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in a open system: LIQUIDS If we are dealing with a liquid, as we noted for the NFEE, there is very little difference in the enthalpy and internal energy but the pressure may change significantly so we need to retain the pv term. If we are pumping a liquid (continuous work transfer in), or using a liquid to power a turbine (continuous work transfer out) with no heat transfer to or from (heating or cooling) the liquid, then:

2 Q +W = m [1 2 v + gz + u + pv]

but Q = 0 and u = 0, so

2 W = m [1 2 v + gz + pv]

velocity specific volume

no temperature change

(We will study this equation in more detail later under Fluid Flow)

If we are only heating or cooling a liquid (continuous heat transfer in/out) with no significant change in velocity, height or pressure, then:

(For a liquid cv = cp = c)

GASES If we are only heating or cooling a gas (continuous heat transfer in/out) with no significant change in velocity, height or pressure, then:

Note that cp must be used (if the pressure wasnt constant we wouldnt have a steady flow system!) And also note that it is mass flow not volume flow required.

DESIGN BRIEF: Design a hot air gun which heats atmospheric air from 15 C to 200C. The single phase 240V mains limits the maximum power available to 3kW. What air mass flow rate should be used? T1=15 C=288K

W

T2=200 C=473K

m

2 Q +W = m [1 2 v + gz + h]

Q + W = 3kW c p for air = 1.010 kJ / kgK 3.0 = m 1.010 (473 288) 3.0 m= = 0.016 kg / s 1.010 (473 288)

(~ 0.8 m3 of air per minute at inlet conditions )

DESIGN BRIEF: A supply of chilled water at 6 C is required to maintain the temperature of beer in a beer cellar. Find the cooling effect required to cool the water if the inlet temperature is 18C and the flow rate is 1 kg/min. water at 1 kg/min 18 C 6 C

Q

Q + W = m [ v + gz + h]

1 2 2

We can look up the specific enthalpy of water at 18 C and 6 C (Haywood p.8)

Q = m [h2 h1 ] =

This heat transfer would probably be effected by the evaporation of a refrigerant in the yellow tubes. The refrigeration unit required would be comparatively small.

DESIGN BRIEF: A power turbine is supplied with hot high pressure air from a gas generator at 140 kPa (gauge) and a temperature of 450C. If the power turbine is required to produce 80 kW of shaft power output what hot air flow rate is required?

turbine

The inlet and exhaust velocities are likely to be very similar (by design):

W

-80 kW

atmospheric pressure temperature T2 Although the inlet and exhaust heights may be slightly different the change in specific PE compared with other energy changes is very very small. This is because the density of gases is usually low compared with liquids: The hot gas passes through the turbine very quickly and therefore does not have time to lose heat to the surroundings:

2 Q +W = m [ 1 2 v + gz + h]

We know the inlet temperature of the gas but we dont know the outlet (or exhaust) temperature, and we therefore have to make some assumptions as to exactly how the gas behaves as it passes through the turbine. Since the pressure is falling from 140 kPa to 100 kPa an expansion process is occurring. Since no heat is being lost the expansion process is adiabatic. Therefore the gas is undergoing an adiabatic expansion. We can therefore say that:

p v = const which defines the process and p v = RT which relates the properties

p1v1 = p2 v 2 p1v1 p2 v2 = T1 T2

1

v1 v2

p = 2 p1

v1 = v2 v1 = v2

p2 p1 p2 T1 p1 T2

1.41 1.4

p2 p1

p T = 2 1 p1 T2

or

T2 p = 2 T1 p1

T2 = 563K

W = mc p (T2 T1 ) 80 103 = m 1010 (563 723) m= 80 103 = 0.495 kg/s 1010 (563 723)

DESIGN BRIEF: A rotary vane compressor is designed to deliver 1.5 m/min of air (measured at SSL conditions) at a pressure of 60 kPa (gauge). On test at 1400 RPM it was observed to require a driving torque of 24 Nm, and the air was delivered at a temperature of 90 C. How much cooling heat transfer is required?

Q

m

W = torque rotational speed ( radians / sec) 1400 2 = 3519 watts 60 1.5 101325 pV 60 = 0.0316 kg/s m= = RT 278 288 = 24

24 Nm 1400 RPM

Q + W = mc p (T2 T1 ) Q + 3519 = 0.0316 1010 (90 15) Q = 0.0316 1010 (90 15) 3519 = 1122 Watts

(this might be provided by a water cooling jacket or by fins with a cooling air flow)

DESIGN BRIEF: It is decided to fit a thrust nozzle to the gas generator in the earlier example in order to design a small jet engine. The nozzle is supplied with hot high pressure air at 140 kPa (gauge) and a temperature of 450C. How much thrust can be obtained for the air mass flow available (0.495 kg/s). 140 kPa(g) 450C atmospheric pressure

v1

m = 0.495 kg/s

temperature T2

v2

In this situation the whole idea is to obtain a high speed jet on exit from the nozzle, so we cannot assume v1 = v2

2 2 2 2

Again, we know the inlet temperature of the gas but we dont know the outlet (or exit) temperature, and we therefore have to make some assumptions as to exactly how the gas behaves as it passes through the nozzle. Since the pressure is falling from 140 kPa to 100 kPa an expansion process is occurring. Since no heat is being lost the expansion process is adiabatic. Therefore the gas is undergoing an adiabatic expansion. We can therefore (exactly as before) say 1 that:

p T2 = 2 p1 T1

1.41 1.4

T2 = 563K

We can make one further reasonable assumption and that is that v1 is likely to be very small compared with v2, so we can effectively ignore: 1 v 2

2 1

c p(T1-T2 ) = 1 v 2 2

or v2 = 2c p(T1-T2 )

v2 = 2 1010 (450 + 273 563) = 568.5 m/s Thrust = rate of change of momentum = m(v2-v1 ) = 0.495 (568.5 0) = 281.4 N

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