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" He#r$% &r'(er) *err" eldo#, Tr+#sl+tor

South End Press1980: Box 68 Astor Station, Boston, MA 02123 ISBN 0 89608 0319 ! 2"0##s one edition out o$ #rint% &r'ina(() #u*(ished in +anish S,u--e Ser'e o' .eroien% Bo'an 19/6

To heroin's victims in the United States and Europe, And to all veterans of the War in Vietnam, Especially those who returned strung out, And those who did not return at all... To victims of torture and repression in atin America and elsewhere, And to those who owe the mon!ey on their "ac!, And the scars on mind and "ody To agents of the #$A and %EA. 0&1E2&1+ 3he stor) o$ 4hristian +a5id, an internationa( nar6oti6s tra$$i6-er used *) the Inte((i'en6e ser5i6es o$ at (east three nations, is $as6inatin' in itse($7 It is e5en ,ore i,#ortant $or 8hat it te((s us o$ a (ar'er, (ess do6u,ented histor) the se6ret 6o((a*oration o$ 'o5ern,ent inte((i'en6e ser5i6es and #ara((e( #o(i6e throu'hout the 8or(d, and their use o$ 6ri,ina(s, #arti6u(ar() $ro, dru' net8or-s, $or #o(iti6a( 6ountersu*5ersion7 A*o5e a(( it is an i,#ortant *oo- $or A,eri6ans to read, sin6e the shado8 o$ the 4IA 6an *e seen *ehind 4hristian +a5id9s #o(iti6a( intri'ues in 6ountries (i-e 0ran6e and :ru'ua)7 A,eri6a9s ro(e in 4hristian +a5id9s stran'e 6areer has ne5er *e$ore, to ,) -no8(ed'e, *een re5ea(ed in this 6ountr)7 And .enri- ;ru'er is a*(e to ex#and the stor) into (ar'er #ers#e6ti5es on the 4IA, 2ater'ate, and 6urrent :7S7 6ounterinsur'en6) ta6ti6s7 3he hea5) 6ensorshi# o$ +a5id9s stor) in the :nited States, or 8hat ,a) *e 6a((ed the ,edia resistan6e to it, is #erha#s the 6(earest s),#to, o$ A,eri6a9s in5o(5e,ent7 0or exa,#(e, it 8as sure() ne8s8orth) that in <une 19/3 e &onde, 0ran6e9s ,ost res#e6ted ne8s#a#er, 6har'ed that the *rea- u# o$ the 1i6ord 0ren6h dru' net8or- in =atin A,eri6a >8hi6h had in6(uded +a5id9s arrest and extradition to the :nited States?, 8as the resu(t o$ a @6(ose Ma$ia #o(i6e Nar6oti6s Bureau 6o((a*oration@ in the :7S7 3he resu(t o$ this 6o((a*oration, a66ordin' to e &onde, 8as to shatter 4orsi6an in$(uen6e in the 8or(d8ide nar6oti6s tra$$i6, and 6reate a 5irtua( ,ono#o() $or the :7S7 Ita(ian Ma$ia 6onne6tion >8hose -e) $i'ures 8ere Santo 3ra$$i6ante in A,eri6a and =u6iano =i''io in Euro#e?7A1B e &onde's 6har'es, ,an) detai(s o$ 8hi6h ha5e sin6e *een 6orro*orated, 8ere #assed o5er in si(en6e *) the :7S7 #ress7 3his studied disinterest in the #o(iti6s o$ nar6oti6s >other than the #ro#a'anda, in6(udin' $(a'rant (ies, $ro, o$$i6ia( #ress re(eases? is a re6urrin', #redi6ta*(e #heno,enon o$ our #ress% and it has 5isi*() had a de(eterious i,#a6t on :7S7 #o(iti6s7 I$ the Washington 'ost and the (ew )or! Times, then su##osed ex#osers o$ 2ater'ate, had #i6-ed u# on stories (i-e the one in e &onde, then the histor) o$ 2ater'ate ,i'ht ha5e *een a(tered7 0or the histor) o$ Nixon9s in5o(5e,ent

in 2ater'ate is intert8ined 8ith that o$ his #ersona( in5o(5e,ent in dru' en$or6e,ent7 Nixon9s #u*(i6 de6(aration in <une 19/1 o$ his 8ar on heroin #ro,#t() (ed to his asse,*(a'e o$ 2hite .ouse P(u,*ers, 4u*ans, and e5en @hit sCuads@ 8ith the a5o8ed #ur#ose o$ 6o,*attin' the internationa( nar6oti6s tra$$i67 >A,on' those 8ith a 2hite .ouse nar6oti6s ,ission, or 6o5er, 8ere ;ro'h, =idd), .unt, 4au($ie(d, Stur'is, and Bernard Bar-er7?A2B Man) 8riters ha5e sin6e su''ested that Nixon9s 8ar on heroin 8as #art o$ his @'rand desi'n@ to de5e(o# a ne8 dru' su#era'en6), under dire6t 2hite .ouse 6ontro(, into @the stron' in5esti'ati5e ar, $or do,esti6 sur5ei((an6e that President Nixon had (on' Cuested a$ter7@A3B Det the esta*(ish,ent #ress $ai(ed to (oo- 6riti6a(() at Nixon9s 8ar on heroin7 Instead it *(and() re#orted Nixon9s de6ision in <une 19/1 to #ro5ide E100 ,i((ion in aid to end o#iu, #rodu6tion in 3ur-e), a 6ountr) 8hi6h >a66ordin' to 4IA esti,ates? #rodu6ed on() 3 to 8 #er6ent o$ the i((i6it o#iu, a5ai(a*(e throu'hout the 8or(d7A"B At the ti,e #erha#s 80 #er6ent o$ the 8or(d9s i((i6it o#iu, 8as 'ro8n, ,u6h o$ it *) 4IA su##orted tri*es,en, in the @'o(den trian'(e@ o$ =aos, Bur,a, and 3hai(and, 8hi(e the Shah o$ Iran, 8ho *e6a,e one o$ Nixon9s 6(osest $orei'n a((ies, had Fust announ6ed resu,#tion o$ Iranian o#iu, #rodu6tion o$ o5er 20,000 he6tares >an area !0 #er6ent 'reater than the tota( 6u(ti5ation in 3ur-e)?7 As the (ew *epu"lic noted on() one ,onth (ater, Nixon9s de6ision to shut do8n the su##() o$ 3ur-ish o#iu, 8as @(i-e() to do no ,ore than dri5e the industr) $urther east7@A!B Another, and e5en ,ore 6)ni6a( 5ie8 o$ Nixon9s a6tion is to see it as a dire6t atta6- on the 0ren6h 4orsi6an net8or-s 8hi6h re(ied a(,ost ex6(usi5e() on 3ur-e) as their sour6e o$ su##(), and 8hi6h, a66ordin' to e &onde, 8ere *ein' de(i*erate() $or6ed out o$ the internationa( dru' trade as the resu(t o$ a @6(ose Ma$ia #o(i6e Nar6oti6s Bureau 6o((a*oration7@ e &onde stated ex#(i6it() that it 8as the :7S7 Si6i(ian Ma$ia 8hi6h 6(osed do8n the s(ui6e 'ates o$ 3ur-ish o#iu, #rodu6tion7 2as Nixon #ersona(() #(a)in' a ro(e, as .enri- ;ru'er su''ests, in this sea,) internationa( dru' 8ar *et8een ri5a( net8or-sG Su6h a #ossi*i(it) see,s (ess re,ote 8hen 8e re6a(( the ri5a(r) 8hi6h had 'ro8n u# in the 1960s *et8een deHau((e9s inte((i'en6e ser5i6es and the 4IA, and the res#e6ti5e re(ian6e o$ these ser5i6es u#on the ri5a( 4orsi6an and :7S7 Ita(ian 6ri,e s)ndi6ates7 e &onde had no di$$i6u(t) in s#e((in' out the A,eri6an side o$ the inte((i'en6e Ma$ia 6onne6tion, e5en thou'h the 4IA a6ti5ities o$ Santo 3ra$$i6ante, the a((e'ed heir to the =u6iano net8or-, 8ere not -no8n to it at the ti,e: Instru6ted *) his o8n ex#erien6e o$ 6o((a*oration 8ith the A,eri6an inte((i'en6e ser5i6es, =u6-) =u6iano used to re6o,,end to his honora*(e 6orres#ondents s6attered $ro, Beirut to 3an'iers, 5ia An-ara and Marsei((es, to o#erate as he had done7 It 8as in this 8a) that dru' dea(ers and 6ouriers ser5ed as in$or,ants to Athe BritishB MI!, to Athe A,eri6anB 4IA, to Athe 0ren6hB S+E4E, to the A2est Her,anB Heh(en or'aniIation, e5en to the Ita(ian SI00A17A6B &n the 0ren6h side, e&onde 8as #redi6ta*() ,ore reti6ent% *ut $ro, other sour6es 8e (earn that at (east t8o ,e,*ers o$ the 6o,#etin' 1i6ord net8or-, 4hristian +a5id and Mi6he( Ni6o(i, 8ere $or,er ,e,*ers o$ the Hau((ist Ser5i6e d9A6tion 4i5iCue >SA4?, the #ara((e( #o(i6e or "ar"ou+es 8ho had *een used to assassinate ,e,*ers o$ the ri'ht 8in' &r'anisation de I9Ar,ee Se6rete >&AS?, in re5o(t a'ainst de Hau((e9s a66o,,odation 8ith A('eria7 3hrou'h SA4, +a5id and Ni6o(i had 6o,e into 6onta6t 8ith S+E4E o#erations as 8e((7A/B &ne o$ the ,aFor theses o$ .enri- ;ru'er9s $as6inatin' *oo- is that @the 'reat heroin 6ou#@ the @re,ar-a*(e shi$t@ $ro, Marsei((es >4orsi6an? to Southeast Asian and Mexi6an >Ma$ia? heroin in the :nited States, 8as a de(i*erate ,o5e to re6onstru6t and redire6t the heroin trade, rather than to e(i,inate it, and that 4u*an exi(es, Santo 3ra$$i6ante, the 4IA, and the Nixon 2hite .ouse 8ere a(( in5o(5ed:

It 8as, need(ess to sa), not a 8i(($u( 6ons#ira6) o$ a(( the a*o5e7 But 8e 6an assert 8ith reasona*(e 6ertaint) that the 4IA, 3ra$$i6ante and other ,a$iosi, 6ertain Southeast Asians, and so,e #eo#(e in the 2hite .ouse ,ust ha5e *een in the -no87 >;ru'er, #7 122? As ;ru'er te((s the stor), the ,oti5ations $or the a((e'ed heroin 6ou# 8ere #ri,ari() #o(iti6a(: to *rea- the #o8er o$ the o(d Hau((ist SA4 6onne6tion, 8hi6h *) 19/0 8as as distaste$u( to de Hau((e9s #roA,eri6an su66essor Po,#idou as it 8as to Nixon, and >on the A,eri6an side? to re#(a6e it *) an a(ternati5e #o8er *ase7 In ;ru'er9s ana()sis it 8as not so ,u6h a stru''(e *et8een the 0ren6h and A,eri6an inte((i'en6e ser5i6es, S+E4E and 4IA, as it 8as a stru''(e *et8een o(d and ne8 (eadershi#s7 3he 6o,in' to #o8er o$ Po,#idou in 0ran6e, and o$ Nixon in A,eri6a, had 6reated un#re6edented tensions and sus#i6ions *et8een these t8o #residents and their o(d(ine inte((i'en6e ser5i6es: hen6e Nixon9s desire to use the 8ar on heroin as a #retext $or a ne8 su#era'en6) under 2hite .ouse 6ontro(7 .en6e a(so the su66essi5e a'ree,ents *et8een Nixon, Po,#idou, and their 6a*inet o$$i6ers to 6ra6do8n on the o(d 4orsi6an 6onne6tion7 &n6e a'ain, the :7S7 #ress resistan6e to the su*Fe6t ,atter o$ ;ru'er9s *oo- su''ests that there is so,ethin' to his thesis7 At (east t8o *oo-s #u*(ished in A,eri6a, *oth o*5ious() *ased on :7S7 'o5ern,ent sour6es, dis6ussed the arrest o$ +a5id at (en'th, 8ithout ,entionin' either that he had 8or-ed $or SA4JS+E4E or that he had 6on$essed to in5o(5e,ent in the 196! assassination o$ the Moro66an (e$tist Mehdi Ben Bar-a one o$ the ,aFor unso(5ed 0ren6h inte((i'en6e assassination s6anda(s o$ the 1960s7 3he $irst :7S7 *oo- to ,ention +a5id9s 6on$ession 8as (ewsday's ne8s#a#er series The ,eroin Trail- the (ewsday tea, a(so to(d ho8 the) re6ei5ed a 6a(( $ro, the :7S7 E,*ass) in Paris, statin' that ear(ier #ro,ises o$ 0ren6h and A,eri6an 6oo#eration 8ith our in5esti'ation 8ou(d on() *e -e#t i$ 8e a'reed to su*,it our ,anus6ri#t to "oth 'o5ern,ents in ad5an6e o$ #u*(i6ation $or the 6orre6tion o$ @erroneous in$or,ation7@ 2e re$used7A8B Det e5en The ,eroin Trail, 8hi6h deser5ed its Pu(itIer #riIe, states on() that +a5id @6on$essed to #arti6i#atin' in the #(ot to ,urder Mehdi Ben Bar-a, a Moro66an (e$tist (ured to 0ran6e under $a(se #retenses *) S+E4E7@A9B Be$ore ;ru'er9s *oo- one had had to 'o to *oo-s #u*(ished in En'(and or 0ran6e to (earn that it 8as not de Hau((e 8ho 8anted Ben Bar-a -i((ed Cuite the 6ontrar) *ut so,e other 'o5ern,ent or 'o5ern,ents and their inte((i'en6e ser5i6es, and that a (eadin' sus#e6t in the 6ase 8as the A,eri6an 4IA7 As the &x$ord historian Phi((i# M7 2i((ia,s 8rote in 1969, .ere one #oint is a*so(ute() 6(ear7 3he Hau((ist 'o5ern,ent not on() had no interest in Ben Bar-a9s death, *ut had e5er) interest in his sur5i5a(7 Ben Bar-a 8as a (e$t 8in', anti A,eri6an, third 8or(d nationa(ist (eader 8ith a (i5e() ad,iration $or Henera( de Hau((e, and had *een re6ei5ed at the E()see so,e ti,e *e$ore: a natura( a(() $or Hau((ist #o(i6)7 3hus an) o$$i6ia( 0ren6h 6onni5an6e 6ou(d ha5e 6o,e on() $ro, so,e se6tion o$ the State ,a6hine 8hi6h 8as a6tin' 6(ean 6ontrar) to the 8ishes o$ the President7A10B 2i((ia,s hi,se($ then su''ests t8o #ossi*(e h)#otheses 8hi6h are *oth 6o,#ati*(e 8ith ea6h other and 6(ose to ;ru'er9s o8n ex#(anation: &ne, ,u6h $a5oured es#e6ia(() a,on' =e$t Hau((ists, 8as 6o((a*oration 8ith the 4IA to e(i,inate the or'aniIer o$ the .a5ana 3ri6ontinenta( 4on'ress Ai7e7 Ben Bar-aB7 Another 8as that S+E4E 8ere

o*(i'in' either Moro66an Inte((i'en6e as su6h, or &u$-ir Athe Moro66an Inte((i'en6e 4hie$, 8ho, 2i((ia,s des6ri*es e(se8here as @too #ro A,eri6an $or the Hau((ists@B in a #ersona( 5endetta a'ainst Ben Bar-a, in return $or ser5i6es rendered in the #ast7777 3hat there 8ere so,e S+E4E o$$i6ers 8ho 8ere 5io(ent() o##osed to Hau((ist #o(i6) to8ards the :nited States, es#e6ia(() in Inte((i'en6e ,atters, is 6(ear $ro, the no8 6e(e*rated @re5e(ations@ o$ the $or,er S+E4E a'ent Pierre 3h)raud de KosFo(i A8ho 8as ousted $ro, S+E4E *e6ause o$ his ser5i6es $or the 4IAB7A11B In other 8ords, an &x$ord don a de6ade a'o had a(read) ex#(ored ;ru'er9s h)#othesis that dis(o)a( e(e,ents in de Hau((e9s 6a*inet and inte((i'en6e ser5i6e, a6tin' at the *ehest o$ the 4IA, had Ben Bar-a -i((ed7 Det ;ru'er9s *oo- 'oes ,u6h $urther and is, to ,) -no8(ed'e, the $irst serious stud) o$ the Ben Bar-a ,)ster) to *e #u*(ished in this 6ountr)7 3his a(one 8ou(d ,a-e it an i,#ortant 6ha((en'e to the 6urrent stereot)#e o$ the 4IA as a *un6h o$ exoti6 assassination *u,*(ers, 'i5en to ar,6hair $antasies a*out tha((iu, $oot #o8ders, ex#(odin' 6on6h she((s, or 6onta,inated 6i'ars7 ;ru'er9s *oo- is a(so the $irst in A,eri6a, to ,) -no8(ed'e, to ex#(ore $urther 8hat (ewsday 6a((ed @re#orts@ that +a5id, @an ad5enturer re6ruited into the 0ren6h se6ret ser5i6e $or terrorist a6ti5ities7 7 7 assassinated a nu,*er o$ A$ri6an o$$i6ia(s, and, in =atin A,eri6a, in$i(trated :ru'ua)9s 3u#a,aro 'uerri((as and identi$ied se5era( $or the #o(i6e7@A12B &n6e a'ain, a 8e(( do6u,ented 0ren6h stud), %ossier % comme %rogue, has 6on$ir,ed +a5id9s 8or- $or the 0ren6h and :ru'ua)an se6ret ser5i6e in #enetratin' and turnin' o5er the 3u#a,aros, $or 8hi6h he 8as eCui##ed 8ith a di#(o,ati6 #ass#ort7A13B But it is ;ru'er 8ho su##(ies the detai(s o$ the ar,s transa6tions *) 8hi6h +a5id 8as a*(e to #enetrate to the 5er) heart o$ the 3u#a,aro or'aniIation7 And, on6e a'ain, it is ;ru'er 8ho #oints out that +a5id9s ser5i6es a'ainst the 3u#a,aros 8ere #art o$ an e$$ort 6oordinated *) the notorious :7S7 4IA #o(i6e @ad5isor,@ +an Mitrione L the sa,e Mitrione 8ho a66ordin' to (ew )or! Times re#orter A7<7 =an''uth arran'ed $or the :ru'ua) an #o(i6e to o*tain su#erior e(e6tri6 torture need(es throu'h the :7S7 di#(o,ati6 #ou6h7A1"B +a5id9s su66ess$u( #enetration o$ the 3u#a,arosLand, *e$ore that, o$ the Ar'entine 0A= >0uerIas Ar'entinas de =i*era6ion? Lhe(#s ex#(ain 8h) so ,an) :7S7 and 0ren6h inte((i'en6e a'ents ha5e *een he(#ed, *) o$$i6ia( #ro5ision o$ an in5a(ua*(e di#(o,ati6 #ass#ort, to *e6o,e i,#ortant in the (u6rati5e internationa( ar,s and dru' tra$$i67 >3he t8o tra$$i6s are $reCuent() interre(ated, as e&onde #ointed out, and 6an he(# #a) $or ea6h other?7A1!B It 8as as a 8e(( 6onne6ted 6ri,ina( s,u''(er that +a5id 8as a*(e to #ersuade the 0A= and 3u#a,aro (eadershi# that he 6ou(d #ro6ure ar,s $or the,% and it 8as a$ter #ro5idin' s,a(( ar,s to the 3u#a,aros that +a5id *e6a,e their trainer and ad5iser in 8ea#ons ,atters and turned the, in7 As 8e sha(( see, this modus operandi 8i(( *e en6ountered $reCuent() in ;ru'er9s *oo-7 2hen one 6onsiders that the *u(- o$ the 8or(d9s s,a(( ar,s tra$$i6 is do,inated *) the 8or(d inte((i'en6e ,i(ieu, and that the (ar'est sin'(e 8ho(esa(er is, or 8as unti( re6ent(), the 4IA (in-ed ,u(tinationa( Interar,6o >$ounded *) $or,er 4IA a'ent Sa,ue( 4u,,in's?,A16B one 6an see that it is di$$i6u(t to re() on 8ea#ons as a ,aFor re5o(utionar) asset 8ithout *e6o,in' de#endent, at one9s #eri(, u#on one or another o$ the existin' 8or(d #o8ers7 Mean8hi(e, on the side o$ the #o(i6e re#ressi5e a##aratus, it is di$$i6u(t to re,ain in sustained 6onta6t 8ith the enor,ous() (u6rati5e nar6oti6s tra$$i6 >#arti6u(ar() in 6ountries 8here *ri*er) is an a66e#ted #art o$ the #o(iti6a( 6u(ture? 8ithout *e6o,in' #art() or 8ho(() 6orru#ted *) it7 3hus the (ew )or! Times hats re#orted ho8 in 19/" one ,aFor nar6oti6s tra$$i6-er o*tained a di#(o,ati6 #ass#ort $ro, the se6retar) to the Bo(i5ian #resident $or a si,#(e 6o6aine shi#,ent% 8hi(e 6har'es a'ainst another in E6uador 8ere dis,issed at the order o$ E6uador9s ,inister o$ the interior7A1/B As 8e sha(( see, this (atter #heno,enon o$ an @inte((i'en6e i,,unit)@ has *e6o,e a re6urrin' $eature o$ Fusti6e inside the :nited States, e5en in ,aFor 6ases ran'in' $ro, nar6oti6s to #o(iti6a( ,urder7

A'ain, it is #art o$ ;ru'er9s thesis that the 4IA, e5en a$ter it had de6ided to e(i,inate the 1i6ord net8or- o$ 8hi6h +a5id $or,ed #art, 8as un8i((in' to destro) the internationa( dru' 6onne6tion 8hi6h a((o8ed its a'ents to 'ather inte((i'en6e a*out insurre6tionar) ,o5e,ents throu'h the ta6ti6 o$ se((in' ar,s to the,% and 8hi6h at the sa,e ti,e $inan6ed the or'aniIation o$ 6ounter re5o(utionar) death sCuads and @#ara((e( #o(i6e@ su6h as the Ar'entine AAA >A(ianIa Anti6o,unista Ar'entina?7 :ndou*ted(), in =atin A,eri6a, the stories o$ dru's and o$ death sCuads, su6h as that 8hi6h arran'ed $or the assassination o$ &r(ando =ete(ier in 2ashin'ton, ha5e *een 6(ose() inter8o5en7 As su##ort $or his ar'u,ent that the tra$$i6 on6e do,inated *) 1i6ord 8as si,#() redire6ted to 4u*an exi(es in tou6h 8ith the 4IA and 8ith Santo 3ra$$i6ante, ;ru'er #oints to the extraordinar) stor) o$ A(*erto Si6i(ia 0a(6on7 So,eho8 Si6i(ia, a t8ent) nine )ear o(d 4u*an exi(e $ro, Mia,i, 8as a*(e to e,er'e as the rin'(eader o$ the so 6a((ed @Mexi6an 6onne6tion@ 8hi6h #ro,#t() $i((ed the 5a6uu, 6reated *) the destru6tion o$ the 1i6ord net8or- in 19/27 =u6ien Sarti, a to# 1i6ord (ieutenant, 8as shot and -i((ed *) authorities in Mexi6o on 2/ A#ri( 19/2, a$ter *ein' (o6ated there *) :7S7 a'ents7A18B 3he ne8 Si6i(ia net8or-, a66ordin' to +EA 4hie$ Peter Bensin'er, 8as o#eratin' *) Ma) 19/2, and had @re5enues re(ia*() esta*(ished in the hundreds o$ ,i((ions o$ do((ars@ *) the ti,e o$ Si6i(ia9s o8n arrest in <u() 19/!7A19B &n6e a'ain, it is 5irtua(() i,#ossi*(e to $ind an) extensi5e treat,ent in the :7S7 #ress o$ the ,)sterious A(*erto Si6i(ia 0a(6on, e5en thou'h his arrest (ed to no (ess than 10" indi6t,ents, /3 o$ the, in the :nited States7A20B 0ro, the noted Her,an ,a'aIine %er Spiegel, ho8e5er, one (earns that Si6i(ia to(d the Mexi6an authorities 8ho arrested hi, that he 8as a 4IA a'ent, and had *een trained at 0ort <a6-son >as had at (east one o$ Nixon9s 2ater'ate 4u*ans? $or #ossi*(e 'ueri((a a6ti5it) a'ainst 4u*a7 A((e'ed() he had a(so 8or-ed in 4hi(e a'ainst the so6ia(ist 'o5ern,ent o$ Sa(5ador A((ende unti( he returned to the :7S7 in ear() 19/37 .e a(so, a66ordin' to Mexi6an #o(i6e, s#o-e o$ a s#e6ia( dea( 8ith the 4IA% the :7S7 'o5ern,ent had turned a *(ind e)e to his heroin shi#,ents, 8hi(e his or'aniIation su##(ied 4IA 8ea#ons to terrorist 'rou#s in 4entra( A,eri6a, there*) $or6in' the host 'o5ern,ents to a66e#t :7S7 6onditions $or se6urit) assistan6e7A21B +EA 4hie$ Bensin'er 8as Cuite 6ir6u,s#e6t in his testi,on) a*out A(*erto Si6i(ia 0a(6on, ,ere() 6a((in' hi, @a 4u*an nationa(@ and a((udin' to his #ossi*(e @re5o(utionar) a6ti5it) in 4entra( and South A,eri6a7@ 0ro, this it 8as easier to dedu6e that Si6i(ia 8as a 4astro a'ent than the re5erse7A22B In $a6t, Si6i(ia 8as a 4u*an exi(e 8ho had 6o,e to Mexi6o $ro, Mia,i, 8here he had (in-s to the 4u*an exi(e 6o,,unit), and had #ersona(() ne'otiated $or ,anu$a6turin' ri'hts to the 6e(e*rated 9,, Para*e((u, ,a6hine #isto(, *etter -no8n as the In'ra, M 107A23B Para*e((u, 8as a Mia,i *ased ar,s sa(es $ir, set u# *) so(dier o$ $ortune Herr) Patri6.e,,in', and headed *) 4u*an exi(e Anse(,o A((ie'ro IK, 8hose $ather had *een 6(ose to Batista7A2"B Para*e((u, in turn 8as sa(es re#resentati5e $or .e,,in'9s $riend Mit6h 2erBe(( III, a ,)sterious 2hite 1ussian, &SS 4hina 5eteran, s,a(( ar,s ,anu$a6turer, and o66asiona( :7S7 inte((i'en6e o#erati5e, 8ith unex#(ained re(ations to the 4IA, +EA, and the ,aFor dru's $or ar,s dea( $or 8hi6h he 8as indi6ted *ut a6Cuitted7A2!B >3he 'o5ern,ent9s 6ase $ai(ed a$ter the 6hie$ 'o5ern,ent 8itness, ar,s and do#e s,u''(er ;enneth Burnstine, 8as -i((ed in the 6rash o$ his #ri5ate #(ane7?A26B As 8e sha(( see, another 6(ient interested in #rodu6in' the In'ra, M 10 ,a6hine #isto( in =atin A,eri6a, under (i6ense $ro, 2erBe((, 8as the internationa( $u'iti5e and Nixon 6a,#ai'n 6ontri*utor, 1o*ert Kes6o7 =i-e other Euro#ean Fourna(ists, ;ru'er notes that the sa,e 9,, auto,ati6 #isto(, *etter -no8n >a$ter its in5entor? as the In'ra, M 10, 8as $ound in 0e*ruar) 19// a,on' the e$$e6ts o$ the Ita(ian neo 0as6ist, =ui'i 4on6ute((i, o$ &rdine Nuo5o, 8ho had used it in the <u() 19/6 #o(iti6a( ,urder o$ the Ita(ian 6entrist Fud'e Kittoria &66orso7A2/B Its #resen6e a,on' 4on6ute((i9s e$$e6ts 8as 6onsidered

es#e6ia(() si'ni$i6ant *e6ause the M 10, ,anu$a6tured *) 2erBe((9s $or,er $ir, the Mi(itar) Ar,a,ents 4or#oration, 8as su##osed to *e de(i5ered on() to inte((i'en6e ser5i6es >su6h as S#ain9s +7H7S7?, and e5er) sa(e o$ the M 10 reCuired a s#e6ia( #er,it $ro, the Munitions 4ontro( Bran6h o$ the :7S7 State +e#art,ent7 A66ordin' to the S#anish Minister o$ the Interior, 4on6ute((i9s In'ra, M 10 had *een ,odi$ied in a 6(andestine ar,s $a6tor) in Madrid, dis6o5ered in a raid *) Madrid #o(i6e on 22 0e*ruar) 19//7A28B Arrested in 6onne6tion 8ith that raid 8ere six Ita(ian (eaders o$ &rdine Nuo5o and Mario San6heI 4o5isa, the (eader o$ a S#anish terrorist 'rou# >the Huerri((as o$ 4hrist the ;in', or H41? 8hi6h had Fust assassinated a nu,*er o$ (e$t 8in' S#anish a6ti5ists on the e5e o$ S#ain9s $irst 'enera( e(e6tion a$ter the death o$ 0ran6o7 A66ordin' to a detai(ed stud) *) the 0ren6h Fourna(ist 0rederi6 =aurent, the t8o 6hie$ ad5isers to San6heI 4o5isa, the Ita(ian Ste$ano +e((e 4hiaie and the 0ren6h,an D5es Huerin Sera6, es6a#ed arrest 8ith the others7 In turn, a(( *ut one o$ the rest 8ere re(eased three ,onths (ater7 3he reason $or this (enien6)7, a66ordin' to =aurent, 8as that the H41 had ser5ed as a #ara((e( #o(i6e $or the S#anish inte((i'en6e ser5i6e >+HS? in its ,urderous re#ression o$ the BasCue >E3A? se#aratist terrorist net8or-7A29B 4(ear() the San6heI 4o5isa e#isode had internationa( o5ertones, and a nu,*er o$ ne8s#a#ers, e5en in6(udin' the (ew )or! Times, ,entioned s#e6u(ations that the H41 ,i'ht *e $un6tionin' in 6oordination 8ith a ne8() 6reated @0as6ist Internationa(7@ Su6h notions 'ained 6reden6e 8hen S#anish #o(i6e dis6o5ered a,on' the H419s assets three 'o(d in'ots 8hi6h had *een sto(en the #re6edin' su,,er *) a 'rou# o$ 0ren6h ri'htists and &AS 5eterans in a s#e6ta6u(ar E10 ,i((ion ro**er) o$ the So6iete Henera(e de Ni6e7A30B 3he (eader o$ this 8e(( or'aniIed 'rou# 8as A(*ert S#a''iari, 5eteran o$ an &AS assassination atte,#t a'ainst de Hau((e7 2hen S#a''iari 8as 6a#tured *) the 0ren6h #o(i6e in &6to*er 19/6, the British #ress ser5i6e 1euter noted re#orts $ro, #o(i6e sour6es that S#a''iari @had (in-s 8ith an internationa( or'aniIation 8ith ,e,*ers in ri'ht 8in' 6ir6(es in Ita(), =e*anon, Britain and e(se8here7@A31B S#a''iari9s internationa( ,i(ieu a6Cuired an e5en ,ore intri'uin' di,ension 8hen it 8as re5ea(ed that in Se#te,*er 19/6, a$ter the ro**er), S#a''iari had $(o8n to Mia,i and o$$ered his ser5i6es as a ,er6enar) to the 4IA, 6itin' his ro(e in the Ni6e ro**er) as a,on' his Cua(i$i6ations7 4ontrar) to 8hat he had ex#e6ted, the 4IA 6hose to trans,it this in$or,ation to the 0BI, 8ho in turn noti$ied the 0ren6h #o(i6e throu'h Inter#o(7 It 8as this 6onta6t 8ith the 4IA 8hi6h thus (ed to S#a''iari9s arrest one ,onth (ater7 A$ter thirt) se5en hours o$ non6oo#eration, S#a''iari sudden() ad,itted his ro(e in the Ni6e ro**er)7 A66ordin' to e&onde, this 8as #art o$ a ne'otiated dea( 8ith the 0ren6h #o(i6e: S#a''iari 8ou(d #(ead 'ui(t) to the E10 ,i((ion do((ar ro**er), and there*) es6a#e indi6t,ent on a sti(( ,ore serious 6har'e o$ internationa( ar,s tra$$i6-in'7 S#a''iari 'ained a66e#tan6e o$ this #ro#osa( a$ter 6itin' @the na,e o$ an i,#ortant #ersona'e in the Ministr) o$ the Interior, so,eti,e #arti6i#ant in the 6a*inet o$ A0ren6h Interior MinisterB Mi6he( Poniato8s-i, 8ho, $or 5arious reasons, 8as a8are o$ the tra$$i6s in 8hi6h he Ai7e7 S#a''iariB 8as in5o(5ed7@A32B 0i5e ,onths (ater, in Mar6h 19//, S#a''iari es6a#ed *) Fu,#in' throu'h the se6ond stor) 8indo8 o$ the Ni6e Pa(ais de <usti6e, (andin' on the roo$ o$ a 8aitin' tru6-7 Mean8hi(e the 0ren6h 8ee-(), ', re5ea(ed that S#a''iari had *een in 6onta6t in 19/6 8ith a 'an' in 1o,e, @the Marsei((es 6(an,@ 8ho in turn had *een 6(ose to 4on6ute((i, and had *een indi6ted *) the (atter9s 5i6ti,, <ud'e &66orsio7A33B As .enri- ;ru'er #oints out, 4IA trained 4u*ans and their ne8 #atrons $ro, the inte((i'en6e ser5i6e and #ara((e( #o(i6e o$ the ,i(itar) #o(i6e states o$ 4hi(e and Ar'entina, 8ere a(so dire6t() in

tou6h 8ith the so 6a((ed @0as6ist Internationa(@ ,i(ieu o$ 4on6ute((i9s &rdine Nuo5o, San6heI 4o5isa9s H41 and S#a''iari9s 6onne6tion7 As he #oints out >;ru'er #7 20"?, an Ar'entine, <or'e 4esars-), and a 4u*an, 4ar(os PereI, 8ere arrested in <anuar) 19//, in 6onne6tion 8ith one o$ the ,urders or'aniIed *) San6heI 4o5isa9s H417A3"B 4ar(os PereI is o$ #arti6u(ar interest to :7S7 readers, *e6ause he 8as the Madrid re#resentati5e o$ the Mo5i,iento Na6iona(ista 4u*ana >MN4?, an ideo(o'i6a(() 0as6ist 4u*an exi(e 'rou#, t8o o$ 8hose (eaders >I'na6io and Hui((er,o No5o Sa,#o(? ha5e re6ent() *een 6on5i6ted in 6onne6tion 8ith the assassination in 2ashin'ton, in Se#te,*er 19/6, o$ $or,er 4hi(ean $orei'n ,inister &r(ando =ete(ier and 1onni Mo$$itt7 As has no8 *een 6on$ir,ed in #art *) a :7S7 6ourt, the assassination o$ =ete(ier *) MN4 ,e,*ers and 4hi(ean inte((i'en6e a'ent Mi6hae( 3o8n(e) 8as one o$ a series o$ @6ri,es in 8hi6h 4u*an exi(e terrorists and 4hi(ean o$$i6ia(s ha5e 6o((a*orated sin6e 19/37@A3!B Senior ,e,*ers o$ the 4hi(ean Funta inte((i'en6e ser5i6e >+INA? initiated the =ete(ier ,urder, 8hi(e Funta (eader Au'usto Pino6het hi,se($, a66ordin' to a :7S7 'o5ern,ent o$$i6ia(, 8as #ersona(() res#onsi*(e7A36B &ne o$ these shootin's, that o$ $or,er 4hi(ean 4hristian +e,o6rati6 (eader Bernardo =ei'hton and his 8i$e >8ho 8as (e$t #ara()Ied $or (i$e? too- #(a6e in 1o,e in &6to*er 19/!7 Mero, a 4u*an exi(e terrorist 'rou# a((ied to the MN4, too6redit $or the shootin' in a 8e(( in$or,ed 6o,,uniCue7 A,eri6an sour6es ha5e 6(ai,ed that the atta68as arran'ed throu'h either Mi6hae( 3o8n(e) or his 8i$e Mariana 4a((eFas, 8or-in' $or t8o 4hi(eans 8ho had 6o((a*orated ear(ier on the ,urder o$ 4hi(ean Henera( 1ene S6hneider7A3/B Euro#ean Fourna(ists ha5e added that the terrorists in 1o,e 8ere 6onne6ted to a $or,er ,er6enar) 'rou#, on6e *ased in =is*on, -no8n *) its 6o5er na,e o$ A'inter Press, and ,ore #arti6u(ar() to A'inter9s Ita(ian @6orres#ondent@ Ste$ano +e((e 4hiaie7A38B Both A'inter Press and the 3o8n(e)s had 6o((a*orated in the 19/3 4hi(ean 6ou# 'rou# Patria ) =i*ertad >a 'rou# indire6t() su*sidiIed *) the 4IA?, 8hi(e +e((e 4hiaie and his $riend, the Ita(ian 0as6ist Prin6e Ka(erio Bor'hese, had 5isited the 4hi(ean Funta in 19/"7A39B +e((e 4hiaie has a(read) 6o,e to our attention as the Ita(ian atta6hed as senior ad5iser to the H41 in S#ain, a(on' 8ith D5es Huerin Sera6, the $or,er (eader o$ A'inter Press and, (i-e ,ost A'inter ,e,*ers, a 5eteran o$ the &AS7 2e shou(d (i-e to re6a(( that +e((e 4hiaie and Huerin Sera6 es6a#ed *e6ause o$ their re(ationshi# to the S#anish, +HS arrest $or the sa,e ,urder in Madrid 8hi6h (ed to the te,#orar) arrest o$ 4u*an MN4 re#resentati5e 4ar(os PereI7 In other 8ords the =ete(ier -i((in', horri*(e in itse($, 8as on() one in6ident in a (ar'er 8e* o$ internationa( 6ons#ira6)7 3he =atin A,eri6an as#e6t o$ this (ar'er stor) has a(read) *een to(d in the :nited States: the 6reation o$ an internationa( 4u*an exi(e terrorist net8or- at the ser5i6e o$ di6tatorshi#s su6h as 4u*a, BraIi(, and Ni6ara'ua >under the So,oIas?, in ex6han'e $or #a),ents in ar,s and $uture su##ort in a6tions a'ainst 0ide( 4astro7 3hus the =ete(ier -i((in' has *een tra6ed *a6- to the 6reation o$ a 4u*an exi(e u,*re((a or'aniIation, 4&1: >4oordina6ion de &r'anisa6iones 1e5o(u6ionarias :nidas?, in the Bonao ,ountains o$ the +o,ini6an 1e#u*(i6, in <une 19/6, under the (eadershi# o$ 4u*an exi(e terrorist &r(ando Bos6h, 8ho had 5isited 4hi(e in +e6e,*er 19/" 8ith Hui((er,o No5o, and had s#ent a )ear there at Funta ex#ense7A"0B Bos6h hi,se($ s#o-e to (ew Times re#orter B(a-e 0(eet8ood a*out these a6ti5ities7 2hi(e de6(inin' to ta(- a*out the =ete(ier -i((in' 8hi6h 8as then under in5esti'ation, he 6heer$u(() ad,itted settin' u# the ,urder o$ t8o 4u*an di#(o,ats in Ar'entina, in 6onFun6tion 8ith the Ar'entine ri'ht 8in' terrorist AAA >to 8hi6h <or'e 4esars-), arrested in S#ain, *e(on'ed?7A"1B Ho5ern,ent sour6es to(d Sau( =andau o$ the 3ransnationa( Institute in 2ashin'ton that the Bonao ,eetin', attended *) a :7S7 Ho5ern,ent in$or,ant, *ro-e do8n into 8or-sho#s $or the #(annin' o$ s#e6i$i6 6ri,es, in6(udin' the ,urder o$ =ete(ier and the &6to*er 19/6 *o,*in' o$ a 4u*an air(iner, in 8hi6h se5ent) three #eo#(e 8ere -i((ed7A"2B Bos6h returned $ro, the Bonao ,eetin' to KeneIue(a, at the in5itation, he ,aintains, o$ the KeneIue(an inte((i'en6e ser5i6e +ISIP, 8ho 'a5e hi, a +ISIP identi$i6ation 6ard7A"3B

