludin1 e66e#t o6 2iston& P_2 is5"
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2++!
K_total='_K2@'olar'ass%nitro1en*L'_Te@'olar'ass%Teliu'*
P_2_wit+Pist"V_total=K_total"._u"%T_2_wit+PistL27)*
'Pist [k1] T2&ne1lPist [] T2&wit+Pist []
1 97317 983:9
2 97317 98380
) 97317 98302
0 97317 98322
9 97317 98300
8 97317 993::
7 97317 9937)
: 97317 99399
9 97317 99307
10 97317 993)9
% ( , 4 '  . $ ) %+
'+
'(
'4
'
'$
+
Ma;; o? 5i;ton 0"g3
T
(
0
C
3
!ithout 5i;ton
!ith 5i;ton
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2++.
4152 * pistoncylinder device initially contains saturated liquid water. *n electric resistor placed in the
tank is turned on until the tank contains saturated water vapor. The volume of the tank, the final
temperature, and the power rating of the resistor are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The cylinder is stationary and thus the kinetic and potential energy changes are ;ero. 2
There are no work interactions.
Properties The initial properties of steam are )Table *2,
k0a % . +2
k&'kg !$ . 3!
'kg m ""++# . "
"
8 !""
+
+
.
+
+
+
P
'
x
T
v
Analysis )a, Ee take the contents of the cylinder as the system. This is a closed system since no mass
enters or leaves. :oting that the volume of the system is constant and thus there is no boundary work, the
energy balance for this stationary closed system can be e4pressed as
, )
", 0A (A )since , )
+ ! out b, in e,
+ ! out b, in e,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
' ' m ( # W W
Q u u m # W W
E E E
+
!
!
since
( # W +
out b,
for a constantpressure process.
The initial and final volumes are
,
1 +&++4.
, m ".""+$+% ) 2
m ""+$+% . " 'kg, m # kg,)".""++ 2 . + )
.
!
. .
+ +
V
v V m
)b, :ow, the final state can be fi4ed by calculating specific volume
kg ' m ""2$!$ . "
kg +.2
m ".""$2#$
.
.
!
!
m
V
v
The final state is saturated mi4ture and both pressure and temperature remain constant during the process.
Dther properties are
"!#! . "
k&'kg $ . %"
'kg m ""2$!$ . "
k0a % . +2
!
!
+ !
.
!
+ !
x
'
T T
P P
C (++
v
)Table *2 or AA1,
)c, 1ubstituting,
k& # . #2 k&'kg , !$ . 3! $ . %" ) kg, 2 . + )
in e,
W
Binally, the power rating of the resistor is
"! +&+(,
s $" !"
k& #2.# in e,
in e,
t
W
W
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2++2
W
e
Eater
+.2 kg, !""F8
sat. liq.
Athane
4153 * pistoncylinder device contains an ideal gas. *n e4ternal shaft connected to the piston e4erts a
force. Bor an isothermal process of the ideal gas, the amount of heat transfer, the final pressure, and the
distance that the piston is displaced are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The kinetic and potential energy changes are
negligible,
ke pe 0
. 2 The friction between the piston and the
cylinder is negligible.
Analysis )a, Ee take the ideal gas in the cylinder to be the system.
This is a closed system since no mass crosses the system boundary.
The energy balance for this stationary closed system can be e4pressed
as
out in b,
+ ! gas ideal + ! gas ideal out in b,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
, " and )since " , , )
Q W
PE 3E T T T T mc # Q W
E E E
v
!
!
Thus, the amount of heat transfer is equal to the boundary work input
"* +&%
in b, out
W Q
)b, The relation for the isothermal work of an ideal gas may be used to determine the final volume in the
cylinder. =ut we first calculate initial volume
.
!
+
!
+
m ""!!$! . " m, ! . " )
2
m, )".+!
2
1
D
V
Then,
.
!
.
! .
+
!
+ + in b,
m ""+22 . "
m ".""!!$!
,ln m !$! k0a,)".""! )+"" k& + . "
ln
,
_
,
_
V
V
V
V
V P W
The final pressure can be determined from ideal gas relation applied for an isothermal process
"5a %''&
!
.
!
.
! ! + +
, m )".""+22 , m !$! k0a,)".""! )+"" P P P P V V
)c, The final position of the piston and the distance that the piston is displaced are
>1 .&%
m "#+2$ . " +!3 . " !" . "
m +!3 . "
2
m, )".+!
m ""+22 . "
2
! +
! !
!
.
!
!
!
1 1 1
1 1 1
D
V
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2++
W
7*1
+ bar
!28
Q
4154 * pistoncylinder device with a set of stops contains superheated steam. Heat is lost from the steam.
