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... f .. . some distance away%% thsqposite side . . B (1... 193 itj\!r. ..the line of reflection .2)where C' is 1 unit away from the line x = 3.ppiat of* no1 p f f h d ~ oref!ection..m~r?~zn~iT C Draw . C (22) is reflected to C1(4.. .:<>. x =3... d ..> the imaie A'B'C~ 0 Note the perpendicular distance from each pairrM1w* line of reflection.. x /=give Steps How to reflect a figure abouta line..nc..tke i ~line ?( ... ... )..frpm ~ p r ..h. 571 : lo i:::!izcq sN ze~nsrl. ..:. .. .. .. . . .... ....Ant:'...... .. t zrncx3 ..3)is ~ ? e .......>!no:! trl r~rrf?l. . g .1) w h e r a ~ < i *&@wi)yjf&n 2 tho line x = 3 . ~.jirizuna~~~+. I I L 510 I 3r'f i~si? Z I L ' X I C ~ . \.. e....2) is 1 uqit from. A (r~y.:.s.C ~...~ ...I. & Q W .. A (1.:?...:r:. rt 3 .f . n~ ~riarigi6~616i5ii& is reflected about the line..C<. .: ... ~ $ t F ! ~ : ~ ! 5 $ ~ ~unl]tpq!q...+e:refleded. ~ ~ ~. L ..::. I C (2.k.. ~ . . IS un~tdmm &be..1) is .efl&ted to E'(5.a>.&&on x8..~~. . ~.!G'~n?j. ~ l .rn918ya ~~ .:...:i f. LIP. ~ ~ = P $ " O ~ ~ E ~ K I ? B ~ S ~ T ..
Draw the reflection of the quadrilateral in the line y = x .Worked Example The diagram shows the line y = x and a quadrilateral which has the vertices A (1. labeling them A'.3) D(2.2) + D'(2.Z).2) C(3. This would result in: A(1.4). B: C'and D'.2).2) the line of reflection are invariant points. Q Repeat the above for the other vertices.4)and D (2.4 + ) g(4. Therefore. C (3. l )which is Q distance away from the liney=x. Solution 0 A is p distance away from the line y = x Q Draw the reflected point A ' e distance away from the line y = x 0 This would result in A' ( 2 . D' .I) ~(2.B (2.4)+ C'(4.Z) + As(2.
8 Construct the perpendicular bisector of the two points. Steps 0 Join the original point and reflected point together. PS is the line of reflection is given by equation x = 3 . g The perpendicular bisector is the line of reflection. B to B'or C to C'. This is PS in the diagram. . Construct the perpendicular bisector of AA'. Join A to A'.How to find the line of reflection Triangle ABC below is reflected to give an image A'B'C'.
Worked Example The rhombus ABCD below is reflected about a line to give the image A'B'C'D: where A has the same vertices as A'at (1.2). 0 Perpendicular bisector is the line of reflection. Solution 0 Join the points D and D' . . . It is given by equation y=2. O Construct the perpendicular bisector of the two points. Find the line of reflection.
g dockwise. ' 7 . :. .sgy O To describe a mtafion. 0 Every pointis rotated through the same angle about the centre of r ~ t a t i q . . .izse:.. ! . ~ .Rotation O The figure and image would be symmetrical... are prese~ed. .. .j :x:u:j.. 3. . ..: . anticlockwise) Centre of rotation  1 I . area. state the: Angle of rotation Direction of rotation (e. . shap&!mles . . ..~ tifj :.  ' " . .ll hvrt2no3 0 . .
O Measure the angle of rotation in the indicated direction from the line marked out above. Mark out A'where A'is the length of AC distance from (291) O Repeat (1) to (3) for the other points. In this case.l). In this case. this distance is AC. 8 Using a pair of compasses. mark out a point of the same length from the point of rotation. measure 9 0 ' in a clockwise direction from line AC. mark the distance from a point on the figure to the point of rotation. Steps 0 Using a pair of compasses.How to rotate a figure Triangle ABC where it is rotated 90° clockwise about (2. B Join all the points to derive A'B'C! .
€ 3 O Join the points to get image AB'CD'.2) to the point of rotation (2. .Z).Worked Example Rotate quadrilateral ABCD 90" in an clockwise direction about the point (2.2) to derive A'B'CtD" Solution 0 Measure the distance from A (0. Q Rotate this line by 90" clockwise 2 units from the point of rotation. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for the other points. This derives point A'. This gives 2 units.
Here. Join A and A'. 8 With a pair of compasses. the point of rotation is (2. In this case. 0). . construct the perpendicular bisector of the two lines. join the points Band B'. 8 Do the same for another point.How to find point of rotation Figure ABC is rotated to give image A'B'C: Steps 0 Join the original point and the corresponding point of image together. 0 The point of rotation would be where the two perpendicular bisectors meet.
this would be 90". 8 Measure the angle between the two lines Here.O).How to find the angle of rotation Steps 0 Join a point and its corresponding point of image to the point of rotation Join the points A and A' to (2. .
y) . (3 I:( where a and b Thus. to describe a translation. shape. ) a n d respectively. (::)are the initial and final coordinates Translation I For translation (:) of point P(x. Where ( : .Translation Translation isdefined as a transformation in which the origin of the coordinate system is moved to another position but the direction of each axis remains the same. A translation is represented as a column vector (3 represent the number of units moved along the x and y axis respectively. there are no invariant points. . angles and size are preserved. (3 The area.