Hi5en the nature, and the s6o#e, o$ this net8or- o$ 'o5ern,entassisted terror, o$ 8hi6h the :7S7 'o5ern,ent 8as 8e(( in$or,ed, it is interestin' to re6a(( the initia( 6harade 8hi6h the :7S7 inte((i'en6e a'en6ies #ut on $or the *ene$it o$ the :7S7 #ress: &n &6to*er 11, 19/6, (ewswee! ,a'aIine re#orted that @the 4IA has 6on6(uded that the 4hi(ean se6ret #o(i6e 8ere not in5o(5ed in the death o$ &r(ando =ete(ier7@ 3he 4IA a(so reassured the :7S7 +e#art,ent o$ <usti6e o$ this @$a6t7@ A 2ashin'ton Star re#orter >8 &6to*er 19/6? 8as to(d *) 0BI sour6es that @=ete(ier ,i'ht Fust as 8e(( ha5e *een -i((ed *) (e$tist extre,ists to 6reate a ,art)r7@ +a5id Binder o$ the (ew )or! Times re#orted >12 &6to*er 19/6? that @inte((i'en6e o$$i6ia(s@ 8ere @#ursuin' the #ossi*i(it) that Mr7 =ete(ier had *een assassinated *) 4hi(ean (e$t 8in' extre,ists as a ,eans o$ disru#tin' :7S7 re(ations 8ith the ,i(itar) Funta@A""B 7777 But the *i''est $(ood o$ distortion and ru,ors 6a,e $ro, $or,er and retired 0BI and 4IA o$$i6ia(s7777 Me,*ers o$ su6h 'rou#s as the Asso6iation o$ 0or,er Inte((i'en6e &$$i6ers headed at that ti,e *) +a5id Phi((i#s >Phi((i#s, in6identa((), headed the 4IA9s =atin A,eri6an 6o5ert a6tion de#art,ent at the ti,e o$ the Se#t7 11, 19/3 6ou# in 4hi(e? de(i5ered do6u,ents $ro, =ete(ier9s *rie$6ase Ato su''est, $a(se()B that =ete(ier 8as777 not on() a 4u*an a'ent, *ut777 a So5iet a'ent as 8e((7A"!B A$ter #ersistent #ressure $ro, =ete(ier9s :7S7 asso6iates and $riend() Fourna(ists, =ete(ier9s #rin6i#a( assassin >Mi6hae( 3o8n(e)? has re6ei5ed a 10 )ear senten6e >he 8i(( *e e(i'i*(e $or #aro(e in 1981?7 0or so,e reason the 4IA 8as 8ithho(din' re(e5ant in$or,ation $ro, the <usti6e +e#art,ent at the sa,e ti,e it #u*(i6() ad5o6ated its theor) o$ +INA9s inno6en6e7 3hose 8ho ordered 3o8n(e)9s 6ri,e ha5e not e5en *een indi6ted7 &n the 6ontrar), a re(ated 6ase a'ainst another 4u*an exi(e $or re6ei5in' hea5) 6a(i*er ar,s, re#orted() in @#art #a),ent $or the =ete(ier Mo$$itt ,urders,@ 8as unsu66ess$u(% (ar'e(), it has *een 6har'ed, *e6ause the 4IA he(#ed thro8 the 6ase7A"6B As I 8rite these 8ords, a 4on'ressiona( 4o,,ittee has Fust re(eased a *i(( 8hi6h res#onds in #art to ,ountin' #ressures to @un(eash@ the 4IA7 3hus ;ru'er9s *oo- is ur'ent and ti,e(): it (i$ts the 5ei( on the '(o*a( net8or-s o$ these #ara$as6ist terrorists 8ho 6an so $reCuent() #(ot and ,urder 8ith i,#unit), than-s to their re(ationshi#s and ser5i6es to the inte((i'en6e a'en6ies o$ the so 6a((ed @$ree 8or(d7@ In short, it te((s a stor) 8hi6h our o8n ,edia ha5e s)ste,ati6a(() $ai(ed to te((7 I 6annot #ro,ise that his a66ount is $(a8(ess7 .e 8rites a*out intri'ues 8here disin$or,ation is ri$e and the truth a*out an e5ent is $reCuent() ,isunderstood e5en *) its #arti6i#ants7 But he has *rou'ht to'ether a #rodi'ious a,ount o$ in$or,ation, su##orted *) shre8d ana()sis, #arti6u(ar() 8ith res#e6t to the Euro#ean s6ene 8hi6h he -no8s *est7 As $or the A,eri6an s6ene, it ,a) *e di$$i6u(t on $irst readin' to a66e#t his h)#othesis o$ a hu'e @Mia,i 6ons#ira6)@, no8 @rea6hin' out 8ith a 5en'ean6e to =atin A,eri6a@ >;ru'er #7 20"?7 &ther o*ser5ers o$ the so 6a((ed @0as6ist internationa(@ #heno,enon >to use the ter, $irst 'i5en res#e6ta*i(it) *) e &onde/, ha5e seen it as ,ore #o()6entri6, 6ontinuous() di5ided *) se6tarianis,, #aranoia, and the u(ti,ate inadeCua6) o$ nationa( so6ia(is, as an internationa( ideo(o')7A"/B But, e5en i$ nationa(ist ideo(o'ues 6ontinue to 6(ash, there is unCuestiona*() in6reasin' internationa( unit) a,on' the #ro$essiona( terrorists7 I #re$er to 6a(( the (atter #ara$as6ists rather than 0as6ists *e6ause their #ri,ar) 6on6ern is neither ideo(o') nor a ,ass ,o5e,ent, *ut rather to $un6tion 6o5ert() in the ser5i6e o$, or #ara((e( to, inte((i'en6e *ureau6ra6ies7 A,on' #ara$as6ists there is a tenden6) to8ard internationa( 6ohesion, e5en i$ this is $(uid, and reCuires no one sin'(e 6a#ita( or *ase7 2here ;ru'er $o6uses on Mia,i, others ha5e $o6used on Madrid, 4osta 1i6a or 2ashin'ton7 ;ru'er9s in5a(ua*(e 6ontri*ution is to ha5e s#e((ed out the #er5asi5e ro(e o$ nar6oti6s in su##()in' $inan6es, or'aniIation, and san6tions to this #ara$as6ist net8or-, $ro, the Ar'entine AAA to the 2or(d Anti 4o,,unist =ea'ue >2A4=? $ounded *) ;M3 inte((i'en6e #ersonne( on 3ai8an7 Be$ore 2or(d 2ar II the ;M3 re'i,e in 4hina 8as #erha#s the *est exa,#(e o$ #o(iti6a( ,ani#u(ation o$ the nar6oti6s tra$$i6, under the 'uise o$ an @o#iu, su##ression 6a,#ai'n,@ to $inan6e *oth a #o(iti6a( and an inte((i'en6e a##aratus >under Henera( 3ai =i?7A"8B 3his #ra6ti6e s#read a$ter 2or(d 2ar II to a nu,*er

o$ other 2A4= ,e,*er 6ountries and 'rou#s7 3oda) there is 6ause to $ear that Nixon9s su#era'en6), the +ru' En$or6e,ent Ad,inistration, has, (i-e other nar6oti6s en$or6e,ent a'en6ies *e$ore it, 6o,e to use 6orru#t #ersonne( 8ho are a6tua(() #art o$ the tra$$i6, as #art o$ a 6o5ert 8ar a'ainst re5o(ution7 3his is easiest to ar'ue in the 6ase o$ 6orru#t #o(i6e $or6es o5erseas, su6h as the +EA su##orted 3hai Border Patro( #o(i6e 8ho, *) a ,assa6re o$ unar,ed 3hai students, 6ontri*uted to the o5erthro8 o$ 3hai de,o6ra6) in &6to*er 19/67A"9B But, in addition, .ar#er9s 2ashin'ton editor <i, .ou'an has raised the #ossi*i(it) that a su#erse6ret internal +EA inte((i'en6e 'rou# 6a((ed @+ea6on 1,@ 6onsistin' o$ thirt) $or,er 4IA o$$i6ers, a(( o$ the, 4u*an exi(es, 8as @ta-en o5er *) 4u*an exi(e extre,ists@ 8ho @,a) ha5e $e(t a 'reater (o)a(t) to the #o(iti6s o$ &r(ando Bos6h than to the 'oa(s o$ the +EA7@A!0B .ou'an and ;ru'er 6ite the exa,#(e o$ +ea6on 1 o#erati5e 4ar(os .ernandeI 1u,*aut, a 6on5i6ted nar6oti6s tra$$i6-er 8ho *e6a,e se6ond in 6o,,and o$ the 4osta 1i6an Nar6oti6s +i5ision and a((e'ed() a(so Foined a (o6a( death sCuad7 .ou'an as-s 8hether the #(ans $or Bos6h9s 4&1: and the +EA +ea6on 1 o#eration in 4osta 1i6a ,a) not to'ether ex#(ain the 6on5er'en6e in 4osta 1i6a in 19/" /6 o$ 1o*ert Kes6o, Mit6h 2erBe((, Santo 3ra$$i6ante and &r(ando Bos6h L a(( o$ 8hose a6ti5ities @i,#in'e on the sa,e areas777 exi(e #o(iti6s, s,u''(in', and the 4IA7 @A!1B In su##ort o$ this distur*in' Cuestion, one 6an note that Bos6h 8as 'i5en no (ess than three #ass#orts *) 4osta 1i6a in Au'ust 19/6, ri'ht a$ter the Bonao 4&1: ,eetin'% and a(so that ten ,onths (ater Bos6h9s dau'hter and son in (a8 8ere *oth arrested on 6har'es o$ s,u''(in' 6o6aine7A!2B 3he :7S7 'o5ern,ent9s nar6oti6s Ma$ia 6onne6tion 'oes *a6-, as is 8e(( -no8n, to 2or(d 2ar II7 38o 6ontro5ersia( Foint o#erations *et8een &SS >&$$i6e o$ Strate'i6 Ser5i6es? and &NI >:7S7 na5a( inte((i'en6e? esta*(ished 6onta6ts >5ia =u6-) =u6iano? 8ith the Si6i(ian Ma$ia%A!3B and >5ia 3ai =i? 8ith the do#e dea(in' Hreen Han' o$ 3u Dueh Shen' in Shan'hai7A!"B Both 6onne6tions 8ere extended into the #ost 8ar #eriod as the =u6iano and ;M3 net8or-s s(o8() resu,ed their #re 8ar 6onta6ts7 In 2ashin'ton, in 19"/, State +e#art,ent o$$i6ia( 2a(ter +o8(in' noted 8ith 6on6ern the e$$orts o$ an ex &SS o$$i6er to rea6ti5ate the 8arti,e &SS ,a$ia 6onne6tion7 0uture 4IA o$$i6er <a,es An'(eton >then in an interi, a'en6), SS:? a##ears to ha5e shared +o8(in'9s re#u'nan6e% *ut one o$ the #rin6i#a( ex &SS a'ents 6on6erned, Max 4or5o, no8 enFo)ed in$(uentia( #ri5ate *a6-in' as a 6onsu(tant to Ita(ian A,eri6an industries in Si4i()7A!!B 3he de#ortation o$ =u6-) =u6iano to Si6i() in 19"6 8as $o((o8ed *) that o$ ,ore than sixt) other A,eri6an ,a$iosi, so,e o$ 8ho,, (i-e 0ran- 4o##o(a, *e6a,e not on() -e) $i'ures in the #ost8ar =u6iano 3ra$$i6ante nar6oti6s 6onne6tion, *ut a(so #o(iti6a( *osses 8hose Ma$ia ,us6(e ensured the e(e6tion o$ 4hristian +e,o6rat M7P7s7A!6B 4o##o(a9s na,e has *een (in-ed, to'ether 8ith that o$ Interior Minister Mario S6e(*a, to a Ma) +a) 19"/ ,assa6re at Porte((a de((e Hinestre, in 8hi6h ei'ht #eo#(e 8ere -i((ed *) ,a6hine'un $ire, and thirt) three 8ere 8ounded7 In a(( "98 Si6i(ians, ,ost() (e$t 8in'ers, 8ere ,urdered in 19"8 a(one, a re5ea(in' $ootnote to $or,er 4IA o#erati5e Mi(es 4o#e(and9s *eni'n assuran6e that @had it not *een $or the Ma$ia the 4o,,unists 8ou(d *) no8 *e in 6ontro( o$ Ita()7@A!/B Mean8hi(e, in the :nited States, ;M3 a'ents he(#ed esta*(ish a #o8er$u( 4hina =o**), and 6o((a*orated 8ith $riends in :7S7 a'en6ies to tar'et, and in so,e 6ases dri5e $ro, 'o5ern,ent, o(d $oes o$ the $or,er :7S7 ;M3 3ai =i a((ian6e in6(udin' those inside the &SS7 A s6ho(ar() *oo- in 1960 noted that @the nar6oti6s *usiness has *een a $a6tor in so,e a6ti5ities and #er,utations o$ the 4hina =o**),@ thus 6ha((en'in' the o$$i6ia( Nar6oti6s Bureau ,)th that ;M3 do#e in this 6ountr) 8as @4o,,unist 4hinese@7A!8B 3he =u6iano and ;M3 net8or-s had *een in 6onta6t $or :7S7 do#e distri*ution in the 1930s7 A(thou'h there is no e5iden6e o$ su*stantia( 6o((a*oration *et8een the, in the 19!0s, there are s),#to,s o$ in6reasin' 6on5er'en6e, #art() throu'h a'ents 8ho dea(t 8ith *oth7 3here is the exa,#(e

o$ Heor'e 2hite, an 0BN o$$i6ia( and $or,er &SS a'ent 8ho testi$ied to the ;e$au5er 4o,,ittee that he had *een a##roa6hed on *eha($ o$ =u6iano in 19"3 *) an o(d 4hina tra$$i6-er, Au'ust de( HraIio7A!9B 2hite 8or-ed 6(ose() 8ith the 4IA in the #ost8ar )ears and >under 0BN 6o5er? ran one o$ their =S+ ex#eri,ents in ProFe6t M;J:=31A7A60B In 19"8 2hite 8as *a6- in Euro#e, intendin' to 6he6- u# #ersona(() on =u6iano and his nar6oti6s asso6iate Ni6- Henti(e, another $or,er :7S7 'an'ster 8ho >(i-e Kito Heno5ese? had 8or-ed $or the A((ied Mi(itar) Ho5ern,ent in Si6i()7A61B Soon a$ter8ards Ma$ia tra$$i6-ers in the :nited States *e'an to *e arrested, *ut not ,en (i-e =u6iano, Henti(e, or 4o##o(a7 B) the ti,e o$ 2hite9s 5isit to Marsei((es, the 4IA and A0= or'aniIer Ir5in' Bro8n 8ere a(read) su*sidiIin' the use o$ 4orsi6an and Ita(ian 'an'sters to oust 4o,,unist unions $ro, the Marsei((es #ort7 Bro8n9s 4IA 6ase o$$i6er, Pau( Sa-8a, has 6on$ir,ed that *) the ti,e 4IA su*sidies 8ere ter,inated in 19!3, Bro8n9s 6hie$ 6onta6t 8ith the Marsei((es under8or(d, Pierre 0erri Pisani, no (on'er needed :7S7 su##ort, *e6ause o$ the #ro$its his ne8() 'ained 6ontro( o$ the #ort su##(ied $ro, the heroin tra$$i67A62B :nder the o5ersi'ht o$ 0erri Pisani and the Huerini 'an', 4orsi6an tra$$i6-ers 8or-ed 8ith the =u6iano net8or- and in the 19!0s 8ere its 6hie$ sour6e o$ re$ined heroin7 3his a(one ,i'ht he(# ex#(ain the a##arent i,,unit) o$ =u6iano9s net8or-, to 8hi6h e &onde a((uded, a(on' 8ith that o$ its 4orsi6an su##(iers, a*out 8hi6h e &onde 8as si(ent7 A(thou'h 2hite 8or-ed on the =u6iano and 4orsi6an 6ases, his 0BN re#utation had *een ,ade in 193/ *) s,ashin' a ,aFor distri*ution net8or- headed *) the #ro ;M3 4hinese ton' >'an'? in San 0ran6is6o, the .i# Sin's7A63B But *) 19!1 the 4IA 8as 6(ose() a((ied 8ith ;M3 dru' o#erations in Bur,a and Dunnan, throu'h a Mia,i*ased #ro#rietar), Sea Su##(), In67, or'aniIed *) &SS 5eteran Pau( .e((i8e((7A6"B In 19!9 the 0BN and 2hite a'ain arrested a ne8 'eneration o$ .i# Sin' o$$i6ia(s, *ut on() a$ter the rin'(eader >4hun' 2in' 0on', a $or,er .i# Sin' #resident and o$$i6ia( o$ the San 0ran6is6o 4hinese Anti 4o,,unist =ea'ue, a ;M3 $ront? had )ie(ded his #ass#ort to the :7S7 6onsu( in .on' ;on' and then tra5e((ed as ordered to 3ai8an7A6!B In this 8a) 0on' *e6a,e no ,ore than an unindi6ted 6ons#irator and the ;M3 disa##eared $ro, 5ie8% 2hite, ,ean8hi(e, turned around and to(d the :7S7 #ress the heroin 6a,e $ro, 4o,,unist 4hina >@,ost o$ it $ro, a 5ast #o##) $ie(d near 4hun'-in'@?7A66B In 4hina, i$ not in Ita(), 2hite9s 6on6ern a*out do#e see,s to ha5e 6entered on net8or-s 8ithin :7S7 *orders, not on the internationa( su##(iers7 In 19!3 !" the 4IA dre8 on o(d 4hina hands 8ith ex#osure to ;M3 tra$$i6 >4hennau(t, 2i((auer, 2i((ia, Pa8(e), .o8ard .unt? to set u# the o5erthro8 o$ the Ar*enI 'o5ern,ent in Huate,a(a, an o#eration 8hi6h at (east 6onte,#(ated the use o$ @Puerto 1i6an and 4u*an 'an'sters7@A6/B As #art o$ this o#eration, 8e see 4IA o$$i6er .o8ard .unt, a 5eteran 8ith his $riend =u6ien 4onein and 4onein9s $riend 2erBe(( o$ &SS o#erations in 4hina under .e((i8e((, he(#in' in 19!" to set u# 8hat 8ou(d e5entua(() *e6o,e the =atin A,eri6an *ran6h o$ the ;M3 *a6-ed 2or(d Anti 4o,,unist =ea'ue7 >0our )ears (ater the 6hair,an o$ this 'rou# 8as the Huate,a(an attorne) o$ Ne8 &r(eans Ma$ia (eader 4ar(os Mar6e((o7A68B? Ne5erthe(ess, in the (ate 19!0s it see,ed un(i-e() that the heroin 6onne6tion, outside o$ 6ountries dire6t() in5o(5ed, (i-e =aos, 8ou(d either ha5e a ,aFor i,#a6t on :7S7 #o(i6) or *e6o,e a si'ni$i6ant a(ternati5e to it7 2ith the de6(ine o$ 6o(d 8ar #aranoia, e5ents see,ed to *e ,o5in' to8ards nor,a(iIation7 A(( this 6han'ed 8ith the 1960s, 8hen the 4IA reasse,*(ed $or the Ba) o$ Pi's the o(d Huate,a(a tea, >in6(udin' .unt, 2i((auer, and Pa8(e), 8ho o5ersa8 4u*an re6ruit,ent?7 2ith the $ai(ure o$ the Ba) o$ Pi's 4u*a *e6a,e to A,eri6a 8hat A('eria had *een to 0ran6e7 3he ex#(osi5e #o(iti6a( 6ontro5ers) ,eant that thousands o$ 4u*an exi(es, ,an) o$ the, 8ith *a6-'rounds in the .a5ana ,i(ieu, 8ere trained *) the :7S7 as 'uerri((as andJor terrorists, then (e$t in #o(iti6a( (i,*o7 Man) o$ the, soon turned to s,u''(in' to au',ent their $inan6es, and in so,e 6ases su##(ant their ori'ina( #o(iti6a( o*Fe6ti5es7 At (east one 4IA #roFe6t 'ro8in' out o$ &#eration "0 >the 6ontro(, e(e,ent in the Ba) o$ Pi's in5asion $or6e?, had to *e ter,inated, 8hen the dru' a6ti5ities o$ its ,e,*ers *e6a,e too

e,*arrassin'7A69B In 19/3 (ewsday re#orted that @at (east ei'ht #er6ent o$ the 1!00 ,an ABa) o$ Pi'sB in5asion $or6e has su*seCuent() *een in5esti'ated or arrested $or dru' dea(in'7@A/0B B) this ti,e ,an) Ba) o$ Pi's 5eterans 8ere 8or-in' $or either Kes6o or 3ra$$i6ante7A/1B Both the (u6rati5e dru' tra$$i6 and its anti 4o,,unist #o(iti6s *e'an in6reasin'() to 'et out o$ :7S7 6ontro(7 3his 8as #arti6u(ar() true 8hen, a$ter the death o$ President ;enned), the :7S7 (ent a hand to ,i(itar) 6ou#s in BraIi(, the +o,ini6an 1e#u*(i6, and Hree6e, nations 8hi6h in turn *e6a,e *ases $or $urther ri'ht 8in' a6ti5ities in other 6ountries7 A,eri6a9s (a6- o$ enthusias, $or the 0as6ist 6(ients it had he(#ed to #ro6reate, on() had the e$$e6t o$ en6oura'in' the, to #(ot ,ore ener'eti6a(() 8ith ea6h other, and to (o**) (a5ish() $or ,ore ri'ht 8in' #o(i6ies in 2ashin'ton7 It 8as in this #eriod that ,er6enar) terroris,, i((i6it ar,s tra$$i6, and dru' tra$$i6, 6onso(idated into one in6reasin'() '(o*a( ,i(ieu7 3he (on'de(a)ed $oundin' o$ the 2or(d Anti 4o,,unist =ea'ue in 3ai8an in 196/ ,a) *e a (ess si'ni$i6ant s),#to, o$ this trend than the Hree- 6ou# o$ the sa,e )ear, a$ter 8hi6h the ;DP >the Hree- 4IA? *e6a,e an a6ti5e $o,enter o$ #ara$as6ist terror ta6ti6s in the rest o$ Euro#e7A/2B 3he o$$i6ia( ter,ination o$ the 4IA M&NH&&SE #roFe6t a'ainst 4u*a in the sa,e )ear (e$t a 6o(ossa( dis#osa( #ro*(e,: 8hat to do 8ith the esti,ated /000 trained 4u*ansG .ere A,eri6a see,s to ha5e $o((o8ed the exa,#(e set *) de Hau((e7 So,e o$ these 4u*an exi(es 8ere a*sor*ed into other 4IA and Penta'on o#erations, so,e 8ent to 8or- as did +a5id $or inte((i'en6e ser5i6es in =atin A,eri6a, so,e 8ere retained *) the 4IA to re#ort on their $or,er 6o((ea'ues and e5en to e(i,inate the ,ore trou*(eso,e o$ the,7 But ea6h o$ these so(utions ran the ris- o$ 'i5in' ,ore #o8er to the 5er) e(e,ents 8ho, the 4IA 8ished to dis#erse7 3his 8as the situation $a6ed *) 1i6hard Nixon on his e(e6tion7 Se5era( studies o$ 1i6hard Nixon ha5e $o6used on his 6onta6ts sin6e 19"6 8ith e(e,ents $ro, or'aniIed 6ri,e, ,ost() throu'h his ear() #o(iti6a( ad5iser Murra) 4hotiner, and his 6(ose $riend and *usiness asso6iate Be*e 1e*oIo7 ;ir-#atri6- Sa(e has su''ested that @It is #ossi*(e that 1i6hard Nixon 8as one ,ore o$ the (ar'e nu,*er o$ #o(iti6ians in this 6ountr) 8ho ha5e *een *ou'ht or 6aFo(ed into the ser5i6e o$ the ends o$ or'aniIed 6ri,e7@A/3B Det this dar- h)#othesis is, I thin-, as o5ersi,#(i$ied as its o##osite7 =i-e e5er) one o$ his #rede6essors sin6e at (east 2or(d 2ar II, Nixon, to *e6o,e e(e6ted, had ,ade a66o,,odations to a(( o$ the #ro,inent #o(iti6a( $or6es in the 6oa(ition he re#resented, in6(udin' the ine5ita*(e 6onne6tion to or'aniIed 6ri,e7 It ,a) 8e(( *e that in his ear() 6areer these 6onne6tions 8ere ,ore #ro,inent than in the 6ase o$ =)ndon <ohnson, 8ho started as 0+19s #rote'e, or <ohn 07 ;enned), 8ho 8as *orn 8ea(th) >and 6ou(d (ea5e dirt) *usiness 6onne6tions to his $ather?7 But it 8as a(so a##arent, e5en *e$ore he 8as e(e6ted in 1968, that Nixon sou'ht to #ursue a $orei'n #o(i6) that 8ou(d *e inde#endent o$ the ear() ;M3, and other ,one) 8hi6h had $irst he(#ed hi, to *e6o,e a nationa( #o(iti6a( $i'ure7 0a6ed 8ith the 'ro8in' and 6(ose() re(ated #ro*(e,s o$ ri'ht 8in' terroris, and o$ the internationa( nar6oti6s tra$$i6, Nixon9s a##roa6h see,s to ha5e *een that o$ a se($ #er6ei5ed #o(iti6a( rea(ist: to 'ain 6ontro( o$, redire6t, and ,ani#u(ate the #ro*(e, $or6es, rather than to so,eho8 ,a-e the, ,a'i6a(() disa##ear7 It is un(i-e() that these o*Fe6ti5es 8ere unre(ated to his $orei'n #o(i6) e$$orts to esta*(ish (in-s to ,ain(and 4hina, $or this #o(i6) 6ha((en'ed the #o8er$u( 4hina (o**) 8hi6h had su##orted hi, in the #ast7 It ,a) *e no 6oin6iden6e that the #ro6(a,ation o$ the 8ar on dru's, ;issin'er9s se6ret tri# to Pe-in', and the esta*(ish,ent in the 2hite .ouse o$ 8hat the #resident 6a((ed @a non (e'a( tea,@ >the P(u,*ers?, in6(udin' .unt and 4onein, a(( too- #(a6e 8ithin a ,onth o$ ea6h other in ,id 19/17 3hus in Mia,i Nixon a##ointed an ener'eti6 :7S7 attorne), 1o*ert 1ust, 8ho in <une 19/0 rounded u# ex 4IA 4u*ans (i-e <uan 1esto) in &#eration Ea'(e: this unusua( Iea(, a66ordin' to .an- Messi6-, ,ade 1ust an ex6e#tion to the South 0(orida @don9t ro6- the *oat@ tradition7A/"B But Nixon9s

a##oint,ents to the 0edera( 4ourt in the Mia,i area >one o$ 8ho, 8as 6(ose to Pau( .e((i8e(( and had ser5ed as dire6tor o$ a *an- a66used o$ (aunderin' ,one) $or Me)er =ans-)? 8ere not so 'un' ho% and e5entua(() ,ost o$ 1ust9s indi6t,ents in &#eration Ea'(e 8ere o5erturned in 6ourt7 Mean8hi(e the @non (e'a( tea,@ at the 2hite .ouse, than-s to .o8ard .unt, *e'an to re6ruit ,en (i-e 0ran- Stur'is, 8hose 0BI $i(e (in-ed hi, to #ossi*(e @or'aniIed 6ri,e a6ti5ities,@ and 0e(i#e de +ie'o, a 6o((ea'ue o$ 1esto) in the 4IA9s &#eration "0 #roFe6t 8hi6h had to *e 6(osed do8n *e6ause o$ its nar6oti6s in5o(5e,ent7 Nixon, $o((o8in' de Hau((e9s exa,#(e, see,s to ha5e ta-en ste#s to restore 6ontro( *) the 2hite .ouse o5er a ,i(ieu 8hi6h the :7S7 'o5ern,ent itse($ had he(#ed to 6reate7 =i-e the 0ren6h, he see,s to ha5e turned to e(e,ents o$ the ,i(ieu to 8or- a'ainst it% *ut he see,s to ha5e had 8orse (u6- in those 8ho, he #i6-ed7 In his ,e,oirs Nixon te((s ho8, (ess than t8o 8ee-s a$ter the 2ater'ate *rea- in .a(de,an said that the 8ho(e thin' 8as so (udi6rous that +ean had not dis6ounted the #ossi*i(it) that 8e 8ere dea(in' 8ith a dou*(e a'ent 8ho #ur#ose() *(e8 the o#eration7 &ther8ise it 8as Fust too hard to $i'ureout7A/!B Ei'ht )ears o$ Fourna(isti6 *oo-s on 2ater'ate, ,ost o$ 8hi6h *are() ,ention the nar6oti6s res#onsi*i(ities o$ the so 6a((ed P(u,*ers, ha5e not 6o,e u# 8ith an) *etter ex#(anation7 Ed8ard <7 E#stein9s *oo- on Nixon9s dru' #o(i6ies, 8hi6h i#so $a6to is a *oo- a*out 2ater'ate, ana()Ies this short6o,in' o$ the Fourna(ists: 3he 2hite .ouse ti,eta*(e $or 6onso(idatin' its #o8er o5er the in5esti'ati5e a'en6ies o$ the 'o5ern,ent 8as rude() interru#ted on <une 1/, 19/2, 8hen 2ashin'ton, +747, #o(i6e arrested $i5e ,en in the nationa( headCuarters o$ the +e,o6rati6 Part) in the 2ater'ate a#art,ent and o$$i6e 6o,#(ex7777 2ith Nixon9s i,#endin' ree(e6tion threatenin' the 5er) inde#enden6e o$ the #o8er *ase o$ the in5esti'ati5e a'en6ies, there 8ere stron' $or6es 8ithin the exe6uti5e *ran6h o$ the 'o5ern,ent 8hi6h 8ou(d not on() re$use to he(# 6o5er u# the e,*arrassin' 6onne6tion *ut 8ou(d a6ti5e() 8or- to dis6(ose it7777 1i6hard .e(,s777 had *een to(d that Nixon #(anned to re#(a6e hi, i,,ediate() a$ter the e(e6tion, and he $eared, as he to(d ,e su*seCuent(), that Nixon a(so #(anned @to destro) AhisB a'en6)7@77 7 7 3he @*att(e o$ the (ea-s,@ as 4o(son 6a((ed it777 *e'an to sin- the Nixon Ad,inistration7 7 7 4onsider, $or exa,#(e, the #ro*(e, o$ 2ood8ard and Bernstein, o$ the 2ashin'ton Post7 2ood8ard 8as re6ei5in' in$or,ation $ro, 1o*ert 0oster Bennett, o$ 1o*ert 17 Mu((en and 4o,#an), that $o6used the *(a,e $or 2ater'ate on 4har(es 4o(son7 I$ he had assu,ed that Bennett 8as #ro5idin' hi, 8ith this in$or,ation $or an)thin' ,ore than a disinterested #ur#ose, he 8ou(d ha5e had to as8ho, Bennett 8or-ed $or, 8hat the true *usiness o$ Mu((en and 4o,#an) 8as, and 8h) Bennett 8anted hi, to steer his in5esti'ation a8a) $ro, the 4IA and to8ard 4har(es 4o(son7 .e then 8ou(d ha5e $ound that Mu((en and 4o,#an) 8as a 4IA $ront or'aniIation and 8as a8are that Bennett 8as 'i5in' in$or,ation to 2ood8ard% and that the 4IA 8as tr)in' to di5ert attention $ro, itse($ >and su66eedin', in the 2ashin'ton Post? *e6ause a nu,*er o$ the 6ons#irators in5o(5ed in the 2ater'ate *ur'(ar) had a(so *een in5o(5ed in o#erations that the 4IA had dire6t() su##orted, su6h as the P(u,*ers7 Moreo5er, the 5er) $a6t that a 4IA $ront 'rou# 8as #ro5idin' in$or,ation that 8as under,inin' the Nixon ad,inistration #ointed to a 6on$(i6t *et8een Nixon and the 4IA7 2ood8ard and Bernstein, ho8e5er, 6ou(d not ha5e re#orted these i,#(i6ations and thus 6ou(d not ha5e de#i6ted the #o8er stru''(e *et8een the #resident and the 4IA 8ithout re5ea(in' one o$ their #ri,e sour6es7 0or the sa,e reason, the re#orters 8ho re6ei5ed Nixon9s tax returns $ro, o$$i6ia(s o$ the Interna( 1e5enue Ser5i6e 6ou(d not ha5e re5ea(ed this as e5iden6e o$ a stru''(e *et8een dis'runt(ed ,e,*ers o$ the 3reasur) +e#art,ent and the #resident 8ithout a(so re5ea(in' that the) 8ere no ,ore than ,essen'ers $or insur'ents stru''(in' a'ainst the #resident7 B) not re5ea(in' their sour6es, the) re6ei5ed the Pu(itIer PriIe777 A/6B

E#stein 5ie8s 2ater'ate as o#ti,isti6a(() as Ed,und Bur-e sa8 the 2hi' 1e5o(ution o$ 1688 Las a restoration o$ de6oru, a$ter t)rannous en6roa6h,ent, a re5o(ution not so ,u6h ,ade as #re5ented: @3he re5o(t o$ the *ureau6rats thus su66eeded in *(o6-in' Nixon9s #(an to 'ain 6ontro( o5er the in5esti'ati5e a'en6ies o$ the 'o5ern,ent in his se6ond ter,7@A//B 3his o#ti,is, assu,es that Nixon hi,se($ 8as the #ro*(e,, not the ,onster +EA a'en6) 8hi6h out(asted hi, or the 4IA 4u*ans it re6ruited7 It is true that the 2ater'ate ex#osures #ut an end to .unt9s (itt(e -no8n @re6ruit,ent o$ a se6ret ar,) o$ 4u*an exi(es Ano $e8er than 120, a66ordin' to 4BSB, ans8era*(e on() to the 2hite .ouse, and eCui##ed to assassinate $orei'n (eaders7@A/8B But so,e o$ the o(d 4hina hands 8ith net8or- 6onne6tions *e'an ,o5in' to the ne8 +EA7 As 8e ha5e seen, .unt se6ured a #ost $or his o(d &SS ;un,in' $riend =u6ien 4onein in 8hat e5entua(() *e6a,e +EA, and 4onein in turn re6ruited his o8n *and o$ 4IA 4u*ans in +ea6on I, at (east one o$ 8ho,, a66ordin' to 4IA re#orts, has a(read) ta-en #art in a death sCuad o#eration7A/9B Nor did 2ater'ate ha5e a 'ood e$$e6t on nar6oti6s en$or6e,ent7 &n the 6ontrar), the 2ater'ate dis6(osures 8ere $o((o8ed *) a ,ar-ed dro# o$$ in hi'h (e5e( dru' 6ons#ira6) arrests7 Senate in5esti'ator Phi(i# 17 Manue( re#orted in 19/! that @$ro, 191/ throu'h ear() 19/3 0edera( nar6oti6s en$or6e,ent had its #eriod o$ 'reatest su66ess,@ *ut $ai(ed to ho(d its 'ains therea$ter7A80B 3he ne8 +EA soon 6a,e under *oth Senate and <usti6e +e#art,ent s6rutin) $or a series o$ irre'u(arities, in6(udin' 8hat one Senate sta$$ re#ort 6a((ed @un#ro$essiona( 6ondu6t@ in $ai(in' to #ursue a Kes6o nar6oti6s (ead7A81B 3he terroris, 6onne6tion 8hi6h 8ou(d sur5i5e Nixon9s de#arture $ro, o$$i6e 8as not 6on$ined to 4onein9s 4u*an sCuad in +EA7 In 19/!, 8hen one A'inter Press o#erati5e 8as o5erseein' the atte,#ted ,urder o$ Bernardo and Anna =ei'hton in 1o,e, another 8as 6onsu(tin' in 2ashin'ton 8ith ri'ht 8in' Senator Stro, 3hur,ond and 8ith an o$$i6ia( o$ President 0ord9s Nationa( Se6urit) 4oun6i(7 3he se6ond A'inter o#erati5e 8as $or,er &AS ,e,*er <ean +enis 1ain'eard, and he sou'ht >*ut $ai(ed to o*tain? :7S7 su##ort $or a #(an *) 8hi6h the AIores 8ou(d se6ede $ro, Portu'a(% A'inter9s P(an :sine $or the se6ession in5o(5ed a dea( 8here*) a :7S7 $ir,, 8ith (in-s to a Ne8 Dor- Ma$ia $a,i(), 8ou(d o*tain ri'hts $or a 6asino, a *an-, and >as one ,i'ht ha5e #redi6ted? t8o di#(o,ati6 #ass#orts7A82B A(thou'h the 0ord Ad,inistration did not u(ti,ate() *u) the i((e'a( #ro#osa( >the) 8ere ,ore 8orried *) the Portu'uese rea6tion? neither did the) dis6oura'e 1ain'eard9s (o**)in' e$$orts a,on' the 1e#u*(i6an ri'ht 8in'7 3he next )ear :7 S7 a'en6ies he(#ed 6o5er u# the ,urder o$ =ete(ier *) A'inter9s 4u*an a((ies in 4&1:, in a #(ot o$ 8hi6h the) ,a) ha5e had $ore-no8(ed'e7 2hate5er one ,a) thin- o$ the 4arter ad,inistration, it does not see, to ha5e *een as #rote6ti5e o$ A'inter, 4&1:, or their 6onne6tions in the internationa( ar,s and dru' tra$$i67 3here are, ho8e5er, t8o se#arate reasons 8h) .enri- ;ru'er9s ex#ose o$ the internationa( #ara$as6ist 6onne6tion is a ti,e() one, and #arti6u(ar() i,#ortant to :7S7 readers7 3he $irst reason is that a nu,*er o$ re6ent re5e(ations, 8hi6h I ha5e ex#(ored e(se8here, (in- those in the A'inter 4&1: 6onne6tion to the assassination o$ President <ohn 07 ;enned)7 At (east three 4u*ans #ro,inent in the =ete(ier 6ase ha5e a(so *een re5ea(ed, *) the re6ent #u*(i6ations o$ the .ouse Se(e6t 4o,,ittee on Assassinations, to ha5e *een a((ied in a 1963 4u*an exi(e Funta 8hi6h, the 4o,,ittee re#orted, 8arranted a @thorou'h in5esti'ation@ in the ;enned) assassination 6ase7 =ee .ar5e) &s8a(d9s a6ti5ities in Ne8 &r(eans *rou'ht hi, into 6onta6t 8ith an anti 4astro 'rou# $inan6ia(() *a6-ed *) this Funta, and to A,eri6ans 8ith (in-s to the $uture A'inter 6o,,unit) and #ossi*() the &AS7 And on 23 No5e,*er 1963, <ean 1ene Souetre, an &AS terrorist and $uture A'inter o#erati5e, 8as, a66ordin' to re6ent() de6(assi$ied 4IA re#orts, a((e'ed() @ex#e((ed $ro, the :nited States at 0ort 2orth or +a((as 18 hours a$ter the assassination7@A83B

More 6urrent(), there are #ress re#orts that 1ona(d 1ea'an, i$ e(e6ted #resident o$ the :nited States, 8ou(d a##oint 1i6hard K7 A((en to su66eed ;issin'er and BrIeIins-i as his s#e6ia( assistant $or nationa( se6urit) a$$airs7 1i6hard A((en >8ho had *een Nixon9s $irst 6hoi6e $or the P(u,*ers9 unit? is -no8n to ha5e re#resented 1o*ert Kes6o in 2ashin'ton *a6- in 19/2, the )ear in 8hi6h Kes6o $(e8 $ro, a ,eetin' 8ith =ans-)9s re#resentati5e +ino 4e((ini to 4osta 1i6a, and initiated the 6onta6ts 8hi6h (ater (ed to the #ro#osed dea( to ,anu$a6ture In'ra, M 10s in 4osta 1i6a, *et8een Kes6o and Para*e((u,, A((ie'ro, and 2erBe((7 A((en is a(so said to ha5e *een one o$ the :7S7 6onta6ts o$ the A'inter P(an :sine (o**)ists 8ho 8ere #ro#osin' an e6ono,i6 $ree Ione $or the AIores >and the :7S7 Ma$ia? ,u6h (i-e that 8hi6h Kes6o, at A((en9s su''estion, 8as #ro#osin' $or 4osta 1i6a7A8"B 1i6hard A((en, to *e sure, is no Kes6o or 1ain'eard, *ut a #ro$essiona( 6o(d 8arrior 8ho in 19/! he(#ed or'aniIe the 4o,,ittee on the Present +an'er a 6oa(ition a'ainst detente, unitin' su6h 5eterans o$ the 4IA ,i(itar) $inan6ia( esta*(ish,ent as Pau( NitIe, Hordon Hra), Hen7 Max8e(( +7 3a)(or, Arthur .7 +ean, and Kes6o9s attorne) Ed8ard Bennett 2i((ia,s7 Ne5erthe(ess, un(i-e an) #re5ious nationa( se6urit) ad5iser, *ut 5er) ,u6h (i-e so,e o$ the )oun'er inte((e6tua( ,e,*ers o$ 4P+, A((en 6o,es out o$ the 6ir6(e o$ ideo(o'i6a( ri'ht 8in' thin- tan-s 8hi6h ha5e ad5o6ated ro((*a6rather than 6ontain,ent, 8hi6h ha5e 6o((a*orated 8ith the 4hi(ean Funta, and 8hi6h ha5e *een in tou6h 8ith their Euro#ean o##osite nu,*ers 8ho in turn ha5e had 6onta6t 8ith A'inter andJor the &AS7 2hether or not he has a $uture in the 2hite .ouse, A((en9s #ast in5o(5e,ent 8ith *oth the Kes6o ,i(ieu and the 2a(( Street esta*(ish,ent shou(d re,ind :7S7 readers that there is ,u6h ,ore to the $or,er than 4ari**ean exoti6is,, and ,u6h ,ore to the (atter than 4oun6i( on 0orei'n 1e(ations ,eetin's and the sedate Fourna(is, o$ the (ew )or! Times. As (on' as the 4&1: #(anners o$ =ete(ier9s assassination re,ain #rote6ted and unindi6ted, 8e ,ust a66e#t that terroris, in this 6ountr) sti(( enFo)s the inte((i'en6e i,,unit) 8hi6h it did in the 1960s in Ita() and 0ran6e7 2ith the ad5anta'e o$ his Euro#ean ex#erien6e, .enri- ;ru'er has seen the $u(( s6o#e o$ this internationa( #ara$as6is,, ,ore 6(ear() than an) :7S7 Fourna(ist I -no8 o$7 I$ 8e in this 6ountr) 8ish to do so,ethin' a*out the #ro*(e, he des6ri*es, 8e 8i(( do 8e(( to *e'in *) stud)in' this *oo-7 Peter +a(e S6ott Ber-e(e), <une 1980

(0TES 1. e &onde, 12314 <une, 1526, pp. 11317. 7. Ed8ard <7 E#stein, Agency of 8ear9 0piates and 'olitical 'ower in America >Ne8 Dor-: H7P7 Putna,9s Sons, 1522/, p. 755. 6. E#stein, #7 7:7. "7 E#stein, #7 4;. !7 E#stein, #7 4;- E(iot Marsha((, @.eroin: the Sour6e o$ Supply,< (ew *epu"lic, 7=361 <u(), 1521, p. 7=- 6$7 Peter +a(e S6ott, The War #onspiracy >Ne8 Dor-: Bo**s Merri((, 1527/, p. 717. ;. e &onde, 12314 <une, 1526, p. 11. /7 Ne8sda), The ,eroin Trail >Ne8 Dor-: Ne8 A,eri6an =i*rar), 152=/, p. 17=. 4. ,eroin Trail, p. 1>4. 5. ,eroin Trail, p. 11>.