The pressure and quality )if mi4ture,, the boundary work, and the heat transfer until the piston first hits
the stops and the total heat transfer are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible,
" Ipe Ike
. 2 The friction
between the piston and the cylinder is negligible.
Analysis )a, Ee take the steam in the cylinder to be the system. This is
a closed system since no mass crosses the system boundary. The energy
balance for this stationary closed system can be e4pressed as
, " 0A (A )since
out in b,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
# Q W
E E E
!
!
Genoting when piston first hits the stops as state )!, and the final
state as ).,, the energy balance relations may be written as
, u  )
, u  )
+ . .  out,+ in b,
+ ! !  out,+ in b,
u m Q W
u m Q W
The properties of steam at various states are )Tables *2 through *$,
8 !2#.$  $ . !2!
8 $ . !2!
sat + +
60a sat?..
+ +
T T T
T
k&'kg . . !$+#
'kg m "3!+ . "
8 $ . !2#
60a  . .
+
.
+
+
+
u T
P
v
k&'kg 2 . +"2
'kg m ""+!. . "
"
60a  . .
!
.
!
!
+ !
u x
P P
v
k&'kg  . 3+
8 !""
'kg m ""+!. . "
.
.
.
.
.
! .
u
P
x
T
"5a %'''
+&+++(
v v
)b, :oting that the pressure is constant until the piston hits the stops during which the boundary work is
done, it can be determined from its definition as
"* ()&)%
.
! + + in b,
".""+!.,m !+ k0a,)"."3 kg,)."" + . " ) , ) v v mP W
)c, 1ubstituting into energy balance relations,
"* ('&. k&'kg , . . !$+# 2 . +"2 ) kg, + . " ) k& %+ . !%
!  out,+
Q
)d,
"* ()4&$ k&'kg , . . !$+#  . 3+ ) kg, + . " ) k& %+ . !%
.  out,+
Q
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2++$
1team
".+ kg
.. 60a
Q
4155 Gn insulated ri1id tank is di$ided into two #o'2art'ents& ea#+ #o'2art'ent
#ontainin1 t+e sa'e ideal 1as at di66erent states3 T+e two 1ases are allowed to 'ix3
T+e si'2lest ex2ression 6or t+e 'ixture te'2erature in a s2e#i6ied 6or'at is to ,e
o,tained3
Analysis Ee take the both compartments together as the system. This is a closed system since no mass
enters or leaves. The energy balance for this stationary closed system can be e4pressed as
! ! + + . ! +
! . ! + . +
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in 8hange
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra :et
out in
, )
, ) , ) "
", 0A (A )since "
T m T m T m m
T T c m T T c m
W Q #
E E E
+ +
+
v v
!
!
and,
! + .
m m m +
1olving for final temperature, we find
!
.
!
+
.
+
.
T
m
m
T
m
m
T +
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2++#
m
+
T
+
m
!
T
!
4156 * relation for the e4plosive energy of a fluid is given. * relation is to be obtained for the e4plosive
energy of an ideal gas, and the value for air at a specified state is to be evaluated.
Properties The specific heat ratio for air at room temperature is k +.2.
Analysis The e4plosive energy per unit volume is given as
e
u u
v
explosion
1 2
1
Bor an ideal gas,
u+  u! cv)T+  T!,
+
+
+
P
RT
R c c

v
v
and thus
+
+
+ '
+
k c c c c
c
R
c
  v v
v v
1ubstituting,
( )
,
_
+
! +
+ +
! +
e4plosion
+
+ ' T
T
k
P
P RT
T T c
e
v
which is the desired result.
/sing the relation above, the total e4plosive energy of !" mP of air at  60a and +""8 when the
surroundings are at !"8 is determined to be
( ) ( )
kJ 532619
m k0a +
k& +
( .#.
( !%.
+
+ 2 . +
m !" k0a """
+
+
.
.
+
! + +
e4plosion e4plosion
,
_
,
_
,
_
T
T
k
P
e E
V
V
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2++3
4157 /sing the relation for e4plosive energy given in the previous problem, the e4plosive energy of steam
and its T:T equivalent at a specified state are to be determined.
Assumptions 1team condenses and becomes a liquid at room temperature after the e4plosion.
Properties The properties of steam at the initial and the final states are )Table *2 through *$,
k&'kg +"2.3.
liquid 8omp.
8 !
k&'kg ."2#."
'kg m ".".!3++
8 ""
60a +"
8 ! ?
!
!
+
.
+
+
+
f
u u
T
u T
P
v
Analysis The mass of the steam is
kg $"%.$
'kg m ".".!3++
m !"
.
.