C(3. Join points A ' K ' Worked Example A quadrilateral ABCD has vertices A(0.y ') t ( x + a.CD: Draw and label quadrilateral . B(1.3) and D(1.How to translate a figure Triangle ABC below is translated Steps C) to give the image A'E'C! 1.y + b) to each point of triangle ABC to derive points of A'B'C'.) maps ABCD onto Ar8.3). 2.4). The translation A'BC'D! (1. Apply formulae T : (x'.2).
+b ) 0 Applying formulae.y ) T : ( x ' .Solution Draw and label quadrilateralABCD. For translation (:) of point P(x.y ') + ( x + a.y . Q Mark points A'BC'D'according to the derived coordinates and join them to get quadrilateral A'BC'D! .
Enlargement 0 Given a figure which has undergone enlargement. k. If k < 0. O If k > 1.both of them lie on o ~ ~ o s isides t e of the centre of enlargement. O The shape and angles are preserved. O To describe a dilation. Scale factor. the object and its image lie on the same side as the centre of enlargement. the dilation is a reduction.ky) The area increases by kZ times. length of side of image scale factor k = length of corresponding side of figure For enlargement factor k and origin as centre. 8 g . 13 The only invariant point is the centre of enlargement. E:(x. c. If k = 1. the dilation is an enlargement. which means that an exact image is produced. O If O< k < 1. the dilation is a congruence transformation.state the: Centre. and a scale factor.Dilational transformation A dilation is a transformation in which size is altered based on a centre. c. O If k > 0.y)+(kx. k.
0).O) 0 Join A to the centre of enlargement 0 factor k = 3 to give (0. 0 Mark A'such that OA = 30A' Q Repeat for points 6 and C B Join points A'B'C' .How to enlarge a figure Triangle ABC below is enlarged at centre 0 (0.O) with scale factor k = 3 to give the image A'B'C! & Triangle A'B'C' can be Steps said to be reduced at with scale center (0. image ABC Q Extend the OA forward from the centre of enlargement.
Worked Example Triangle X has vertices A (1. 0 Join two corresponding points of Triangle Xand Y. I ) 13(1. scale factor k = 0 B'C' 4 units Applying forumulae. Solution To find centre of enlargement. A to A'and C to C'.2).4)and C'(4. Triangle Y has vertices A' (2. scale factor k = = = BC 2 units (ans) . O Extend the lines so that AA'and CC'meet at a common point.O) To find scale factor. Q For example.2) and C (3. Find the coordinates of the centre of enlargement and scale factor which maps Triangle X onto Triangle Y. Centre of enlargement is (2.4).0) Bf(0.
Note that points on the invariant line do not move  I .Shear In a shear transformation. 0 If k > 0 the image lie on the right side of the figure. 0 if k < 0 the image lie on the left side of the figure. O The area is preserved. It is also mapped onto AB'%"D with shear factor k = 2 and yaxis as invariant line. Distance between 2 corresponding points shear factork = Distance from selected figure po nt to invartant line Rectangle ABCD is mapped onto ABC'D'with shear factor k = 2 and xaxis as invariant line. every point P in the plane is moved parallel to a particular plane such that the distance of its image point is proportional to the distance of the point from the line. Shear I Given an image which has undergone shearing.
O Repeat steps 13 for all other points. Solution To determine the invariant line I shear factor k= Distance between 2 corresponding points Distance from selected figure point to invariant line CC' = 3 units shear factor = 1 Applying formulae. which suggests that the invariant line is parallel to the xaxis. 3 units 1 = Point C to invariant line 3 Point C to invariant line = = 3 units 1 Invariant line is y = 2 (ans) 6 3 Note the sides of the image which do not change afler shearing. Join them together to derive image. it is side A'B'which remains the same as AB afler shearing. In this case. . Determine the equation of the invariant line.How to shear a figure Steps For a given scale factor k and invariant line 0 Determine the distance of a point on the figure to the invariant line 8 Apply formula to determine the distance between 2 corresponding points of the figure and image Distance between 2 corresponding points 8 Add the distance to the x coordinate of the point for a shear parallel to the xaxis or y coordinate for a shear parallel to the yaxis to determine the corresponding point for the image. Worked Example A shear maps Triangle ABC onto Triangle A'B'C'.
different from an enlargement in that it does not preserve shape and angles.Stretch A stretch move points parallel to the invariant line over a distance according to stretch factor k O Parallelism is preserved.theimageis smaller in size. A double stretch is stretch in the xdirection followed by a stretch in the ydirection. O If k > 0 . D & A stretch is different from a shear in that it does not preserve area. . 0 If O < k < l o r l<k.the image will move away from the invariant line.rO. 0 If k < 0 the image will move towards the invariant line.