107 Phi((i# M7 2i((ia,s, Wars, 'lots and Scandals in 'ost3War 8rance >4a,*rid'e: 4a,*rid'e :ni5ersit) Press, 152>/, p. 11:. 117 2i((ia,s, ##7 114315. 17. ,eroin Trail, p. 1::. 16. A(ain <au*ert, %ossier %... #omme %rogue >Paris: A(ain Moreau, 1526/, pp. 6>73>6, 6:7. 1=. A7<7 =an''uth, ,idden Terrors >Ne8 Dor-: Pantheon, 1524/, p. 7:1. 1:. &$ the :7S7 3reasure +e#art,ent9s (ist o$ 21> -e) i((i6it ar,s dea(ers, in 1522, 1>4 8ere dru' s,u''(ers, 7= #er6ent o$ the, 4(ass I >:7S7 4on'ress, Senate, 4o,,ittee on Ho5ern,ent &#erations, $llicit Traffic in Weapons and %rugs Across the United States3&e.ican ?order, ,earing, 5:th 4on'ress, 1st Session, 17 <anuar) 1522, p. 61- 6ited herea$ter as Bensin'er .earin'?7 1;. Heor'e 3ha)er, The War ?usiness >Ne8 Dor-: Si,on and S6huster, 15;5/, p. =6. 12. (ew )or! Times, 71 A#ri( 152:, pp. 1, 7;. 14. E5ert 4(ar- and Ni6ho(as .orro6-, #ontra"andista >Ne8 Dor-: Prae'er, 1526/, p. 71:. 15. Bensin'er .earin', ##7 5, 11. 7>. Bensin'er .earin', #7 1;. 71. Spiegel, 5 Ma), 1522, pp. 16;3162, 1=4. 77. Bensin'er .earin', ##7 1>, 1=. Indeed, the os Angeles Times, ex#andin' on Bensin'er9s des6ri#tion o$ Si6i(ia as a @4u*an nationa(,@ noted @re#orts that the su*6o,,ittee is tr)in' to deter,ine 8hether 4u*a and the So5iet :nion are in5o(5ed in s,u''(in' $irear,s into Mexi6o and nar6oti6s into the :nited States@ @16 <anuar), 1522, 11, ;/. 76. Bensin'er .earin', ##7 =73==. 7=. Inter5ie8 o$ Herr) Patri6- .e,,in', Argosy >A#ri( 152;/, p. :7- <i, .ou'an, Spoo!s9 The ,aunting of America A The 'rivate Use of Secret Agents >Ne8 Dor-: 2i((ia, Morro8, 1524/, p. =;. Anse(,o A((ie'ro Senior 8as a(so a ,e,*er o$ the shado8) Ansan in5est,ent 'rou# in Mia,i, sus#e6ted *) a 15=4 I1S re#ort o$ *ein' a $ront $or =u6iano $unds >Ste5e 2eiss,an ed7, ?ig ?rother and the ,olding #ompany, Pa(o A(to, 1a,#arts Press, 152=, pp. 17=, 7:53;>/. 7:. .ou'an, ##7 =;, 1:ss.- .an- Messi6-, &$ Brass and Snow9 The Secret #riminal Elite >En'(e8ood 4(i$$s, N7<7: Prenti6e .a((, 1525/, pp. 41346. 7;. Messi6-, #7 46. 72. 0rederi6 =aurent, 0rchestre (oir >Paris: Sto6-, 1524/, p. 6;;. 74. =aurent, ##7 6;73;6. 75. =aurent, ##7 611, 6;6. 6>. =aurent, #7 =>1- 2i($red Bur6hett and +ere- 1oe*u6-, The Whores of War9 &ercenaries Today >.ar,onds8orth, Midd(esex and Ne8 Dor-: Pen'uin, 1522/, p. 1::. 61. 1euter, 61 &6to*er 152;, Cuoted in Bur6hett, #7 1:;.

67. e &onde, 14 Ma) 1522, Cuoted in =aurent, ##7 654355. 66., 71 0e*ruar) 1522- 6$7 =aurent, ##7 6;:3;;, =>>. 6=. (ew )or! Times, $ 0e*ruar) 1522, p. 4. 3!7 Sau( =andau, They Educated the #rows9 An $nstitute *eport on the etelier3&offitt &urders >2ashin'ton: 3ransnationa( Institute, 19/8?, ##7 28 297 367 =andau, ##7 " 137 3/7 +ona(d 0reed, 8ith +r7 0red Si,on =andis, %eath in Washington9 the &urder of 0rlando etelier >2est#ort: =a8ren6e .i(( and Asso6iates, 1980? 387 =aurent, ##7 13/, 3127 Sin6e the 8ritin' o$ this #re$a6e, a ne8 *oo- has identi$ied +e((e 4hiaie as a -e) $i'ure in the =ei'hton shootin's% and adds that his 'rou# had in$or,a( ties to Ita()9s inte((i'en6e a##aratus: <ohn +in'es and Sau( =andau, Assassination on Em"assy *ow >Ne8 Dor-: Pantheon, 1980?, ##7 11/n, 1967 397 :7S7 4on'ress, Senate, Se(e6t 4o,,ittee to Stud) Ho5ern,ent &#erations 8ith 1es#e6t to Inte((i'en6e A6ti5ities, $ntelligence Activities9 Senate *esolution 71, .earin's, 9"th 4on'ress, 1st Session, Ko(u,e /, #7 1/1% =aurent, #7 3127 "07 (ew Times, 13 Ma), 19//, #7 "8% =andau, #7 2/7 "17 (ew Times, p. "87 "27 =andau, #7 2/7 "37 (ew Times, p. :1. ""7 Ironi6a((), I'na6io No5o9s 6on5i6tion $or #erFur) deri5ed $ro, ha5in' su''ested the sa,e $(a'rant $a(sehood >@Ma)*e the 6o,,unists did it to 6reate #ro*(e,s@? to the 2ashin'ton Hrand <ur)7 =:. =andau, #7 33 "67 +in'es and =andau, ##7 2"2, 3/9% 2i((ia, S6ha##, @3hro8in' a 4ase: 3he 3ria( o$ Ar,ando =o#eI Estrada,@ #overt Action $nformation ?ulletin, ><u() 19/8?, ##7 8 1"7 "/7 e &onde, $ A#ri(, 19/!% =aurent, ##7 291, 30/7 "87 A($red M64o), The 'olitics of ,eroin in Southeast Asia >Ne8 Dor-: .ar#er and 1o8, 19/2?, ##7 380 83% <onathan Marsha((, @&#iu, and the Po(iti6s o$ Han'steris, in Nationa(ist 4hina, 192/ 19"!,@ ?ulletin of #oncerned Asian Scholars ><u() Se#te,*er 19/6?, ##7 19 "87 "97 Noa, 4ho,s-) and Ed8ard S7 .er,an, The Washington #onnection >Boston: South End Press, 19/9?, #7 22/7 3he 3hai Border Po(i6e 8ere su##orted in the 19!0s *) a Mia,i *ased 4IA #ro#rietar), Sea Su##() In67, headed *) Pau( .e((i8e(( >6$7 $ootnote 6" *e(o87? !07 .ou'an, ##7 198 997 !17 .ou'an, #7 19/7 !27 (ew Times, p. !1% &iami (ews, 2/ <u() 19//7 @Pino6het A6hie$ o$ the 4hi(ean FuntaB turned o5er to the :nited States dru' en$or6e,ent ad,inistration a #(ane(oad o$ 6o6aine dea(ers rounded u# a$ter the 6ou#7 3heir dru' dea(in' 6ou(d *e *(a,ed on A((ende9s ousted 'o5ern,ent7 3hen Pino6het9s ri'ht hand ,an, 4ontreras, 6ou(d set u# his o8n ,en 8ith +INA #rote6tion in the sa,e 6o6aine $a6tories and shi##in' #oints7 3he anti 4astro 4u*ans had a #ie6e o$ the a6tion7 3he enor,ous #ro$its 8ent to su##(e,ent +INA9s 6(andestine *ud'et7 3he 4u*ans9 share 8ent into indi5idua( #o6-ets and to the anti 4astro 6ause7@ >+in'es and =andau, #7 26"n7?7

!37 1odne) 4a,#*e((, The uciano 'roCect9 The Secret Wartime #olla"oration of the &afia and the U.S. (avy >Ne8 Dor-: M6Hra8 .i((, 19//?, #7 1/67 !"7 Marsha((, #7 "2% 1i6hard .arris S,ith, &SS: The Secret ,istory of America's 8irst #entral $ntelligency Agency >Ber-e(e): :ni5ersit) o$ 4a(i$ornia Press?, #7 2"!% Mi(ton Mi(es, A %ifferent Dind of War >Ne8 Dor-: +ou*(eda), 196/?, #7 !087 !!7 1o*erto 0aenIa and Mar6o 0ini, H(i Americani in $talia >Mi(an: 0e(trine((i, 19/6?, ##7 13, 138% +a5id 47 Martin, Wilderness of &irrors >Ne8 Dor-: .ar#er and 1o8, 1980?, #7 187 !67 Haia Ser5adio, &afioso9 A ,istory of the &afia from $ts 0rigins to the 'resent %ay >Ne8 Dor-: +e((, 19/6?, ##7 /2, 108% e &onde, 1/ 18 <une 19/3, '. 11. !/7 Ser5adio, ##7 12! 28% Mi(es 4o#e(and, ?eyond #loa! and %agger9 $nside the 4IA >Ne8 Dor-: Pinna6(e Boo-s, 19/!?, #7 2"07 3he *andit Hiu(iano 8ho 8as res#onsi*(e $or the 19"/ Ma) +a) ,assa6re is said to ha5e re6ei5ed @aid and su##ort $ro, $or,er &SS ,e,*ers >8ho in the #ast had $urnished hi, 8ith the ar,s o$ the di5ision o$ APo(ish Henera(B Anders?, and, it a##ears7 o$ &SS 4hie$ 2i((ia, +ono5an #ersona(()@ >0aenIa, #7 138, 6itin' a 6on5ersation 8ith &SS 5eteran Ear( Brennan?7 !87 1oss D7 ;oen, 3he #hina #onspiracy, pp. 203 0"7 o""y in American 'olitics >Ne8 Dor-% Ma6,i((an, 1960?, #7 ix% 6$7 S6ott, War

!97 3he e$$e6t o$ 2hite9s testi,on) 8as to su''est that &SS had reFe6ted the #ro#osa(, or, as S,ith >a 4IA 5eteran? #ut it >#7 86?, @&SS re,ained a(oo$, #art() at the insisten6e o$ MaFor Heor'e 2hite7@ But the (a8)ers i,#(i6ated *) 2hite denied his 6har'es a(to'ether7 @3hree )ears a$ter8ard, 8hen ANe8 Dor- State 4o,,issioner o$ In5esti'ationB .er(ands Cuestioned 2hite under oath a*out this 6har'e, 2hite did not #rodu6e an) -ind o$ 6orro*oration@ >4a,#*e((, #7 2/8?7 607 <ohn Mar-s, The Search for the &anchurian #andidate9 The #$A and &ind #ontrol >Ne8 Dor-: 3i,es Boo-s, 19/9?, #7 897 617 Heor'e 2hite (etter to .arr) Ans(in'er, 10 <une 19"8, Heor'e 2hite #a#ers, 0oothi(( 4o((e'e, =os A(tos, 4a(7% Ser5adio, #7 1027 3he AMH&3 re6ruiter o$ Kito Heno5ese and other ,a$ia $i'ures 8as 4har(es Po(etti, des6ri*ed *) =u6-) =u6iano as @one o$ our 'ood $riends@ >Ser5adio, #7 88?7 Po(etti, a +e,o6rati6 #o(iti6ian under 1oose5e(t and (a8 #artner o$ his son, 8ent on to *e an o5erseer o$ .ar5ard :ni5ersit)7@ 627 A((an 0ran6o5i6h and .o8ard +rat6h, @&n 4o,#an) Business@ >0i(,ed $or te(e5ision? ;NE+, 16 Ma) 19807 Sa-8a9s state,ent (ends 6redi*i(it) to a 0ren6h re#ort that in 19!2 Bro8n attended a Bordeaux ,eetin' 8ith Antoine Huerini >the 6hie$ 4orsi6an ,a$ia 6onta6t o$ 0erri Pisani?, and <o 4esari >the Marsei((es 6he,ist su##()in' =u6iano 8ith heroin?, *e$ore Bro8n ,o5ed on to 6onta6t ,a$ia #ersonne( in Ita() ><au*ert, #7 "6n?7 637 2i(( &urs(er and =7+7 S,ith, (arcotics9 America's 'eril >Harden 4it), N7D7: +ou*(eda), 19!2?, #7 8/7 6"7 S6ott, #7 211% M64o), #7 130% As head o$ &SS S1 Bran6h in ;un,in', 4hina, .e((i8e(( used to #a) $or inte((i'en6e 8ith o#iu, @Wall Street Eournal, 18 A#ri( 1980?7 6$7 $ootnote "97 6!7 San 8rancisco #hronicle, 1! <anuar) 19!9, ##7 1, "7 667 (ew )or! Times, 1! <anuar) 19!9, #7 "7 6/7 Susanne <onas and +a5id 3o*is >eds7? Buatemala >Ber-e(e): NA4=A, 19/"?, ##7 63, 6/, /17 687 Peter +a(e S6ott, #rime and #over3Up9 The #$A, the &afia, and the %allas3Watergate #onnection >Ber-e(e): 2est8or-s, 19//?, #7 167 697 (ew )or! Times, " <anuar) 19/!, #7 97 /07 ,eroin Trail, p. 1697

/17 .ou'an, ##7 19! 1967 /27 =ondon 0"server, / +e6e,*er 1969% =aurent, ##7 11, 21/ "37 /37 ;ir-#atri6- Sa(e, 'ower Shift >Ne8 Dor-: 1ando, .ouse, 19/!?, #7 20!7 /"7 Messi6-, #7 1/97 /!7 1i6hard Nixon, &emoirs >Ne8 Dor-: Hrosset and +un(a#, 19/8?, ##7 6"3 ""7 /67 E#stein, ##7 23! 38, 309 107 //7 E#stein, #7 2"17 /87 <onathan Marsha((, @3he 2hite .ouse +eath SCuad,@ $nFuiry, ! Mar6h, 19/9, #7 1!7 /97 .ou'an, #7 199% Washington 'ost, 13 <une 19/6, 4!7 Nixon9s o8n a,*assador to 4osta 1i6a, Kiron Ka-), 8as a8are o$ 4ar(os .ernandeI 1u,*aut9s a6ti5ities and in 19/3 ordered +EA to ha5e no ,ore to do 8ith hi,7 But +EA disre'arded Ka-)9s order7 807 :7S7 4on'ress, Senate, 4o,,ittee on Ho5ern,ent &#erations, 8ederal %rug Enforcement, ,earings, 9"th 4on'7, 1st Session, ##7 10 11, 6$7 ##7 26, /0,2!17 817 :7S7 4on'ress, Senate, 4o,,ittee on Ho5ern,ent &#erations, Staff Study of the 8ran! 'eroff #ase, 9"th 4on'ress, 1st Session, #7 1987 827 0red Strasser and Brian M63i'ue, @3he 0a(( 1i5er 4ons#ira6),@ ?oston >No5e,*er 19/8?, ##7 12", 180, 1827 837 Peter +a(e S6ott, Pau( =7 .o6h, 1usse(( Stat(er, and <osiah 3ho,#son, ?eyond #onspiracy9 The ,idden %imensions of the Eohn 8. Dennedy Assassination >Ber-e(e): 2est8or-s, 1980?, 667 12 1"7 8"7 .ou'an, ##7 20! 06% :7S7 4on'ress .ouse 4o,,ittee on <udi6iar), I,#ea6h,ent .earin's, State,ent o$ In$or,ation, >2ashin'ton: H7P7&7, 19/"?, Boo- KII, #7 6027 Mi6hae( &(i5er, the A,eri6an ad5enturer *ehind the Ne8 .e*rides @$ree Ione@ se6ession ,o5e,ent o$ <une 1980, had 6o((a*orated in an ear(ier 2erBe(( #roFe6t $or an inde#endent A*a6o in the Baha,as, and is said to ha5e ins#ired, 8ith A((en, Kes6o9s 4osta 1i6a #roFe6t7 >.ou'an, Spoo!s, ##7 96 98, 206 0/?7 A66ordin' to the Wall Street Eournal >1" <u() 1980?, Kes6o hi,se($ had *een interested in the AIores in 19/2 3 and, throu'h his attorne), .o8ard 4ern), hired A((en to ex#(ore the $inan6ia( #ros#e6ts there7 In the sa,e #eriod, A((en 8as a #aid 6onsu(tant to *oth the Kes6o or'aniIation and the Nixon 2hite .ouse7 Moreo5er, 8hi(e sti(( Nixon9s de#ut) assistant $or internationa( e6ono,i6 a$$airs, A((en $(e8 a6ross the At(anti6 8ith Kes6o, in Kes6o9s #ri5ate #(ane7 ##s7 1 26





It ,ust ha5e *een #risoner //,3"39s 8orst drea, 6o,e true 8hen, on 1 &6to*er 19/9, he 8as trans$erred to .e((9s 8aitin' roo,, the $edera( #enitentiar) in At(anta7

In At(anta9s ni'ht,are o$ a ,axi,u, se6urit) #rison, +o,iniCue &rsini, #risoner //,3"39s $riend and #artner in the *ran6h o$ the 0ren6h Ma$ia -no8n as Hru#o 0ran6es, had *een ,urdered in an iso(ation 6e(( on 12 A#ri( 19/87 In the sa,e #rison six ,onths ear(ier their heroin 6usto,er, Kin6ent Pa#a, had *een e(i,inated *) 6ontra6t -i((in'7A1B And *e$ore that, &rsini9s (a8)er, Hino Ha((ina, had *een shot do8n in Ne8 Dor-7A2B &$ nine ,urders 6o,,itted 8ithin At(anta9s 8a((s o5er a se5enteen ,onth #eriod in 19// /8, at (east $our 8ere 6ontra6ts on Ma$ia 6onne6ted nar6oti6s dea(ers, o$ 8ho, &rsini and Pa#a 8ere a,on' the e(ite7A3B Sin6e then the -i((in's ha5e 6ontinued, des#ite $edera( in5esti'ation o$ the o*so(ete se5ent) ei'ht )ear o(d #rison7A"B 3o the @honora*(e ,en@ 8ho dri5e u# in *(a6- 6ars and $(ash their 4IA, 0BI, and +EA I+s, #risoner //,3"3 re,ains the su*Fe6t o$ intense interro'ation, and that is another reason $or his 6onstant $ear a(( these )ears7 .e -no8s #rison 8a((s 8on9t sto# his ene,ies or, $or that ,atter, his $riends in his *usiness there9s (itt(e di$$eren6e7 3hus ea6h ti,e a 'uard sends in $ood he sni$$s it, #o-es at it, tastes it 6autious()7 3hat is ho8 it9s *een $or se5en )ears7 &n() no8, in At(anta, the odds are 8orse than e5er7 3he #risoner 8ho -no8s too ,u6h is 4hristian +a5id, a'e $i$t), 0ren6h, -no8n a,on' $riends as @(e Beau Ser'e,@ and *) ,ore re6ent a6Cuaintan6es in =atin A,eri6a and the :7S7 as @Eduardo@ and @<eanPierre7@ A,on' 0ren6h 4onne6tion nota*(es he9s a (e'end, a ,an 8hose ,)stiCue 'ro8s 8ith ea6h ne8 ta(e o$ his ex#(oits7A!B .e9s *een a #i,#, ro**er, hired assassin $or 0ren6h inte((i'en6e, hat6het ,an in A('iers torture 6ha,*ers, ar,s trader, s#), nar6oti6s tra$$i6-er and, true to $or,, (o5er o$ *eauti$u( 8o,en7 .e9s one o$ the $e8 a(i5e 8ho -no8s the truth a*out the Ben Bar-a a$$air that shoo0ran6e in 196!%A6B he -no8s detai(s o$ the *ruta( #o8er stru''(e 8ithin 0ren6h inte((i'en6e a'en6) S+E4E% o$ S+E4E 6o((a*oration 8ith the 4orsi6an Ma$ia% and o$ se6ret 4IA o#erations in =atin A,eri6a7 A,#(e 'rounds $or an)one9s #aranoia7 But +a5id is 6unnin' and tou'h, and that is 8h) he9s sti(( a(i5e7 .e arri5ed in the :7S7 on 1/ No5e,*er 19/2 $ro, BraIi(, 8here he9d *een arrested as the head o$ the hu'e nar6oti6s s,u''(in' rin', the BraIi(ian 4onne6tion7 Internationa( (a8 a6tua(() 'a5e extradition #riorit) to 0ran6e, 8here he9d *een senten6ed to death in a"stentia $or ,urderin' a #o(i6e o$$i6er7 But the A,eri6ans 8ere not a*out to (et the dru' -in'#in s(i# throu'h their $in'ers7 2hen $et6hed $ro, his 6e(( in BraIi(, +a5id 8as des#erate7 :nsure o$ his destination, $earin' it 8as 0ran6e and a 'ui((otine, he s,ashed a (i'ht *u(* and s8a((o8ed the $ra',ents7 E5en so, as he (ater 6(ai,ed, @the A,eri6ans 777 $i((ed ,e 8ith dru's and 6arried ,e o$$ to a ,i(itar) #(ane 8hi6h $(e8 ,e to the :SA7@A/B 0o((o8in' a short hos#ita( sta), he 8as hau(ed to a Broo-()n 6ourthouse 8here the Fud'e set *ai( at E27! ,i((ion7 0earin' the a,ount 8as not *e)ond the ,eans o$ +a5id9s 6onne6tions, authorities ra,,ed his 6ase throu'h the (a*)rinth o$ Fusti6e7 2ithin t8o 8ee-s o$ his arri5a(,

$edera( Fud'e <a6o* Mish(er senten6ed Beau Ser'e to t8ent) )ears in #rison $or s,u''(in' ha($ a ton o$ heroin into the :nited States7 +urin' his tria(, #roo$ 8as o*tained o$ +a5id9s a6ti5ities on *eha($ o$ a 5er) s#e6ia( *ran6h o$ 0ren6h inte((i'en6e -no8n as Ser5i6e d9A6tion 4i5iCue >SA4?7 .is tri 6o(ored SA4 I+ #(a6ed on dis#(a), +a5id ex#(ained: @I 8as ta-en $ro, #rison in 1961 to 8or- $or an or'aniIation 6a((ed SA47 It 8as arran'ed *) so,eone 8ith 6onne6tions in the hi'hest #o(iti6a( 6ir6(es7@A8B &$ his 6on$ine,ent in BraIi(, he had this to add: @I 8as tortured *) the BraIi(ians $or thirt) da)s and $ed nothin' $or t8ent) six da)s7 3he) sto(e a(( ,) ,one)7 3oda) I 6an9t a$$ord a (a8)er, I ha5en9t a 6ent7@A9B A66ordin' to Ar,and, his 6o,#atriot and #rison ,ate $or the tria(, @2hen I sa8 +a5id in the 2est Street Fai(, I 6ou(d hard() re6o'niIe hi,, so terri*() had the BraIi(ians ,au(ed hi,7@A10B 3his doesn9t Cuite Fi*e 8ith +a5id9s (ater 8ritin' a Parisian $riend o$ his desire to *e trans$erred *a6- to BraIi(7 But the 8a)s o$ 4hristian +a5id are o$ten inex#(i6a*(e7 And $or so,e the thou'ht o$ torture is ,ore *eara*(e than that o$ death7 A$ter his arri5a( in the :7S7, +a5id9s attitude o$ten shi$ted, de#endin' on 8here he sa8 the 'reatest dan'ers7 A$ter his senten6e 8as #ronoun6ed, he to(d 0BI dete6ti5es: @I$ I had *een extradited to 0ran6e instead o$ a*du6ted $ro, BraIi(, I 8ou(d on() ha5e 'otten three )ears7 3he) 8ou(d ha5e $or'otten a*out Ha(i*ert@ >the #o(i6e (ieutenant he9d ,urdered in Paris?7 But he (ater 8rote the 8riter +anie( Huerin: @I$ )ou 'et ,e a 'uarantee I 8on9t *e extradited to 0ran6e, I9(( te(( )ou the truth a*out the Ben Bar-a a$$air7@ 3he 0ren6h 'o5ern,ent9s t8o o$$i6ia( atte,#ts to ha5e +a5id extradited $ai(ed7 And the 0ren6h #ress has *een sur#risin'() indi$$erent7 &ne )ear a$ter +a5id 8as Fai(ed in the :7S7 >at $irst in the Marion, I((inois #en?, 8rance Soir re#orted he had sha5ed his *eard, (ost 8ei'ht, 6o,#(ained o$ heart trou*(e, and sou'ht ad,ission to S#rin'$ie(d ,i(itar) hos#ita(7 &n exa,ination, ho8e5er, the #rison do6tor $ound hi, in ex6e((ent hea(th7 Another )ear #assed and the $o((o8in' ite, a##eared: @+a5id a6ts deran'ed 777 darts a*out his 6e((, -no6-s his head a'ainst the 8a((, 'esti6u(ates 8eird(), tears at his hair and s6rea,s he9s *ein' de5oured *) rats7 7 7 @A11B 3hen, in the su,,er o$ 19/!, the *eauti$u( Si,one +e(a,are, his ,istress in BraIi(, 6a,e to Paris to #(ead +a5id9s 6ause 8ith the #ress7 In a (etter to her dated 29 <anuar) 19/!, he had 8ritten: @I9, doin' a(( I 6an to a5oid extradition to 0ran6e7 A(( I as- is to *e treated (i-e an) other in,ate7 I9, (o6-ed in a 8indo8(ess 2x2 ,eter 6e((, ne5er see a ra) o$ sunshine, ha5e no idea o$ da) or ni'ht7 I hard() s(ee# an),ore *e6ause o$ the e5i( at,os#here around ,e7 I9, a$raid the)9(( #oison ,) $ood777 3he do6tor exa,ines ,e in t8o ,inutes7 I s#ea- no En'(ish and he -no8s no 0ren6h7 So he 6an9t understand I ha5e heart #ains7@A12B A$ter a (on' si(en6e it 8as $ina(() re#orted that on 6 +e6e,*er 19/9 Ms7 +e(a,are had 5isited Beau Ser'e in At(anta7 In a #hoto she had ta-en o$ their reunion, he no (on'er see,ed #arti6u(ar() handso,e7 3he (oss o$ near() a(( his hair had *een 6o,#ensated *) a $u(( *eard7 .e

re#orted() 8ore stron' '(asses and 8as in *ad hea(th7 A 6an6er s#e6ia(ist 8as said to 5isit hi, re'u(ar()7A13B +es#ite a##earan6es, $e8 *e(ie5e that +a5id is tru() in6a#a6itated7 .e 8i(( sto# at nothin', the authorities sus#e6t7 A$ter a((, he es6a#ed $ro, #rison ear(ier in his 6areer *) #(a)in' ,ad7 But 8ou(d it rea(() *e so stran'e i$ he 8ere distur*edG 0e8 6an ta-e the 6onstant $ear o$ a sudden death, $ed *) ,e,ories o$ a (i$e su6h as his7 4hristian +a5id $ears *oth his $riends $ro, the Ma$ia and SA4 and his ene,ies $ro, the S+E4E and 4IA7 But so,e o$ the, are eCua(() a$raid o$ hi,7 2h)G 3his *oo- does not #ro5ide the u(ti,ate ans8er, *ut it 8i(( (i$t a 6orner or t8o o$ the 5ei( #(a6ed o5er his re6ord7 ##s72/ 32
Notes 1. (ew )or! Times, ; Ma) 1525. 7. 8rance Soir, 16 A#ri( 1524. 6. ?oston Blo"e, 1> Au'ust 1524- (ew )or! Times, op. cit. =. In a re#ort issued 17 <anuar) 154> the Senate Ho5ern,enta( A$$airs su*6o,,ittee 6on6(uded that the At(anta #rison @ser5es to sti,u(ate 6ri,ina( a6ti5it) rather than di,inish it@ and shou(d *e 6(osed do8n no (ater than 154=. 3he Marion, I((inois #en, to 8hi6h +a5id 8as $irst sent, is re'arded as the :7S79s tou'hest #rison and -no8n a,on' in,ates as @the end o$ the (ine7@ 3he su66essor to A(6atraI, it 8as *ui(t to 6on$ine the ,ost hardened and es6a#e,inded #risoners, 100 o$ 8ho, are housed in an u(trase6urit) unit 8ithin the ,axi,u, se6urit) #rison7 A$ter the *(ood) 0e*ruar) 154> riot in a Ne8 Mexi6o state #rison, 71 in,ates there 8ere trans$erred to Marion, 8here the) Foined =>> other 6on5i6ts in a three 8ee- stri-e, *e'innin' on St7 Patri6-9s +a) 154>, ,ost() to #rotest (i5in' 6onditions7 :. 3here 8as e5en a #ersistent ru,or in 1525 that +a5id had *een s,u''(ed *a6- to 0ran6e as an under6o5er a'ent $or the +EA, and had o#ened u# a restaurant in Marsei((es7 ;. 3he @Ben Bar-a a$$air@ re$ers to the ,)sterious &6to*er 15;: -idna#in' o$ the exi(ed Moro66an #o(iti6a( (eader Mehdi Ben Bar-a in Paris7 Ben Bar-a had (ed the #re#arations $or the 3hird 2or(d9s $irst 3ri6ontinenta( 4on'ress in 4u*a, 8hi6h too- #(a6e in ear() 15;;. ,is disa##earan6e, 8hi6h in5o(5ed ,ore than one 2estern inte((i'en6e a'en6), is one o$ the 'reat s6anda(s o$ the 6entur)% see 6ha#ter six7 2. 8rance Soir, 5 <u() 152:. 4. 3he Ne8sda) Sta$$7 The ,eroin *ail >Sou5enir Press, 152=/. 5. 'Aurore, 7> No5e,*er 1527. 107 17 Berdin: #ode (ame *ichard >+utton, 152=/. 11. 8rance Soir, 2 0e*ruar) 152=. 17. 8rance Soir, 5 <u() 152:. 16. VS% >Kendredi Sa,edi +i,an6he?, 74 +e6e,*er 1525.



3he (o5e a$$air o$ 0ren6h inte((i'en6e and the under8or(d, the 6ata()st $or 4hristian +a5id9s as6ent in 'an'(and, 8as a #rodu6t o$ 0ran6o A,eri6an in'enuit)7 In 19"2 3ho,as +e8e) 8as the 'o5ernor o$ Ne8 Dor-7 In an ear(ier ro(e as distri6t attorne) he9d 8on $a,e *att(in' or'aniIed 6ri,e7 .e9d #ut his ,ost in$a,ous 5i6ti,, to# ,a$ioso =u6-) =u6iano, a8a) in 1936 $or @8hite s(a5er)7@ .o8e5er, S)ndi6ate su#erstrate'ist Me)er =ans-) had 5o8ed to 'et his #artner out o$ Fai(% and +e8e) did an a*out $a6e 8hen he $ound hi,se($ de#endent on the Mo* as e(e6tion ti,e a##roa6hed7 Na5a( inte((i'en6e *ad() needed the assistan6e o$ =u6iano, 8ho he(d s8a) o5er Ne8 Dor-9s (on'shore,en7 &ne 8ord $ro, the 6a#o and the) 8ou(d rid the har*or o$ Axis #o8ers9 a'ents and sa*oteurs 8ho threatened the 8ar e$$ort7 3he na5) a##roa6hed +e8e), 8ho in turn arran'ed a ,eetin' 8ith =ans-) and Moses Po(a-o$$, =u6iano9s (a8)er7 3he) a'reed that sin6e on() =ans-) 6ou(d #re5ai( u#on =u6iano, he 8ou(d 5isit his *oss in #rison7 2hen =ans-) #ro#osed a dea( 'uaranteein' hi, his $reedo, at 8ar9s end, =u6iano a'reed to 6oo#erate7A1B 3hus *e'an &#eration :nder8or(d7 =u6iano ordered his ,en to o*e) =ans-), 8ho *e6a,e the (iaison 8ith na5a( inte((i'en6e7 Moreo5er, =u6iano9s 6onta6ts ensured the A((ies a so$t (andin' $or their in5asion o$ Si6i()7 In ear() 19"6 =u6iano sa8 his re8ard7 +e8e) #ardoned and de#orted hi, a(on' 8ith so,e o$ his (ieutenants, *ut not *e$ore he ,et 8ith a'ents o$ the 4IA9s $orerunner, the &$$i6e o$ Strate'i6 Ser5i6es >&SS?7 2hen =u6iano9s shi# e,*ar-ed $or Ita(), the :7S7 a##eared to *e ta-in' (ea5e o$ an honored 'uest7 Besides =ans-), 0ran- 4oste((o, and other Ma$ia dons, a host o$ #o(iti6ians *ade hi, $are8e((, as (on'shore,en -e#t re#orters at *a)7 So6ia( unrest 8as then s8ee#in' Euro#e, #arti6u(ar() 0ran6e and Ita(), 8here 4o,,unists, res#e6ted $or their anti 0as6ist resistan6e durin' the 8ar, 8ere $ast 'ainin' 'round7 3he reno8ned 2i(d Bi(( +ono5an, 8arti,e head o$ the &SS, 6on6ei5ed the idea o$ usin' the Mo* to *att(e the @1eds7@ 3hou'h enor,ous() su66ess$u(, the strate') a(so resu(ted, a(*eit inad5ertent(), in Ma$ia inroads in inte((i'en6e and #o(iti6s, *oth in Euro#e and the :nited States7 In 19"/ the 4entra( Inte((i'en6e A'en6) >4IA? 8as esta*(ished, Fust at the #ea- o$ 0ran6e9s #o(iti6a( 6risis7 3he 6enter o$ unrest 8as Marsei((es, 8here :7S7 inte((i'en6e a'ents 8ere a(read) on the Fo*7 <a) =o5estone and Ir5in' Bro8n, under 6o5er o$ the Internationa( =adies Har,ent 2or-ers :nion >I=H2:?, had in$i(trated 0ren6h trade unions and 8ere handin' out ,one) (e$t and ri'ht7A2B In No5e,*er 19"/, the 4IA9s $irst dire6tor, Ad,ira( .i((en-oetter, sent a tea, o$ ex#erien6ed anti 4o,,unist a'ents to Paris and Marsei((es7 It 6onsisted o$ three &SS 5eterans and three @re#resentati5es@ o$ the A,eri6an 0ederation o$ =a*or >A0=?7 3he) 8ere to(d to @do so,ethin', an)thin'7@A3B Pit6hed *att(es disru#ted Paris the da) the tea, arri5ed7 3he 4o,,unists had 6a((ed $or a stru''(e a'ainst the @#arti A,eri6ain@ and the 1a,adier 'o5ern,ent had *een to##(ed7 2hen the a'ents hit Marsei((es, the red $(a' 8a5ed o5er the Pa(a6e o$ <usti6e, and the (e$tists a##eared in 6ontro( o$ the 6it)7 3he six a'ents 8ired ho,e that the situation 8as des#erate and that drasti6 ,easures 8ere needed7

3hose ,easures reCuired 'an'sters $ro, the Ita(ian and 4orsi6an under8or(d, hordes o$ 8ho, 8ere sent into *att(e7 3heir ,ethods 8ere *ruta(, the $i'ht short *ut *(ood)7 2ithin 8ee-s the hoods had the situation under 6ontro(7 3he 4IA had *een a*(e to ,o*i(iIe the, so ra#id() than-s to an i,#ortant (o6a( a(()7 In ear() 19"/ Henera( de Hau((e had $or,ed a ri'ht 8in' anti 4o,,unist $ront, the 1asse,*(e,ent du Peu#(e 0ran6ais >1P0?, $orerunner o$ the #resent da) Hau((ist, #art) >:+1?7 It soon esta*(ished a se6urit) 6or#s -no8n as the Ser5i6e d9&rdre du 1P0 >S& du 1P0?7 3he 6or#s ,ade extensi5e use o$ 4orsi6an 'an'sters a'ainst its #o(iti6a( ene,ies7 +o,iniCue Pon6hardier, its 6o,,ander, (ater '(ori$ied the es6a#ades o$ his Hori((es in a series o$ no5e(s% other rin'(eaders in6(uded 1o'er 0re), 1o'er Bar*erot, A(exandre San'uinetti, Pau( 4o,iti and <a6Cues 0o66art7A"B 3he So6ia(ist #art) a(so #(un'ed in head(on' a'ainst the 4o,,unists, and 8or-ed es#e6ia(() 6(ose() 8ith the 4IA7 Its se6urit) 6or#s, the S& de (a S0I&, a(so nu,*ered 4orsi6an hoods in its ran-s7 A,on' the 6ri,ina(s re6ruited in 19"/ *) the 4IA and S& du 1P0 8ere the Huerini *rothers, the 0ran6is6i 6(an, <o 1enu66i and <o Attia, #i((ars o$ the under8or(d a*out 8ho, 8e9(( sa) ,ore in the 6ha#ters that $o((o87 :n$ortunate() $or the six ,an 4IA tea,, 8ord o$ their under8or(d #artnershi# arri5ed *e$ore the, in 2ashin'ton, 8here the) 8ere $ired on the S#ot7A!B But that did not sto# the 4IA $ro, ,aintainin' 6onta6t 8ith 'an'sters at ho,e and a*road7 &n the 6ontrar), the #artnershi# ex#anded 8ith ti,e7 ##s7 33 3!
Notes 17 .7 Messi6-: ans!y >Ber-e(e), 19/1?7 27 A7 <au*ert: %ossier % comme %rogue >A(ain Moreau, 19/"?7 37 M7 4o#e(and: ?eyond #loa! and %agger >Pinna6(e Boo-s, 19/!?7 "7 P7 4hairo$$: %ossier ? . . . comme ?ar"ou+es >A(ain Moreau, 19/!?7 !7 4o#e(and, o#7 cit.