+
v
V
m
Then the total e4plosive energy of the steam is determined from
( ) ( )( ) "* %=.),=4, k&'kg +"2.3. ."2#." kg $"%.$
! + e4plosive
u u m E
which is equivalent to
TNT o? "g ''%&$
T:T of k&'kg .!"
k& +,#%.,2.$
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2++%
1TA*6
+" 60a
""8
!8
Funda1enta9; o? Engineering FFEG EBa1 5ro69e1;
4158 * room is filled with saturated steam at +""8. :ow a kg bowling ball at !8 is brought to the
room. Heat is transferred to the ball from the steam, and the temperature of the ball rises to +""8 while
some steam condenses on the ball as it loses heat )but it still remains at +""8,. The specific heat of the
ball can be taken to be +.3 k&'kg.8. The mass of steam that condensed during this process is
)a, 3" g )b, +!3 g )c, !%% g )d, .+ g )e, 2" g
Ans$e* )c, !%% g
S5#ut/5+ 1olved by AA1 1oftware. 1olutions can be verified by copyingandpasting the following lines on
a blank AA1 screen. )1imilar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical
values,.
'_,all=9 "k1"
T=100 ""
T1=29 ""
T2=100 ""
2=13: "k7@k13"
Q='_,all"2"%T2/T1*
Q='_stea'"+_61 "k7"
+_6=BKTTGLPP%!tea'_?GP4!& x=0&T=T*
+_1=BKTTGLPP%!tea'_?GP4!& x=1&T=T*
+_61=+_1/+_6
"!o'e 4ron1 !olutions wit+ o''on Ristakes5"
Q=41'_stea'"+_1 "Asin1 +_1"
Q=42'_stea'"031:"%T2/T1* "Asin1 '""IeltaT = Q 6or water"
Q=4)'_stea'"+_6 "Asin1 +_6"
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+!"
4159 * frictionless pistoncylinder device and a rigid tank contain ! kmol of an ideal gas at the same
temperature, pressure and volume. :ow heat is transferred, and the temperature of both systems is raised
by +"8. The amount of e4tra heat that must be supplied to the gas in the cylinder that is maintained at
constant pressure is
)a, " k& )b, 2! k& )c, 3. k& )d, +"! k& )e, +$$ k&
Ans$e* )e, +$$ k&
S5#ut/5+ 1olved by AA1 1oftware. 1olutions can be verified by copyingandpasting the following lines on
a blank AA1 screen. )1imilar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical
values,.
"Kote t+at 2/$=.& and t+us Q_di66='"."dT=K".u"dT"
K=2 "k'ol"
.u=:3)10 "k7@k'ol3K"
T_#+an1e=10
Q_di66=K".u"T_#+an1e
"!o'e 4ron1 !olutions wit+ o''on Ristakes5"
41_Qdi66=0 "Gssu'in1 t+e are t+e sa'e"
42_Qdi66=.u"T_#+an1e "Kot usin1 'ole nu',ers"
4)_Qdi66=.u"T_#+an1e@K "Ii$idin1 , K instead o6 'ulti2lin1"
40_Qdi66=K".air"T_#+an1eU .air=032:7 "usin1 .u instead o6 ."
4160 The specific heat of a material is given in a strange unit to be C ..$" k&'kg.B. The specific heat
of this material in the 1I units of k&'kg.8 is
)a, !."" k&'kg.8 )b, ..!" k&'kg.8 )c, ..$" k&'kg.8 )d, 2.3" k&'kg.8 )e, $.23 k&'kg.8
Ans$e* )e, $.23 k&'kg.8
S5#ut/5+ 1olved by AA1 1oftware. 1olutions can be verified by copyingandpasting the following lines on
a blank AA1 screen. )1imilar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical
values,.
=)380 "k7@k13;"
_!?="13: "k7@k13"
"!o'e 4ron1 !olutions wit+ o''on Ristakes5"
41_= "Gssu'in1 t+e are t+e sa'e"
42_=@13: "Ii$idin1 , 13: instead o6 'ulti2lin1"
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+!+
4161 * .m
.
rigid tank contains nitrogen gas at "" k0a and ."" (. :ow heat is transferred to the
nitrogen in the tank and the pressure of nitrogen rises to 3"" k0a. The work done during this process is
)a, "" k& )b, +"" k& )c, " k& )d, %"" k& )e, !2"" k&
Ans$e* )b, " k&
S5#ut/5+ 1olved by AA1 1oftware. 1olutions can be verified by copyingandpasting the following lines on
a blank AA1 screen. )1imilar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical
values,.