It is mapped onto ABC"Dmwith stretch factor k = 3 and xaxis as invariant line It is also mapped onto AGFE with a double stretch of stretch factor k = 4 with xaxis as the invariant line and stretch factor k = 4 with yaxis as the invariant line. .Stretch Stretch factor k = Distance of image point from invariant line Distance of corresponding figure point from invariant line Square ABCD is mapped onto AB'D'C with stretch factor k = 3 and yaxis as the invariant line.
l) B (1. Join them together to derive image. Worked Example Triangle ABC with vertices A (0.2) C (1. 2= distance of B' to invariant line distance of B to invariant line distance of B' to invariant line distance of B' to invariant line = 1 x 2 2  B : (1. Distance of image point from invariant line O Derive the coordinates of the corresponding point from the distance found.3) is mapped on A'B'C'with a stretch factor k = 2 and invariant line x = 0 .2) + BS(2. 0 Determine the distance of a point on the figure to the invariant line Q Apply formulae to determine the distance of corresponding image point from invariant line. 0 Repeat steps 13 for all other points.2) & B I is mapped onto B' 2 units away from the invariant line because k > 0 . Sketch A'B'C! Solution Note that A is unchanged as it lies on the invariant line Stretch factor k= Distance of image point from invariant line Distance of corresponding figure point from invariant line Applying formulae.How to stretch a figure Steps For a given scale factor and invariant line.
. 0 If M represents a reflection and E represents an enlargement. ME(F) represents a reflection followed by and enlargement on figure F. EM(F) represents a enlargement followed by a reflection on figure F.2= distance of C' to invariant line distance of C to invariant line distance of C' to invariant line 1 Distance of C ' to invariant line = 1 x 2 =2 C : (l.3) Combined transformations O The order must be noted.3) t C'(2.
2) Perpendicular distance of C to line x C(5.2) t F(5. (c) A reflection about the line x = 1 maps triangle ABC onto triangle GHI. suggesting that it is a shear. (e) A reflection about the xaxis maps triangle GHI onto triangle JKL.2) (d) Observe that area is preserved while shape and angles are not. &I To determine invariant line. y = 4 is the invariant line extend fine DC and GH. =1 is 4 units I . (d) Give a single transformation which maps triangle GHI onto triangle DEF.2) + H(1. Draw and label JKL.4) B (3. Draw and label GHI. Solution: (b) k = 2= Distance between 2 corresponding points Distance from selected figure point to invariant line .2) + E(3.2) + I(3.2) (a) Draw and label triangle ABC.4) Perpendicular distance of B to line x = 1 is 2 units B(3.2) C (5.4) t G(1.A to invariant line nu I &I Add 4 units to x I  An coordinate because shear is parallel to the xaxis II Points on invariant line do not change.Worked Problems I Example 1 I The vertices of triangle ABC have coordinates A (3. so B(3. Where they meet is the invariant line. (f) Give two different single transformations which map triangle JKL onto triangle ABC. Draw and label DEF.2) C(5. . (b) A shear with factor 2 and invariant line y = 2 maps triangle ABC onto triangle DEF.2) (c) Perpendicular distance of A to line x = 1 is 2 units A(3.
O). & ItI may also be an enlargement with scale factork = 1 as the image is the same size and appear to lie on the opposite side of the centre I . To determine point of rotation. Centre of enlargement is (1. Equation of line of reflection y = I .2) (f) Area. Direction of rotation is anticlockwise. Point at which they meet = point of rotation. Degree of rotation is 180". To determine line of reflection.2) = L(3. Construct the perpendicular bisector of BK and AJ.2) + K(1. yintercept is 1.2) Perpendicular distance of Ito line xaxis is 2 units I(3. shapes angles are preserved also be a reflection. in which case DG=8 Triangle GHI is mapped onto triangle DEF through a shear with factor " 1 and invariant line y = 4 (ans) (e) Perpendicular distance of G to line xaxis is 4 units G(14) + J(1.4) Perpendicular distance of Hto line xaxis is 2 units H(1. Shear factor is 1 D to line y = 4 . Construct the perpendicular bisector of BK.x . Gradient of perpendicular bisector is 1. 8= l k=8 : .shear factork = G to line y = 4 If instead DEF is mapped onto GHI.
O) Triangle GHI is mapped onto triangle JKL through reflection in line y =Ix (ans) .Triangle GHI is mapped onto triangle JKL through a clockwise rotation of 180" about point (1.
I [. Write down the column vector representing this translation. (b) An enlargement maps A onto C.3) on the diagram PP = [. (c) A shear maps A onto D. Write down the coordinates of the centre of enlargement and its scale factor.1 Example 2 1 (a) A translations maps A onto B.I =[. Write down the equation of the line of reflection.6) and P'(7. Write down the equation of the invariant line and its shear factor (d) A reflection maps A onto E.I Column vector mapping A to B is ( I 3 ) . Solution: (a) Mark point P(1.
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