3he 0ren6h under8or(d is di5ided into t8o ,ain 'rou#s: the 4orsi6an Ma$ia and the inde#endent, non 4orsi6an 'an's7 3he (atter are undis6i#(ined and (a6- #o(iti6a( in$(uen6e7 3he 4orsi6an Ma$ia, on the other hand, is as 8e(( or'aniIed as the Si6i(ian and #ro*a*() 8ie(ds e5en 'reater #o(iti6a( 6(out7 3he stor) o$ the 4orsi6an Ma$ia re6a((s that o$ the Si6i(ian7 It 8as started *) i,,i'rants 8ho (e$t an is(and o$ hun'er, underde5e(o#,ent, and des#eration7 At the turn o$ the 6entur) the 4orsi6ans #oured into 0ran6e, #arti6u(ar() Marsei((es7 At $irst it 8as e5er)one $or the,se(5es7 3hen *(ood *ound 6(ans e,er'ed to 6ontro( #rostitution and the s,u''(in' o$ a(6oho( and 6i'arettes7 3he ta-e 8as initia(() di5ided eCuita*(), *ut dissension soon *ro-e out and the )ears sin6e ha5e *een ,ar-ed *) a su66ession o$ *(ood) inter$a,i() $euds7 Nar6oti6s, heroin a*o5e a((, *rou'ht the 4orsi6ans their 8ea(th and #o8er7 Marsei((es *e6a,e the heroin stron'ho(d, as (o6a( under8or(d 6he,ists (earned to turn out the dru' 8ith #ure, 6ha(- 8hite Cua(it)7 Most o$ it 8as so(d on the :7S7 ,ar-et, 8here Ita(ian and 4u*an 8ho(esa(ers entered the s6ene7

In 19/1 the 4orsi6an Ma$ia de(i5ered 80 #er6ent o$ the heroin on the :7S7 ,ar-et7 3he) de#osited their ,i((ions in Baha,ian, S8iss, and =e*anese *an-s, rein5estin' so,e o$ it (ater in (e'a( enter#rise7A1B +ru' trader 1i6hard Berdin, a non 4orsi6an 'an'ster, des6ri*ed his 4orsi6an 6o((ea'ues as $o((o8s: @Most o$ the, *e'an as or sti(( 8ere #i,#s 777 the) 'enera(() re'arded an)one 8ho did not ha5e a Marsei((es a66ent, didn9t drin- #astis or s8oon o5er *oui((a*aisse, as sus#e6t777 2e in Paris, es#e6ia(() 8e )oun' hoods 8ho 6a,e o$ a'e in the sixties, in our o8n 8a) $e(t Fust as su#erior% 8e dressed ,od, the) dressed hood% 8e s#o-e de6ent 0ren6h, the) s#o-e *ro-en Midi% 8e -ne8 ho8 to order 'ood $ood and 8ine, the) ree-ed o$ 'ar(i6 and #astis% 8e -ne8 ho8 to es6ort and ta(- to 8o,en, the) 6onsidered the, a(( as hoo-ers 777 &ur 9#ro$ession9 o$ten *rou'ht us into 6onta6t777 But it 8as a sha-) ,arria'e at *est7 7 7 @A2B Not a(( 4orsi6ans $it Berdin9s des6ri#tion7 4orsi6an 6a#os (i5e (i5es o$ $a*u(ous (uxur), 8ith 5ast #a(a6es outside Marsei((es, and si,i(ar a*odes in Paris and 4orsi6a7 3he) thro8 (a5ish #arties tee,in' 8ith #o(iti6ians, or in5ite the, $or 6ruises a*oard their )a6hts7 3he Huerini 6(an 8as the $irst to tru() do,inate the 4orsi6an Ma$ia7 It 6entered around the *rothers Antoine, Barthe(e,) >@Me,e@?, =u6ien, 0ran6ois, Pas6a(, and Pierre Huerini, 8ho had *een she#herd *o)s on 4orsi6a *e$ore 6o,in' to Marsei((es in 19127 B) the 6(ose o$ the t8enties, a$ter #ro(on'ed and *(ood) 5endettas, the Huerinis and their a((ies had risen to the to#7 3here the) re,ained $or o5er thirt) )ears7 3hrou'hout their rei'n Antoine, the o(dest, headed the 6(an, and the 4orsi6an Ma$ia as a 8ho(e7 3he Huerinis 8ere a,on' the $irst to s)ste,ati6a(() or'aniIe the s,u''(in' o$ o#iu, and ,or#hine *ase $ro, 3ur-e) and other Midd(e Eastern 6ountries7 3he) a(so started the #rodu6tion and ,ar-etin' o$ heroin7 .eroin (a*oratories s#routed a(( o5er Marsei((es, 8here there 8as a,#(e roo, $or other 'an's to o#erate either inde#endent() or in 6o((a*oration 8ith the Huerinis7 3he (e'endar) <o 4esari ensured the $a,ous and 6o5eted Cua(it) o$ Marsei((es heroin7 A se($ tau'ht 6he,ist, he 8as a true ,aster in the (a*7 No one in the 8or(d 6ou(d tea6h hi, a*out the art o$ ,a-in' heroin7 .e *ui(t and ran the 'reat ,aForit) o$ Marsei((es heroin (a*s unti( 19/27 2ise(), the Huerini *rothers 6u(ti5ated a((ies a,on' #o(iti6ians7 Be6ause o$ Marsei((es9 traditiona( so6ia(ist a((e'ian6e, the) su##orted Haston +e$erre, ,a)or o$ Marsei((es sin6e 19!3 and, in 1969, the So6ia(ist #art)9s #residentia( 6andidate7 Be)ond 0ran6e9s *orders the Huerinis 8ere in 6onta6t 8ith the 4IA, 8ith 8ho, the) *att(ed 4o,,unists in 19"/7 E5en ,aster heroin 6he,ist 4esari a((e'ed() had 4IA 6onne6tions7A3B 2or(d 2ar II *rou'ht a nu,*er o$ 6han'es in the Marsei((es under8or(d7 3he 4ar*one S#irito 'an', nu,*er t8o in the hierar6h), 8as de6i,ated durin' the #ost8ar #ur'e $or its 6o((a*oration 8ith the Hesta#o7A"B <oe &rsini and Au'uste 1i6ord, t8o o$ its (ieutenants, $(ed res#e6ti5e() to 4anada and South A,eri6a, there to *e6o,e i,#ortant internationa( nar6oti6s $i'ures7 3his a((o8ed <o 1enu66i9s 'an' to assu,e the no7 2 s#ot7 1enu66i, =u6-) =u6iano9s 0ren6h 6onta6t, 8as #o(iti6a(() a6ti5e $or the ri'ht 8in' S& du 1P07A!B .is (ieutenants in6(uded Mar6e( 0ran6is6i and the *rothers +o,iniCue and <ean Kenturi7 0ran6is6i 8as *orn in 4orsi6a in 1919 and de,onstrated 'reat or'aniIationa( ta(ent $ro, an ear() a'e7 .e s#un a 8e* o$ 6onne6tions on his nati5e is(and7 .e $ou'ht 8ith the 0ree 0ren6h $or6es in Ita() durin' the 8ar and 8on ,eda(s $or 5a(or7 A$ter the ar,isti6e he Foined 1enu66i9s Marsei((es 'an' and *e'an s,u''(in' 6i'arettes and si(- sto6-in's7 .e a(so ,ade 'ood nar6oti6s 6onta6ts in the Ara* (ands7A6B

Startin' in 19"/ 1enu66i (ent 0ran6is6i and other under(in's to the S& du 1P0 as 6a,#ai'n 'uards and anti 4o,,unist stron',en7 SeiIin' the o##ortunit), 0ran6is6i *e$riended ,e,*ers o$ the 6oterie surroundin' 4har(es de Hau((e $uture se6retar) 'enera( San'uinetti, $uture interior ,inister 0re), $uture #o(i6e 6hie$ <ean BoIIi, $uture Par(ia,ent 6hair,an A6hi((es Peretti, $uture ,inister $or A$ri6an A$$airs and inte((i'en6e 6hie$ <a6Cues 0o66art, and $uture 6hie$ *od)'uard $or de Hau((e, Pau( 4o,iti, to na,e a $e87A/B 0ran6is6i hi,se($ 8as to *e6o,e a (eader o$ the Hau((ist #art) on 4orsi6a and sit #ro,inent() on the is(and9s ad,inistration, his residen6) in Paris not8ithstandin'7 1enu66i9s death in No5e,*er 19!8 s#a8ned the 0ran6is6i Kenturi 6(an7 3he nation ho##in' <oe &rsini returned to Foin the or'aniIation in 196", 8hi(e <ean Kenturi (e$t $or 4anada to assu,e 6ontro( o$ the :7S7 *ound nar6oti6s tra$$i67 3hou'h 0ran6is6i 8as in 6har'e, he returned to Paris and (e$t the dirt) 8or- in Marsei((es to the others7 3hat 8or- 6onsisted a(,ost ex6(usi5e() o$ the #rodu6tion and s,u''(in' o$ heroin7 In Paris, 0ran6is6i s#ent ,u6h o$ his ti,e #(a)in' #o(iti6s and in5estin' his 8ea(th in restaurants, 6asinos, and rea( estate7 .is in$(uen6e in the Hau((ist #art) 're8 8ith his *an- a66ount7 3o #(a) it sa$e the 0ran6is6i Kenturi 6(an too- out t8o #o(iti6a( insuran6e #o(i6ies7 +o,iniCue Kenturi stu6- 8ith Marsei((es9 So6ia(ist ,a)or +e$erre, as had the Huerinis *e$ore hi,7A8B 3hou'h his ,en ser5ed in the So6ia(ist se6urit) $or6e, Kenturi hi,se($ 8or-ed $or the Hau((ist SA47 At so,e #oint in the ,id sixties the 0ran6is6i Kenturi 6(an de6ided to #ush the Huerini *rothers out o$ the #i6ture7 38o ,as-ed ,otor6)6(ists shot do8n Antoine Huerini on 23 <une 196/7 2ee-s (ater Mar6e( 0ran6is6i 8as shot at durin' a #o(iti6a( ,eetin' in AFa66io, 4orsi6a, *ut ,ana'ed to rea6h 6o5er7 0our Huerini (ieutenants 8ere -i((ed in the next three ,onths7 &n 1" +e6e,*er 196/ t8o ,en 8ere *(o8n to *its #(antin' a *o,* in 0ran6is6i9s ho,e near Paris7 No one e(se 8as hurt7 0ran6is6i9s 6o,,ent: @I $or'i5e the,7@ &n 21 <une 1968 0ran6is6i a'ain es6a#ed 8ith his (i$e, this ti,e $ro, a restaurant in 4orsi6a as $i5e ,en s#ra)ed ,a6hine 'un *u((ets in his 8a-e7 Passers*) 8eren9t as $ortunate7 &ne 8as -i((ed, $i5e others 8ere 8ounded7 3he ,a6hine 'unners 8ere ta-en 6are o$ $our ,onths (ater in a Mont,artre *ar, *) #o(i6e 6(ad 'an'sters7 Me,e Huerini9s e$$orts to a5en'e his *rother9s death ended 8ith his t8ent) )ear ,urder senten6e on 16 <anuar) 19/07 2ith *rother 0ran6ois9 death in #rison one )ear ear(ier, the Huerinis no (on'er stood in the 8a) o$ the 0ran6is6i Kenturi ,o*7 :7S7 nar6oti6s #o(i6e ha5e (on' e)ed Mar6e( 0ran6is6i, the ,an the) re$er to as @Mr7 .eroin7@ 2hene5er the) tr) nai(in' hi,, ho8e5er, the) run into a road*(o6-7 A66ordin' to 0ran6is6i9s su##orters in 0ren6h #o(iti6s, he9s a res#e6ted *usiness,an, not a 'an'ster7A9B At 0ouCuet, the $(a'shi# o$ his restaurant 6hain on Paris9 4ha,#s E()sees, #o(iti6ians and *usiness,en ,a-e i,#ortant dea(s o5er dinner7 0ran6is6i9s dire6t under8or(d 6onta6ts are #eo#(e he 6an trust 6o,#(ete(): his *rothers <ean, 0ran6ois, and 1o(and, 8ith 8ho, he ,eets a(,ost dai()7 :nder President Ka(er) His6ard d9Estain' >8ho is not a Hau((ist?, 0ran6is6i has *e6o,e e5en ,ore 6are$u(7 0urther,ore, sin6e 19/2 the #o(i6e ha5e 6(osed do8n ,an) o$ his heroin o#erations7 But 0ran6is6i has the 8here8itha(( to sur5i5e hard ti,es7A10B &$ the non 4orsi6an 'an'sters, the 'reatest 8as <o Attia, 0ran6e9s ,ost 6o(or$u( 6ri,ina( unti( his death in 19/27 3hou'h ,entioned #ri,ari() *e6ause he 8as res#onsi*(e $or 4hristian +a5id9s

re6ruit,ent as a *ar*ouIe >s#e6ia(ist in under6o5er #o(iti6a( 5io(en6e, s#oo-?, he 8as a(so the $irst 'an'ster to *e6o,e an internationa( es#iona'e a'ent7 .e 8as *orn on 10 <une 19187 .is ,other 8as a 8or-er in 1ennes, his $ather a 3unisian #assin' throu'h7 .e 8as raised in a 6on5ent unti( a'e t8e(5e, 8hen he 8as sent to earn his -ee# on a $ar,7 &ut o$ the hard 'rind 6a,e the ,a'ni$i6ent #h)siCue that 8ou(d *e6o,e his under8or(d trade,ar-7 But *) a'e sixteen he9d had it 8ith $ar, (i$e7 .e headed to Marsei((es and Foined a 'an' o$ )ouths7 2ithin a )ear #o(i6e 6au'ht hi, red handed in a *rea- in7 .e 8as sent to North A$ri6a 8ith a #ena( *ata((ion7 3here he (earned to *ox and to -i((, and *e6a,e a 6(ose $riend o$ Marsei((es 'an'ster Pierre =outre(7 :#on their re(ease, Attia #(un'ed *a6- into the Marsei((es under8or(d and =outre( headed to Paris7 +urin' the 8ar Attia 8or-ed 8ith the 0ren6h resistan6e $or6e, the MaCuis7 .is ,ain 6ontri*ution 8as to 6on$ine his thie5er) to Her,ans and their 0ren6h 6o((a*orators7 But he a((e'ed() a(so he(#ed hundreds o$ <e8s to 6ross the *order to S#ain7 In <u() 19"2 the Hesta#o arrested hi, and senten6ed hi,, $irst to death, (ater to the 6on6entration 6a,# at Mathausen7 2ithin da)s o$ his arri5a( there, Attia '(an6ed throu'h his *arra6-s 8indo8 to dis6o5er an SS a'ent *eatin' a de$ense(ess #risoner7 In$uriated, he s#ran' throu'h the door and -no6-ed the SS ,an do8n 8ith a *oo,in' ri'ht7 .ad it not *een $or hi'h ran-in' Her,an o$$i6ers i,#ressed 8ith his 5a(or, Attia 8ou(d ha5e *een exe6uted on the s#ot7 0ear did not sto# <o Attia7 0ro, the Her,an su##() de#ot he sto(e $ood $or $e((o8 in,ates and ,edi6ine $or the i(( a,on' the,7 Inde*ted to Attia $or their sur5i5a( o$ Mathausen 8ere $uture Fusti6e ,inister Ed,ond Mi6he(et and Mira'e Fet ,anu$a6turer Mar6e( +assau(t7 3he .ero o$ Mathausen, Attia *e6a,e the #risoners9 s#o-es,an7 0o((o8in' the 8ar 4har(es de Hau((e hi,se($ a##ointed <o Attia to the =e'ion o$ .onor7 Sti((, a hero9s '(or) *u)s no *read7 <o thou'ht o$ enterin' the *oxin' rin', *ut the $irst ,ana'er he a##roa6hed *ro-e u# at the si'ht o$ Attia9s tattoed *od)7 @2e9re (oo-in' $or a *oxer,@ he said, @not a road,a#7@ B) 6han6e <o ran into his o(d $riend $ro, the #ena( *ata((ion, Pierre =outre(7 In the ,eanti,e =outre( had *e6o,e one o$ Paris9s (eadin' 6roo-s, @Pierrot (e 0ou@ >the 6raI)?7 +urin' the 8ar =outre( and his ri'ht hand ,an Heor'es Bou6hesei6he had 6o((a*orated 8ith the Hesta#o7 But <o (et *)'ones *e *)'ones and Foined the Auto Han' 8hi6h 8as then (a)in' 0ran6e to 8aste 8ith a strin' o$ ,urders and *an- ro**eries7 &n 2! Se#te,*er 19"6 #o(i6e $ina(() 6au'ht u# 8ith the Auto Han' in the to8n o$ 4ha,#i'n), south8est o$ Paris7 3hree hundred #o(i6e,en 8ere dis#at6hed in ar,ored 6ars to the hote( 8here the 'an' 8as ho(ed u#7 3here $o((o8ed an ex6han'e o$ $ire in the 6(assi6 4hi6a'o tradition7 &ther than a $e8 under(in's, the on() 'an'sters #resent 8ere Attia and Bou6hesei6he7 Pierrot (e 0ou 8as dinin' at a near*) restaurant7 2hen the sound o$ 'un$ire rea6hed hi,, =outre( s#ran' into his *rand ne8 ar,ored +e(aha), not to $(ee, *ut to res6ue his #a(s7 At to# s#eed he s8un' throu'h the *u((et sho8er at the hote( entran6e and Fa,,ed on the *rea-s (on' enou'h $or Attia to Fu,# in7 .e then $(oored the 'as #eda( and disa##eared7 3he 'endar,es 8ere (e$t 'a#in'7 Bou6hesei6he, *) hidin' in a 8ater *arre( and *reathin' throu'h a hose, a(so ,ana'ed to es6a#e7 2hen the #o(i6e (e$t the s6ene, he e,er'ed7 3heir (u6- ran out a $e8 ,onths (ater7 3he) assau(ted and shot a Fe8e(er7 4arr)in' the ta-e to the 6ar, Pierrot (e 0ou stu$$ed his #isto( under his *e(t7 It $ired, sto##in' hi, in his tra6-s7 .is #artners *uried hi, on an is(and in the Seine7A11B Attia too- o5er, *ut so,e o$ the 8i(dness had (e$t hi,7 .e

o#ened a 6hain o$ *orde((os and ni'ht6(u*s7 .e a(so *e'an to #ush dru's, 8hi(e ,aintainin' re(ations 8ith the 4orsi6an Ma$ia, es#e6ia(() the Huerinis7 In 19"9 Attia 8as sent to #rison $or $our )ears $or 6on6ea(in' a *od) >that o$ Pierrot (e 0ou? and i((e'a( #ossession o$ 8ea#ons7 3he #rose6utor, 6har'in' Attia 8ith ,urder, had as-ed $or a (i$e senten6e7 But Attia 'ot o$$ (i'ht() than-s to the inter5ention o$ one 4o(one( Beau,ont, a(ias Bertrand, o$ the S+E4E, 8hose (i$e Attia had sa5ed durin' the 8ar7 Behind *ars in 0resnes in 19!2, <o ,arried the ,other o$ his dau'hter, Ni6o(e7A12B 2hen re(eased, Attia 8as tra6-ed do8n *) his $riend Beau,ont, 8ho had *e6o,e the head o$ an S+E4E di5ision7 3he 6o(one( o$$ered <o a (ar'e $ee to (o6ate a Moro66an terrorist hideout in 0ren6h North A$ri6a7 Attia a'reed7 .e too- a 8hir(8ind 6ourse in se6ret a'entr), and (e$t that )ear on se5era( ,issions, ,ost() in A$ri6a7 So,eti,es he #ara6huted, other ti,es he 6a,e *) (and7 At ti,es he 8or-ed $or Beau,ont, at others he 8as in the e,#(o) o$ 4o(one( 0our6aud, another to# ,an in the S+E4E7 A(8a)s, ho8e5er, the ,o*ster roa,ed $ree under the 8in's o$ the inte((i'en6e esta*(ish,ent7 In 19!6 Attia 8as sent to Moro66o to -i(( the Moro66an re*e( (eader A(a( e( 0assai7A13B But he 8as arrested *) S#anish authorities $or *(o8in' u# the hote( in S#anish Moro66o 8here A(a( 8as ho(ed u#7A1"B 3o ensure extradition to 0ran6e he 6on$essed to ,urderin' t8o 0ren6h,en 8ho had so(d 8ea#ons to the A('erian re5o(utionaries o$ the 0=N7 3he tria( in 0ran6e 8as a ,o6-er) o$ Fusti6e7 Be$ore (on' he 8as re(eased7 In 19!/, 8hi(e <o 8as on an S+E4E ,ission in 3unisia, a ,e,*er o$ +e$ense Minister 4ha*an +e(,as9 sta$$ @a66identa(()@ set e)es u#on the S+E4E 'an'ster ro((, and de,anded to *e to(d 8h) Attia 8as 8or-in' $or the a'en6)7 4o(one( 0our6aud7 de$ended hi, as a @,ar5e(ous #ersona(it), an ad,ira*(e ,an and one o$ our *est a'ents7@ A$ter 19!8 Attia 8or-ed #ri,ari() $or the se6ret inte((i'en6e net8or- o$ <a6Cues 0o66art, the Minister o$ A$ri6an A$$airs7 In 19!9 <o sur$a6ed $irst in ;atan'a, then in A*idFan, the 6a#ita( o$ the I5or) 4oast, 8here he #ur6hased a ni'ht6(u*, the 1e$u'e7 It *e6a,e the headCuarters o$ 0o66art9s A$ri6an s#) rin'7 Se5era( atte,#ted assassinations o$ *(a6- #o(iti6a( (eaders 8ere #(anned in its *a6- roo,s7 Attia a(so esta*(ished an es#iona'e 6enter in his Ha5ro6he restaurant in Paris9s Mont,artre Cuarter7 It *e6a,e the haunt o$ 'an'sters and a'ents, and those 8ho 8ere *oth7A1!B 3here are those 8ho *e(ie5e Attia a(so 8or-ed $or the 4IA in the sa,e #eriod7 3he 4hur6h 6o,,ittee re#ort on assassinations o$ $orei'n (eaders re5ea(s the a'en6)9s re6ruit,ent o$ a Euro#ean 'an'ster $or the ,urder o$ Patri6e =u,u,*a o$ the 4on'o7 3he hit ,an, 6ode na,ed N<J2IN, 8as des6ri*ed as a 6on5i6ted 6ri,ina( 8ho 6ou(d *e dis#at6hed on hi'h ris- ,issions7 A(thou'h Attia 8as #ro*a*() not the -i((er in Cuestion, *oth N<J2IN and a se6ond #otentia( assassin, re$erred to as 2IJ1&H:E, are (i-e() to *e $ound in a 6ensus o$ the 0ren6h under8or(d7A16B Around 1960 <o Attia ,et 4hristian +a5id, 8ho 8as 4hen Fust a s,a((ti,e hood7 3o'ether the) 8or-ed as *ar*ouIes in A('eria and 8ere in5o(5ed in a (on' series o$ shad) inte((i'en6e 6a#ers in6(udin' the in$a,ous -idna#in's o$ 4o(one( Antoine Ar'oud and Mehdi Ben Bar-a7 >See 6ha#ters $i5e and six7? A$ter 1962 Attia 8as in and out o$ #rison, *ut that 8as #ro*a*() ,ore $or his o8n #rote6tion than an)thin' e(se7 .e had a(( the $reedo, ne6essar) to 6arr) out his inte((i'en6e ,issions, thou'h e5entua(() he 8as o$$i6ia(() *anned $ro, 0ran6e7 .e then roa,ed throu'h the 4on'o, Moro66o, and the I5or) 4oast, *ut returned to Paris 8hen so in6(ined7 Po(i6e -ne8 o$ his #resen6e *ut did nothin'7

&n 22 <une 19/2 <o Attia died o$ throat 6an6er7 But *e$ore he did he sett(ed a s6ore 8ith a ri5a( 'an' (ed *) Heor'es Se'ard and 4hristian <u*in7 <u*in had ra#ed Ni6o(e, the dau'hter o$ <o the 3erri*(e7 Se'ard and <u*in 8ere handed o5er to the #o(i6e7 2ithin hours o$ his death there 8ere *rea- ins at <o9s a#art,ent and at his restaurant, Ha5ro6he7 So,eone 8anted to *e satis$ied that no 6o,#ro,isin' ,ateria( 8ou(d end u# in the 8ron' hands7 2as it the S+E4EG ##s7 3/ ""
Notes 17 So,e sour6es esti,ate the a,ount o$ Marsei((es heroin s,u''(ed in 1521 at three tons, others at o5er six7 3he se6ond $i'ure is ,ore (i-e(), 'i5en the o$$i6ia( 1527 $i'ure o$ 26>> -i(os% see 3he Ne8sda) Sta$$: The ,eroin 'ail >Sou5enir Press, 152=/. 27 17 Berdin: #ode (amed *ichard >+utton, 152=/. 37 A7 <au*ert: %ossier % ... comme %rogue >A(ain Moreau, 152=/. =. 3he ex#(oits o$ the 4ar*one S#irito 'an' are ro,anti6iIed in the $i(, @Borsa(ino@ 8ith A(ain +e(on and <ean Pau( Be(,ondo7 :. <au*ert, op. cit. ;. 3he Ne8sda) Sta$$, op. cit. /7 <au*ert, op. cit.- '. 4hairo$$ 9 %ossier? ... comme ?ar"ou+es >A(ain Moreau, 19/!?7 4. 3he Ne8sda) Sta$$, op. cit. 97 0ran6is6i has sued Time ,a'aIine and a nu,*er o$ 0ren6h Fourna(ists $or tr)in' to 6onne6t hi, to the dru' trade, *ut ea6h ti,e he has retreated in the e(e5enth hour7 107 A66ordin' to Fourna(ist Ni6ho(as Ha'e @(ew )or! Times, 17 <anuar) 154>/, there is in6reasin' e5iden6e, in6(udin' the un6o5erin' o$ se5era( heroin (a*s in Marsei((es, Ni6e, and Mi(an, o$ a re5i5ed 0ren6h >9 onne6tion7 0ran6is6i hi,se($ has a##arent() not *een a6ti5e in 0ren6h #o(iti6s sin6e 152=, *ut re,ains a ,an o$ 6onsidera*(e in$(uen6e7 3he (ast heard o$ hi, 8as 8hen his restaurant, 0ouCuet, denied a66ess to una66o,#anied 8o,en in 1525. 117 S7 Kin6entanne: Ea "ande a 'ierrot3le38ou >4ha,# =i*re, 152>/. 127 N7 Attia: Eo Attia >Ha((i,ard, 152=/. 137 P737 de VosColi9 e #omite >Editions de (9.o,,e, 152:/- 3he Ne8sda) Sta$$, op. cit. 1=. <au*ert, op. cit. 1:. Attia a(so o8ned the ni'ht6(u* @Nu,*er 3en@ in =eo#o(d5i((e, 8hi6h 8as o$ten $reCuented *) =u,u,*a7 1;. es #omplots de la #$A >Sto6-, 152;/- e &eilleur, 1> <une 152;



3r)in' to ,a-e sense out o$ 0ren6h inte((i'en6e a6ti5ities is (i-e tr)in' to $ind one9s 8a) out o$ a ,aIe -no8in' there9s no exit7 A(( to(d, there are $our inte((i'en6e ser5i6es, and at 5arious ti,es the) 8or- to'ether, inde#endent(), and a'ainst one another in an at,os#here o$ s6anda( and intri'ue7 3he $our are: the $orei'n es#iona'e a'en6), Ser5i6e de +o6u,entation Exterieure et de 4ontre Es#iona'e >S+E4E?% the do,esti6 se6urit) a'en6), +ire6tion de (a Sur5ei((an6e du 3erritoire >+S3?% the #o(i6e inte((i'en6e $or6e, 1ensei'ne,ents Heneraux >1H?% and the Hau((ists9 #ara #o(i6e $or6e, Ser5i6e d9A6tion 4i5iCue >SA4?7 4har(es de Hau((e rei'ned o5er the Ho(den A'e o$ 0ren6h es#iona'e7 3he #resident 8as ena,ored o$ 6(oa-s and da''ers and 6ou(d not 'et enou'h se6urit) $ro, the dan'ers (e$t and ri'ht7 7 7 in6(udin' those res#onsi*(e $or his se6urit)7 3hou'h he deter,ined o5era(( #o(i6), de Hau((e -e#t his o8n hands o$$ inte((i'en6e a6ti5ities, (ea5in' the nuts and *o(ts to (o)a( $o((o8ers7 3he ru(es had *een 8ritten durin' 2or(d 2ar II, 8hen de Hau((e and his $o((o8ers 8ere (o6ated in =ondon9s 0ree 0ren6h house7 +e Hau((e sa8 a dou*(e a'ent in e5er) unannoun6ed 4hanne( 6rosser and, not in$reCuent(), had that indi5idua( exe6uted 8ithout re'ard to the #ett) detai(s o$ Fusti6e7 A$ter the 8ar, anon),ous 6or#ses 8ere exhu,ed $ro, the 6e((ar o$ the =ondon a*ode7 3he S+E4E e,er'ed short() a$ter 2or(d 2ar II7 It 6onsisted o$ se5en de#art,ents that hand(ed inte((i'en6e ana()sis, Eastern and 2estern Euro#e, A$ri6a, the Midd(e East, the 0ar East, and A,eri6a7 In addition there is a s#e6ia( a6tion 'rou# 8ithin the S+E4E, the Ser5i6e d9A6tion du S+E4E7 It9s not to *e 6on$used 8ith SA4, thou'h it is so,eti,es di$$i6u(t to distin'uish *et8een their o#erations7 3he S+E4E e,#(o)s so,e 2000 ,en and has a )ear() *ud'et $ixed at E2! ,i((ion7 Another E!0 ,i((ion 6an *e ta##ed $ro, a se6ret reser5e7A1B Its headCuarters are next to a (ar'e *athhouse in the Paris su*ur* o$ =es 3oure((es7 3he 0ren6h 6a(( it @the s8i,,in' #oo(7@ In its thirt) )ears o$ existen6e the S+E4E has had six 6hie$s7 +e Hau((e9s $irst, Henera( Hrossin, (asted unti( 19627 Henera( Pau( <a6Cuier, his re#(a6e,ent, 8as dro##ed 8ithout so ,u6h as a handsha-e $o((o8in' the 196! Ben Bar-a a$$air7 3he next 6hie$, Henera( Eu'ene Hui*aud, didn9t (ast ,u6h (on'er7 .e (e$t in 19/0 8hen Heor'es Po,#idou *e6a,e the #resident7 Po,#idou 8as 6on5in6ed that S+E4E $i'ures had (ed a s,ear 6a,#ai'n to -ee# hi, out o$ 4har(es de Hau((e9s shoes7 .e 6hose the aristo6rati6 #ro :7S7 A(exandre de Maren6hes to #ur'e the inte((i'en6e a'en6)7 A d)nast) o$ ,i(itar) o$$i6ers has run the 5arious S+E4E de#art,ents7 3he na,es heard ,ost o$ten in 6onne6tion 8ith assassination, -idna#in', and other s6anda(s are: 4o(one( 1end Bertrand a(ias Beau,ont, 4o(one( Ni6o(as 0our6aud, 4o(one( Mar6e( =ero) a(ias =ero) 0in5i((e, 4o(one( Pau( 0errer a(ias 0ournier, and 4o(one( Mar6e( Mer6ier, 8ho headed the neo 0as6ist 1ed .and that 8as res#onsi*(e $or a strin' o$ #o(iti6a( ,urders7A2B 3he S+E4E stor) is one o$ 6ontinuous s6anda(7 Murder #(ots, -idna#in's, dru' dea(s, and extensi5e 6o((a*oration 8ith the under8or(d ha5e *een *rou'ht to (i'ht, *ut are on() #art o$ the stor)7 0ran6e has ne5er sho8n the tenden6) to8ard o#en 'o5ern,ent that has, $or exa,#(e, #rodu6ed #u*(i6 hearin's in the :7S7 on 4IA and 0BI 6ri,es7 2hat (i'ht has *een shed in re6ent )ears is due ,ost() to Phi((i#e 3h)raud de VosColi, a $or,er S+E4E a'ent in 4u*a and 2ashin'ton7 .is *oo-s, amia and e #omite, raised a $uror in 0ran6e7 It 8as he 8ho ti##ed o$$ the :nited States a*out the #resen6e o$ 1ussian ro6-et *ases in 4u*a 8hi(e stationed there as a 0ren6h a'ent7 .e 8as $ired in 19637

A66ordin' to de VosColi, under de Hau((e a ,urder 6o,,ittee existed 6onsistin' o$ the #resident9s 6(osest #o(iti6a( a((ies and inte((i'en6e o$$i6ers7 It #(otted extre,e ,easures a'ainst nations or indi5idua(s 8ho threatened de Hau((e or his #o(i6ies7 At one #oint, the hit (ist in6(uded as ,an) as thirt) na,es7 3he) in6(uded Huinea9s 6hie$ o$ state Se-ou 3oure and 3unisia9s .a*i* Bour'i*a, *oth o$ 8ho, sur5i5ed7 &thers did not, thou'h their deaths ha5e *een re6orded as a66idents7 S+E4E a'ents 8or-in' $or the 6o,,ittee, a66ordin' to de KosFo(i, 8ere res#onsi*(e $or the 1962 #(ane 6rash 8hi6h too- the (i$e o$ Ita(ian oi( ,a'nate Enri6o Mattei7 Mattei, then Ita()9s stron' ,an, 8as on the 5er'e o$ en'ineerin' an Ita(ian ta-eo5er o$ 0ren6h oi( interests in A('eria7 A 0ren6h a'ent 6ode na,ed =aurent tin-ered 8ith Mattei9s air6ra$t, 8hi6h 6rashed en route $ro, 4atania to 1o,e7 2i((ia, M6.a(e, a Time ,a'aIine re#orter 8ritin' a series a*out Mattei, 8as a,on' the other dead7 A##arent() a si,i(ar $ate a8aited the Fourna(ist Mauro de Mauro 8ho, 8hi(e in5esti'atin' the Mattei a$$air in 19/0, disa##eared 8ithout a tra6e7 3he 6o,,ittee a(so had tas-s other than ,urder7 2hen a ne8() desi'ned 1ussian ,i(itar) Fet *ro-e do8n durin' a 5isit to 0ran6e and 8as to *e sent ho,e o5er (and, Mar6e( =ero) o$ the S+E4E 8ent into the ,o5in' *usiness7 .e 8as hired to ,o5e the Fet $ro, the air#ort to the $rei'ht train the So5iets had rushed to Paris7 As unsus#e6tin' 1ussian 'uards sat in a 6ar trai(in' the $rei'ht tru6-, the Fet 8as #(a6ed in a se6ond tru6- identi6a( to the $irst, in 8hi6h 0ren6h a'ents s6a,#ered a*out 8ith 6a,eras7 3he t8o tru6-s 8ere s8it6hed *a6- 8hen the 1ussians 8ere de(a)ed at an interse6tion7 +urin' a 1961 6on$eren6e in 4annes, an S+E4E a'ent *ro-e into the hote( roo, o$ :7S7 Assistant Se6retar) o$ State Heor'e Ba((, and #hoto'ra#hed a(( his do6u,ents 8hi(e Ba(( snored #ea6e$u(()7 Si,i(ar(), an a'ent on6e ru,,a'ed throu'h the *a''a'e o$ the Moro66an a,*assador to 0ran6e7 .is e)es (it u# 8hen he o#ened the (o6- o$ an atta6he 6ase7 Inside 8ere nothin' *ut #orno'ra#hi6 #hotos and an i5or) #enis to'ether 8ith a user 'uide, in a #a6-a'e addressed to Mada,e &u$-ir, the 8i$e o$ the notorious Moro66an se6urit) 6hie$, Moha,,ed &u$-ir7 In his $irst *oo-, amia, de VosColi a(so 6(ai,ed that the de Hau((e re'i,e $or a (on' ti,e 6hose to i'nore the #resen6e o$ So5iet s#ies on 0ren6h soi(, and #erha#s e5en $ed the, in$or,ation7 +e Hau((e, 8ith nationa(isti6 #ride o5er 0ran6e9s de5e(o#,ent o$ an A *o,*, i'nored <ohn 07 ;enned)9s 8arnin's a*out the 1ussian a'ents7 .e 8as tired o$ (istenin' to 2ashin'ton7 2ith 0ran6e a*out to *e6o,e a 'reat #o8er a'ain, the :nited States *e6a,e its nu,*er one ri5a(7 +e Hau((e a(so had ideas o$ his o8n on ho8 to 8in the 3hird 2or(d o5er to 0ran6e7 At one ti,e 0ran6e 8as the 'reatest 6o(onia( #o8er in A$ri6a7 .o8e5er, in 1961 62 de Hau((e 'a5e autono,) to near() a(( its A$ri6an #ossessions7 .is #o(i6) o$ 6reatin' a 0ren6h @4o,,on8ea(th@ 8as 6(e5er in #rin6i#(e7 But the ,an to 8ho, de Hau((e entrusted his 3hird 2or(d #(ans 8as inte((i'en6e 8hiI <a6Cues 0o66art, the Hau((ist Hre) E,inen6e7 3he #o(i6ies 6arried out *) 0o66art *ore (itt(e rese,*(an6e to de Hau((e9s 'uide(ines and the ne8() 6reated 0ren6h 4o,,unit) o$ Nations soon $e(( a#art at the sea,s7 Behind <a6Cues 0o66art 8as the (o)a( 6ore o$ his o8n es#iona'e rin', and the entire SA4 sta$$, 8hi6h he9d 'radua(() ex#anded into an a##aratus that #er,eated 0ren6h so6iet) and $orei'n (o6a(es as 8e((7A3B SA4 had a##eared in 19!8, the 6risis )ear in 8hi6h de Hau((e assu,ed #o8er *) a 6ou# d'etat. 3he 1P0 *e6a,e the o$$i6ia( Hau((ist #art), and SA4 *e6a,e its se6urit) $or6e7 3he ,en 8ho $ounded SA4 8ere $or the ,ost #art those 8ho had a(so do,inated the S& du 1P0: 0o66art, 0re), Pon6hardier, San'uinetti, BoIIi, 4o,iti, and 4har(es PasCua7A"B 4o,iti and 4har(es =as6orI 8ere the $irst to dire6t the #ara #o(i6e $or6e7 .o8e5er, u(ti,ate 6ontro( a(8a)s re,ained in the hands o$ 0o66art7

3he o$$i6ia( tas- o$ SA4 8as to #rote6t Hau((ist #o(iti6ians in tra5e(s and at ,eetin's7 .o8e5er, *) the end o$ its $irst )ear o$ existen6e, 19!8, SA4 had Foined the *att(e a'ainst the A('erian re5o(utionar) ,o5e,ent, 0=N, and e5en then it 8as studded 8ith 'an'sters7 In the $ina( #hase o$ the 8ar in A('eria, SA4 a'ents (es *ar*ouIes 8ere #itted a'ainst the ,utinous Se6ret Ar,) &r'aniIation >&AS? 8hose ,urderous, resistan6e 8as 6ho-ed o$$ 8ith eCua( *ruta(it)7 2hen de Hau((e 'ranted A('eria its inde#enden6e in 1962, the *ar*ouIes turned their 8rath a'ainst de Hau((e9s #o(iti6a( ene,ies7 3he) *e6a,e the instru,ents $or the dirtiest o$ Hau((ist tri6-s7 Murder, 6orru#tion, industria( es#iona'e, e(e6tion $raud SA4 a'ents 6ou(d do it a((7 0o66art assi'ned his *est SA4 ,en to -e) #osts on 0ren6h 6o,,issions $or de5e(o#in' 6ountries, and in o$$i6es 6har'ed 8ith the a((ot,ent o$ #u*(i6 $unds7 .e a(so dis#at6hed the, to in$i(trate A$ri6an re'i,es, 8here #ro 0ren6h 'o5ern,ents a((e'ed() #aid the, enor,ous -i6-*a6-s in return $or e6ono,i6 assistan6e $ro, Paris7 At its #ea- SA4 6o,#rised a 6ore o$ 120 dire6tors in i,,ediate 6onta6t 8ith 0o66art, #(us so,e 20,000 asso6iates, three Cuarters o$ 8ho, 8ere esti,ated to ha5e *een 6ri,ina(s, ,an) o$ the, heroin s,u''(ers7A!B >0ren6h inte((i'en6e has $reCuent() *een a66used o$ ha5in' *oth or'aniIed and #ro$ited $ro, the tra$$i6-in' o$ heroin7? SA4 8as used at ho,e to insti'ate and then 6rush (e$t 8in' distur*an6es, su6h as the ti,e a SA4 a'ent too- #otshots at a #ea6e$u( de,onstration in =a Mure and stru6- do8n a reno8ned ath(ete, and ti(e -ni$in' o$ a (e$t 8in' a6ti5ist *) a SA4 a'ent in +ran6)7A6B 0o66art9s SA4 a'ents are es#e6ia(() a6ti5e at e(e6tion ti,e7 In So6ia(ist and 4o,,unist do,inated areas the)95e o$ten *een 6au'ht stea(in' and *urnin' *a((ots7 In 1968 SA4 terroriIed the student re*e((ion7 3he +S3 handed its SA4 6o((ea'ues (ists o$ sus#e6ted de Hau((e $oes in Marsei((es, =)ons, and Hreno*(e, as #art o$ a SA4 #(an to detain #o(iti6a( @su*5ersi5es@ in stadiu,s and 6a,#s, si,i(ar to 8hat ha##ened in 4hi(e7A/B 3hrou'h the )ears <a6Cues 0o66art 8as not on() in 6har'e o$ SA4, *ut he a(so had ,an) o$ his to# ,en assi'ned to -e) #ositions in the S+E4E7 2hi(e ,an) SA4 a'ents 8ere a(so S+E4E a'ents and vice versa, there 8ere a(8a)s S+E4E ,en o##osed to 0o66art >as there are no8?, and that has (on' *een a sour6e o$ intri'ue7 In de Hau((e9s ti,e *oth SA4 and the S+E4E 8or-ed a'ainst the 4IA, thou'h se5era( 0ren6h a'ents #(a)ed $oots) 8ith the A,eri6ans7 3he 6ri,ina( e(e,ents 8ere a5ai(a*(e to an)one $or the ri'ht #ri6e7 :nder Po,#idou, and ,ore so no8 under His6ard d9Estain', the 'oa( has *een 6entra(iIation o$ inte((i'en6e a6ti5ities7 3he :7S7 is no (on'er 6onsidered the nu,*er one ene,), and the S+E4E has *een ordered to 6oo#erate 8ith the 4IA7 Po,#idou $ired /000 o$ SA49s 6roo-s7 A(thou'h His6ard d9Estain' 8ou(d (i-e to e(i,inate SA4 a(to'ether, he dares not (e'is(ate it out o$ existen6e7A8B At 66 <a6Cues 0o66art han's on as one o$ 0ran6e9s ,ost #o8er$u( ,en7 A$ter the deaths o$ de Hau((e and Po,#idou, he had thousands o$ do6u,ents destro)ed, do6u,ents that 8ou(d ha5e ex#osed the Hau((ists9 dirtiest tri6-s7 But 0o66art has not shred a(( his #a#ers7 .e a((e'ed() has a $i(e on e5er) 0ren6h #o(iti6ian and o$$i6eho(der sin6e 19/", 8hi6h #uts hi, in a #osition to *(a6-,ai( ,an) o$ the,7 In 19/" His6ard d9Estain' re#(a6ed 0o66art, as his ad5isor on A$ri6an a$$airs, 8ith 0o66art9s under(in', 1ene <ournia67 0o66art retired a$ter an additiona( nu,*er o$ )ears in a si,i(ar #osition 8ith &,ar Bon'o, the 6orru#t ru(er o$ Ha*on7 &n 6 0e*ruar) 1980, <ournia6 #erished in a ,)sterious #(ane 6rash in Northern 4a,eroon7A9B