V=) "'()"
P1=900 "kPa"
T1=)00 "K"
P2=:00 "kPa"
4=0 "sin#e #onstant $olu'e"
"!o'e 4ron1 !olutions wit+ o''on Ristakes5"
.=03297
41_4=V"%P2/P1* "Asin1 4=V"IBLTGP"
42_4=V"P1
4)_4=V"P2
40_4=."T1"ln%P1@P2*
4162 * ".3m
.
cylinder contains nitrogen gas at $"" k0a and ."" (. :ow the gas is compressed
isothermally to a volume of ".+ m
.
. The work done on the gas during this compression process is
)a, #2$ k& )b, " k& )c, 2!" k& )d, %%3 k& )e, +3%" k&
Ans$e* )d, %%3 k&
S5#ut/5+ 1olved by AA1 1oftware. 1olutions can be verified by copyingandpasting the following lines on
a blank AA1 screen. )1imilar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical
values,.
.=:3)10@2:
V1=03: "'()"
V2=031 "'()"
P1=800 "kPa"
T1=)00 "K"
P1"V1='"."T1
4='"."T1" ln%V2@V1* "#onstant te'2erature"
"!o'e 4ron1 !olutions wit+ o''on Ristakes5"
41_4=."T1" ln%V2@V1* ";or1ettin1 '"
42_4=P1"%V1/V2* "Asin1 V"IeltaP"
P1"V1@T1=P2"V2@T1
4)_4=%V1/V2*"%P1LP2*@2 "Asin1 P_a$e"Ielta V"
40_4=P1"V1/P2"V2 "Asin1 4=P1V1/P2V2"
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+!!
4163 * wellsealed room contains $" kg of air at !"" k0a and !8. :ow solar energy enters the room at
an average rate of ".3 k&'s while a +!"E fan is turned on to circulate the air in the room. If heat transfer
through the walls is negligible, the air temperature in the room in ." min will be
)a, !.$8 )b, 2%.38 )c, ..28 )d, !.8 )e, $..28
Ans$e* )e, $..28
S5#ut/5+ 1olved by AA1 1oftware. 1olutions can be verified by copyingandpasting the following lines on
a blank AA1 screen. )1imilar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical
values,.
.=032:7 "k7@k13K"
$=0371: "k7@k13K"
'=80 "k1"
P1=200 "kPa"
T1=29 ""
Qsol=03: "k7@s"
ti'e=)0"80 "s"
46an=0312 "k7@s"
"G22lin1 ener1 ,alan#e B_in/B_out=dB_sste' 1i$es"
ti'e"%46anLQsol*='"$"%T2/T1*
"!o'e 4ron1 !olutions wit+ o''on Ristakes5"
2=13009 "k7@k13K"
ti'e"%46anLQsol*='"2"%41_T2/T1* "Asin1 2 instead o6 $ "
ti'e"%/46anLQsol*='"$"%42_T2/T1* "!u,tra#tin1 46an instead o6 addin1"
ti'e"Qsol='"$"%4)_T2/T1* "?1norin1 46an"
ti'e"%46anLQsol*@80='"$"%40_T2/T1* "Asin1 'in 6or ti'e instead o6 s"
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+!.
4164 * !kE baseboard electric resistance heater in a vacant room is turned on and kept on for + min.
The mass of the air in the room is # kg, and the room is tightly sealed so that no air can leak in or out.
The temperature rise of air at the end of + min is
)a, 3.8 )b, +!.28 )c, !2."8 )d, ...28 )e, 2.38
Ans$e* )d, ...28
S5#ut/5+ 1olved by AA1 1oftware. 1olutions can be verified by copyingandpasting the following lines on
a blank AA1 screen. )1imilar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical
values,.
.=032:7 "k7@k13K"
$=0371: "k7@k13K"
'=79 "k1"
ti'e=19"80 "s"
4_e=2 "k7@s"
"G22lin1 ener1 ,alan#e B_in/B_out=dB_sste' 1i$es"
ti'e"4_e='"$"IBLTGT "k7"
"!o'e 4ron1 !olutions wit+ o''on Ristakes5"
2=13009 "k7@k13K"
ti'e"4_e='"2"41_IBLTGT "Asin1 2 instead o6 $"
ti'e"4_e@80='"$"42_IBLTGT "Asin1 'in 6or ti'e instead o6 s"
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+!2
4165 * room contains $" kg of air at +"" k0a and +8. The room has a !"E refrigerator )the
refrigerator consumes !" E of electricity when running,, a +!"E TH, a +kE electric resistance heater,
and a "E fan. Guring a cold winter day, it is observed that the refrigerator, the TH, the fan, and the
electric resistance heater are running continuously but the air temperature in the room remains constant.
The rate of heat loss from the room that day is
)a, ..+! k&'h )b, 2#! k&'h )c, ++! k&'h )d, !%! k&'h )e, 2$3" k&'h
Ans$e* )c, ++! k&'h
S5#ut/5+ 1olved by AA1 1oftware. 1olutions can be verified by copyingandpasting the following lines on
a blank AA1 screen. )1imilar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical
values,.
.=032:7 "k7@k13K"
$=0371: "k7@k13K"
'=80 "k1"
P_1=100 "kPa"
T_1=19 ""
ti'e=)0"80 "s"
4_re6=03290 "k7@s"
4_TV=03120 "k7@s"
4_+eater=1 "k7@s"
4_6an=0309 "k7@s"
"G22lin1 ener1 ,alan#e B_in/B_out=dB_sste' 1i$es B_out=B_in sin#e T=#onstant
and dB=0"
B_1ain=4_re6L4_TVL4_+eaterL4_6an
Q_loss=B_1ain")800 "k7@+"
"!o'e 4ron1 !olutions wit+ o''on Ristakes5"
B_1ain1=/4_re6L4_TVL4_+eaterL4_6an "!u,tra#tin1 4re6ri1 instead o6
addin1"
41_Qloss=B_1ain1")800 "k7@+"
B_1ain2=4_re6L4_TVL4_+eater/4_6an "!u,tra#tin1 46an instead o6 addin1"
42_Qloss=B_1ain2")800 "k7@+"
B_1ain)=/4_re6L4_TVL4_+eater/4_6an "!u,tra#tin1 4re6ri1 and 46an instead
o6 addin1"
4)_Qloss=B_1ain)")800 "k7@+"
B_1ain0=4_re6L4_+eaterL4_6an "?1norin1 t+e TV"
40_Qloss=B_1ain0")800 "k7@+"
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+!
4166 * pistoncylinder device contains  kg of air at 2"" k0a and ."8. Guring a quasiequilibrium
isothermal e4pansion process, + k& of boundary work is done by the system, and . k& of paddlewheel
work is done on the system. The heat transfer during this process is
)a, +! k& )b, +3 k& )c, !.2 k& )d, .. k& )e, $" k&
Ans$e* )a, +! k&
S5#ut/5+ 1olved by AA1 1oftware. 1olutions can be verified by copyingandpasting the following lines on
a blank AA1 screen. )1imilar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical
values,.
.=032:7 "k7@k13K"
$=0371: "k7@k13K"
'=9 "k1"
P_1=000 "kPa"
T=)0 ""
4out_,=19 "k7"
4in_2w=) "k7"
"Kotin1 t+at T=#onstant and t+us dB_sste'=0& a22lin1 ener1 ,alan#e B_in/
B_out=dB_sste' 1i$es"
Q_inL4in_2w/4out_,=0
"!o'e 4ron1 !olutions wit+ o''on Ristakes5"
41_Qin=Q_in@$ "Ii$idin1 , $"
42_Qin=4in_2wL4out_, "Gddin1 ,ot+ quantities"
4)_Qin=4in_2w "!ettin1 it equal to 2addle/w+eel work"
40_Qin=4out_, "!ettin1 it equal to ,oundaru work"
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+!$
4167 * container equipped with a resistance heater and a mi4er is initially filled with ..$ kg of saturated
water vapor at +!"8. :ow the heater and the mi4er are turned onS the steam is compressed, and there is
heat loss to the surrounding air. *t the end of the process, the temperature and pressure of steam in the
container are measured to be .""8 and ". 60a. The net energy transfer to the steam during this process
is
)a, !#2 k& )b, %+2 k& )c, +!+. k& )d, %33 k& )e, +!%+ k&
Ans$e* )d, %33 k&
S5#ut/5+ 1olved by AA1 1oftware. 1olutions can be verified by copyingandpasting the following lines on
a blank AA1 screen. )1imilar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical
values,.
'=)38 "k1"
T1=120 ""
x1=1 "saturated $a2or"
P2=900 "kPa"
T2=)00 ""
u1=?KTBKB.DP%!tea'_?GP4!&T=T1&x=x1*
u2=?KTBKB.DP%!tea'_?GP4!&T=T2&P=P2*
"Kotin1 t+at Bout=0 and dA_sste'='"%u2/u1*& a22lin1 ener1 ,alan#e B_in/
B_out=dB_sste' 1i$es"
B_out=0
B_in='"%u2/u1*
"!o'e 4ron1 !olutions wit+ o''on Ristakes5"
2_stea'=13:72) "k7@k13K"
$_stea'=13010: "k7@k13K"
41_Bin='"2_!tea'"%T2/T1* "Gssu'in1 ideal 1as and usin1 2"
42_Bin='"$_stea'"%T2/T1* "Gssu'in1 ideal 1as and usin1 $"
4)_Bin=u2/u1 "Kot usin1 'ass"
+1=BKTTGLPP%!tea'_?GP4!&T=T1&x=x1*
+2=BKTTGLPP%!tea'_?GP4!&T=T2&P=P2*
40_Bin='"%+2/+1* "Asin1 ent+al2"
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+!#
4168 * $pack canned drink is to be cooled from !8 to .8. The mass of each canned drink is "..