##s7 "! !0

Notes 17 <7 .oa'(and, 'oliti!en, 1" <une 19/6. 27 P737deKosFo(i: e #omite >Editions de (9.o,,e, 152:/- A7 <au*ert: %ossier % 777 comme %rogue >A(ain Moreau, 152=/- (. 0ournier and E7 =e'rand: %ossier E 777 comme Espionage >A(ain Moreau, 1522/. 37 P7 4hairo$$ 9%ossier ? ... comme ?ar"ou+es >A(ain Moreau, 19/!?7 "7 :+1 ,e,*er 4har(es PasCua he(d a seat in Par(ia,ent and 6haired a 1969 6o,,ittee in5esti'atin' 0ran6e9s nar6oti6s #ro*(e,7 0ro, 19!2 to 196/ he he(d 5arious hi'h ran-in' #ositions in the *i' 8ine $ir,, 1i6ard Pastis7 2hen the -no8n heroin tra$$i6-er <ean Kenturi 6a,e to Montrea( in 1962 to esta*(ish a ne8 s,u''(in' net8or-, his 6o5er 8as as a re#resentati5e $or 1i6ard Pastis, 8here his i,,ediate su#erior a##ears to ha5e *een PasCua L see 3he Ne8sda) Sta$$: The ,eroin Trail >Sou5enir Boo-s, 19/"?7 !7 4hairo$$, o#7 6it7 67 <au*ert, o#7 6it7 /7 4hairo$$, o#7 6it7 87 As (ate as the su,,er o$ 19/6 Marsei((es9 So6ia(ist ,a)or Haston +e$erre, and other (e$t 8in' #o(iti6ians, 6har'ed in Par(ia,ent that the Hau((ists 8ere a*out to re*ui(d SA4, and that ,urderers and thie5es 8ere a'ain *ein' re6ruited out o$ #rison as in 19617 In the (ast $e8 )ears, ho8e5er, the Hau((ists ha5e (ost ,u6h 'round, 8hereas 0ran6e9s non Hau((ist 1i'ht, 8ith &AS $i'ures in the $ore, has 'otten a shot in the ar,7 Man) $or,er SA4 'oons are a((e'ed() 6urrent() 8or-in' $or this ,o5e,ent7 97 E7 1a,aro: @:n Petit Mort Sans Si'ni$i6an6e,@ AfiriFue3Asie, 6 Mar6h 19807 0or a re5ie8 o$ 0ren6h dirt) 8orin A$ri6a #re and #ost 0o66art, see ;7 Kan Meter: @3he 0ren6h 1o(e in A$ri6a@, in %irty Wor! 7, The #$A in Africa, edited *) E7 1a), 27 S6haa#, ;7 Kan Meter and =7 2o($ >=)(e Stuart, 19/9?7



4hristian +a5id 8as *orn in 1929 in the 6it) o$ Bordeaux in the south o$ 0ran6e7 =i-e ,ost )ouths destined to under8or(d stardo,, he 8as 8i(d and in6orri'i*(e, #i6-ed u# $or #i6-#o6-etin' on ,ore than one o66asion7 .is Bordeaux 6hu,s re6a(( hi, as ostentatious and hot headed7 B) a'e t8ent) one he had #ar(a)ed 'ood (oo-s and 6har, into a *uddin' 6areer as a #i,#7 Not (on' therea$ter he #ur6hased the 2his-e) A Ho Ho ni'ht6(u*7A1B But the #ro6eeds $ro, the 8hores and the 6(u* 8ere not enou'h7 Hreed 8as another o$ his traits7 .e had tasted the (i$e o$ a #(a)*o) and his need $or ex6ite,ent *ordered on the #atho(o'i6a(7 Beau Ser'e *e'an to ,aster,ind *an- heists7 At a'e t8ent) six he 8as arrested and senten6ed to a sta) at Besan6on #rison on a s6ore o$ 6ounts ran'in' $ro, #ro6urin' to ar,ed assau(t7A2B &ne )ear (ater he es6a#ed and 8as on the (oose $or se5era( ,onths7 2hen re6a#tured he 8as Fai(ed on I(e de 1e outside the 6it) o$ =a 1o6he((e7A3B .e es6a#ed on6e ,ore in the $a(( o$ 19607 3his ti,e he re,ained (on'er in hidin' 8ith the he(# o$ his $riends in the under8or(d7 It 8as #ro*a*() then that he i,#ressed the 'an'ster -in'#in <o Attia, 8ho 8ou(d 'reat() in$(uen6e Beau Ser'e9s 6areer7 In 0e*ruar) 1961 +a5id 8as a'ain ta-en #risoner and returned to I(e de 1e, 8here he 8as #(a6ed under 6(ose 'uard7 Es6a#e nu,*er three 8ou(d de,and a(( his 6unnin' and a dash o$ theatri6s7

.is *eha5ior s(o8() a(tered7 .e uttered stran'e thin's, tre,*(ed un6ontro((a*(), 6o,,uni6ated 8ith no one, and s,ashed his 6e(( in $its o$ h)steria7 3he do6tor *e6a,e 6on5in6ed o$ his deran'e,ent7 In the su,,er o$ 1961 he 8as ,o5ed to the 4adi((a6 ,enta( hos#ita(7 2ithin ,onths a nurse *e6a,e his a66o,#(i6e in es6a#e7 But a(( 8as in 5ain7 A 6hase throu'h the 8oods and Beau Ser'e 8as soon *a6- in his 6a'e on I(e de 1e7 A(( the 8hi(e, ho8e5er, and un-no8n to hi,, #(ans $or +a5id9s $uture 8ere *ein' ,ade Fust outside #rison 8a((s7 Serious ,en 8ere 'athered in a house on I(e de 1e to dis6uss a (ist o$ na,es7 3he house *e(on'ed to 0ran6e9s a,*assador to the 4entra( A$ri6an 1e#u*(i6, 4o(one( 1o'er Bar*erot, a hero o$ 2or(d 2ar II and Indo6hina, and 6hie$ o$ the B(a6- 4o,,andos in A('eria7A"B Most o$ the ,en 8ere ,e,*ers o$ the inner 6ir6(e o$ the ru(in' Hau((ist #art)7 &thers 8ere #rin6es o$ the under8or(d7 &ne o$ the (atter 8as <o Attia7 And one o$ the na,es on the (ist 8as 4hristian +a5id9s7 &ne da) in &6to*er 1961 +a5id 8as ta-en $ro, his 6e(( to 'o5ern,ent o$$i6es in =a 1o6he((e, and seated in a 6o,$orta*(e 6hair o##osite a ,an o$ in$(uen6e and #o8er7 3he ,an 8as Pierre =e,ar6hand, a hi'h ran-in' Hau((ist *etrothed to de Hau((e9s ado#ted dau'hter7A!B 2hen #resented 8ith =e,ar6hand9s #ro#osa(, 4hristian +a5id 8as du,*$ounded7 0reedo, 8ou(d *e his i$ he a'reed to Foin a terror 6or#s asse,*(ed to #ut an end to the A('erian o#erations o$ the u(tranationa(ist, anti de Hau((e Se6ret Ar,) &r'aniIation >&AS?7 3he 6or#s 8as a di5ision o$ SA4, the se,io$$i6ia( se6urit) and inte((i'en6e unit o$ the Hau((ist #art)7 Beau Ser'e Foined SA4 at on6e7 3hou'h ad,ission nor,a(() reCuired t8o s#onsors, the ru(es 8ere 8ai5ed in ti,es o$ 6risis7 +urin' the Ma) 1968 student insurre6tion one ,ere() had to de6(are onese($ anti 4o,,unist and (oo- (i-e a *ruiser7 In the de Hau((e era an a(,ost re(i'ious aura surrounded SA4 Fust as it did the to8erin' #resident hi,se($7 3he ne8 re6ruit, +a5id, 8as #(a6ed on a red 6ar#et in the ,idd(e o$ a roo, 8ith dra8n, thi66urtains7 38o or three SA4 (eaders, $a6in' a 8a((, (istened to the en(istee as he s8ore a((e'ian6e 8ith his hand u#on a 4ross o$ =orraine and da''er7 A (eader 8ou(d then de6(are: @Dou are no8 our $o((o8er in (i$e and death7@A6B 4hristian +a5id, and hundreds o$ others #(u6-ed $ro, #rison $or an A('erian rendeI5ous, 8ere sent to a 6a,# in Sator)7 3here the) 8ere run throu'h a 6rash trainin' 6ourse in 8ea#onr), sa*ota'e, and hand to hand 6o,*at7 It (e$t (itt(e dou*t that their metiers 8ou(d *e ,urder and torture7 &n +e6e,*er 1 the @*ar*ouIes@ (anded in A('iers7 .eadCuarters 8ere set u# in Ki((a A $or Andrea at 8 1ue 0a*re in the E( Biar distri6t, and Ki((a B on the 6orner o$ 4he,in 1e)naud and 1ue 0aidher*e7A/B +a5id 8as insta((ed at Andrea% its rea( na,e, +ar Es Saada, ,eans the house o$ *(iss7 3he na,e $it7 A #rett) (ane (ed to its ,ain entran6e and to a (ar'e 'arden sto6-ed 8ith oran'e trees7 But the interior o$ this house o$ *(iss 8ou(d soon resound 8ith the s6rea,s o$ those tortured in its 6e((ar7 &AS terrorist a6ti5ities, (ed *) <ean <a6Cues Susini and 1o'er +e'ue(dre, 8ere at their #ea-7 Bo,*s hur(ed at A('erian restaurants, *uses, and #u*(i6 sCuares -i((ed hundreds o$ inno6ent *)standers7 An ex#(osion in Paris9 4harone Metro station -i((ed ei'ht #assen'ers and 8ounded thirt)7 3he order to the *ar*ouIe 6or#s 8as 6(ear: the &AS had to *e ha(ted at a(( 6osts7 3he ensuin' stru''(e *et8een the *ar*ouIes and &AS terrorists 8as *ruta( in the extre,e7 1ese,*(in' ,ore a *(ood) 5endetta than the usua( sort o$ 8ar, it *e6a,e a test o$ one9s i,a'ination $or atro6it)7 2hen se5en *ar*ouIe *odies 8ere $ound han'in' $ro, (a,# #osts (ess their ears and noses, no one dou*ted a ,ore 'rueso,e $ate a8aited the &AS7 &n 22 +e6e,*er 1961 the *ar*ouIes ex#(oded a

*o,* at the Hrand 1o6her restaurant, a -no8n &AS haunt, -i((in' t8e(5e7 Ei'ht da)s (ater a (ar'e &AS $or6e atta6-ed Ki((a B7 3he *ar*ouIes 8ere a*out to rin' in the Ne8 Dear 8hen *aIoo-a *(asts e6hoed a(( around the,7 0ourteen 8ere -i((ed and t8o 8ere 8ounded7 &n 2/ <anuar) 1962 the *ar*ouIes 6a#tured se5era( hi'h ran-in' &AS o$$i6ers, a,on' the, A(exandre 3iss(en-o$$, 8ho had dire6ted i((e'a( radio *road6asts7 3he 6a#ti5es 8ere ta-en to the *ase,ent o$ Ki((a A and tortured7 3iss(en-o$$ (ater re(ated his da)s o$ su$$erin' at the hands o$ three ,en: a Kietna,ese, a 0ren6h,an 8ho ran a -arate s6hoo( in Paris, and a third ,an 8ho s8a''erin'() identi$ied hi,se($ as the @inte((e6tua( o$ the *ar*ouIes7@ 0our )ears (ater, in Paris, 3iss(en-o$$ 8ou(d re6o'niIe the (ast ,entioned hat6het ,an as 4hristian +a5id7 In his *oo- <9A66use emarchand, 8hi6h 8as *anned and destro)ed in 0ran6e, 3iss(en-o$$ des6ri*ed *ein' tortured *) thrashin', su$$o6ation, and e(e6tro6ution, and 6(ai,ed that Pierre =e,ar6hand 8as #resent $or #art o$ it7A8B 3he (atter, to'ether 8ith +o,iniCue Pon6hardier, headed the Mou5e,ent Pour (a 4o,,unaut-, an ad ho6 Hau((ist 'rou# under 8hose aus#i6es the *ar*ouIe 6or#s 8as $or,ed7 SA4 a'ents ransa6-ed the #u*(ishin' house as 3iss(en-o$$9s *oo- 8as a*out to 'o to #ress7 29 <anuar) 1962, (i-e an) other da) at Ki((a Andrea, 8as $i((ed 8ith 6ries o$ #ain, #ro$anit), and *(a6- hu,or7 +a5id and =e,ar6hand 8ere a8a)7 Inside 8ere a tota( o$ t8ent) nine *ar*ouIes and #risoners7 At !:00 PM there 8as a 5io(ent ex#(osion7 3he 5i((a rose (i-e a ro6-et as ,en and 6on6rete 8ere hur(ed doIens o$ )ards throu'h the air7 3he &AS had de6i,ated Ki((a Andrea 8ith 1!0 -i(os o$ ex#(osi5es7 Mira6u(ous(), ten ,en sur5i5ed7 Se5en 8ere *ar*ouIes, a,on' the, +o,iniCue Kenturi, 8ho (ater *e6a,e one o$ 0ran6e9s (eadin' dru' ,er6hants% three 8ere #risoners, a,on' the, 3iss(en-o$$7 A(( had *een in the 'arden at the ti,e7 In rea6tin' to su6h 5io(en6e, 4hristian +a5id sho8ed no restraint7 3he death o$ a $riend 6ou(d dri5e hi, *erser-7 0or,er SA4 a'ent Patri6e 4hairo$$, a(ias +o,iniCue 4a(Ii, 6(ai,s that +a5id 8as res#onsi*(e $or the ,urder o$ $i$t) $our #eo#(e in his se5en to ei'ht ,onths in A('eria7 @.e 8as a *orn -i((er,@ sa)s 4hairo$$7A9B 2hen Beau Ser'e returned short() a$ter the ex#(osion, he sa8 red at the si'ht o$ the #risoners 8ho had es6a#ed the $ate o$ his nineteen 6o,rades, 8hose re,ains 8ere s#(attered e5er)8here7 +e,andin' su,,ar) exe6ution o$ the #risoners, he (un'ed at 3iss(en-o$$7 .ad it not *een $or o$$i6ers 8ho inter5ened, 8rote 3iss(en-o$$, +a5id 8ou(d ha5e -i((ed hi, 8ith his *are hands7 3he &AS su66ess 8as short (i5ed7 3he *ar*ouIes, unti( then re'arded in 0ran6e as a shad) out$it, 8ere *uried as heroes7 3heir (eaders 6ried $or re5en'e7 But the *ar*ouIes needed no #roddin'7 3he) 'ained ,ore than their re5en'e7 2hen the s,o-e 6(eared $i5e ,onths (ater on 3 <u() 1962, A('eria 8as inde#endent, and the 5endetta had 6(ai,ed the (i5es o$ 110 *ar*ouIes, o5er "00 &AS terrorists, and a $ar 'reater nu,*er o$ *)standers7 Six )ears (ater a #i(e o$ *odies 8as $ound *uried in the 'arden surroundin' Ki((a Andrea9s re,ains7 Man) had s-u((s ridd(ed 8ith hi'h 6a(i*er *u((et ho(es7 A ne8 8or(d had o#ened u# to 4hristian +a5id in A('eria7 .e esta*(ished ,an) 6onta6ts 6ru6ia( to his (ater 6areer7 A,on' his $i'htin' *uddies had *een: Mi6he( Ni6o(i, An'e Si,on#ieri, Andre =a*a), Mi6he( Ki6tor MertI, 1o'er +e(ouette, <o Attia, <ean Pa(isse, Heor'es Bou6hesei6he, 0ran6ois Mar6antoni, +o,iniCue Kenturi, <ean Au'e, 1o'er +adoun, =ouis Nes,oI, +idier Barone, Pau( Mondo(ini, and Mar6e( 0ran6is6i7 A(( e5entua(() rose to the to# o$ the 0ren6h under8or(d7 A(( tra$$i6-ed in nar6oti6s, and near() a(( re,ained in tou6h 8ith 0ren6h inte((i'en6e7

Beau Ser'e had Cui6-() as6ended to the ran-s o$ the *ar*ouIe e(ite7 .e had *e6o,e the $riend o$ su6h nota*(es as =e,ar6hand, Pon6hardier, and Bar*erot7 &5erni'ht he 8as trans$or,ed $ro, a 5o)ou >#un-? into a ,an to *e res#e6ted7 In the ,onths $o((o8in' his return $ro, A('iers, +a5id (a) (o8 to a5oid a 5indi6ti5e &AS7 .e (od'ed in6o'nito in Marsei((es9 Saint Ki6tor Cuarter, and soon had t8o #rostitutes 8or-in' $or hi,7A10B .o8e5er, +a5id had #er$or,ed so i,#ressi5e() in A('eria that he 8as ur'ed to *e6o,e a $u(( ti,e a'ent o$ the S+E4E7A11B .e Fu,#ed at the 6han6e and 8as 'i5en the 6o,#(ete trainin' 6ourse at the Saint 4)rau Mont d9&r #o(i6e a6ade,)7A12B :#on 'raduation +a5id 8ent on a (on' series o$ ,issions in A$ri6a, #arti6u(ar() in Moro66o7 It9s a(so *e(ie5ed he 8as sent to =atin A,eri6a t8i6e *et8een 1962 and 196!7 .e s#e6ia(iIed in 8ea#ons dea(s and the e(i,ination o$ inde#endent dea(ers 8ho en6roa6hed on S+E4E territor)7 Most() he too- on ,issions $or <a6Cues 0o66art9s s#e6ia( $or6es% he a(so te,#orari() s(id *a6- o5er to SA47 In 0ran6e he he(#ed the Hau((ists $ix e(e6tions7 :nder Cuestionin' in the :7S7 in 19/2 he ad,itted o$ten stea(in' o##osition *a((ots7A13B Bet8een inte((i'en6e assi'n,ents +a5id ,inded not on() his o8n a$$airs, *ut a(so those o$ <o Attia, 8ho 8as o$$i6ia(() in #rison and, $or a #eriod, in exi(e in A$ri6a7 +a5id ran t8o o$ Attia9s houses o$ i((re#ute7 In the e5enin's he 6ou(d o$ten *e seen at Attia9s Ha5ro6he *ar in the 6o,#an) o$ 'an'sters Heor'es 0i'on, Heor'es Bou6hesei6he, and <u(ien (e N)7A1"B In those )ears Beau Ser'e #(a)ed stran'e 'a,es in the under8or(d, 'ainin' a $ootin' in the Huerini 6(an, and e5entua(() *e6o,in' *oss Me,e Huerini9s 6on$idante7A1!B A 4orsi6an 'an'ster (ater to(d #o(i6e o$ a 6urious su,,it on 1" <anuar) 196! in Antoine Huerini9s house in the =a Ha(enIana distri6t o$ Marsei((es7 4orsi6an (eaders 8ere 6onte,#(atin' the (iCuidation o$ $or,er #o(i6e su#erintendent 1o*ert B(e,ant, 8ho had 6ar5ed his o8n su66ess$u( ni6he in the under8or(d7 @A(( the 6ri,ina( *osses o$ 0ran6e 8ere there, and so,e $ro, Her,an) and 0ran6e as 8e((7 E5er)one a8aited the arri5a( o$ the Huerini *rothers7 Sudden() the door o#ened and in 8a(-ed a ,an 8ith an 117"3 6a(i*er in one hand7 It 8as Beau Ser'e7 .e ordered a(( o$ us to rea6h $or the s-) 8hi(e he $ris-ed us7 2hen he 8as throu'h Antoine and Me,e Huerini 6a,e in7A16B At the ,eetin' +a5id a((e'ed() an'ered the Huerinis *) 5otin' a'ainst B(e,ant9s e(i,ination7A1/B Nonethe(ess three hit ,en shot B(e,ant do8n short() a$ter8ard7 &ne o$ the ,urderers, Pierre 4o(o,*ani, 8as tortured and s(ain in AFa66io, 4orsi6a a $e8 ,onths (ater7 Se5era( Huerini 6(an ,e,*ers sus#e6ted that +a5id had done hi, in7A18B 0ro, 1962 to 1966 +a5id 6ou(d *e $ound e5er)8here7 <o Attia9s *and o$ thu's 8as then -no8n #ri,ari() $or their #o(iti6a( dirt) 8or-7 2hi(e <o the 3erri*(e 8as in #rote6ti5e 6on$ine,ent or exi(e, Bou6hesei6he 8as in 6har'e7 But the (atter 8as usua(() in Moro66o tendin' his 6hain o$ *rothe(s, and +a5id o$ten 8or-ed instead $or the )oun' =)ons *ased =es6a 'an', 6entered around 0e(ix =es6a, +idier Barone and =ouis Nes,oI7A19B 3o'ether the) #u((ed o$$ one o$ the #eriod9s ,ost auda6ious, 8e(( exe6uted heists, the 196" ar,ed ro**er) o$ the 4o(o,*o Fe8e(ers in Mi(an, 8hi6h netted the, *et8een E2 and E27! ,i((ion7 +urin' a *ad() needed 5a6ation in BiarritI on the At(anti6, +a5id too- ti,e o$$ to re(ie5e an ar,ored 6ar $ro, the BreCuet $a6tor) o$ E!0,0007A20B Short() therea$ter Beau Ser'e 8as a $reCuent 'uest at =eon (e <ui$ in Paris7A21B .e a(so ,et 8ith SA4 (eader 4har(e) =as6orI7 I$ the #o(i6e had 8anted to arrest hi,, the) 6ou(d ha5e7

It is a(so (i-e() that 4hristian +a5id 8as 8ith Attia9s 'an' 8hen the) a*du6ted &AS 6o(one( Antoine Ar'oud $ro, 2est Her,an) to 0ran6e on orders $ro, <a6Cues 0o66art7 +e$eat in A('iers had not s#e((ed the end o$ the &AS, 8hi6h 6ontinued s#oradi6 terrorist a6tions 8hi(e in exi(e7 Its ,e,*ers *o,*ed restaurants and ,o5ie theaters in 0ran6e, and ,ade nu,erous darin' atte,#ts on the (i$e o$ President de Hau((e7 4o(one( Ar'oud, a hi'h() inte((i'ent and intri'uin' $i'ure, headed the or'aniIation in exi(e7 .e 8as the *rains *ehind its terrorist a6ti5ities and assassination atte,#ts7 &n 1" 0e*ruar) 1963 de Hau((e9s se6urit) $or6es un6o5ered a ne8 6ons#ira6) to ,urder the #resident7 A shar#shooter 8as to $e(( the #resident $ro, *ehind as he de(i5ered a s#ee6h at a ,i(itar) a6ade,)7 In$uriated, de Hau((e su,,oned the ,an res#onsi*(e $or se6urit), Interior Minister 0re)7 3he 0ren6h #resident had had his $i(( o$ assassination atte,#ts7 0re) 8ent to 0o66art, 8ho #ut his inte((i'en6e a'ents to 8or-7 &n 0e*ruar) 22 one o$ 0o66art9s ,en in 1o,e re#orted that Ar'oud 8as en route to Muni6h, 8here he 8ou(d sta) $or the 6arni5a(7 0o66art 6onta6ted the 2est Her,an inte((i'en6e 6Iar 1einhard Heh(en, a $or,er 'enera( under .it(er, and reCuested his he(# in *rin'in' Ar'oud to 0ran6e7 But Heh(en 8ou(d ha5e nothin' to do 8ith the #(an, ,a-in' its exe6ution a(( the ,ore di$$i6u(t no8 that Her,an inte((i'en6e 8as ti##ed o$$7 0o66art sti(( had his *ar*ouIe ar,) to turn to, and 6hose <o Attia9s ,o* $or the Fo*7 <o the 3erri*(e, then in exi(e in A$ri6a, 'ot the 'reen (i'ht to return7 &n 0e*ruar) 2! Ar'oud arri5ed in Muni6h $ro, a 1o,e hudd(e 8ith &AS (eaders7 +ri5in' $ro, the train station to the Eden 2o($$ hote(, he 6ou(d not ha5e -no8n that ha($ a doIen dis'uised *ar*ouIes a8aited hi,7 .anded the -e) to roo, "3", Ar'oud 8as a*out to enter the e(e5ator 8hen he 8as a66osted *) t8o ,en in (eather #ants and 3)ro(ian hats7 3he re6e#tionist (ater re6a((ed assu,in' the ,en 8ere $riends o$ the 4o(one(9s and o$$ to ha5e so,e $un% a$ter a((, it 8as 6arni5a( ti,e and the *eer 8as $(o8in'7 Ar'oud hi,se($ sudden() $e(t as i$ *oth his ar,s 8ere in a 5ise7 =ea5in' the hote( one o$ the ,en #ressed a $in'er a'ainst the #ressure #oint under his ear, 6ausin' Ar'oud to $aint7 3he *ar*ouIes #(a6ed their ar,s around his shou(ders, 8a(-ed o5er to a 1enau(t 0ri'ate, and dro5e o$$7 3he 6ar headed out o$ Muni6h to8ards the Euro#a Brid'e *et8een ;eh( and Strass*our', 0ran6e, ra6in' do8n the @third (ane@ reser5ed $or a((ied $or6es in Her,an)7 Its (i6ense #(ate re5ea(ed its atta6h,ent to the 0ren6h ar,)7 3he next da) Parisian #o(i6e re6ei5ed a stran'e #hone ,essa'e a*out a *(ue tru6- #ar-ed at the entran6e to Notre +a,e 6athedra(7 Inside 8as a #a6-a'e the #o(i6e 8ere sure to $ind interestin'7 3he ,an on dut) 8as in6(ined to disre'ard the 6a((, *ut sent t8o #atro(,en to ins#e6t the tru6-7 It 8as #ar-ed as des6ri*ed7 2hen the #o(i6e,en *ro-e o#en the door the) $ound a ,an ()in' *ound and 'a''ed, his $a6e 6ri,son $ro, a *(ood) nose7 @Mon dieuP@ 6ried one o$ the o$$i6ers, @It9s 4o(one( Ar'oudP@ 3he a*du6tion *e6a,e an internationa( s6anda(7 +i#(o,ati6 8hee(s ro((ed7 3he Bonn re'i,e, su##orted *) the :nited States, addressed a shar#() 8orded note to the 0ren6h de,andin' Ar'oud9s return to Muni6h7 4)ni6s 8ho *e(ie5ed the 4IA had ta-en #art in atte,#ts on de Hau((e9s (i$e, 6har'ed that the A,eri6ans had *een in tou6h 8ith Ar'oud7 But the Paris re'i,e re$used to re(ease the &AS 6o(one(7 .e 8as i,#risoned, *ut #ardoned in 1968 a$ter de Hau((e issued a 'enera( a,nest) $or $or,er &AS ,e,*ers 8hen $or6ed to do so *) 0ren6h o$$i6ers 8ho had ,ade it a 6ondition $or their su##ort durin' the 1968 student (ed stri-e7 A$ter his re(ease, Ar'oud announ6ed he had re6o'niIed <o Attia as one o$ his -idna##ers7 It 8asn9t the $irst ti,e

<a6Cues 0o66art had treaded on the $eet o$ $orei'n 'o5ern,ents and inte((i'en6e ser5i6es, and it 8asn9t the (ast ti,e 'an'sters 8ou(d *e his too(s7 P#s7 !1 !8
NOTES 17 A7 <au*ert: %ossier %. #omme %rogue >A(ain Moreau, 152=/. 7. A urore, 1; <une 152:.

6. A66ordin' to 0ren6h Fourna(ist <ean Monta(do, +a5id 8as a(so Fai(ed te,#orari() in Poiss) Penitentiar) outside Paris7 .is 6e((,ates there 8ere the 'an'sters Hoer'es 0i'on, 8ho 8as (ater ,urdered, #ro*a*() *) Beau Ser'e, and 0ran6ois Mar6antoni, a -e) $i'ure in the stran'e 6ase o$ the ,urder o$ Ste$an Mar-o5i6, the *od)'uard o$ the A6tor A(ain +e(on7 =. 17 Bar*erot: A ?ras le #oeur >1o*ert =a$$ont, 1527/. 3he B(a6- 4o,,andos, the inte((i'en6e a'en6) S+E4E9s s#e6ia( in$i(tration units in A('iers, 8ere atta6hed to the 11th Para6hute Sho6- Bri'ade7 :. (ewsday, 1= 0e*ruar) 1526 ;. 3he Ne8s8ee- Sta$$: The ,eroin Trail >Sou5enir Press, 152=/. 2. =7 Bitter(in: ,istoire des ?ar"ou+es >Editions du Pa(ais 1o)a(, 1527/. 87 A7 3iss(en-o$$: E'Accuse emarchand >Editions Saint <ust, 15;;/. 97 0ro, the author9s inter5ie8 8ith 4hairo$$7 107 =7 +urand: e #aid >+enoe(, 152;/. 117 &thers a(so too- noti6e o$ the *ar*ouIe e(ite, 8hose terror #a6i$i6ation ta6ti6s 8ere inno5ati5e: @Ed =ansda(e, +es,ond 0itI'era(d, 4o(*) and others too- it o5er as #art o$ their o8n ,ethod o$ o#eration7 Pa6i$i6ation in this s#e6ia( sense *e6a,e #art o$ the :7S7 Ar,) S#e6ia( 0or6es trainin' do6trine7 3he Phoenix ProFe6t 8as the assassination >to use =)ndon <ohnson9s ter,s, 93he Murder In679? #art o$ #a6i$i6ation7@ >=707 Prout), *amparts, &6to*er 1526/. 17. <au*ert, o#7 cit. 16. 3he Ne8sda) Sta$$, o#7 cit. 1=. <au*ert, o#7 cit . 1:. SaraIin, o#7 cit. 1;. M7 A66osta: @S,u--e Ser'e,@ Driminal Eournalen, Mar6h 1524 . 12. $"id. 14. +a5id ,i'ht 8e(( ha5e *een dou*(in' as an in$or,er7 1e6a(( that throu'h his inte((i'en6e 8or- and 'ueri((a a6ti5ities $or SA4, +a5id 8as 8or-in' $or the Hau((ist inner 6ir6(e7 3he (atter 'rou# su##orted the 0ran6is6i 6(an in its #o8er stru''(e a'ainst the Huerinis, 8ho *a6-ed the So6ia(ists7 +a5id o$ten $reCuented the =eon (e <ui$ *ar in Paris9 Se5enteenth +istri6t, the -no8n rendeI5ous o$ the assistant 6hie$ o$ #o(i6e inte((i'en6e, <ean 4ai((e, Pierre =e,ar6hand, and their under8or(d 6onne6tions7 SaraIin, o#7 cit. 15. 3he =es6a 'an', a(so -no8n as the @Bri6o(e@ 'an', 8as a(so 6onne6ted to =e,ar6hand and 0o66art9s inte((i'en6e net8or- >+7 Huerin: es Assassins de ?en ?ar!a, Hu) Authier, 152:/ and 8or-ed es#e6ia(() 6(ose() 8ith the =)ons SA4 6hie$, <ean Au'e >SaraIin, o#7 cit./.

7>. <au*ert, o#7 cit. 71. SaraIin, o#7 cit.


3he &6to*er 196! -idna#in' o$ the Moro66an exi(e (eader Mehdi Ben Bar-a 8as the ,ost 6ontro5ersia( and darin' a$$air in5o(5in' 4hristian +a5id7 &$ the t8entieth 6entur)9s ,ost 6onseCuentia( #o(iti6a( ,e(odra,as, the Ben Bar-a 6ase ran-s 8ith the ,urder o$ <ohn 07 ;enned)7 It re,ains an unso(5ed #uII(e, 8ith unex#(oded $ire8or-s that sti(( haunt s#oo-s on *oth sides o$ the At(anti67 3here is a se,io$$i6ia( s6enario, *ut it is $u(( o$ ho(es7 3o ,a-e the stor) ho(d 8ater ,an) o$ the in5o(5ed ha5e *een -i((ed, threatened, or ruined7 In 1980, $i$teen )ears a$ter Ben Bar-a9s disa##earan6e, that stor) re,ains as du*ious and $u(( o$ ho(es as e5er7 3he 6urrent 5ersion 'oes so,ethin' (i-e this: 3he Moro66an ;in' .assan II, Interior Minister Henera( Moha,,ed &u$-ir, and his se6urit) 6hie$, 4o(one( Ah,ed +(i,i, 6ons#ired 8ith ,e,*ers o$ the 0ren6h 'o5ern,ent and its inte((i'en6e ar,, the S+E4E, to (ure Ben Bar-a to Paris, 8here he 8ou(d *e turned o5er to Moro66an es#iona'e a'ents7 3he a*du6tion 8as exe6uted as #(anned on &6to*er 297 Ben Bar-a 8as ta-en to a house in the Paris su*ur*, 0ontena) (e Ki6o,te7 3he $o((o8in' e5enin' Henera( &u$-ir, 4o(one( +(i,i, and Moro66an inte((i'en6e a'ents arri5ed7 Soon therea$ter Ben Bar-a 8as tortured and -i((ed *) &u$-ir hi,se($, and *uried *) hired 6roo-s7 I,#(i6ated 8ere the Moro66an 'o5ern,ent, 6ertain (eadin' 0ren6h #o(iti6ians, the 0ren6h inte((i'en6e a'en6) S+E4E, and 'an'sters 6onne6ted to it% no one e(se, a66ordin' to the o$$i6ia( 5ersion, 8as in5o(5ed7 +e Hau((e *e(ie5ed, 8ith 'ood reason, that he had *een hood8in-ed *) so,e o$ his o8n ,en 8ho had *een in 6ahoots 8ith the 4IA, 8hi6h he *(a,ed $or the entire a$$air7 A,aIin'(), thou'h, the 4IA 6a,e out s,e((in' (i-e a rose7 3he on() ones to *e dis'ra6ed in the ensuin' tria( 8ere the Moro66ans and 0ren6h inte((i'en6e, their under8or(d a((ies ha5in' (on' sin6e *een 6o,#ro,ised77 Not 6oin6identa((), the tria( 8as #un6tuated *) interru#tions, #ost#one,ents, the (iCuidation o$ t8o star 8itnesses, the disa##earan6e o$ a nu,*er o$ the i,#(i6ated, and the deaths o$ three 0ren6h attorne)s $or the Ben Bar-a $a,i()7 &u$-ir and ,e,*ers o$ his se6urit) sta$$ 8ere senten6ed in a"sentia to (i$e in #rison7 Se5era( 0ren6h,en, a,on' the, #o(i6e and inte((i'en6e a'ents, re6eii5ed u# to ei'ht )ears7 S+E4E 6hie$ Pau( <a6Cuier 8as sa6-ed7 Pri,e Minister Heor'es Po,#idou, Interior Minister 1o'er 0re), and de Hau((e9s son in (a8 , ,e,*er o$ Par(ia,ent Pierre =e,ar6hand, 8ere a(( *(asted *) de Hau((e7 3o the stunned #o#u(a6e that 8as as $ar as the s6anda( 8ent, and it 8as $ar enou'h7 But 8hat rea(() ha##enedG 2h) did so ,an) stru''(e so des#erate() to -ee# the (id onG So $ar the su66ession o$ theories and ru,ors ha5e a(( (a6-ed 6redi*i(it)7 .o8e5er, in re6ent )ears additiona( as#e6ts o$ the Ben Bar-a

a$$air ha5e 6o,e to (i'ht throu'h s6attered detai(s in ,an) *oo-s and arti6(es7 A(one, these $a6ts see, insi'ni$i6ant7 3o'ether the) $or, a (ead that 6an *e $o((o8ed7 I e,#hasiIe stron'() that the $o((o8in' s6enario is ,) own. M) (in-in' o$ the ,an) $a6ts is hypothetical. 3he $o((o8in', there$ore, is not ne6essari() @the truth a*out the Ben Bar-a a$$air@ nor an exhausti5e a66ount o$ 8hat o66urred, *e6ause this is not a *oo- a*out the Ben Bar-a a$$air7 1ather, I tr) to sho8 that we still haven't "een told the truth, that the 4IA 8as in5o(5ed, and that the Ben Bar-a a$$air has to this da) (e$t so,e un$inished *usiness in the nether8or(d o$ s#oo-s7 0urther,ore, this 8i(( 6(ari$) one reason $or 4hristian +a5id9s anxieties in Fai(7 Mehidi Ben Bar-a 8a9s $ort) $our )ears o(d 8hen he disa##eared7 0ro, an ear() a'e he had *een a Iea(ous 6ha,#ion o$ Moro66an inde#enden6e and o$ a So6ia(ist $uture $or his 6ountr)7 0or a #eriod in the (ate $orties he 8as the ,athe,ati6s instru6tor o$ .assan, son o$ Moha,,ed K, 8ho *e6a,e the #resent ;in' .assan II7 In 19!2, 8ith Moro66o sti(( under 0ren6h ru(e, Ben Bar-a 8as *anished to the desert, and there he de5oted ,u6h o$ his ti,e to stud)7 In 19!6 Moro66o 'ained its inde#enden6e7 3hree )ears (ater Ben Bar-a $ounded the :nion Nationa(e des 0or6es Po#u(aire >:N0P?7 In 1961 .assan 8as 6ro8ned and a##ointed hi,se($ the #ri,e ,inister7 In the 1963 Nationa( Asse,*() e(e6tion Ben Bar-a9s #art), the :N0P, 8on t8ent) ei'ht seats, 8hi(e another re$or,ist #art), IstiC(a(, 'ained $ort) one7 3he t8o 8ere ex#e6ted to $or, a 6oa(ition, 8hi6h 8as a threat to the -in'9s ru(in' #art), 0+I4, 8hi6h itse($ 6(ai,ed sixt) nine seats7 In <u() 1963, t8o ,onths a$ter the e(e6tion, se6urit) 6hie$ &u$-ir dis6(osed a @#(ot@ a'ainst the -in'7 A s8orn de5otee o$ $euda( ru(e and a $(a,in' anti 4o,,unist, &u$-ir 6ra6-ed do8n hard a'ainst the @6ons#irators7@ In Mar6h 196" the 6ourt o$ 1a*at senten6ed se5ent)se5en o##osition #o(iti6ians7 E(e5en 8ere 6onde,ned to death, thou'h ei'ht had a(read) $(ed7 A,on' those senten6ed to death in a"sentia 8as Ben Bar-a7 A66ordin' to a re#ort o$ the Internationa( 4o,,ission o$ <urists, 8hi6h $o((o8ed the tria(, e5iden6e $or the #(ot 8as s6ant) at *est7 2hether or not the #(ot 8as &u$-ir9s $a*ri6ation, its un6o5erin' 8as a *oon to his 6areer7 0ro, 196" on he 8as Moro66o9s interior ,inister and stron' ,an, the ,an the 4IA su##orted and 8or-ed 8ith in Moro66o7 At the ti,e Ethio#ia and Moro66o 8ere A,eri6a9s t8o ,ost i,#ortant A$ri6an a((ies7 3he) re6ei5ed the (ion9s share o$ :7S7 e6ono,i6 and ,i(itar) aid, and Moro66o9s ;enitra air *ase 8as a $o6a( #oint o$ 4IA a6ti5it) in A$ri6a and the Midd(e East7 3he :7S7 a,*assador to Moro66o in 196!, .enr) <7 3as6a, (ater *e6a,e -no8n $or his ser5i6e in Hree6e, 8here he su##orted the 6o(one(s9 Funta7 3he 4IA station 6hie$, 1o*ert 2e((s, 6oordinated 4IA assistan6e to the Moro66an se6urit) #o(i6e in eradi6atin' #o(iti6a( o##onents o$ the re'i,e7 3he A,eri6ans too- a -een interest in Ben Bar-a in 196! 8hen he set u# a Hene5a *ase $or his 3hird 2or(d tra5e(s7 Ben Bar-a had *een e(e6ted 6hair,an o$ the steerin' 6o,,ittee $or the $irst 3ri6ontinenta( 4on'ress, to *e he(d 3 10 <anuar) 1966 in .a5ana, 4u*a7 3he 6on$eren6e 8as s(ated to *e a 3hird 2or(d ,i(estone, de,onstratin' so(idarit) and *rotherhood in the *att(e a'ainst i,#eria(is,7 It 8as a thorn in the side o$ the :7S7 in ,ore 8a)s than one7 3he A,eri6ans hadn9t 'i5en u# ho#e o$ @(i*eratin'@ 4u*a7 Moreo5er, 2ashin'ton had 'ood reason to $ear that the *uddin' 3hird 2or(d so(idarit) 8ou(d (ead to a stron', united $ront a'ainst the :7S7 and A,eri6an *usiness interests a*road7

In 196! ;in' .assan *e'an airin' the #ossi*i(it) o$ #ardonin' Ben Bar-a and a((o8in' hi, to return to #arti6i#ate in #o(iti6s, under the -in'9s 6onditions7 .assan 8ent so $ar as to send an e,issar) to Hene5a to ne'otiate 8ith Ben Bar-a7 It9s i,#ossi*(e to -no8 8hether the -in'9s 'esture 8as sin6ere7 .assan ,i'ht ha5e *een #art o$ the #(ot $ro, the 5er) *e'innin'7 More (i-e(), thou'h, the -in' 8as ho#in' to enti6e Ben Bar-a *a6- to Moro66o o$ his o8n $ree 8i((, *ut needed the he(# o$ the 0ren6h7 3he hood8in-in' 're8 out o$ dis6ussions *et8een &u$-ir and the 4IA7 A,*assador 3as6a inCuired at 4IA Paris headCuarters a*out the #ossi*i(it) o$ he(#in' return Ben Bar-a to Moro66o7A1B 3he 4IA 8as #ri,ari() interested in #re5entin' Ben Bar-a9s attendan6e at the 3ri 6ontinenta( 4on'ress, and in (earnin' o$ #re#arations a(read) under 8a)7 Moreo5er, the 4IA 8anted to -ee# Ben Bar-a out o$ Moro66an #o(iti6s7 A(( three 'oa(s 6ou(d on() *e rea(ised *) (iCuidatin' hi, or ta-in' hi, to Moro66o and #uttin' hi, under #er,anent house arrest7 &u$-ir 8as ,ost 6on6erned 8ith ensurin' Ben Bar-a9s #er,anent a*sen6e $ro, Moro66an #o(iti6s7 .is se6ond #riorit) 8as ser5in' the 4IA7 3he #ossi*i(it) 6annot *e o5er(oo-ed that the 4IA and &u$-ir had a(read) ,ade #(ans $or Moro66o9s $uture7 7 7 #(ans that (ed to &u$-ir9s 6atastro#hi6 6ou# atte,#t se5en )ears (ater7 And 8hat o$ the a$$air9s s6a#e'oatsG .o8 did 0ran6e $ee( a*out Ben Bar-a9s return to Moro66o and his tri# to the 3ri6ontinenta( 4on'ressG In ,) o#inion 0ran6e 8as (ed *) the nose *) its o8n inte((i'en6e a'ents 8ho 8ere a6tua(() 6oo#eratin' 8ith the 4IA7 A$ter a((, the Ben Bar-a a$$air too#(a6e at the nadir o$ 0ran6o A,eri6an re(ations7 +e Hau((e, intent on stren'thenin' 0ran6e9s 3hird 2or(d re(ations to the detri,ent o$ the :SA9s, had Fust returned $ro, =atin A,eri6a, 8here he had ex#ressed 8ho(e hearted su##ort $or 3hird 2or(d nationa(is,7 +e Hau((e 8as 5er) ,u6h interested in the 3ri6ontinenta( 4on'ress, and e5en ,ore so in Ben Bar-a9s re6on6i(iation 8ith ;in' .assan and su*seCuent return to Moro66an #o(iti6s7 3hat 8ou(d under,ine the :7S7 #osition in North A$ri6a and 8ea-en &u$-ir, 8ho, de Hau((e des#ised $or aidin' &AS $i'ures $o((o8in' the 8ar in A('eria7 It 8as not in 0ran6e9s o$$i6ia( interest to ha5e Ben Bar-a -i((ed7 But 8ithin de Hau((e9s o8n #art) hierar6h) 8ere #eo#(e 8ho 8ent their o8n 8a), at ti,es 8or-in' 8ith the 4IA7 As usua(, one 6an9t he(# sus#e6tin' de Hau((e9s 're) e,inen6e, <a6Cues 0o66art, 8ho 8as 'oin' his o8n 8a), at the ti,e, in =atin A,eri6a7 .o8e5er, 0o66art had Fust seen his A$ri6an #o(i6ies *a6-$ire, and 8ou(d (i-e() hesitate *e$ore ris-in' another ,aFor *(under7 Moreo5er, unti( then 0o66art had *een se6ret() su##()in' Ben Bar-a 8ith ,one) and ar,s7A2B It ,ust ha5e *een either ;in' .assan or his trusted 4o(one( +(i,i 8ho, in sear6h o$ 0ren6h assistan6e, #resented a #(an $or 6o((a*oration to the (i-es o$ Interior Minister 1o'er 0re), <a6Cues 0o66art, and Pierre =e,ar6hand7 3he #(an, ho8e5er, 8as hard() as e(a*orate as the one hat6hed *) &u$-ir and the 4IA, 8ith or 8ithout ;in' .assan9s 6onsent7 3he #(an sho8n to de Hau((e9s #eo#(e #ro*a*() 8as (i,ited to *rin'in' Ben Bar-a to Paris and ho(din' hi, there on sus#i6ion o$ nar6oti6s s,u''(in', unti( he and the Moro66ans had rea6hed an a'ree,ent on .assan9s o$$er7A3B 2hat9s ,ost i,#ortant is that the #(an in5o(5ed the 0ren6h and the Moro66ans on()7 <ud'in' $ro, a##earan6es, .assan e5en as-ed =e,ar6hand at the start to ne'otiate 8ith Ben Bar-a7 Pa#ers (ater $ound on a ,urdered -e) 8itness indi6ate that =e,ar6hand had Fotted do8n the -in'9s 6onditions $or #resentation to Ben Bar-a7 3he 0ren6h a'reed to (ure Ben Bar-a to Paris, in the *e(ie$ it 8ou(d he(# *oth the -in' and the exi(ed (eader7 0o66art and =e,ar6hand a(so anti6i#ated 5ie8in' #(ans $or the 3ri6ontinenta( 4on'ress so that the) 6ou(d suita*() adFust 0ren6h #o(i6)7

A66ordin' to #(an, *oth Moro66an and 0ren6h es#iona'e a'ents shado8ed Ben Bar-a in Hene5a7 But &u$-ir sou'ht inde#endent inte((i'en6e intended neither $or .assan nor $or the 0ren6h7 .ad he assi'ned the Fo* to the 4IA, it 8ou(d ha5e *een too ris-), sin6e it 8ou(d Cui6-() ha5e aroused 0ren6h sus#i6ions7 .e reCuested instead the aid o$ the Israe(i inte((i'en6e a'en6), Mossad7A"B 3hou'h it ,i'ht sound stran'e toda), Israe( and Moro66o 8ere on ex6e((ent ter,s in the sixties so ex6e((ent that Moro66an es#iona'e a'ents 8ere trained in Israe(7 &u$-ir, 6(ai,in' his o8n ,en 8ere not u# to the assi'n,ent, reCuested the (oan o$ Israe(i a'ents $ro, Mossad 6hie$ Meir A,it7 A,it a'reed and sent a tea, o$ a'ents to shado8 Ben Bar-a in Hene5a7 A $e8 da)s (ater the) #honed in a re#ort that 0ren6h and Moro66an a'ents 8ere stu,*(in' o5er one another9s $eet7 3he Mossad 6hie$ 6a((ed o$$ his ,en and to(d &u$-ir he didn9t need three sets o$ a'ents to s#) on one ,an7 &u$-ir entrusted his *usiness in 0ran6e to his a'ent Moha,,ed Mi(oued, 6ode na,ed @4htou-i@7 3he t8o s#un a 8e* o$ 6ons#ira6) in5o(5in' ex6(usi5e() 0ren6h ,en 8ho either 8ere de6ei5ed *) or 8ere 8or-in' 8ith the 4IA7 Hettin' Ben Bar-a to Paris 8ou(d *e ta-en 6are o$ *) de Hau((e9s unsus#e6tin' sta$$7 0or the #ra6ti6a( detai(s the 0ren6h hired the 'an'ster Heor'es 0i'on, an a6Cuaintan6e o$ =e,ar6hand9s 8ho ,o5ed in ,an) di$$erent 6ir6(es7 Nuite 6asua(() the) (o6ated the $i(, dire6tor Heor'es 0ranFu, 8ho 8as then #(annin' an antii,#eria(ist $i(, and $an6ied ha5in' Ben Bar-a in a starrin' ro(e7 It 8as ex6e((ent *ait, $or i$ Ben Bar-a a'reed to 6o,e to Paris to dis6uss the $i(,, he 8ou(d *rin' his $i(e on the a##roa6hin' 3ri 6ontinenta( 6on$eren6e7 3he 'o *et8een 8as re#orted() Phi((i#e Bernier, a $riend o$ 0i'on9s 8ho -ne8 Ben Bar-a #ersona(()7 Ben Bar-a too- the *ait7 Enthusiasti6 a*out the ,o5ie, he a'reed to ,eet in Paris 8ith 0ranFu, Bernier, and 0i'on on 29 &6to*er 196! at the @+ru'store@ restaurant on Bou(e5ard Saint Her,ain des Pres7 Prior to Ben Bar-a9s arri5a(, ho8e5er, Heor'es 0i'on 6aused trou*(e7 Ner5ous, he as-ed to *e re,unerated $or ser5i6es rendered7 In <o Attia9s *ar, =e Ha5ro6he, he 6on$ided to a6Cuaintan6es that he9d soon *e #aid a s,a(( $ortune7 A,on' those a6Cuaintan6es 8as 4hristian +a5id7 &u$-ir de6ided he9d had it 8ith 0i'on, 8ho he ,ost (i-e() -ne8 8as 8or-in' $or =e,ar6hand7A!B &u$-ir o$$ered hi, a (u6rati5e Fo* in Moro66o, *ut 0i'on de6(ined, ha5in' *een ordered to han' on7 Around noon on &6to*er 29, Ben Bar-a 8as 8a(-in' throu'h Paris 8ith his $riend AIe,ouri, a Moro66an student7 3he t8o 8ere on their 8a) to ,eet 8ith the $i(,,a-ers7 A #atro( 6ar #u((ed u# in $ront o$ the Brasserie =i## restaurant on Bou(e5ard Saint Her,ain des Pres7 38o ,en ho##ed out, $(ashed #o(i6e *ad'es, and as-ed Ben Bar-a to Foin the,7 3here 8ere a(read) three ,en in the 6ar: &r() air#ort 6hie$ Antoine =o#eI, 0ren6h nar6oti6s (ieutenant =ouis Sou6hon, and the (atter9s assistant, 1o'er Koitot7 An a'ent $or the S+E4E, =o#eI 8as 6(ose to &u$-ir, 8ho had #ro,ised hi, the dire6torshi# o$ 1o)a( Air Maro6 i$ an)thin' 8ent 8ron'7 Heor'es Po,#idou had =o#eI 8or-in' 6(ose() as a s#e6ia( a'ent 8ith A,eri6a9s Paris nar6oti6s o$$i6e, a *eehi5e o$ 4IA a6ti5it)7A6B Sou6hon and Koitot 8ere si,i(ar() 6o((a*oratin' 8ith :7S7 nar-s7 =o#eI, ho8e5er, had a##arent() 6on5in6ed the, the a6tion 8as san6tioned *) <a6Cues 0o66art7 3he a*du6tion 8as initia(() 6a,ou$(a'ed as a dru' raid7 .ad an)thin' ,is$ired at the start, the) 6ou(d a(8a)s ha5e 6(ai,ed, truth$u(() enou'h, that Ben Bar-a 8as a sus#e6ted tra$$i6-er7

3he 6ar 8ith Ben Bar-a and the three 6o#s headed out o$ Paris, $o((o8ed 6(ose() *) another 6ontainin' Heor'es Bou6hesei6he, <u(ien (e N), Pierre +u*ai(, and <ean Pa(isse L a(( $ro, <o Attia9s 'an'7 =i-e Attia, Bou6hesei6he had 8or-ed $or the S+E4E7 .o8e5er, his true (o)a(t) 8as to Henera( &u$-ir, under 8hose 8in' he ran ni'ht6(u*s and *rothe(s in Moro66o7 3he t8o 6ars dro5e t8ent) -i(o,eters out o$ Paris to 0ontena) (e Ki6o,te, 8here Ben Bar-a 8as (ed into a house o8ned *) Bou6hesei6he7 =o#eI, Sou6hon, and Koitot dro5e a8a) i,,ediate(), (ea5in' *ehind the $our 'an'sters and t8o Moro66an a'ents7 Short() therea$ter =o#eI #honed 4o,,andant 0in5i((e o$ the S+E4E, a(ias Mar6e( =ero), and de(i5ered the ,essa'e: @Pedro to 3ho,as the #a6-a'e has *een de(i5ered7@ At the ti,e, Mar6e( =ero), 8ho 8as (ater $ired and i,#risoned $or his 6o,#(i6it) in the Ben Bar-a a$$air, 8as hi'h() 5a(ued *) the A,eri6ans7 3he 4IA 'ot hi, out o$ Fai( *) *(a6-,ai(in' the S+E4E and 0ren6h #o(iti6os throu'h Phi((i#e 3h)raud de VosColi, the 0ren6h s#) 8ho *e6a,e $riend() 8ith the 4IA a$ter un6o5erin' the So5iet ro6-et *ases on 4u*a7 +e VosColi's e #omite, 8hi6h the 0ren6h #ress s#e6u(ated 8as 'host8ritten *) =ero),A/B dis6(oses the #re5ious() ,entioned 0ren6h ,urder 6o,,ittee 8hose Fo* under de Hau((e 8as to 6ut do8n the #resident9s ene,ies7A8B In the *oo- de VosColi insists that 4o(one( Mar6e( Mer6ier, not =ero), 8as the @e5i( S+E4E ,an@ in the Ben Bar-a a$$air7 In a 6urious 6ha#ter a##arent() added to e #omite at the e(e5enth hour, =ero) des6ri*es *ein' su,,oned, short() *e$ore the Ben Bar-a in6ident, to the Mati'non *ui(din' 8here Po,#idou had his o$$i6es7 3here, to his sur#rise, he 8as ordered *) a 6ertain Monsieur =e'ros to 6o((a*orate 8ith Antoine =o#eI on a dru' 6ontro( ,easure, Ben Bar-a9s a*du6tion7 =ero) 6(ai,s to ha5e re$used un(ess the order 6a,e dire6t() $ro, his i,,ediate su#er5isor, 8hi6h it (ater did7 3he =e'ros 8ho, Mar6e( =ero) ,et in the Mati'non o$$i6e ,a) 8e(( ha5e *een 0ernand =e'ros, the #(a)*o), ,i((ionaire, art dea(er, 4IA a'ent, and ,e,*er o$ Po,#idou9s entoura'e 8ho (ater 6rossed #aths 8ith 4hristian +a5id under unusua( 6ir6u,stan6es7 =e'ros 8as a dou*(e a'ent7 A##earin' to 8or- $or *oth the S+E4E and 4IA, his (o)a(t) rested 8ith the A,eri6ans7 A #ersona( $riend o$ .enr) ;issin'er9s, =e'ros 8as the ,an the 4IA assi'ned to snoo# on :N se6retar) 'enera( +a' .a,,ars-Fo(d7 =e'ros he(#ed the 4IA -idna# the A$ri6an (eader Moise 3sho,*e7 And in 196! =e'ros 8as in #ersona( 6onta6t 8ith Ben Bar-a in Hene5a, 8here =e'ros ,aintained a residen6e and a (ar'e art 'a((er)7A9B 2hen =ero) re6ei5es the @Pedro to 3ho,as@ ,essa'e, a *i' Cuestion ,ar- arises7 2as the @#a6-a'e@ de(i5ered to the a##ro#riate #(a6eG Shou(d Ben Bar-a ha5e *een ta-en to an a(to'ether di$$erent (o6ation *) a'ree,ent 8ith the 0ren6hG And did =o#eI rea(() te(( =e,ar6hand that Ben Bar-a had *een @$reed@ *) #assen'ers >Bou6hesei6he9s ,u's? in another 6ar and hidden $ro, the #o(i6eG E5er)thin' su''ests so,ethin' ha##ened 8hi6h the #o(i6e 6ou(d do nothin' a*out7 3e(e#hone 8ires *e'an hu,,in' and the Moro66ans dashed into Paris, #erha#s to a##ear as ,u6h o5er6o,e *) #ani6 and dis,a) as 8ere the 0ren6h7 0irst 6a,e 4htou-i, then, hours (ater, se6urit) 6hie$ +(i,i7 0ina((), a da) a$ter the -idna#in', Henera( &u$-ir hi,se($ arri5ed7 0ro, here on no one see,s to a'ree on an)thin'7 3here9s a*so(ute() no #roo$ $or the o$$i6ia( 5ersion that #ut &u$-ir in 0ontena) (e Ki6o,te to ,urder Ben Bar-a that sa,e e5enin'7 3he on() *asis $or that theor) is a 10 <anuar) 1966 ' arti6(e in 8hi6h 0i'on re6ounts seein' &u$-ir torture and ,urder Ben Bar-a in the Paris su*ur* on the e5enin' o$ &6to*er 307 .o8e5er, the arti6(e9s ori'in is a ,)ster)7 A 6o#) o$ 0i'on9s a66ount 8as de(i5ered to the editors o$ ' *) 'an'ster <ose#h Murita o$ the 0e(ix =es6a ,o*, 8hose ,e,*ers had stron' ties to Pierre =e,ar6hand7A10B 0i'on9s e)e8itness a66ount

o$ &u$-ir ,urderin' Ben Bar-a 8as (ater disa5o8ed *) the ,a'aIine, *ut not *e$ore it 'ained a66e#tan6e7 Moreo5er, there 8as no o$$i6ia( disa5o8a( *) the 0ren6h 'o5ern,ent7 &ne thin' is 6ertain7 &u$-ir 8ou(d not ha5e ,urdered Ben Bar-a *e$ore the e)es o$ so,eone (i-e 0i'on L 8ho, he ,istrusted and had tried to e(i,inate, 8ho, he -ne8 8ou(d run to =e,ar6hand7 .ad the unthin-a*(e in $a6t o66urred, had 0i'on a66identa(() seen &u$-ir ,urder Ben Bar-a, then 0i'on 8ou(d not ha5e (i5ed to te(( a*out it7 &ne ,ore thin' a*out 0i'on9s arti6(e sounds i,#(ausi*(e7 It sa)s he too- a taxi to Bou6hesei6he9s house7 In su6h a de(i6ate ,atter, that 8ou(d ha5e su$$i6ed to sea( not on() 0i'on9s $ate *ut the taxi dri5er9s as 8e((7 I *e(ie5e the arti6(e 6an *e dis6ounted7 A(ternati5e(), 4htou-i, +(i,i, and &u$-ir ,i'ht 8e(( ha5e 6o,e to 0ran6e to ensure Ben Bar-a9s trans$er to Moro66o7 Either +(i,i or &u$-ir 8ere to ha5e he(d the 0ren6h in 6he6- as Ben Bar-a 8as ta-en a8a), and it 8ou(d ha5e to ha5e *een +(i,i, sin6e he 8as the one 8ho (ater a5oided #rose6ution7 3he 0ren6h ,i'ht ha5e *e6o,e sus#i6ious, 8ith 0i'on #ani6-in' and runnin' to =e,ar6hand7 3he =es6a 'an', 8ith 4hristian +a5id, 6ou(d then ha5e entered the #(ot at this ear() sta'e7 =e,ar6hand ,i'ht ha5e tried to #re5ent the a*du6tion to Moro66o *) sendin' his =es6a 'an' *ar*ouIes to 0ontena) (e Ki6o,te7 3hat 6ou(d easi() ha5e (ed to 6on$(i6t7 Ben Bar-a 6ou(d ha5e *een -i((ed durin' the stru''(e, or so,eone 6ou(d ha5e ,urdered hi, and ,ade it a##ear an a66ident7 Ben Bar-a 6ou(d ha5e *een -i((ed *) &u$-ir, a Moro66on se6urit) a'ent, the 4IA, one o$ Bou6hesei6he9s hoods, or one o$ =e,ar6hand9s *ar*ouIes7 A(( 8ere 6andidates, *ut the 0ren6h, natura((), 8ere ,ost sus#i6ious o$ &u$-ir7 Moreo5er, none o$ the $o((o8in', #u*(i6() aired h)#otheses 6an *e tota(() disre'arded: that the 0ren6h ,urdered hi, *e6ause he #ossessed in$or,ation e,*arrassin' to hi'h ran-in' indi5idua(s L #erha#s re'ardin' internationa( nar6oti6s tra$$i6-in'% that Ben Bar-a 6o,,itted sui6ide u#on rea(iIin' he 8as *ound $or Moro66o% or that he 8as ,urdered not in 0ran6e, *ut in Moro66o7 Ea6h 6ontains a 'rain o$ #(ausi*i(it)7 In an inter5ie8 #u*(ished on 19 &6to*er 1966 in the =e*anese dai() E( .a)at, 4o(one( +(i,i ,aintained that Ben Bar-a 8as sti(( a(i5e 8hen he and &u$-ir (e$t 0ran6e, and 8as to ha5e *een $(o8n to Moro66o on the e5enin' o$ 3 No5e,*er 196!7 .e a((e'ed() 8aited in 5ain that entire ni'ht at a tin) air#ort in the to8n o$ Msi(i7 E(e5en da)s #assed *e$ore ru,ors o$ Ben Bar-a9s disa##earan6e *e'an to (ea- out7 .e 6ou(d ha5e *een -idna#ed or ,urdered an) ti,e 8ithin those e(e5en da)s, and *) an) o$ the #arties in5o(5ed7 A,on' the,, ho8e5er, &u$-ir and the 4IA had *) $ar the stron'est ,oti5es7 It9s ,) $ir, *e(ie$ that the 4IA 8as *ehind the 8ho(e a$$air, that &u$-ir and #ossi*() so,e o$ his ,en 8ere 4IA too(s, and that the 0ren6h, 8ith stunnin' nai5ete, a((o8ed the,se(5es to *e du#ed into the 4IA9s in'enious s6he,e 777 a(( o$ 8hi6h, o$ 6ourse, 6ou(d on() ha##en *e6ause a nu,*er o$ 0ren6h a'ents 8ere 8or-in' 8ith the 4IA7 2hether &u$-ir, a 'an'ster, or a 4IA a'ent -i((ed Ben Bar-a is se6ondar)7 2hat9s i,#ortant is that the a'en6) 8as *ehind it7 In order to *a6- u# this 6(ai, it9s essentia( to $o6us on the #eriod i,,ediate() $o((o8in' the ,urder7 A(( the #arti6i#ants 8ere *us) 6o5erin' their tra6-s7 &n() the 4IA su66eeded, *e6ause the a'en6) had ,ade ex6(usi5e use o$ Moro66ans and 0ren6h,en7 3he 0ren6h, on the other hand, a##ear to ha5e *een 6au'ht 8ith their #ants do8n7

+e Hau((e 8as $u,in'7 @So,e*od)9s ta-en ,e $or a 6o,#(ete idiot,@ he ra'ed, 5o8in' to 'et to the *otto, o$ the a$$air7 .e 8as 6on5in6ed the 4IA 8as in5o(5ed, *ut 6ou(d not tou6h the,7 A(( he 6ou(d do 8as 6ra6- do8n on 0ren6h,en he sus#e6ted 8ere 4IA (a6-e)s7 4o((a*oration 8ith the 4IA 8ent *e)ond 6ertain 0ren6h inte((i'en6e units to the hi'hest 'o5ern,ent 6ir6(es the ,en 6(osest to de Hau((e7 3hat is #re6ise() 8hat the #resident sus#e6ted, and 8h) he $e(t so #o8er(ess7 I$ one *e(ie5es =ero) 8hen he sa)s his orders to 6oo#erate 8ith Antoine =o#eI on the Ben Bar-a a$$air 6a,e dire6t() $ro, @a 6ertain Monsieur =e'ros@ in a Mati'non o$$i6e, then one 6an9t he(# *ut tra6e 4IA tra6-s dire6t() to Pri,e Minister Po,#idou7 3he 6onne6tion *e6o,es 6r)sta( 6(ear in (i'ht o$ the 6(ash *et8een de Hau((e and Po,#idou that 're8 to i,#(a6a*(e hate in de Hau((e9s (ast )ears and in (i'ht o$ Po,#idou9s (ater 6oo#eration 8ith the A,eri6ans es#e6ia(() in the area o$ nar6oti6s7 2h), then, didn9t =e,ar6hand ste# $or8ard to te(( his stor) and #u(( the 0ren6h out o$ the $ireG In the $irst #(a6e, unti( the a$$air (ea-ed out he 8as *us) 6a,ou$(a'in' his o8n ro(e and tr)in' to deter,ine 8hat rea(() ha##ened to Ben Bar-a7 .e -ne8 5er) 8e(( that the 0ren6h had *een 8o5en into the 8e*, and #ro*a*() $eared it 8as 8orse than it see,ed7 0urther,ore, =e,ar6hand9s 4IA 6ounter#arts had *etter 6ards to #(a)7 3he) -ne8 a(( a*out =e,ar6hand9s hirin' Heor'es 0i'on to enti6e Ben Bar-a to Paris, sin6e the Moro66ans had ta(-ed =e,ar6hand into doin' so7 I$ that in$or,ation s(i##ed out, =e,ar6hand, 0o66art, and de Hau((e 8ou(d a(( *e u# the 6ree- 8ithout a #add(e7 3here 8ou(d *e no 8a) $or the, to reta(iate7 And that 8asn9t the on() tru,# in the hand o$ the A,eri6ans7 3he) 6ou(d $in'er =o#eI, Sou6hon, and Koitot a(( 0ren6h 6o#s as Ben Bar-a9s -idna##ers7 But the a6e u# the 4IA9s s(ee5e 8as the un6ertaint) o$ de Hau((e9s #eo#(e a*out 8hat rea(() ha##ened to Ben Bar-a7 A(( the 0ren6h 6ou(d do 8as 6(a, u# and tr) to 6ut their (osses7 Han'ster 0i'on, a -e) to the ,)ster) surroundin' the a6tua( Ben Bar-a -idna#in', re,ained a Cuestion ,ar- in the ensuin' dra,a7 3hou'h the Moro66ans had #ro,ised hi, a $ortune, 0i'on ne5er sa8 a 6ent7 2hi(e $e((o8 thu's Bou6hesei6he, (e N), +u*ai(, and Pa(isse had their #o6-ets $u(( and enFo)ed as)(u, in Moro66o, &u$-ir re$used to #a) 0i'on7 3his a'ain unders6ores that either 0i'on had 'i5en &u$-ir reason $or sus#i6ion, or that &u$-ir si,#() didn9t *other #a)in' a =e,ar6hand ,an 8ho 8as not a s8orn 6ons#irator7 Mone) had *een 0i'on9s on() ,oti5e7 As to =e,ar6hand, he no8 had to thin- t8i6e *e$ore #assin' out tra6ea*(e $unds7 0i'on *e6a,e in6reasin'() e,*ittered and $ina(() de6ided to ,a-e the *est o$ the situation7 I sus#e6t 0i'on 6o,,itted t8o ,aFor *(unders7 .is $irst 8as to s#ea- to re#orters, not serious(), *ut enou'h to 6ause so,e 6on$usion7 3he se6ond 8as to #ut the sCueeIe on =e,ar6hand $or ,one)7 <ud'in' $ro, a##earan6es, =e,ar6hand res#onded *) ha5in' his =es6a 'an' *ar*ouIes so$ten u# 0i'on, 8ho then de6ided it 8as ti,e to *e6o,e s6ar6e7 3hou'h 0i'on had 'i5en se5era( a6Cuaintan6es the i,#ression he $eared the =es6a 'an', he 8ent into hidin' 8ith <ose#h Murita and =ouis Nes,oI, t8o thu's 8ho 6(ai,ed the)9d *ro-en 8ith =es6a in an'er7A11B 3hat 8as ,ista-e nu,*er three, *e6ause Murita and Nes,oI ne5er did (ose tou6h 8ith the ,o* and =e,ar6hand7 Mean8hi(e de Hau((e9s 6ro8d 6on6(uded, #erha#s a$ter 'ainin' 8ind o$ 6ertain @ru,ors,@ that Ben Bar-a had *een -no6-ed o$$ *) &u$-ir7 3hat suited the, Fust $ine7 Moreo5er, so,eone, it see,s, #ersuaded 0i'on to di6tate his a66ount into a ta#e (ater trans6ri*ed $or an arti6(e7 3he arti6(e ,i'ht a(so ha5e *een edited #rior to de(i5er), sin6e it 8as su*,itted *) 'an'ster Murita and not 0i'on hi,se($7 &n

10 <anuar) 1966 ' #u*(ished the 6e(e*rated stor) 8hi6h *(a,ed &u$-ir $or -i((in' Ben Bar-a in $ront o$ 0i'on7 3hou'h the thou'ht o$ 0i'on 8itnessin' the ,urder 8as hard to s8a((o8, the 4IA 6ou(d not re*u$$ hi, Fust then 8ithout 6o,in' out in the o#en7 And &u$-ir9s o8n denia( (anded on dea$ ears7 In a (etter #rodu6ed at a (ater tria(, (ewswee!'s Paris 6orres#ondent, Ed8ard Behr, 6(ai,in' to ha5e heard the 0i'on ta#e, said there 8as no ,ention on it o$ the (atter9s 8itnessin' &u$-ir ,urder Ben Bar-a7 3he ta#e itse($ #ro5ed use(ess, as so,ethin' 8as (ater re6orded o5er the 6on5ersation 8ith 0i'on7 Behr 8as trans$erred to (ewswee!'s .on' ;on' *ureau short() a$ter the Ben Bar-a in6ident7A12B As to 0i'on, he see,s to ha5e 'one a(on' 8ith the arti6(e9s $a*ri6ation7 I,,ediate() $o((o8in' its #u*(i6ation his $inan6es too- a shar# turn $or the *etter7 .e s#orted a ne8 $a(se #ass#ort and to(d $riends he9d either tra5e( a*road or ,o5e to a (uxurious a#art,ent7 .e 8as 6a((ed in $or interro'ation *ut ne5er 'ot a 6han6e to ex#(ain the arti6(e to the #o(i6e7 &n 1/ <anuar) 1966 he 8as $ound in his 1" 1ue des 1enaudes a#art,ent 8ith a *u((et in his head7 1ue des 1enaudes had *een s8ar,in' 8ith #o(i6e su##osed() there to #rote6t 0i'on, and no one e(se 8as seen enterin' his a#art,ent7 3he #o(i6e (isted his death as a sui6ide and s8e#t the (oose ends under the ru'7 In 0i'on9s suit6ase the) $ound ;in' .assan9s 6onditions $or the return o$ Ben Bar-a to Moro66an #o(iti6s7 3he) 8ere on do6u,ents dra8n u# *) =e,ar6hand7A13B +urin' the tria( o$ the Ben Bar-a 6ase, orders 8ere issued $or the arrest o$ Henera( &u$-ir and 4o(one( +(i,i, *oth o$ 8ho, 8ere sa$e() in Moro66o7 Nonethe(ess, on 18 &6to*er 1966 +(i,i 6a,e se6ret() to Paris and re'istered in a hote(, the Peter the 0irst o$ Ser*ia7 3his hote( 8as distin'uished as the haunt o$ s#oo-s, and the ho,e o$ a ,er6enar) re6ruitin' o$$i6e $or Moise 3sho,*e9s 4on'o(ese ar,)7 3he o$$i6e9s dire6tors, Andre =a*a), 3hierr) de Bonna), Mi6he( =ero), and =u6ien S8ar,, 8ere a(( 6(ose $riends o$ 4IA a'ent 0ernand =e'ros7A1"B 3he next da), &6to*er 19, +(i,i re#orted to 0ren6h #o(i6e $or interro'ation7 In &6to*er 19/2, $o((o8in' six une5ent$u( )ears, a *o,* ex#(oded in $ar a8a) BraIi(7 Mo*sterJ s#oo- 4hristian +a5id, one o$ =e,ar6hand9s and 0o66art9s ,ost trusted a'ents, 6on$essed, a((e'ed() under torture: @I sa8 to it Ben Bar-a9s *od) disa##eared7 Henera( &u$-ir #aid ,e 1! ,i((ion o(d $ran6s $or the Fo* 777 and 1, to'ether 8ith a 6ertain Monsieur Q, *ro-e into the a#art,ent on 1ue des 1enaudes ,inutes *e$ore 0i'on 96o,,itted sui6ide79 3he #o(i6e didn9t noti6e us *e6ause 8e 8ent throu'h *ui(din' no7 11 on the #ara((e( 1ue 3heodu(e 1i*ot7@A1!B 3he 6on$ession o$ Beau Ser'e is nothin' short o$ $antasti67 It re5ea(s ho8 inte((i'en6e a'ents o#erate, es#e6ia(() under duress7 3hose $e8 (ines 6ontain a 'ross (ie, an i,#ortant ,essa'e, and a 8arnin'7 And I 8ou(d e5en insist that the 6on$ession 8as 6o,#osed in detai( *) the 4IA7 It9s #uII(in' ho8 the 0ren6h and A,eri6an #ress 6ou(d ha5e s8a((o8ed it 8ho(e7 0irst there9s the torture *usiness7 Ne8s#a#ers on *oth sides o$ the At(anti6 d8e(t on +a5id9s ,au(ed a##earan6e u#on arri5a( in the :7S7, and on the a'onies in$(i6ted u#on hi, in the torture 6ha,*er7 I95e (earned enou'h a*out BraIi(ian torturers and #o(i6e to -no8 that these ex#erts don9t (ea5e ,ar-s, and under no 6ir6u,stan6es 8ou(d the) ,o(est a #risoner *ound $or extradition to either 0ran6e or the :nited States7A16B Another intri'uin' $a6t a*out +a5id has ne5er *een ,entioned7 A $e8 ,onths a$ter his extradition to the :7S7, it 8as dis6(osed that the 6hie$ 8hi##in' *o) $or the BraIi(ian se6urit) $or6e in Sao Pau(o, Ser'io 0(eur), a(on' 8ith se5era( o$ his ,en and their 6o((ea'ues in the nar6oti6s sCuad, had a66e#ted

*ri*es to #rote6t +a5id9s dru' rin'7A1/B Moreo5er, three o$ +a5id9s SA4 *rethren 8ere 6(ose() 6onne6ted to 0(eur)7 3he) ser5ed as ad5isors to, and ,ore than on6e #ersona(() assisted the 6hie$ hat6het ,an in the torture o$ #risoners7A18B No, 4hristian +a5id 8as not tortured in BraIi(7 .is horri*(e a##earan6e u#on arri5a( in the :7S7 ste,,ed, instead, $ro, a des#erate atte,#t that in6(uded s(ashin' his 8rist and s8a((o8in' '(ass at hos#ita(iIation and a66ess to es6a#e7A19B So,ethin' e(se, then, 8as in the air7 2h) 8ou(d the BraIi(ians $or6e a 6on$ession on a ,atter, (i-e the Ben Bar-a a$$air, in 8hi6h the) had no interestG And 8h) 8as the #risoner9s state,ent i,,ediate() #u*(i6iIed 8hen it had nothin' to do 8ith the 6har'es (e5e((ed a'ainst hi,G 3he re5e(ation that +a5id 8as tortured 6ertain() did not 6o,e $ro, the BraIi(ians, 8ho to this da) den) that su6h thin's ha##en7 It 6ou(d on() ha5e 6o,e $ro, one sour6e, the 4IA7 3hat is the on() 8a) to ex#(ain re#orts o$ a hardened 6ri,ina( and ex#erien6ed s#oo- o#enin' u# on an e5er ex#(osi5e su*Fe6t7 =et us not $or'et that, in 19/2, 4IA a'ents 8ere sti(( sent out *) the doIens to *e interro'ators and ad5isors in BraIi(ian #o(i6e headCuarters7A20B A66ordin' to e &onde re#orter, <a,es SaraIin, 4IA a'ents 8ere in $a6t #resent at the interro'ation o$ 4hristian +a5id7A21B No su6h i,#ortant in$or,ation 6ou(d ha5e unintentiona(() s(i##ed throu'h their $in'ers into #rint7 3here re,ains another, e5en ,ore i,#ortant as#e6t that see,s to ha5e tota(() es6a#ed noti6e: a 5er) s#e6ia( a'ent o$ the 4IA 8as then s#endin' ,u6h o$ his ti,e in BraIi(7 3hat a'ent 8as 0ernand =e'ros, #erha#s the sa,e =e'ros 8ho, Mar6e( =ero) e5entua(() $in'ered as the ,an 8ho 'a5e the orders $or the Ben Bar-a -idna#in'7 A(thou'h 4hristian +a5id9s @6on$ession@ 8as #ro*a*() 6o,#osed ,eti6u(ous() to suit the ai,s o$ the 4IA, that does not ,ean it 6ontains no truth7 3hat 8ou(d not ha5e *een 5er) s,art7 &ne thin', ho8e5er, 8as astoundin': &u$-ir too- the u(ti,ate *(a,e7 3hat had ha##ened o$ten enou'h in the #ast L *ut ne5er at the hands o$ his o(d *ed$e((o8s and #rote6tors in the a'en6)7 2h)G 0or that there9s a si,#(e ex#(anation: &u$-ir9s death t8o ,onths ear(ier, on 16 Au'ust 19/2, in the 8a-e o$ an unsu66ess$u( 6ou# d9etat a'ainst ;in' .assan7A22B 3he 4IA, 8hi6h had en'ineered the atte,#t, had nothin' ,ore to (ose in Moro66o7 It 8as no8 in the a'en6)9s interest to *ur) the Ben Bar-a a$$air 8ith &u$-ir7 0urther,ore, 0ren6h President Po,#idou had Fust 6(eaned house at the inte((i'en6e a'en6) S+E4E, 8hi6h 8as no8 6o,in' to ter,s 8ith the 4IA7 .a5in' +a5id i,#(i6ate &u$-ir 8as the 4IA9s 8a) o$ extendin' its hand to the 0ren6h7 Beau Ser'e, ,oreo5er, had *een 8or-in' not $or &u$-ir, *ut $or =e,ar6hand7 A(( too (itt(e attention has *een $o6ussed on the (atter under8or(d 6onne6tion7 3he 'an'sters 8ho it 6an *e #ro5en 8ere *ou'ht and #aid $or *) &u$-ir L and there$ore #erha#s *) the 4IA a(( $(ed to Moro66o7 &n the other hand, =es6a 'an' thu's, 6(ose() asso6iated 8ith =e,ar6hand, 8ound u# in =atin A,eri6a, 8here the) re'rou#ed around +a5id and 6ontinued to 8or- $or SA4 and the S+E4E7 &u$-ir9s $ate 8as shared *) 'an'sters Bou6hesei6he, (e N), +u*aiB, and #ossi*() Pa(isse as 8e((7 A(( 8ere exe6uted in a Moro66an #rison, on orders $ro, +(i,i, $or 6o,#(i6it) in the &u$-irJ4IA 6ou# atte,#t7 3he 8itnesses 6(osest to &u$-ir in the Ben Bar-a a$$air, and #rote6ted *) hi, a$ter8ard, 8ere thus #ut out o$ the #i6ture7A23B

Internationa( s#oo- =uis HonIa(eI Mata, a 6(ose $riend o$ Henera( &u$-ir9s, 6(ai,s the (atter to(d hi, the 4IA had #(anned to ,urder Ben Bar-a and had 6onstant() #(otted *ehind his >&u$-ir9s? *a6-: @Ben Bar-a 8as a(i5e 8hen I (e$t hi, in Paris,@ insisted &u$-ir7A2"B Another stri-in' as#e6t o$ +a5id9s @6on$ession@ is its undis'uised 8arnin' to Monsieur Q7 I$ Q doesn9t #(a) *a((, he9(( *e ex#osed% and Monxieur Q 6ertain() -no8s that the 4IA is a8are o$ his identit)7 I$ he *e(ie5es the *usiness a*out the torture, he9s a(so a8are that torturers don9t dea( in un-no8ns (i-e Q and D7 I$ he doesn9t *e(ie5e it, then he ,ust -no8 that the 4IA ,ade a dea( 8ith 4hristian +a5id $or in$or,ationLa dea( that sa5ed +a5id $ro, extradition to 0ran6e and a #ossi*(e date 8ith the 'ui((otine7 3he $a6t that Monsieur Q is ,entioned at a(( 6an on() ,ean he #(a)ed an i,#ortant ro(e in the a$$air and #erha#s in 0ren6h #o(iti6s as 8e((7 3he 4IA, $urther,ore, $o((o8ed u# the 8arnin' 8ith re#orts that 0i'on9s #isto( 8as $ound in the #ossession o$ 4hristian +a5id7A2!B I 8on9t haIard a 'uess as to Monsieur Q9s identit), on() that he ,i'ht 8e(( *e(on' to the o(der 8in' o$ the Hau((ist #art) that 6an9t 6o,e to ter,s 8ith ra##ro6he,ent 8ith the A,eri6ans7 3hat is 8h) he9s to(d to 8at6h his ste#7 In the interi, there has *een a nota*(e shi$t in 4IA #osture on the Ben Bar-a a$$air7 In 19/! +anie( Huerin #u*(ished es Assassins de ?en ?ar!a, a(so a((e'in' 4IA in5o(5e,ent7 Time ,a'aIine #ro,#t() #u*(ished a 6urious arti6(e #ur#ortin' to #ro5e that Ben Bar-a had *een ,urdered *) either &u$-ir or +(i,i7 In $a6t, the arti6(e 6ontained no ne8 $a6ts7 2hat 8as ne8, thou'h, 8as that the A,eri6ans 8ere #ointin' the $in'er at +(i,i, 8ithout Fusti$i6ation #erha#s as a 8arnin'7 3his 6aused ,atters to ta-e a 'rotesCue t8ist7 As Huerin (ater in$or,ed ,e, *oth Antoine =o#eI and the 8ido8 o$ Bou6hesei6he to(d hi, the) 8ou(d *e 8i((in' to testi$) that Ben Bar-a had *een -idna#ed $ro, Bou6hesei6he9s house *) other 'an'sters, and that &u$-ir and +(i,i had ne5er seen Ben Bar-a in Paris7 .ere 8e o*ser5e +(i,i hard at 8or- de$endin' hi,se($ a'ainst :7S7 a((e'ations7 .a5in' *e6o,e 'ood $riends 8ith the 4IA, the 0ren6h 8ere sudden() out o$ the #i6ture7 No8 the 4IA9s $or,er() 'ood $riends and #resent() not su6h 'ood $riends in Moro66o had their turn to *e run throu'h the tread,i((7 Ba6- to sCuare one: the Moro66ans and the 4IA7 I *e(ie5e 0i'on 8as ,urdered *e6ause no*od) 6ou(d 6ount on his si(en6e, under interro'ation, a*out the $a*ri6ation o$ the stor) a'ainst &u$-ir7 3oo ,u6h 8as at sta-e7 I$ it (ea-ed out that the #rode Hau((e $a6tion had $a*ri6ated the stor), it 8ou(d ha5e *een hard to 6on5in6e #eo#(e o$ the sa,e $a6tion9s inno6en6e in the Ben Bar-a assassination7 And I *e(ie5e 4hristian +a5id he(#ed -no6- o$$ Heor'es 0i'on7 &ther8ise the 4IA9s 8arnin' to Monsieur Q 8ou(d *e ,eanin'(ess7 And other8ise +a5id 8ou(d not ha5e a6ted the 8a) he did on 2 0e*ruar) 1966 $ourteen da)s a$ter 0i'on9s @sui6ide7@ &n that da), the head o$ the #o(i6e de#art,ent9s anti'an'ster sCuad, =ieutenant Mauri6e Ha(i*ert, re6ei5ed a ti# that a ,an i,#(i6ated in the Ben Bar-a 6ase 6ou(d *e $ound at the Saint 4(air restaurant7 Ha(i*ert dashed o$$ 8ith o$$i6ers HouIier and Hi*eaux7 :#on arri5a( at the Saint 4(air, the) s#otted 4hristian +a5id #(a)in' 6ards 8ith Be(-a6e, Me6here, the de#ut) #re$e6t o$ the interior ,inistr) #o(i6e7A26B 2hen Ha(i*ert as-ed +a5id to 6o,e do8nto8n, Me6here #rotested7 +a5id $(ashed his SA4 I+, *ut Ha(i*ert stood his 'round7 +a5id shru''ed his shou(ders and $et6hed his 6oat $ro, the 6he6-roo,7 Sudden() he stu6- his hand in his 6oat #o6-et, dre8 a #isto( and shot a(( three #o(i6e,en7 Ha(i*ert died on the s#ot7 3he other t8o 8ere *ad() 8ounded7