kg. The drinks can be treated as water, and the energy stored in the aluminum can itself is negligible. The
amount of heat transfer from the $ canned drinks is
)a, .. k& )b, .# k& )c, 2# k& )d, +%$ k& )e, !!. k&
Ans$e* )d, +%$ k&
S5#ut/5+ 1olved by AA1 1oftware. 1olutions can be verified by copyingandpasting the following lines on
a blank AA1 screen. )1imilar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical
values,.
=031: "k7@k13K"
'=8"03)99 "k1"
T1=29 ""
T2=) ""
IBLTGT=T2/T1 ""
"G22lin1 ener1 ,alan#e B_in/B_out=dB_sste' and notin1 t+at
dA_sste'='""IBLTGT 1i$es"
/Q_out='""IBLTGT "k7"
"!o'e 4ron1 !olutions wit+ o''on Ristakes5"
/41_Qout='""IBLTGT@8 "Asin1 one #an onl"
/42_Qout='""%T1LT2* "Gddin1 te'2eratures instead o6 su,tra#tin1"
/4)_Qout='"130"IBLTGT "Asin1 s2e#i6i# +eat o6 air or 6or1ettin1 s2e#i6i# +eat"
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+!3
4169 * glass of water with a mass of ".2 kg at !"8 is to be cooled to "8 by dropping ice cubes at "8
into it. The latent heat of fusion of ice is ..2 k&'kg, and the specific heat of water is 2.+3 k&'kg.8. The
amount of ice that needs to be added is
)a, $ g )b, ++. g )c, +!2 g )d, !!2 g )e, 2" g
Ans$e* )b, ++. g
S5#ut/5+ 1olved by AA1 1oftware. 1olutions can be verified by copyingandpasting the following lines on
a blank AA1 screen. )1imilar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical
values,.
=031: "k7@k13K"
+_'eltin1=))0 "k7@k13K"
'_w=0309 "k1"
T1=20 ""
T2=0 ""
IBLTGT=T2/T1 ""
"Kotin1 t+at t+ere is no ener1 trans6er wit+ t+e surroundin1s and t+e latent
+eat o6 'eltin1 o6 i#e is trans6erred 6or' t+e water& and a22lin1 ener1 ,alan#e
B_in/B_out=dB_sste' to i#eLwater 1i$es"
dB_i#eLdB_w=0
dB_i#e='_i#e"+_'eltin1
dB_w='_w""IBLTGT "k7"
"!o'e 4ron1 !olutions wit+ o''on Ristakes5"
41_'i#e"+_'eltin1"%T1/T2*L'_w""IBLTGT=0 "Rulti2lin1 +_latent ,
te'2erature di66eren#e"
42_'i#e='_w "takin1 'ass o6 water to ,e equal to t+e 'ass o6 i#e"
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+!%
4170 * !kE electric resistance heater submerged in kg water is turned on and kept on for +" min.
Guring the process, ."" k& of heat is lost from the water. The temperature rise of water is
)a, ".28 )b, 2..+8 )c, #.28 )d, #+.38 )e, +3"."8
Ans$e* )b, 2..+8
S5#ut/5+ 1olved by AA1 1oftware. 1olutions can be verified by copyingandpasting the following lines on
a blank AA1 screen. )1imilar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical
values,.
=031: "k7@k13K"
'=9 "k1"
Q_loss=)00 "k7"
ti'e=10"80 "s"
4_e=2 "k7@s"
"G22lin1 ener1 ,alan#e B_in/B_out=dB_sste' 1i$es"
ti'e"4_e/Q_loss = dA_sste'
dA_sste'='""IBLTGT "k7"
"!o'e 4ron1 !olutions wit+ o''on Ristakes5"
ti'e"4_e = '""41_T "?1norin1 +eat loss"
ti'e"4_eLQ_loss = '""42_T "Gddin1 +eat loss instead o6 su,tra#tin1"
ti'e"4_e/Q_loss = '"130"4)_T "Asin1 s2e#i6i# +eat o6 air or not usin1 s2e#i6i#
+eat"
4171 . kg of liquid water initially at +!8 is to be heated to %8 in a teapot equipped with a +!""
E electric heating element inside. The specific heat of water can be taken to be 2.+3 k&'kg.8, and
the heat loss from the water during heating can be neglected. The time it takes to heat the water to
the desired temperature is
)a, 2.3 min )b, +2. min )c, $.# min )d, %." min )e, +3.$ min
Ans$e* )b, +2. min
S5#ut/5+ 1olved by AA1 1oftware. 1olutions can be verified by copyingandpasting the following lines on
a blank AA1 screen. )1imilar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical
values,.
=031: "k7@k13K"
'=) "k1"
T1=12 ""
T2=99 ""
Q_loss=0 "k7"
4_e=132 "k7@s"
"G22lin1 ener1 ,alan#e B_in/B_out=dB_sste' 1i$es"
%ti'e"80*"4_e/Q_loss = dA_sste' "ti'e in 'inutes"
dA_sste'='""%T2/T1* "k7"
"!o'e 4ron1 !olutions wit+ o''on Ristakes5"
41_ti'e"80"4_e/Q_loss = '""%T2LT1* "Gddin1 te'2eratures instead o6
su,tra#tin1"
42_ti'e"80"4_e/Q_loss = "%T2/T1* "Kot usin1 'ass"
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+."
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+.+
4172 *n ordinary egg with a mass of ".+ kg and a specific heat of ...! k&'kg.8 is dropped into boiling
water at %8. If the initial temperature of the egg is 8, the ma4imum amount of heat transfer to the
egg is
)a, +! k& )b, ." k& )c, !2 k& )d, +3 k& )e, infinity
Ans$e* )b, ." k&
S5#ut/5+ 1olved by AA1 1oftware. 1olutions can be verified by copyingandpasting the following lines on
a blank AA1 screen. )1imilar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical
values,.
=)3)2 "k7@k13K"
'=031 "k1"
T1=9 ""
T2=99 ""
"G22lin1 ener1 ,alan#e B_in/B_out=dB_sste' 1i$es"
B_in = dA_sste'
dA_sste'='""%T2/T1* "k7"
"!o'e 4ron1 !olutions wit+ o''on Ristakes5"
41_Bin = '""T2 "Asin1 T2 onl"
42_Bin='"%BKTTGLPP%!tea'_?GP4!&T=T2&x=1*/
BKTTGLPP%!tea'_?GP4!&T=T2&x=0** "Asin1 +_61"
4173 *n apple with an average mass of ".+3 kg and average specific heat of ..$ k&'kg.8 is cooled from
!!8 to 8. The amount of heat transferred from the apple is
)a, ".3 k& )b, $!.+ k& )c, +#.# k& )d, ++.! k& )e, #.+ k&
Ans$e* )d, ++.! k&
S5#ut/5+ 1olved by AA1 1oftware. 1olutions can be verified by copyingandpasting the following lines on
a blank AA1 screen. )1imilar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical
values,.
=)389 "k7@k13K"
'=031: "k1"
T1=22 ""
T2=9 ""
"G22lin1 ener1 ,alan#e B_in/B_out=dB_sste' 1i$es"
/Q_out = dA_sste'
dA_sste'='""%T2/T1* "k7"
"!o'e 4ron1 !olutions wit+ o''on Ristakes5"
/41_Qout ="%T2/T1* "Kot usin1 'ass"
/42_Qout ='""%T2LT1* "addin1 te'2eratures"
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+.!
4174 The specific heat at constant pressure for an ideal gas is given by c ".%C)!.#T+"
2
,T )k&'kg O (,
where T is in kelvin. The change in the enthalpy for this ideal gas undergoing a process in which the
temperature changes from !# to +!#F8 is most nearly
)a, %" k&'kg )b, %!.+ k&'kg )c, %%. k&'kg )d , +"3.% k&'kg )e, +".! k&'kg
Ans$e* )c, %%. k&'kg
S5#ut/5+ 1olved by AA1 1oftware. 1olutions can be verified by copyingandpasting the following lines on
a blank AA1 screen. )1imilar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical
values,.
T1=%27L27)* [K]
T2=%127L27)* [K]
"Per6or'in1 t+e ne#essar inte1ration& we o,tain"
IBLTG+=039"%T2/T1*L237B/0@2"%T2(2/T1(2*
4;175 The specific heat at constant volume for an ideal gas is given by cv ".#C)!.#T+"
2
,T )k&'kg O (,
where T is in kelvin. The change in the enthalpy for this ideal gas undergoing a process in which the
temperature changes from !# to +!#F8 is most nearly
)a, #" k&'kg )b, #!.+ k&'kg )c, #%. k&'kg )d , 3!.+ k&'kg )e, 32." k&'kg
Ans$e* )c, #%. k&'kg
S5#ut/5+ 1olved by AA1 1oftware. 1olutions can be verified by copyingandpasting the following lines on
a blank AA1 screen. )1imilar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical
values,.