And Beau Ser'e 'ot a8a)7

Notes 1. Time, 29 +e6e,*er 19/!7 27 $"id. 37 So,e o$ the $unds $or Ben Bar-a9s re5o(utionar) a6ti5ities a((e'ed() 6a,e $ro, the s,u''(in' o$ ,or#hine *ase7 =. Time, op. cit. !7 47 4(e,ent: &u$-ir >Editions <ean +u((is, 19/"?7 67 See 6ha#ter $ourteen7 /7 3he *oo- e #omite is dedi6ated to the $a,i() o$ Mar6e( =ero)7 4. e #omite hit the ,ar-et Fust as the :7S7 8as dee# into its in5esti'ation o$ the 4IA7 3he strate') *ehind that 8as si,#(e: it9s easier to de$end onese($ $ro, atta6- 8hen one 6an 6(ai, the others are doin' the sa,e7 3he 4IA, ,ost (i-e(), 8as a(so *ehind de KosFo(i9s $irst *oo-, =a,ia, 8hi6h ins#ired =eon :ris9s 3o#aI7 97 In an inter5ie8 es#e6ia(() $or this *oo-, =e'ros 6on$ir,ed that the Hene5a 'a((er) 8as a *ase $or his es#iona'e a6ti5ities on *eha($ o$ the 4IA% see a(so 17 Pe)re$itte: a Vie E.traordinaire de 8ernand egros >A(*in Mi6he(, 19/6?7 107 +7 Huerin: es Assassins de ?en ?ar!a >Hu) Authier, 19/!?7 117 A7 <au*ert: %ossier % 777 comme %rogue >A(ain Moreau, 19/"?7 127 Huerin, o#7 cit. 16. $"id. 1"7 Pe)re$itte, o#7 6it7 1!7 2riterJ#hi(oso#her +anie( Huerin, 8ho has dedi6ated his (i$e to unra5e(in' the Ben Bar-a a$$air, and is 'atherin' ,ateria( $or a reo#enin' o$ the 6ase on *eha($ o$ Ben Bar-a9s son Ba6hir, to(d ,e he had tested out the 6(ai, in +a5id9s 6on$ession7 .e had 6on$ir,ed that it9s #ossi*(e $or an adroit ,an to 'o throu'h the *a6-)ard o$ 11 1ue 3heodu(e 1i*ot and then 6(i,* u# 6orni6es to 0i'on9s a#art,ent7 167 .7 ;ru'er: %o!toren >Bo'an, 19/!? and i!vider ?oilesen >Breien, 19/8?7 1/7 A7 =o#eI: 'Escadron de la &ort >4aster,an, 19/3?7 A66ordin' to the 23 Ma) 19/3 (ouvel 0"servateur, Ser'io 0(eur) (ed the 'rou# 8hi6h did in the +a5id 'an' in BraIi(7 It 8as a(so 0(eur) and his ,en 8ho Cuestioned +a5id7 187 P7 4hairo$$: %ossier ? 777 comme ?ar"ou+es >A(ain Moreau, 19/!?7 197 Aurore, 20 No5e,*er 19/27 207 4IA a'ents 8ere not on() ad5isors and interro'ators in the traditiona( sense7 In =atin A,eri6a the) 8ere *oth instru6tors in and #ra6titioners o$ torture see A7<7 =an''uth, (ew )or! Times, 11 <une 19/97 0urther,ore, those 8ho ha5e di$$i6u(ties 6o,#rehendin' anti :7S7 $ee(in's in Iran 8i(( *e interested to -no8 that a senior 4IA o$$i6ia( instru6ted a'ents o$ SAKA;, the Iranian se6ret #o(i6e 6reated *) the Shah in the (ate $i$ties 8ith assistan6e $ro, the 4IA, on te6hniCues $or torture7 A66ordin' to <esse <7 =ea$, $or $i5e )ears the 6hie$ 4IA ana()st on Iran *e$ore his 19/3 resi'nation, the 4IA9s ,ethods @8ere *ased on Her,an torture te6hniCues $ro, 2or(d 2ar 11@ see S7M7 .ersh, (ew )or! Times, / <anuar) 19/97 217 <7 SaraIin: %ossier & 777 comme &ilieu >A(ain Moreau, 19//?7 227 &u$-ir ordered Fet $i'hters into the air to shoot do8n the -in'9s #(ane7 A66ordin' to 0ren6h 'enera( 4(aude 4(e,ent >4(e,ent, o#7 cit./, 8hen that $ai(ed, &u$-ir 8as exe6uted *) ;in' .assan hi,se($7 4o(one( +(i,i $irst

shot &u$-ir in the *a6- and shou(der, dro##in' hi, $(at on his sto,a6h7 3he -in' then too- +(i,i9s #isto( and $ired at &u$-ir9s ne6-7 3he *u((et exitted throu'h the 'enera(9s (e$t e)e, shatterin' the sun'(asses that had *een his trade,ar-7 237 Aurore, 2" Au'ust 19/27 2"7 =7 HonIa(eI Mata: #ygne >Hrasset, 19/6?7 2!7 4hairo$$, o#7 cit. 267 3he Ne8sda) Sta$$: The ,eroin Trail >Sou5enir Press, 19/"?7


3he ,urder o$ #o(i6e (ieutenant Ha(i*ert 6aused a ,aFor sensation in 0ran6e7 +es#ite 8hat see,ed to *e an a(( out ,anhunt, the 8i() 4hristian +a5id, aided *) $riends, e(uded Ha(i*ert9s 6o((ea'ues in the anti'an'ster sCuad7 In the 0eti6h 4(u* o$ Neu5i((e Sur Ain, outside =)ons, Beau Ser'e *ided his ti,e7 A *i' ti,e *orde((o and haunt o$ the Huerini 6(an, the 4(u* 8as a $reCuent rendeI5ous o$ +a5id9s $riends in SA47 1e#orted(), Me,e Huerini at $irst $a5ored de(i5erin' his *od) to the #o(i6e7 But #o8er$u( $or6es ,ust ha5e inter5ened, as Ma$ia *osses 8ere #ersuaded to he(# Beau Ser'e $(ee $ro, 0ran6e7A1B&ne da) in Mar6h 1966 a 6ar #i6-ed hi, u# at the 0eti6h 4(u* and dro5e hi, to a Huerini #ost on the outs-irts o$ Marsei((es7 In ear() Ma) +a5id sent 8ord to Si,one Mauduit, one o$ his Parisian ,istresses, as-in' her to $() do8n to Marsei((es 8ith a *und(e o$ ,one)7A2B 0ro, Marsei((es +a5id9s $riend 0ran6ois &rsoni dro5e her to a restaurant on the road $ro, 4annes to Ni6e7 3here she handed Beau Ser'e the 6ash and *ade hi, a $ond $are8e((7A3B =ater that ,onth +a5id 8as dri5en to Henoa, Ita(), 8here he *oarded a shi# *ound $or =atin A,eri6a7 A ne8 6areer in the shado8s a8aited hi,7 Beau Ser'e had 8ith hi, $ro, Marsei((es a (etter o$ introdu6tion to the $or,er 0ren6h ,a$ioso and Hesta#o 6o((a*orator Au'uste 1i6ord7 3he ,o*ster 8as then or'aniIin' a ,aFor nar6oti6s net8or- that 8ou(d s,u''(e heroin $ro, Marsei((es to the :7S7A7 5ia Ar'entina and Para'ua)7 .is re#utation ha5in' #re6eded hi, in =atin A,eri6a, +a5id 8as 8e(6o,ed into the 1i6ord or'aniIation 8ith o#en ar,s and soon ,o5ed into its hi'hest ran-s7 A(so #art o$ Beau Ser'e9s re6e#tion 6o,,ittee 8ere a'ents o$ the S+E4E and SA47 .is arri5a( 6oin6ided 8ith a #o8er$u( 0ren6h di#(o,ati6 o$$ensi5e in =atin A,eri6a7 2ith the :7S7 8adin' into a Cua',ire in Indo6hina and other8ise #reo66u#ied 8ith the So5iet :nion, de Hau((e, and ,ore so <a6Cues 0o66art, sou'ht to entren6h the,se(5es as dee#() in =atin A,eri6a as the) had in A$ri6a7 +e Hau((e #(anned to 6o,e on (i-e the Hreat 2hite 0ather, the 3hird 2or(d9s on() $riend, *ut 0o66art $e(t that 8ou(dn9t su$$i6e7 .e ,o5ed se5era( o$ his ,ost trusted ,en $ro, A$ri6a to =atin A,eri6a7 Bet8een 196! and 1968, $or exa,#(e, 8e $ind the notorious 4o(one( 1o'er Bar*erot as 0ran6e9s a,*assador to :ru'ua), and +o,iniCue Pon6hardier its ,an in Bo(i5ia7A"B I$ an)one stands $or 6(oa-s and da''ers it9s these t8o, 8hose na,es turn u# in a strin' o$ 0ran6e9s ,ost sensiti5e es#iona'e s6anda(s7 0o66art9s ,en ,o5ed 8here the) sa8 the 'reatest o#enin's: su##ortin' ri'ht 8in' $or6es in a re'ion a(read) in the 'ri# o$ ,i(itar) di6tatorshi#7 Bar*erot and Pon6hardier o$$ered to he(# these re'i,es

*rea- the *a6- o$ (e$t 8in' insur'en6)7 0or that the) needed ,en 8ithout s6ru#(es, ,en (i-e 4hristian +a5id7 &n arri5a( in Ar'entina, +a5id ,et 0ran6ois 4hia##e, 8anted in 0ran6e $or a #air o$ ,urders7 4hia##e, a(so -no8n as @Bi' =i#s,@ had 8or-ed $or the Huerini ,o* and 8as on ex6e((ent ter,s 8ith #o(iti6ians and ri'ht 8in' ,i(itants in Ar'entina7A!B .e 8as a(so a to# ,e,*er o$ the 1i6ord or'aniIation7 3he 1i6ord net8or- 8as di5ided into $our tea,s that o#erated inde#endent() out o$ se#arate headCuarters7 1i6ord hi,se($ ran the ,ain tea, $ro, Asun6ion, Para'ua), and o5ersa8 the entire o#eration7 4hia##e and Mi6he( Ni6o(i (ed another tea,, +o,iniCue &rsini and =ouis Bonsi'nour a third, and Andre 4onde,ine and =u6ien Sarti a $ourth7A6B &ther i,#ortant na,es in the or'aniIation 8ere 4(aude Andre Pastou, +idier Barone and Mi6he( @Bou*ou(e@ Sans7 It 8as Murder In6or#orated in 0ren6h7 Near() a(( had *een senten6ed to death in 0ran6e7 Barone, *esides *e(on'in' to the 0e(ix =es6a 'an', had tea,ed u# on art s8ind(es 8ith the a$ore,entioned 4IA a'ent 0ernand =e'ros and 8ith =e'ros9 $or'er, E(,)r de .or)7A/B Pastou is si,i(ar() interestin'7 In +e6e,*er 1968 Enri6o Passi'(i, a 8ea#ons s,u''(in' $riend o$ 4hristian +a5id9s, 8as ,urdered in 1o,e7A8B A(,ost si,u(taneous(), 3hierr) de Bonna), another 6(ose asso6iate o$ =e'ros9,A9B died in a ,)sterious auto a66ident7 Ita(ian #o(i6e sus#e6ted Pastou in *oth -i((in's, 8hi6h 8ere 6o,,itted 8hi(e he 8as on a tri# *a6- to Euro#e7 3he 1i6ord net8or- o#erated $ree() south o$ the *order *e6ause its ,e,*ers he(#ed re#ressi5e re'i,es $i'ht the (e$t and s,u''(e ar,s, so,eti,es 6o,*inin' the t8o #ro$ita*()7 2hi(e he 8as he(#in' inte((i'en6e 'rou#s in$i(trate 'ueri((a ,o5e,ents, 4hristian +a5id $ound ne8 6usto,ers $or his 8ea#ons7 3he ,aFor ar,s dea(s, thou'h, 8ere 8ith ,i(itant $as6ist 'rou#s in Ar'entina and 4hi(e7 3hrou'h 6onne6tions, 4hia##e se6ured +a5id an Ar'entine #ass#ort in the na,e o$ 4ar(os Eduardo +e5reux Ber'eret7 Beau Ser'e then 8ent on se6ret ,issions $or 0ren6h inte((i'en6e7 .is $irst assi'n,ent to in$i(trate +ou'(as Bra5o9s KeneIue(an ur*an re5o(utionaries, (ed no8here7 In ear() 196/ Bra5o 8as ex#e((ed $ro, the KeneIue(an 4o,,unist #art) and #o(i6e s,ashed his or'aniIation7 &n6e re(o6ated in the hi((s, Bra5o 8as 8ar) o$ s#ies7 0o((o8in' the $a(se start in KeneIue(a, Beau Ser'e $(e8 to Mexi6o and ,et 8ith t8o A$ri6an a'ents7 3he) handed hi, a 6ontra6t to e(i,inate A$ri6an #o(iti6ians7 It9s not 6(ear 8ho, he 8as to ,urder and 8hether or not he su66eeded, *ut he 8as in A$ri6a se5era( ,onths, and ,urder 8as a tas- he rare() ,udd(ed7A10B :#on returnin' to =atin A,eri6a he Foined 1i6ord in As6un6ion *e$ore #(antin' hi,se($ in Ar'entina7 In (ate 196/ +a5id L a(ias Eduardo +e5reux Ber'eret L ,ana'ed to in$i(trate the 0or6as Ar'entines de =i*era6ion >0A=?, one o$ the ,ost a6ti5e 'ueri((a 'rou#s in stor,) Ar'entina $ro, 196/ to 19/17 A,on' other a6tions, it -idna##ed Au'uste 1i6ord9s 6(ose $riend and Para'ua)9s 6onsu( in Ar'entina, 2a(de,ar San6heI7 1e()in' on his ex#erien6e 8ith the instru,ents o$ death, +a5id soon *e6a,e the 0A=9s ar,s instru6tor and in'ratiated hi,se($ 8ith its ,e,*ers7 In the end he ,ade o$$ 8ith its $i(es and a 6ash*ox 6ontainin' E2!0,0007A11B 2hi(e $(eein' he a((e'ed() s(e8 an 0A= (eader and a (oo-out7A12B .e headed 8ith his #riIe to 4entra( A,eri6a7 E5entua(() the S+E4E ,ade a dea( $or the #a#ers 8ith the Ar'entine 'o5ern,ent, 8hi6h (ed to the arrest o$ se5era( 'ueri((as and the death *) torture o$ one7A13B

Soon therea$ter +a5id 8ent to :ru'ua), 8here the 0ren6h a,*assador 8as 1o'er Bar*erotLthe sa,e Bar*erot 8ho $our )ears (ater 8ou(d *e asso6iated 8ith the 0ren6h 4onne6tion heroin a$$air that a(so in5o(5ed Beau Ser'e7A1"B In Ma) 1968 Bar*erot and +o,iniCue Pon6hardier 8ere unex#e6ted() rushed ho,e to Paris to he(# Cue(( 0ren6h student unrest, $or6in' 0o66art to #ut his #(ans $or =atin ,A,eri6a on ho(d7 A1!B A$ter 1968 Beau Ser'e 8as ,ore or (ess a $ree (an6e a'ent7 2hi(e re,ainin' in 6(ose tou6h 8ith the 0o66art net8or-, he a(so too- on assi'n,ents $or se6urit) #o(i6e and #o(iti6a( death sCuads in Ar'entina, :ru'ua) and BraIi(, and there*), ine5ita*(), $or the 4IA7 In Monte5ideo he re6onne6ted 8ith his ,istress 3heresa, 8ho Fust ha##ened to *e a ,e,*er o$ the 3u#a,aros7 3hrou'h her Beau Ser'e in$i(trated =atin A,eri6a9s *est or'aniIed *and o$ 'ueri((as7 :ru'ua)9s President Pa6he6o Are6o had a(read) *e'un a deter,ined stru''(e a'ainst the re5o(utionaries7 Assistin' his #o(i6e and ar,ed $or6es 8as a sCuad o$ 4IA a'ents ex#ert at torture and anti'ueri((a 8ar$are7 38o o$ those a'ents, +an A7 Mitrione and 4(aude =7 0r), 8ere 6a#tured *) the re5o(utionaries7 Mitrione 8as 'i5en the death #ena(t) *) a #eo#(e9s 6ourt, 8hi(e 0r) su$$ered a heart atta6- and 8as re(eased7A16B Beau Ser'e a##ears at $irst '(an6e to ha5e done ,ore $or President Are6o than the entire 6on5entiona( 4IA tea,7 But on this Fo* he #ro*a*() 6o((a*orated 8ith :7S7 inte((i'en6e7 A(so assistin' hi, 8as <a6Cues 0o66art9s $u(( ti,e ,an in :ru'ua) in 1o'er Bar*erot9s a*sen6e, <ean Ba#tiste =istroni, 8ho *e6a,e +a5id9s 'o *et8een 8ith the :ru'ua)an 'o5ern,ent7A1/B +a5id ,ust ha5e *een Cuite an a6tor, sin6e he e5en $oo(ed the (e'endar) 3a#a,aros (eader 1au( Sendi67 A$ter ro**in' a *an-, the 'ueri((as handed Beau Ser'e E"00,000 $or the #ur6hase o$ 8ea#ons7 .e then $(e8 o$$, as i$ to 6o,#(ete the dea(, to 0o66art9s #ersona( $ie$do, and *eehi5e o$ the 8ea#ons trade, the A$ri6an nation o$ Ha*on7 A18B 2hi(e he 8as a8a), ho8e5er, the 'ueri((as so,eho8 (earned, not o$ his es6a#ades in Ar'entina, *ut o$ his ro(e in the Ben Bar-a a$$air7 3he) de6ided to set a tra# $or hi,7 But on6e *a6- in :ru'ua), Beau Ser'e s,e((ed trou*(e and rushed to the se6urit) #o(i6e, 8ho soon arrested 1!0 'ueri((as in the stron'est *(o8 the)9d dea(t the re5o(utionaries7 It 8as a handso,e $eather in the 6a# o$ President Pa6he6o Are6o7 0or his trou*(es +a5id 8as re#orted() 'i5en E200,000 in addition to the E"00,000 o$ 8hi6h he had re(ie5ed the #artisans, #(us a :ru'ua)an di#(o,ati6 #ass#ort in the na,e o$ Edouard +a5rieux7A19B 3he #ass#ort ,ade +a5id the heir a##arent o$ Au'uste 1i6ord7 2ith it he tra5e((ed $ree() to the :7 S7 and Euro#e, 6ontro((in' and ex#andin' the internationa( nar6oti6s net8or-7 3here9s a(so a so,e8hat un*e(ie5a*(e stor) a*out +a5id9s de#arture $ro, :ru'ua)7 In the transit ha(( o$ Monte5ideo air#ort, a ste8ardess re#orted() *rou'ht hi, a #a6-a'e7 Sus#e6tin' a *o,*, Beau Ser'e had the ste8ardess o#en it herse($7 She s6rea,ed 8hen she did7 Inside 8as the head o$ 3heresa, a 'ood*)e 'i$t $ro, the 3a#a,aros7A20B President Pa6he6o Are6o9s '(ee 8as short (i5ed7 2ithin t8o )ears near() a(( the 'ueri((a9s +a5id had sent to #rison 8ou(d es6a#e7 In Mar6h 19/1, thirt) ei'ht 3u#a,aros 8o,en $(ed throu'h a tunne( $ro, a Monte5ideo Fai(7 3he #resident $u,ed7 As to the #o(i6e, the) 8ere sure the ,en (o6-ed u# in Punta 4arretas had si,i(ar #(ans7 2ithin 8ee-s the) $e(t 5indi6ated7 At a ri5er se8a'e out(et the) dis6o5ered a #a6-a'e 6ontainin' $ro',en 'ear and a #(an o$ the Monte5ideo se8er s)ste,7 An es6a#e *) the 3a#a,aros had a##arent() *een $oi(ed7 <o-in'(), the 8arden to(d the #ress that the 3u#a,aros9 ,a# o$ the se8ers 8as su#erior to the 6it)9s7 :sin' it, the #o(i6e had dis6o5ered e(e6tri6 dri((s and other too(s ,eant $or the es6a#e7

3he authorities too- no 6han6es7 3he) rein$or6ed sur5ei((an6e o$ Punta 4arretas 8ith tan-s and #o(i6e do's, as President Are6o (oo-ed to8ards the a##roa6hin' &6to*er e(e6tion7 I$ Sendi6 and his 'ueri((as s(i##ed a8a), he9d *e $inished7 At ":10 AM on 6 Se#te,*er 19/1, Bi(() 1ia(, a #rison nei'h*or, #honed the #rison to announ6e that a 'rou# o$ in,ates had Fust run throu'h his house7 @Deah, te(( us another one,@ 8as the ans8er7 @No*od) runs o$$ $ro, our #rison7@ But 1ia( insisted and the 8at6h,an de6ided to 6he6- out the 'uard roo,7 @E5er)thin' Cuiet,@ 8as the res#onse7A21B 3he 8at6h,an to(d 1ia( o$$ $or tr)in' to ,a-e $oo(s o$ the authorities7 &ne hour (ater, thou'h, his tune 6han'ed7 An entire #rison 8in' had *een e,#tied o$ in,ates, 1au( Sendi6 in6(uded7A22B 3he #o(i6e dashed o$$ to 1ia(9s house7 3here the) $ound 106 #rison uni$or,s in a 6x3 $eet hea#7 A 2 $oot 8ide, 100 )ard (on' tunne( ran $ro, the *ase,ent o$ 1ia(9s ho,e, *e(o8 the 'arden, the street, the #rison 8a((s and )ard, to the *ui(din' 8hi6h had housed the $u'iti5es7 3heir es6a#e had ta-en nine hours7 A66ordin' to 1ia(, his house had *een o5errun *) #artisans 8ho he(d his $a,i() hosta'e7 ECui##ed 8ith 8a(-ie ta(-ies, the) 8ere in radio 6onta6t 8ith those sti(( 8ithin #rison 8a((s7A23B @3he) treated us 8e((,@ said 1ia(, @*ut 8ou(dn9t e5en ha5e a 6u# o$ 6o$$ee7@ As the #risoners 'radua(() a##eared, the) had ex6han'ed their uni$or,s $or 6i55ies7 2hen a(( 8ere #resent, the) e,*ar-ed #ea6e$u(() in sto(en *usses7 3he authorities 8ere he(#(ess (au'hin' sto6-s and, to to# it a((, Are6o (ost the #residen6) to the eCua(() in6o,#etent <uan Maria Borda*err)7A2"B B) then Beau Ser'e 8as (on' 'one7 ##s7 /! 81
Notes 17 =7 +urand: e #aid >+enoe(, 19/6?7 27 <7 SaraIin: %ossier & ... comme &ilieu >A(ain Moreau, 19//?7 37 P7 Ha(ante and =7 Sa#in: 3he &arseilles &afia >27.7 A((en, 19/9?7 "7 17 Bar*erot: A ?ras le #oeur >1o*ert =a$$ont, 19/2?% +7 Pon6hardier: a &ort du #ondor >Ha((i,ard, 19/6?% P7 4hairo$$: %ossier ? ... comme ?ar"ou+es >A(ain Moreau, 19/!?7 :. 'Aurore, 31 Ma) 19/67 67 Ha(ante and Sa#in, o#7 cit. /7 A7 <au*ert: %ossier %. . . comme %rogue >A(ain Moreau, 19/"?7

87 8rance3Soir, : 0e*ruar) 19/37 97 17 Pe)re$itte: a Vie E.traordinaire de 8ernand egros >A(*in Mi6he(, 19/6?7 107 <au*ert, o#7 cit. 11. $"id. 127 M7 A6osta: @S,u--e Ser'e,@ Driminal3Eournalen, Mar6h 19/87 137 SaraIin, o#7 cit. 1"7 See 6ha#ter ten7 1!7 4hairo$$, o#7 cit. 167 A66ordin' to Manue( .e5ia 4os6u((ue(a, a 4u*an *orn 4IA o#erati5e 8ho 8or-ed 8ith Mitrione in :ru'ua)9s #o(i6e #ro'ra, *e$ore returnin' to his ho,e(and, Mitrione9s instru6tions on torture in6(uded the $o((o8in': @2hen )ou re6ei5e a su*Fe6t, the $irst thin' to do is deter,ine his #h)si6a( state, his de'ree o$ resistan6e, throu'h a ,edi6a( exa,ination7 A #re,ature death ,eans a $ai(ure *) the te6hni6ian7 @Another i,#ortant thin' to -no8 is exa6t() ho8 $ar )ou 6an 'o 'i5en the #o(iti6a( situation and the #ersona(it) o$ the #risoner7 It is 5er) i,#ortant to -no8 *e$orehand 8hether 8e ha5e the (uxur) o$ (ettin' the su*Fe6t die777 @Be$ore a(( e(se, )ou ,ust *e e$$i6ient7 Dou ,ust 6ause on() the da,a'e that is stri6t() ne6essar), not a *it ,ore7 2e ,ust 6ontro( our te,#ers in an) 6ase7 Dou ha5e to a6t 8ith the e$$i6ien6) and 6(ean(iness o$ a sur'eon and 8ith the #er$e6tion o$ an artist777@ >A7<7 =an''uth, (ew )or! Times, 11 <une 19/9?7 1/7 4hairo$$, o#7 cit. 187 1e6ent(), Mauri6e +e(auna) 0ran6e9s a,*assador to Ha*on in 196! /2 and a'ain in 19/! /9 8as na,ed the #resident o$ the 4o,#a'nie des ,ines d9uraniu,7 de 0ran6e5i((e, and Mauri6e 1o*ert a $or,er S+E4E o$$i6er and 6hie$ o$ se6urit) $or the oi( 6o,#an) E($ ACuitane, 8hi6h 6ontro(s E($Ha*on 8as na,ed the ne8 0ren6h a,*assador to Ha*on7 <ourna(ist E(ie 1a,aro @AfiriFue3Asie, / <anuar) 1980? sees the a##oint,ents o$ the t8o 6(ose 6o((a*orators in <a6Cues 0o66art9s A$ri6an net8or-, as the ,other 6ountr)9s 8a) o$ reassurin' Ha*on9s #resident &,ar Bon'o7 3he 0ren6h had re6ent() en'ineered a 6ou# d9etat that to##(ed another o$ their A$ri6an #u##ets, E,#eror Bo-assa, $ro, the throne o$ the 4entra( A$ri6an 1e#u*(i67 >.e had *e6o,e ex#enda*(e a$ter re5e(ations o$ his #a)o$$s to 0ren6h President His6ard +9Estain'?7 President Bon'o, in6identa((), #ur6hased a house re6ent() in the Be5er() .i((s ,o5ie 6o(on) (ar'e() #o#u(ated *) Ara* shei-s and Iranian exi(es, $or the su, o$ E272 ,i((ion, 8hi6h 8as E300,000 a*o5e the as-in' #ri6e @(ew )or! Times, 1! &6to*er 19/9?7 197 A66ordin' to 6ertain sour6es it 8as in $a6t a 0ren6h di#(o,ati6 #ass#ort% see SaraIin, o#7 cit. 207 A6osta, o#7 6it7 217 Branma, 12 Se#te,*er 19/17 227 Sendi6 8as e5entua(() re6a#tured and su*Fe6ted to se5ere torture7 .e re,ains a #o(iti6a( #risoner in :ru'ua)% see <7 +a Kei'a in AftiFue3Asie, 29 &6to*er 19/97 237 :PI and 1euters, / Se#te,*er 19/17 2"7 A66ordin' to Fourna(ist 2arren .o'e: @<uan Maria Borda*err), the (ast e(e6ted :ru'ua)an President, disso(5ed 4on'ress in 19/3 under ,i(itar) #roddin' and then 8as re#(a6ed hi,se($ *) the ar,ed $or6es three )ears (ater7 3he :ru'ua)an ,i(itar), unti( then re(ati5e() a(oo$ $ro, #o(iti6s, had 6onso(idated #o8er throu'h its 6a,#ai'n to 6rush the 3u#a,aro 'ueri((as7@ @(ew )or! Times, 1" No5e,*er 19/9?7 :7S7 ,i(itar) aid to :ru'ua) *et8een 19"6 and 19/! tota((ed E86 ,i((ion7 Bet8een 19!0 and 19/! 2!3/ :ru'ua)an ,i(itar) #ersonne( 8ere

trained *) the :nited States% see N7 4ho,s-) and E7S7 .er,an: The Washington #onnection and Third World 8ascism >South End Press, 19/9?7 3he 4arter ad,inistration resu,ed ,i(itar) aid to :ru'ua) in the $a(( o$ 19/9, re5ersin' a 19// ha(t in the na,e o$ hu,an ri'hts7



Au'uste 1i6ord and his 'an' o$ heroin ,er6hants 8ere ridin' hi'h 8hen the) 8ere Foined *) 4hristian +a5id in the (atter ha($ o$ the sixties7 Ea6h )ear the) trans#orted hundreds o$ -i(os to the hu'e :7S7 ,ar-et, and 8ithout the noti6ea*(e (osses that nar6oti6s tra$$i6-ers ,ust nor,a(() 6ontend 8ith7 Its street 5a(ue, de#endin' on 6o,#etition, (a) so,e8here *et8een E1 and E2 *i((ion annua(()7 At the end o$ 2or(d 2ar II 1i6ord $(ed $ro, 0ran6e and a death senten6e $or 6o((a*oration 8ith the Hesta#o7 .e 8andered $or se5era( )ears in sear6h o$ an under8or(d ni6he7 B) the end o$ the se6ond )ear three o$ his 6o,#anions in exi(e had *een ,urdered7 In 19"/ 1i6ord arri5ed in Buenos Aires 8ith the na,e =u6ien +ar'e((es7 So,e sa) he had 8ith hi, the ,i((ions he9d #o6-eted durin' the 8ar, others sa) he had to start a(( o5er7 2hat9s 6ertain is that he o#ened an ex6(usi5e restaurant in Ar'entina at the 6(ose o$ the $i$ties and soon had a 6hain o$ restaurants and ,ote(s throu'hout Ar'entina, Para'ua) and Bo(i5ia, ea6h 8ith the na,e @Paris Ni6e@ and an Ei$$e( 3o8er #ro,inent() out $ront7 3he ,ote(s e5o(5ed into a hi'h 6(ass *rothe( 6hain, and 1i6ord Cuiet() *e'an tra$$i6-in' in nar6oti6s7A1B At the start o$ the sixties 1i6ord ,o5ed his headCuarters $ro, Buenos Aires to Asun6ion, Para'ua)7 3here he 6ou(d $ee( at ho,e a,on' the o(d NaIi (u,inaries, 8ho had $ound sa$e ha5en under President A($redo Stroessner7 1i6ord a(so re'ained 6onta6t 8ith an o(d a6Cuaintan6e then residin' in nei'h*orin' Bo(i5ia, $or,er Hesta#o 6hie$ ;(aus Bar*ie, the @;i((er o$ =)ons7@A2B 1i6ord had ,u6h in 6o,,on 8ith Bar*ie, a(ias ;(aus A(t,ann, inas,u6h as the $or,er had assisted the Hesta#o at torture and the roundin' u# o$ 0ren6h Fe8s7 Sin6e the dis6(osure o$ Bar*ie9s 8herea*outs, 0ren6h and Her,an authorities a(i-e ha5e 5ain() sou'ht his extradition $or the ,urder o$ hundreds7 In 1966 &(d Man 1i6ord en(ar'ed his a(read) i,,ense nar6oti6s net8or- u#on dis6o5erin' ho8 easi() he 6ou(d s,u''(e heroin into the :7S7 5ia =atin A,eri6a7 0or so,e reason, the :7S7 Bureau o$ Nar6oti6s and +an'erous +ru's >BN++? (ar'e() o5er(oo-ed the dan'er $ro, the south unti( the se5enties7 It e5entua(() 're8 8iser, esti,atin' that !0 60 #er6ent o$ the Marsei((es #rodu6ed heroin on the :7S7 ,ar-et entered 5ia =atin A,eri6a, 8hi6h 'enera(() ,eant *) 8a) o$ 1i6ord and 6o,#an)7 3he o(d ,an surrounded hi,se($ 8ith hard 6ore thu's7 B) 19/0 the Mo*9s (eaders 8ere 1i6ord, senten6ed to death in a"sentia $or treason, torture and ,urder% =u6ien Sarti, 8anted $or the ,urder o$ a Be('ian #o(i6e,an% 4hristian +a5id, senten6ed to death in a"sentia- Andre 4onde,ine, 8anted $or the ,urder o$ a #o(i6e,an% <ean =unardi, 8anted $or ,urder% 0ran6ois 4hia##e, 8anted $or t8o ,urders% and 0ren6h 'an'ster and $or,er SA4 a'ent, Mi6he( Ni6o(i7 3he) a(so had a net8or- o$ hen6h,en en6o,#assin' near() e5er) ,etro#o(is in =atin A,eri6a7 3he ,one) #oured in, so,e o$ it to *e rein5ested in restaurants and ni'ht 6(u*s in Buenos Aires, Sao Pau(o, and 4ara6as7 But 1i6ord (ost his 'ri# on the reins7 Be$ore (on' +a5id, 4onde,ine and Sarti too- o5er, redu6in' the o(d ,an to a $i'urehead 8ho dran- $oa,in' Mun6hner*rau 8ith @+ie A(te ;a,araden@ in one o$ Asun6ion9s ,an) Her,an *ars7

Marsei((es heroin 8as trans#orted to Para'ua) $ro, e,*ar-ation #oints in Bar6e(ona, =is*on, and Brusse(s7 In 6har'e o$ trans#ortation 8ere 4onde,ine, as 8e(( as 4hia##e, 8ho o$ten tra5e((ed *et8een his Buenos Aires *ase and Bar6e(ona, 8here his su##(iers 8ere the &rsini *rothers o$ the 4orsi6an ,a$ia7 3he heroin 8as trans#orted *) air and *) sea7 Part o$ it 8ent 5ia BraIi(, then either o5er(and to Para'ua) or dire6t() to the :7S7A7 So,e o$ it sai(ed u# the Parana 1i5er to Asun6ion7 3he 'reater #art o$ the heroin sent north arri5ed a*oard s,a(( #(anes -no8n as MauMaus, 8hi6h 'enera(() re$ue(ed in Pana,a *e$ore $()in' on to either 0(orida or Mexi6o7 3here the) 8ere un(oaded and shi#,ent 8as 6ontinued o5er(and7 Para'ua) had (on' *een one o$ the 'reat s,u''(in' 6enters o$ the 8or(d7 2ith 200 #ri5ate (andin' stri#s s6attered a,on' the ha6iendas, it 8as i,#ossi*(e to ,onitor the enor,ous nu,*er o$ #ri5ate $(i'hts7 And no one serious() *othered to tr), sin6e nu,erous 'o5ern,ent o$$i6ia(s #o6-eted shares o$ the ta-e7 A66ordin' to <a6- Anderson, 1i6ord9s a66o,#(i6es in6(uded so,e o$ Para'ua)9s hi'hest ran-in' o$$i6ers: Pastor 4orone(, the inte((i'en6e 6hie$% Henera( Andres 1odri'ueI, (eader o$ an e(ite 3000 ,an $or6e es#e6ia(() trained *) the A,eri6ans% and Henera( Kin6ente NuinoneI, the Air 0or6e 6hie$ o$ sta$$, 8ho 8as res#onsi*(e $or Asun6ion air#ort and other (andin' $ie(ds7A3B So(diers $ro, an e(ite 6or#s, a66ordin' to Anderson, 8ere stationed to 'uard the 6ontra*and stores $or 1i6ord and other *i' ti,e s,u''(ers7 2orse sti((, in the 8a-e o$ Anderson9s sensationa( re5e(ations 6a,e ru,ors that Para'ua)an Air 0or6e o$$i6ers had e5en $(o8n 1i6ord9s heroin to the, :nited States in ,i(itar) air6ra$t7 :n(i-e 1i6ord, +a5id didn9t si,#() ra-e in the ,one)7 .e thri5ed on dan'er7 A66ordin' to :7S7 nar-s, in at (east three instan6es Beau Ser'e hi,se($ trans#orted (ar'e Cuantities o$ heroin into the :nited States, usin' the #seudon), @<ean Pierre,@ *) 8hi6h he 8as -no8n ex6(usi5e() a,on' $riends in the 1i6ord Mo*7 +a5id a(so ,aintained the or'aniIation9s 'ood re(ations 8ith #o(i6e and s#oo-s in =atin A,eri6a7 .e too- on assi'n,ents $or Ar'entina9s terrorist or'aniIation, the Ar'entine Anti6o,,unist A((ian6e >AAA?, and #ro*a*() did the sa,e $or BraIi(9s notorious +eath SCuad7 Hru#o 0ran6es, as 1i6ord9s net8or- 8as -no8n in =atin A,eri6a, had $ound a #riIe in 4hristian +a5id *e6ause o$ his 6onne6tions to SA4 and 0ren6h inte((i'en6e7 3hrou'h hi, there 're8 ne8 *ran6hes in the nar6oti6s net8or-, in6(udin' one 6entered a*out the 0e(ix =es6a 'an' and the =)ons SA4 6hie$ <ean Au'e, and another a*out <o Attia9s 'an', SA4 (eader An'e Si,on#ieri, and the S8iss *an-er Andre .irs6h7A"B ##s7 82 86
Notes 17 As ear() as 19"/ 1i6ord is a((e'ed to ha5e ,ade 6onta6t 8ith A,eri6a9s $uture nar6oti6s -in', Santo 3ra$$i6ante, Fr7, 8ho 8as then runnin' se5era( .a5ana 6asinos $or the Ma$ia7 1i6ord a(ias +ar'e((es re#orted() headed that )ear to 4u*a, 8here he sat in on a ,eetin' 8ith, a,on' other nota*(es, 1a(#h >*rother o$ A(? 4a#one, 0ran- 4oste((o, A(*ert Anastasia, 3ra$$i6ante and =u6-) =u6iano% see K7 A(exandro5: a &afia des SS >Sto6-, 19/8?7 27 A <au*ert: %ossier % 777 come %rogue >A(ain Moreau, 19/"?7 As o$ 19/", Bar*ie 8as the #resident o$ the state shi#*ui(din' ,ono#o(), 3rans,ariti,a Bo(i5ia @%er Spiegel, 6 <une 19/"?7 Bo(i5ia has $e8 shi#s and no har*or, *ut had *een ne'otiatin' 8ith Henera( Au'usto Pino6het9s 4hi(e $or a 6orridor to the Pa6i$i6, unti( re6ent() 8hen di#(o,ati6 re(ations *et8een the t8o nations 8ere se5ered7 .o8e5er, Bo(i5ia9s Cuest has the *a6-in' o$ the :N9s 3hird 2or(d Hrou# o$ //, the non a(i'ned nations, and the &r'aniIation o$ A,eri6an States% see E7M7 Hi*son, (ew )or! Times, 74 &6to*er 19/97

6. Washington 'ost, 2" Ma) 19/27 "7 At the start o$ the se5enties =es6a *ui(t u# a (ar'e inter Euro#ean 'an'ster net8or- -no8n as Euro'an' and headCuartered in 0ran-$urt, 2est Her,an)7 Me,*ers o$ the 'an' 8ere rounded u# *) 2est Her,an #o(i6e in 19/!, *ut =es6a hi,se($ ,o5ed the o#eration to 3essin @%er Spiegel, 11 Au'ust 19/!% see a(so <au*ert, o#7 cit./.