T1=%27L27)* [K]
T2=%127L27)* [K]
"Per6or'in1 t+e ne#essar inte1ration& we o,tain"
IBLTG+=037"%T2/T1*L237B/0@2"%T2(2/T1(2*
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+..
4;176 * pistonNcylinder device contains an ideal gas. The gas undergoes two successive cooling processes
by reMecting heat to the surroundings. Birst the gas is cooled at constant pressure until T! UT+. Then the
piston is held stationary while the gas is further cooled to T. VT+, where all temperatures are in (.
+. The ratio of the final volume to the initial volume of the gas is
)a, ".! )b, "." )c, ".$# )d, ".# )e, +."
Ans$e* )d, ".#
S5#ut/5+ Brom the ideal gas equation
# . "
2 ' .
+
+
+
!
+
!
+
.
T
T
T
T
V
V
V
V
!. The work done on the gas by the piston is
)a, RT+'2 )b, cvT+'! )c, cT+'! )d, 4cv5c!T+'2 )e, cv4T+CT!,'!
Ans$e* )a, RT+'2
S5#ut/5+ Brom boundary work relation )per unit mass,
2 2
, 2 ' . ) , )
+
in b,
+
+ + + ! +
!
+
out b,
RT
$
RT
T T R P Pd $
v v v
.. The total heat transferred from the gas is
)a, RT+'2 )b, cvT+'! )c, cT+'! )d, )cv5c,T+'2 )e, cv)T+CT.,'!
Ans$e* )d, )cv5c,T+'2
S5#ut/5+ Brom an energy balance
2
, )
2
, )
, 2 ' . ! ' + ) , 2 ' . ) , ) , )
+
out
+
+ + + + ! . + ! in
T c c
%
T c c
T T c T T c T T c T T c %


 
v
v
v v
+
+
+ +
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+.2
4;177 1aturated steam vapor is contained in a pistonNcylinder device. Ehile heat is added to the steam,
the piston is held stationary, and the pressure and temperature become +.! 60a and #""F8, respectively.
*dditional heat is added to the steam until the temperature rises to +!""F8, and the piston moves to
maintain a constant pressure.
+. The initial pressure of the steam is most nearly
)a, !" k0a )b, "" k0a )c, #" k0a )d , +""" k0a )e, +!" k0a
Ans$e* )b, "" k0a
!. The work done by the steam on the piston is most nearly
)a, !." k&'kg )b, ++"" k&'kg )c, !+2" k&'kg )d , !.2" k&'kg )e, 32" k&'kg
Ans$e* )a, !." k&'kg
.. The total heat transferred to the steam is most nearly
)a, !." k&'kg )b, ++"" k&'kg )c, !+2" k&'kg )d , !.2" k&'kg )e, 32" k&'kg
Ans$e* )c, !+2" k&'kg
S5#ut/5+ 1olved by AA1 1oftware. 1olutions can be verified by copyingandpasting the following lines on
a blank AA1 screen. )1imilar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical
values,.
P2=1200 [kPa]
T2=700 []
T)=1200 []
P)=P2
"1"
$2=$olu'e%stea'_ia2ws& P=P2& T=T2*
$1=$2
P1=2ressure%stea'_ia2ws& x=1& $=$1*
"2"
$)=$olu'e%stea'_ia2ws& P=P)& T=T)*
w_,=P2"%$)/$2*
")"
u1=intener1%stea'_ia2ws& x=1& $=$1*
u)=intener1%stea'_ia2ws& P=P)& T=T)*
q=u)/u1Lw_,
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+.
4/%.$ H 4/%)+ De;ign= E;;a= and EBperi1ent 5ro69e1;
4182 * claim that fruits and vegetables are cooled by $F8 for each percentage point of weight loss as
moisture during vacuum cooling is to be evaluated.
Analysis *ssuming the fruits and vegetables are cooled from ."W8 and "W8, the average heat of
vapori;ation can be taken to be !2$$ k&'kg, which is the value at +W8, and the specific heat of products
can be taken to be 2 k&'kg.W8. Then the vapori;ation of "."+ kg water will lower the temperature of + kg
of produce by !2.$$'2 $W8. Therefore, the vacuum cooled products will lose + percent moisture for each
$W8 drop in temperature. Thus the claim is 81,.5+,$#1.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 5 !""3 The 6c7rawHill 8ompanies, Inc. 9imited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this 6anual, you are using it without permission.
2+.$