As the 19/0s *e'an the 0ren6h 8ere the undis#uted -in'#ins o$ the internationa( nar6oti6s tra$$i67 &#iu,, the ra8 ,ateria(, 8as extra6ted $ro, the #o##) har5est *) the 3ur-s, 8ho either 6on5erted it the,se(5es into ,or#hine *ase, or sent it to re$ineries in S)ria and =e*anon7 Essentia(() a(( ,or#hine *ase ,ade $ro, 3ur-ish o#iu, 8ent to Marsei((es9 heroin (a*oratories7 :nti( around 1966 it 8ent *) sea7 But Marsei((es9 har*or 8as too easi() #atro((ed, and so a$ter 1966 rou'h() /0 #er6ent o$ the ,or#hine *ase 8ent 5ia Bu('aria and Du'os(a5ia to Muni6h7 0or the $irst ha($ o$ this 6entur), ,ost Marsei((es heroin 8as sent to 3an'iers, Moro66o, the ,ain e,*ar-ation #oint $or dru's *ound $or the :nited States7 3an'iers e5entua(() 'a5e 8a) to su6h Euro#ean #orts as Bar6e(ona, =is*on, and Ant8er#7 In addition so,e o$ the heroin 8ent *) air7 At the 6(ose o$ the sixties there *e'an 8hat at $irst rese,*(ed a routine adFust,ent in the nar6oti6s tra$$i67 As ti,e 8ou(d sho8, ho8e5er, this one in5o(5ed su6h a 6o(ossa( u#hea5a(, that it ,i'ht *etter *e des6ri*ed as a tre,endous #o(iti6a( 6ou#L)et a 6ou# that a##arent() 8ent unnoti6ed7 At its sour6e (a) shi$ts in internationa( #o(iti6s, and $ri6tion *et8een the 4IA and the 0ren6h S+E4E7 =ater I 8i(( su##ort this 6(ai, 8ith a ,)riad o$ 6ir6u,stantia( e5iden6e7 3he :nited States, durin' the $irst #residentia( ad,inistration o$ 1i6hard Nixon, *e'an 6ra6-in' do8n on 3ur-ish o#iu, 6u(ti5ation7 2hi(e it s(o8ed the de(i5er) o$ ,or#hine *ase to Marsei((es, the 4orsi6ans then L and no8 L had other sour6es to ta#7 3he) had (on' *een 6onne6ted 6(ose() 8ith the 4hinese Ma$ia7 3he (atter or'aniIed the #rodu6tion o$ enor,ous Cuantities o$ o#iu, on the ru''ed hi((sides o$ the Bur,a =aos 3hai(and Fun6tion -no8n as the Ho(den 3rian'(e7A1B 3he sa(e o$ har5ested o#iu, is in the hands o$ 8e(( or'aniIed 4hiu 4hao 4hinese $ro, the re'ion *et8een 4anton and 0u-ien in southeast 4hina7 .undreds o$ thousands o$ these 4hinese e,i'rated to Southeast Asia, 8here the) ha5e resisted assi,i(ation and 6ontro( *) (o6a( authorities7 3he Ho(den 3rian'(e a66ounted, unti( 5er) re6ent(), $or so,e t8othirds o$ the 8or(d9s i((i6it o#iu, #rodu6tion, or 1300 tons o$ o#iu, annua(() enou'h to #rodu6e 130 tons o$ heroin at a retai( 5a(ue on the :7S7 ,ar-et o$ *et8een !0 and 120 *i((ion do((ars7 4onser5ati5e esti,ates #(a6e the )ear() heroin 6onsu,#tion o$ :7S7 addi6ts *et8een t8e(5e and t8ent) tons7 3he Ne8 Dor- street #ri6e (ies in the nei'h*orhood o$ E300,000J-i(o >1 -i(o O 272 #ounds?, *ut ,an) #ushers di(ute the heroin u# to three or $our ti,es7 3he sa,e -i(o 6an then *rin' in 6(ose to E1 ,i((ion7 A ,aFor s(i6e o$ the #ro$its o$ or'aniIed 6ri,e in the :7S7 deri5es $ro, the 8ho(esa(in' o$ i((e'a( dru's7 3he tra$$i6-in' o$ heroin, 6o6aine, ,or#hine *ase, et67, a(on' 8ith ,ariFuana, hash, =S+ and

other ha((u6ino'ens, )ie(ds an annua( turno5er esti,ated as hi'h as E/! *i((ion7A2B 3hat is an enor,ous su,, e5en in the 6ontext o$ the :7S7 e6ono,)7 A 5er) (ar'e #ortion o$ the :7S7 ,ar-et 6an *e 6o5ered *) deri5ati5es o$ Southeast Asian o#iu,7 .o8e5er, as (ate as 1969 on() Marsei((es 0ren6h,en #rodu6ed sno8 8hite heroin in Cuantities (ar'e enou'h to satis$) the A,eri6an ,ar-et7 &*tainin' a*so(ute() #ure 8hite no7 " heroin is no eas) ,atter7 3he 6he,ist 'enera(() ends 8ith s(i'hAtB() *ro8nish no7 3 heroin, or @*ro8n su'ar7@ 3hou'h the 4hinese Ma$ia had a,#(e o#iu,, the) 6ou(d not #rodu6e no7 " heroin in su$$i6ient Cuantities7 Ex6(udin' the, $ro, dire6t entr) onto the :7S7 s6ene, it (i,ited the 4hinese to de(i5er) o$ ra8 ,ateria(s to Marsei((es and sa(e o$ se6ond rate #rodu6ts e(se8here7 In the 'o(den era that 6u(,inated, at the start o$ 19/0, 8ith 4hristian +a5id Foinin' the 1i6ord 'an' hierar6h), Mar6e( 0ran6is6i and +o,iniCue Kenturi (ed the 4orsi6an Ma$ia, and <o 4esari 8as the 8iIard o$ the Marsei((es (a*s7 3he) 8ere *ut the 5isi*(e #ortion o$ the i6e*er'7 3he other 99 #er6ent 8as 6o,#rised o$ #o(iti6ians and ,en o$ res#onsi*i(it) and in$(uen6e in 0ren6h inte((i'en6e7 @Mr7 .eroin@ 0ran6is6i 8as the ,an 8ith the internationa( #ers#e6ti5e, 8ith dire6t 6onne6tions to #o(iti6ians and the 6a#os o$ the Ita(ian Ma$ia7 2hen internationa( a'ree,ents 8ere to *e ,ade, 0ran6is6i usua(() did the ne'otiatin'7 Kenturi and <ose#h &rsini 8ere in 6har'e o$ e$$e6ti5e() a(( dru' i,#ort and ex#ort7 3here 8ere $i5e ,ain heroin ex#ort routes to the :7S7A7, t8o *) air and three *) sea7 3he shi##in' (anes e,anated $ro, Bar6e(ona, =is*on, and Ant8er# and either ended in BraIi(J Para'ua), .aiti and the 0ren6h 2est Indies, or 8ent dire6t() to the east 6oast o$ the :nited States7 .eroin s,u''(ed into the :7S7 $ro, the 0ren6h Anti((es and .aiti, (i-e that $ro, Para'ua), 8ent 5ia 0(orida or Mexi6o7 3he *usiest air (anes 8ere $ro, =uxe,*our' and Madrid to either Montrea( or Nassau7A3B +o,iniCue Kenturi9s *rother <ean re6ei5ed the shi#,ents in Montrea(, *ut 8as o*(i'ed to #ass the, on to the 4otroni $a,i()7 =ed *) *rothers Hiuse##e, Kin6ent and 0ran-, the (atter 6(an trans#orted the heroin to the :7S7A7, and distri*uted it to the *i' ti,e #ushers in Ne8 Dor-7 .eroin (ea5in' .aiti, the Anti((es, Nassau, and the Para'ua) *ased 1i6ord Mo* 8ound u# in 0(orida, 8here Santo 3ra$$i6ante, Fr7 and the 4u*an Ma$ia 6ontro((ed the dru' *usiness in an axis that *e6a,e the :7S7A79s ,ost #o8er$u( nar6oti6s or'aniIation7 0or )ears the 4orsi6ans had tried settin' u# their o8n :7S7 net8or-, *ut 8ere re#eated() $oi(ed7 It ,i'ht ha5e *een easier $or the, to 'et around the Ita(ians and 4u*ans *) 8a) o$ Mexi6o, had the 4otroni and 3ra$$i6ante or'aniIations not a(so de6ided to enter the #i6ture there7 At a 'rand asse,*() o$ ,o*sters $ro, Marsei((es, Montrea(, Ne8 Dor- and Mia,i, the ru(es 8ere $ixed $or s,u''(in' 5ia Mexi6o7 3he site o$ the ,eetin' 8as A6a#u(6o, the ti,e 8as ear() 19/07 1e#resentin' the 0ren6h 8ere <ean Kenturi, <ean Ba#tiste 4ro6e and Pau( Mondo(ini7 4ro6e and Mondo(ini *e6a,e the 4orsi6ans9 #er,anent ,en in Mexi6o7 3he ti'ht 6ontro( o5er the :7S7 ,ar-et 8ie(ded *) the 4otronis o$ Montrea( and 3ra$$i6ante o$ 3a,#a 8as a (e'a6) o$ Me)er =ans-) and =u6-) =u6iano9s reor'aniIation o$ the :7S7 heroin ,ar-et7 =ans-) *ui(t hi,se($ a $antasti6 e,#ire headCuartered in .a5ana, and (itera(() 'o5erned 4u*a o5er the head o$ the di6tator 0u('en6io Batista7 =ans-) *e6a,e the 8or(d9s un6ro8ned nar6oti6s -in'7 .is de6isions a$$e6ted e5er)one, in6(udin' the *i'8i's in 0ran6e and Ita()7 .e in5ested in the Marsei((es (a*s and had the 4orsi6ans reor'aniIe the,se(5es ,ore e$$i6ient()7 2hen 4astro dro5e hi, $ro, 4u*a, =ans-) 6reated a si,i(ar 'a,*(in' #aradise in Nassau7

Nassau *e6a,e a $o6a( #oint in ,ore 8a)s than one7 Besides the 'a,*(in' ta-e, the 'reater #art o$ the in6redi*(e *onanIa $ro, :7S7 nar6oti6s dea(s the 4orsi6ans9 share in6(uded 8as (aundered 5ia =ans-)9s Mia,i Nationa( Ban-, to Nassau, and on to nu,*ered a66ounts in S8itIer(and and =e*anon7 3he =ans-) $ortune is esti,ated at E2 *i((ion7 :na*(e to reenter the :7S7 in 19/0, =ans-) toote,#orar) re$u'e in Israe(, 8hi6h e5entua(() re$used hi, 6itiIenshi#7 It is di$$i6u(t to sa) ho8 ,u6h o$ his #o8er he retains7 .is o#eration has a##arent() *een ta-en o5er *) $or,er su*ordinates7 In nar6oti6s the) are the Montrea( 4otroni $a,i() and, a*o5e a((, Santo 3ra$$i6ante, Fr7 in 0(orida, the ,an to 8ho, the 1i6ordJ+a5id Mo* 6onsi'ned enor,ous Cuantities o$ heroin7
Notes 17 In the 30 Au'ust 1963 issue o$ ife, Stan(e) ;arno8 na,ed Bona5enture 0ran6is6i the -in'#in o$ o#iu, s,u''(in' $ro, =aos7 A66ordin' to A(ain <au*ert @%ossier % ... comme %rogue, A(ain Moreau, 19/"?, it 8as i,#ossi*(e to deter,ine 8hether Bona5enture and Mar6e( 0ran6is6i 8ere re(ated7 27 07A7<7 (anni: ?lac! &afia >Si,on and S6huster, 19/"? (anni9s esti,ate is the hi'hest I ha5e seen7 3he 8ide ran'e o$ esti,ates de,onstrates that no one rea(() -no8s, or is e5en 6(ose to -no8in', ho8 'reat the nar6oti6s hand(e is7 37 It 8as o$ten (itt(e thin's 8hi6h ,ade a s,u''(in' route es#e6ia(() attra6ti5e7 0or exa,#(e, $or,er 0ren6h heroin s,u''(er 1i6hard Berdin re6a((s his 6o((ea'ue Andre =a*a)9s des6ri#tion o$ the i,#ortant ro(e #(a)ed *) the ,en9s roo, at Nassau air#ort: @It9s a s,a(( air#ort, and there9s a 6o,,on 8aitin' roo,, 8hi6h ,eans that a$ter I95e 'one throu'h En'(ish 6usto,s I 'o strai'ht to the A,eri6an side, ar,ed 8ith a#ie6e o$ hand (u''a'e 6ontainin' nothin' *ut toi(etries and the usua( -ni6- -na6-s7 3here I 6he6- ,) *a''a'e throu'h to Mia,i7 Assu,in' the) 6he6- ,) hand *a', the)9(( 8ra# so,e -ind o$ se($adhesi5e ti6-et around the hand(e to sho8 it9s *een &;9d7 I9(( arran'e ,) $(i'ht s6hedu(e so that ,) #(ane $or Mia,i doesn9t (ea5e $or at (east an hour a$ter our arri5a( in Nassau7 So no8 I 'o *a6- to the #assen'er (oun'e to 8ait $or ,) $(i'ht7 2e ,eet in the ,en9s roo,, 8here 8e ex6han'e the 6ontents o$ our hand (u''a'e7 No8 I95e 'ot the ,er6handise, sa$e() stashed in a #ie6e o$ (u''a'e *earin' the 6usto,s sea( o$ a##ro5a(7 2hen ,) $(i'ht is 6a((ed, I 6(i,* a*oard the (ast (e' o$ the tri# 8ithout a 8orr) in the 8or(d7 I don9t see ho8 it 6ou(d ,iss7@ >17 Berdin: #ode (amed *ichard, +utton, 19/"?7


2hen 4har(es de Hau((e retired and Heor'es Po,#idou 8as e(e6ted #resident o$ 0ran6e in 1969, i,#ro5e,ent o$ 0ran6o A,eri6an re(ations 8as hi'h on Po,#idou9s a'enda7 In ear() 19/0 he $(e8 to 2ashin'ton7 3here he ,et 8ith President Nixon and, on se5era( o66asions, #u*(i6() 6autioned a'ainst :7S7 8ithdra8a( $ro, Euro#e7 :#on returnin' to 0ran6e he 8ent strai'ht to 8or- e(i,inatin' the 'reatest o*sta6(e to 0ran6o A,eri6an #artnershi#7 .e a##ointed A(exandre de Maren6hes head o$ the S+E4E and to(d hi, to 6(ean it u#7 +e Maren6hes res#onded *) $irin' 81! ,en throu'hout the inte((i'en6e a'en6)7 .e then 6hose 4o(one( Pau( 0errer a(ias 0ournier as his ri'ht hand ,an, and the t8o *e'an to reor'aniIe7 Po,#idou hi,se($ des#ised se5era( (on'ti,e es#iona'e $i'ures, #ri,ari() *e6ause o$ their ro(e in a ruth(ess s,ear 6a,#ai'n 8a'ed a'ainst hi, #rior to the 1969 e(e6tion7 In the 6ourse o$ the 6a,#ai'n ta,#ered #hotos 8ere 6ir6u(ated sho8in' Mada,e Po,#idou in the 6o,#an) o$ $i(, star A(ain +e(on9s *od)'uard, Ste$an Mar-o5i6 L 8ho had *een ,urdered in 1968Land in 6o,#ro,isin' #ositions 8ith ,en and 8o,en a(i-e7 Na,es that turned u# re#eated() throu'hout the s6anda( in6(uded 4o(one( 1o'er Bar*erot and S+E4E a'ents 4a#tain Pau( Santena6 and 1o'er +e(ouette, three ar6h Ha((ists $ro, <a6Cues 0o66art9s inner 6ir6(e7A1B Santena6 had #ro,oted the #residentia( 6andida6) o$ de Hau((e9s son, 1ea( Ad,ira( Phi(i##e de Hau((e, 8ho e5entua(() re$used the no,ination7 Bar*erot, 8ho had

returned $ro, :ru'ua) in 1968 to he(# s,other the Ma) student insurre6tion, dire6ted the Bureau #our (e +e5e(o##e,ent de (a Produ6tion A'ri6o(e >B+PA?, a $ront $or 0o66art9s se6ret $inan6ia( transa6tions7A2B Po,#idou had to 8at6h his ste# 8hi(e e(i,inatin' #o8er$u( ene,ies *e6ause ,ost o$ the, enFo)ed the su##ort o$ a (ar'e se',ent o$ the Hau((ist #art)7 Sti((, 8ith :7S7 he(#, he used the next 6ou#(e o$ )ears to 6ho-e o$$ the 8orst o$ the resistan6e7 3he S+E4E 8as ordered to 6oo#erate 8ith the 4IA% SA4 8as 6ut *a6- se5ere(), the *runt *orne *) its 6ri,ina( 6ontin'ent% and the 4orsi6an Ma$ia9s #o8er 8as s)ste,ati6a(() redu6ed7 0o66art hi,se($ 8as too $or,ida*(e to ta-e on $ronta(()7 .is e6ono,i6 #o8er, 'reat in$(uen6e, and dossiers on other #o(iti6ians ,ade hi, e$$e6ti5e() untou6ha*(e7 Ne5erthe(ess, he a##arent() 6o,#ro,ised and 8ent a(on' 8ith Po,#idou on se5era( 6ounts7 Po,#idou stru6- at the 'an'sters and shadier e(e,ents o$ the S+E4E and SA4 throu'h their ,ost 5u(nera*(e #oint their 8a((ets7 &ne su*Fe6t Po,#idou had dis6ussed 8ith Nixon on his :7S7 tour 8as the 8ar on dru's7 Nixon had des6ri*ed the di,ensions o$ the #ro*(e, and as-ed $or Po,#idou9s assistan6e in sto##in' the heroin $(o8 $ro, Marsei((es7 Sin6e it suited his #(ans #er$e6t(), Po,#idou had a'reed7 1edu6in' the 4orsi6an Ma$ia9s #ro$its 8ou(d a(so (i,it its #o(iti6a( in$(uen6e7 But a #roFe6t o$ that ,a'nitude 6ou(d not *e a66o,#(ished o5erni'ht7 Pre#arations had to *e ,ade7 .ad Po,#idou sus#e6ted 8hat rea(() (a) in store internationa((), he 8ou(d 6ertain() ha5e had se6ond thou'hts7 3he, out6o,e o$ that #a6t s(o8() *e'an to e,er'e in 19/07 In the t8o )ears that $o((o8ed it stru6- ho,e 8ith the $or6e o$ an a5a(an6he7 A'('ste R$cord &n 18 &6to*er 19/0 a 4essna $our seater (anded at Mia,i Internationa( air#ort7 1e'istered in Ar'entina, the #(ane 8as one o$ hundreds o$ Para'ua)an @6ontra*andistas@ s,u''(in' 'oods to and $ro, ei'ht) (andin' stri#s in 0(orida7 :7S7 6usto,s a'ents, ti##ed o$$ that the #(ane 8ou(d *e 8orth ins#e6tin', e,er'ed $ro, hidin' as the #i(ot 6ra8(ed $ro, the 6o6-#it7 @No *anditoP@ s6rea,ed the #i(ot, 4esar Bian6hi7 But he 8as Fust that, as the a'ents dis6o5ered three 6ases 6ontainin' a tota( o$ $ort) $i5e -i(os o$ heroin in the tai( o$ the #(ane7 3o sa5e his s-in, Bian6hi a'reed to 6oo#erate7 .e 6ontinued on his nor,a( route, *ut 8ith a'ents no8 on his tai(7 0irst he ,et his Mia,i 6onta6t, 0e(ix Be6-er7 3hen Bian6hi, Be6-er and a third ,an, Aron Mura5ni-, $(e8 to Ne8 Dor- to ,eet Pierre Hahou o$ the 1i6ord net8or-, and $ina(() the :7S7 8ho(esa(ers7 B) &6to*er 2/ the heroin dea( 8as 6(osed and Hahou 8as a*out to $() to Para'ua) 8ith the ,one)7 But *e$ore he 6ou(d de#art, a'ents ,o5ed in and 6au'ht six ,en in their net7 3he 6at6h 8as *etter than anti6i#ated7 Bian6hi shot o$$ at the ,outh (i-e a ,a6hine 'un as 8idee)ed 6usto,s a'ents heard the stor) o$ 1i6ord9s e(a*orate nar6oti6s rin'7 In the ensuin' $our ,onths sta6-s o$ #roo$ 8ere asse,*(ed a'ainst 1i6ord7 0ina((), in Mar6h 19/1 the :nited States de,anded his extradition7 But a ,i(itar) #(ane dis#at6hed to Asun6ion $or the 'an'ster -in'#in returned 8ithout its #riIe7 Para'ua)an President Stroessner had de6ided that i$ 1i6ord 8ere i,#risoned it 8ou(d *e in Para'ua)7 @E( KieFo@ 1i6ord 8as then set u# in a 6o,$orta*(e 6e(( 6ontainin' a s#rin' ,attress, radio and 3K, and 8as a((o8ed 5isits an) ti,e ni'ht or da)7 2aiters *rou'ht $ood $ro, his o8n restaurant, and he 6ontinued ,ana'in' his *usinesses in the Cuiet o$ #rison7

Stroessner on() 6a#itu(ated in the su,,er o$ 19/2 8hen the :nited States threatened a shar# 6ut*a6- in aid to Para'ua)7 &n Se#te,*er 3, 1i6ord 8as extradited7 3he ,an 8ho #ut the #ressure on Stroessner had *een .enr) ;issin'er7 A66ordin' to internationa( s#oo- =uis HonIa(eI Mata, hi,se($ a #art) to the a$$air, the #ressure *e'an in (ate 1968, a )ear in 8hi6h one o$ ;issin'er9s $riends a(so ha##ened to *e in Para'ua) on a @8ea#ons dea(7@A3B 3he ,an 8as 4IA7 a'ent Jdou*(e a'ent 0ernand =e'ros, a 6(ose a6Cuaintan6e o$ se5era( ,e,*ers o$ the 1i6ord 'an'7A"B Ro(er Delo'ette 3he 6ase o$ 1o'er @0ren6h 4onne6tion@ +e(ouette in5o(5ed the 'reatest internationa( $ire8or-s and 8as re6reated in #rint and on s6reen7 &n ! A#ri( 19/1 a :7S7 6usto,s a'ent dis6o5ered ei'ht) nine #a6-ets o$ heroin hidden in a Ko(-s8a'en 5an on *oard the Atlantic #ognac, a $rei'hter do6-ed in Port E(iIa*eth, Ne8 <erse)7 3he) 6ontained $ort) $i5e -i(os o$ the 8hite 'o(d7 +e(ouette 8as arrested that sa,e da) 8hen he 6a,e $or the 6ar7 :nder interro'ation +e(ouette 6(ai,ed to *e 8or-in' $or 0ren6h inte((i'en6e a'en6) S+E4E, and that his Fourne) 8ith the heroin had *een ordered *) 4o(one( 0errer a(ias 0ournier, de Maren6hes9 ri'hthand ,an in the S+E4E7 0urther,ore, he had *een instru6ted to 6onta6t S+E4E a'ent +ona(d M6Na**, 8ho 8as 8or-in' at the 0ren6h 6onsu(ate in Ne8 Dor-7A!B 2hi(e that 8as sensationa( in itse($, the s6anda( 8as $ar 'reater than #ress and #u*(i6 6ou(d -no87 2hat rea(() in$(a,ed the A,eri6ans 8as that the) had a'reed 8ith 0ren6h authorities to 6oo#erate a'ainst nar6oti6s tra$$i6-in', and a -e) (in8as the su##osed() reor'aniIed and 6oo#erati5e S+E4E7 I$ +e(ouette9s stor) 8ere true, then the S+E4E had not on() *ro-en its a'ree,ent, it had a(so #u((ed the ru' $ro, under Po,#idou, and ,u6h o$ the A,eri6ans9 #re(i,inar) 8or- 8ou(d ha5e *een 8asted7 0ren6h +e$ense Minister Mi6he( +e*re, under 8hose aus#i6es the S+E4E o#erated, o$$i6ia(() denoun6ed +e(ouette9s 6(ai, as a $a*ri6ation7 2hi(e he ad,itted that +e(ouette had ear(ier ta-en on o66asiona( assi'n,ents, he 8as no (on'er atta6hed to the S+E4E7 3he A,eri6ans su*Fe6ted +e(ouette to t8o (ie dete6tor tests, *oth o$ 8hi6h he #assed 8ith honor7 Prose6utor .er*ert Stern9s reCuest to interro'ate 0ournier 8as then re$used7 As $or the 0ren6h, their three da) in5esti'ation o$ 0ournier a*so(5ed hi, o$ a(( sus#i6ion7 At this sta'e +e(ouette9s #ast *e6o,es o$ interest7 .e *e'an 8or-in' $or 0ren6h inte((i'en6e in 19"6 at a'e t8ent) three7 .is $irst assi'n,ent 8as -ee#in' ta*s on a Hree- e(e6tion, under the su#er5ision o$ 4o(one( 1o'er Bar*erot7 A(thou'h their #aths a##eared to s#(it, the t8o stu6- to'ether7 2hi(e +e(ouette re,ained 8ith the S+E4E, Bar*erot shutt(ed a*out on 5arious Fo*s a66ordin' to the needs o$ de Hau((e and 0o66art7 3he) 8ere reunited in A('eria, 8ith +e(ouette an a'ent and Bar*erot the (eader o$ the B(a6- 4o,,andos7 3he) a'ain 6rossed #aths in the 4entra( A$ri6an 1e#u*(i6, 8here Bar*erot ser5ed as 0ren6h a,*assador $ro, 1961 to 196!7 2hen Bar*erot *e6a,e the head o$ the B+PA a$ter the Ma) 1968 riots, he i,,ediate() hired +e(ouette, 8ho #ro6eeded to ,arr) his *oss9s se6retar)7 In the $a(( o$ 1968 +e(ouette and Bar*erot 8ent on a ,)sterious tri# to 4u*a, durin' 8hi6h +e(ouette 8as a##roa6hed *) the S+E4E and as-ed to *e6o,e its a'ent on the is(and7 .e a'reed and re,ained an S+E4E a'ent $or near() one )ear, a$ter 8hi6h he and Bar*erot Fourne)ed on6e a'ain to

A$ri6a7A6B In (ate 1969 +e(ouette sudden() 6onta6ted the S+E4E9s 4o(one( 0ournier to de,and *a6- #a) and reCuest reinstate,ent7 Both reCuests 8ere $i((ed7A/B 0o((o8in' +e(ouette9s arrest in the :nited States and o$$i6ia( re$utation o$ his state,ent, Bar*erot sur#risin'() to(d 1adio =uxe,*our' that he *e(ie5ed the o#eration to ha5e *een (ed *) Paris S+E4E $i'ures see-in' to do a8a) 8ith *oth +e(ouette and his trou*(eso,e #ast7 3he A,eri6ans e5ident() *e(ie5ed +e(ouette and Bar*erot ,ore than the) did +e$ense Minister +e*re and 4o(one( 0ournier7 0or a 6ri,e #unisha*(e *) t8ent) )ears i,#rison,ent, +e(ouette 'ot o$$ 8ith $i5e7 At the 6(ose o$ 19/2 a ne8 6ha#ter 8as added to the +e(ouette sa'a7 4(aude Andre Pastou o$ 4hristian +a5id9s =atin A,eri6an or'aniIation 8as arrested and *e'an to sin' $or the 4IA and :7S7 nar6oti6s a'ents7 Pastou 6(ai,ed +a5id had ordered hi, to Ne8 Dor- at the *e'innin' o$ A#ri( 19/17 &n A#ri( " he 8as su##osed to ,eet 1o'er +e(ouette at the Par- Sheraton .ote( to dis6uss +e(ouette9s de(i5er) o$ the $ort) $i5e -i(os o$ heroin to Pastou, 8ho 8ou(d then #ass the, on to the 8ho(esa(ers7A8B Pastou said he ,et +e(ouette as #(anned and that the t8o a'reed on a de(i5er) the $o((o8in' e5enin'7 2hen +e(ouette, 8ith 'ood reason, ad not a##ear, Pastou 'ot the Fitters and returned to =atin A,eri6a7A9B It9s a(so #ossi*(e that the a*o5e ,entioned $or6es 8ere a8are o$ the Nixon Po,#idou nar6oti6s a'ree,ent and sa8 their o8n $inan6ia( sta-es in Feo#ard)7 3he) ,i'ht ha5e sou'ht to th8art its i,#(e,entation *) s#(ittin' the S+E4E and its 4IA 6o((ea'ues7 0ina((), 0ournier, 8ho 8as @o(d s6hoo(@ S+E4E, ,i'ht a(so ha5e *een runnin' dru's and, there$ore, not *een -een on 6arr)in' throu'h the #o(i6ies o$ his *oss de Maren6hes7 $c3el-.$ctor ert4

&n ! <u() 19/1 a Paris 6ourt senten6ed t8o ,en to $i5e )ears i,#rison,ent $or tra$$i6-in' in nar6oti6s7 3he) 8ere Mi6he( Ki6tor MertI, $i$t) one, and A6hi((es 4e66hini, $ort) nine7 4onsiderin' that sin6e 1960 the) had s,u''(ed so,e E3 *i((ion >street 5a(ue? 8orth o$ heroin into the :7S7A7, their senten6es 8ere ,i(d to sa) the (east7 Moreo5er, their tria( 8ou(d ne5er ha5e ta-en #(a6e had 0ren6h authorities not *een under intense A,eri6an #ressure in the 8a-e o$ 1o'er +e(ouette9s ex#ose7 Sin6e 1961, in $a6t, :7S7 authorities had -no8n that MertI and 4e66hini 8ere s,u''(in' (ar'e Cuantities into the 6ountr)7 Se5era( ti,es the :7S7 had as-ed the 0ren6h to a6t, *ut to no a5ai(7 3here 8ere 5er) s#e6ia( reasons $or 0ren6h resistan6e7 Mi6he( Ki6tor MertI 8as *orn in the Mose( re'ion9s 0ren6h 6o,,unit)7 In 19"1 he 8as dra$ted into the Her,an ar,)7 38o )ears (ater he deserted to Foin the 0ren6h resistan6e7 A ,an 8ho 6herished no 'reat (o5e $or the Her,ans, MertI soon *e6a,e an under'round (e'end as @4o,,andante Ba#tiste7@ .is sCuad *e6a,e $a,ous $or its darin', MertI hi,se($ -i((in' 20 Hesta#o a'ents, $reein' "00 #risoners and es6a#in' " ti,es in a(( $ro, the Axis #o8ers7 In 19"! Henera( de Hau((e a8arded hi, the =e'ion o$ .onor, 8hi6h 8as soon Foined *) a 1esistan6e ,eda( and 2ar 4ross7 MertI 8as a hero7 A$ter the 8ar he entered 0ren6h inte((i'en6e 8ith the ran- o$ 6a#tain and 8as stationed a*road7 In 1960, 8hi(e in the e,#(o) o$ the S+E4E, MertI *e'an s,u''(in' heroin $ro, 0ran6e to the :7S7 to'ether 8ith A6hi((es 4e66hini, a Marsei((es 'an'ster tied to the 0ran6is6i Kenturi 6(an7 In 1961 the

trade 8as interru#ted 8hen near() a(( o$ 0ran6e9s to# 'an'sters Foined de Hau((e9s $or6es in A('eria7 MertI 8as a,on' the,7 3he S+E4E sent hi, on a s#) ,ission to in$i(trate the &AS in A('eria7 .is ,ission #ro5ed a 'reat su66ess, e5en thou'h he 8as ,ista-en() arrested *) his o8n side and #(a6ed in a detention 6a,# $or &AS rin'(eaders in <u() 19617 &n <u() 1" S+E4E 6hie$s 8ere noti$ied that MertI had i,#ortant in$or,ation7 .e 8as *rou'ht *e$ore <a6Cues 0o66art hi,se($7 .e in$or,ed 0o66art that the &AS 8as #(annin' to *(o8 u# the #resident9s 6ar near Pont sur Seine, a *rid'e a6ross 8hi6h de Hau((e 8as dri5en ea6h da)7 MertI 8as returned to the 6a,# to deter,ine the exa6t ti,e o$ assassination7 At the (ast ,o,ent he su66eeded7 +e Hau((e9s 6ar dro5e o5er Pont sur Seine as usua(, *ut s8er5ed into another (ane, Fust as the *o,* ex#(oded in the (ane nor,a(() ta-en7 +e Hau((e o8ed MertI his (i$e7 0o((o8in' the ,ission, 8ith *oth the #resident and 0o66art inde*ted to hi,, MertI returned to the tra$$i6-in' o$ nar6oti6s7 &n 12 <anuar) 1962 he shi##ed an auto,o*i(e to Ne8 Dor- (oaded 8ith 100 -i(os o$ #ure heroin7 3he #ro6edure he $o((o8ed 8as a standard one7 A sheet ,eta( 8or-er o#ened u# the 6hassis, #(a6ed the heroin *e)ond the s6rutin) o$ 6usto,s o$$i6ia(s, and then re8e(ded the #(ates7 3he 6ar 8as sent to the :7S7 under a $i6titious na,e and #i6-ed u# *) a ,an 8ith a $or'ed #ass#ort in that na,e7 &5er the next ei'ht or nine )ears MertI and 4e66hini o#erated 8ithout interru#tion and *a''ed a hu'e $ortune7 3heir *an-ro((er, a ,an o$ hi'h standin', re,ained anon),ous7 3hrou'h the )ears, 4e66hini, (i-e MertI, had *een o$ 'reat ser5i6e to the Hau((ist #art), :+1, in the S& du 1P0 as 8e(( as SA4, 8hi6h ex#(ains the re(u6tan6e to #rose6ute the,7 +es#ite his $i5e )ear senten6e, 4e66hini 8as dee,ed too i(( $or i,#rison,ent and re,ained a $ree ,an7 MertI $irst *e'an ser5in' ti,e in <u() 19/2, *ut a##ears to ha5e *een se6ret() re(eased short() therea$ter7A10B A#(e S$mo#p$er$ &n 13 Se#te,*er 19/1 the $i$t) six )ear o(d An'e Si,on#ieri 8as arrested at a #ri5ate 6(ini6 in AFa66io, 4orsi6a, $or s,u''(in' (ar'e Cuantities o$ heroin into the :7S7 *et8een 1960 and 19/07 .is #artner in 6ri,e 8as the S8iss *an-er Andre .irs6h7 Si,on#ieri had 8or-ed $or *oth the S+E4E and SA47 =i-e 4hristian +a5id, he had *een a *ar*ouIe in A('eria dire6t() under Pierre =e,ar6hand7 .e *e6a,e so 6(ose to =e,ar6hand that, as a (o6a( SA4 (eader, he ,ana'ed the @#h)si6a(@ #art o$ =e,ar6hand9s 1963 Par(ia,entar) 6a,#ai'n7 Be6ause o$ his #o(iti6a( 6onne6tions Si,on#ieri 8as -no8n in his *irth#(a6e 4orsi6a, and a,on' Marsei((es 'an'sters, as @3he :ntou6ha*(e7@ &n 31 Au'ust 196/ the $rei'hter 8rederico # do6-ed in Mia,i7 4usto,s a'ent <ohn 2roth s#otted a hun6h*a6- on his 8a) do8n the 'an'#(an-7 0indin' the hun6h sus#i6ious, 2roth s(a##ed it and Fo-in'() as-ed i$ it 8as a *urden7 3he ,an sti$$ened and s#ran' to8ards a taxi in 8hi6h a sun'(assed 8o,an 8as 8aitin'7 But the 6a**) re$used to de#art and 2roth na**ed the 6ou#(e7 3he ,an 8as the S8iss *an-er 2i((ia, =a,*ert and the 8o,an 8as <osette Bauer, an es6a#ee $ro, a S8iss #rison 8here she had *een ser5in' ti,e $or ,urderin' her ri6h $ather7 4usto,s a'ents dis6o5ered t8e(5e -i(os o$ heroin in =a,*ert9s hun6h*a6- and the 6ou#(e 8as s(a##ed 8ith se5en )ear senten6es *) a Mia,i 6ourt7 Both 6(ai,ed to *e 6ouriers $or a 4orsi6an -no8n to the, as Monsieur S,a((7 3he) 8ere to ha5e ta-en the heroin to Boston and handed it to one 1o*ert Mori o$ S8itIer(and7

3he trai( (ed $ro, Mori to the S8iss *an-er Andre .irs6h, *ut :7S7 nar-s (a6-ed the e5iden6e to nai( hi,7 A$ter this e#isode, .irs6h and his #artner Monsieur S,a(( started the Pana,anian 0ood and 4he,i6a( 4o,#an), 8hi6h ex#orted 6anned #ae((a to the :7S7A7Lon() so,e o$ the 6ans 8ere $i((ed 8ith heroin7 .irs6h 8as $ina(() tra##ed in 1969 8hen :7S7 6usto,s a'ents o#ened the 8ron' 6ans7 .e 8as *rou'ht *e$ore a Hene5a 6ourt, *ut it 8asn9t unti( 29 A#ri( 19/1 that he 8as senten6ed to six and a ha($ )ears in #rison7 &n that da) his (a8)er, the $a,ous 1a),ond Ni6o(et, announ6ed that Monsieur S,a(( 8as the 4orsi6an An'e Si,on#ieri7 3he 6ourt in Hene5a had *een #esterin' 0ren6h #o(i6e to Cuestion Si,on#ieri sin6e 19/0, *ut had *een to(d Si,on#ieri 8as in a 6(ini6 8ith a *ad heart and 6ou(d not ta-e the Cuestionin'7 2hen Ni6o(et9s assertion hit 0ren6h ne8sstands, Si,on#ieri 8as Cui6-() read,itted into the Hrand5a( 6(ini6 8ith se5ere heart #ains7 But Si,on#ieri9s nu,*er 8as u#7 A$ter $our ,onths o$ ha''(in', on 8 Se#te,*er 19/1, 8ith $u(( #ress 6o5era'e, 0ren6h Interior Minister 1a),ond Mar6e((in ordered 6ourt a##ointed do6tors to exa,ine the #atient7 0i5e da)s (ater #o(i6e #ut Si,on#ieri under arrest7 In <u() 19/2 a 0ren6h 6ourt senten6ed hi, to $i5e )ears i,#rison,entLa #ena(t), (i-e those o$ MertI and 4e66hini, that *ore no re(ation to the 6ri,e7 .irs6h and Si,on#ieri ea6h 'ot (ess ti,e than their ha#(ess 6ouriers, =a,*ert and Bauer7 &n6e a'ain there 8as the s6ent o$ 4IA a'ent 0ernand =e'ros, an a6Cuaintan6e o$ the .irs6h $a,i(), 8ho 8as seen 8ith Mada,e .irs6h in Hene5a a$ter her hus*and had *een #ut a8a)7A11B A#dre L+5+" &n Sunda), 26 Se#te,*er 19/1 :7S7 6usto,s a'ents arrested the 0ren6h,an 1i6hard Berdin on his 8a) out o$ the A**e) Ki6toria .ote( on 0i$t) 0irst Street in Ne8 Dor- 4it)7 .is arrest 're8 out o$ the dis6o5er) o$ ei'ht) t8o -i(os o$ heroin a*oard the Ita(ian (iner *afael(o in Ne8 Dor- har*or7 3hou'h Berdin 8as a s,a(( $ish in the dru' rin' the) 8ere tra6-in', the 6usto,s a'ents had $o((o8ed hi, $or $i5e da)s to se5era( o$ his 6onta6ts7 In $a6t the arrest 8as a s(i# 6aused *) $ier6e ri5a(r) *et8een a'ents o$ 6usto,s and the BN++7 0or ha($ a )ear the BN++ had *een 6oo#eratin' 8ith 0ren6h nar-s in sear6h o$ Berdin9s *an-ro((ers and Ne8 Dor- 6usto,ers7 Mu6h to the nar-s9 6ha'rin, 6usto,s a'ents stru6- 8ithout 8arnin' their ri5a(s7 .o8e5er, (u6- 8as 8ith 6usto,s7 2ee-s (ater Berdin, see-in' a redu6ed senten6e, $in'ered a 0ren6h a(( star dru' rin' that in6(uded 'an'sters =aurent 0io66oni, <o Si'no(i, <ean 4(aude ;e((a, A(exandre Sa((es, <ean +u,erain, 0e(ix 1osso, <ean +e,eester, 1a),ond Mou(in, Patri6- =orenI, <a6-) Martin, 0ran6ois S6a#u(a, and Andre Andreani% #(us :7S7 ,a$iosi in6(udin' =ouis 4iri((o, =oren6o d9A(oisio, 0ran- 1a##a, and Hiuse##e 4ia6o,aIIo7A12B 3heir senten6es ran'ed $ro, $i5e to t8ent) $i5e )ears, 8hi(e Berdin 'ot a8a) 8ith three and ser5ed on() one and a ha($7 3oda) he9s (i5in' in the :7S7A7 8ith a ne8 na,e and a ne8 $a6e, *ut sti(( $ear$u( o$ under8or(d re5en'e7 &n ! &6to*er 19/1 one Andre =a*a) 5isited the Paris BN++ o$$i6e, said he 8as 8or-in' $or the S+E4E, and o$$ered to he(# *rin' 100 -i(os o$ heroin into the :nited States7 .e 8ou(d then ,a-e another tri# 8ith the sa,e Cuantit) and (ead the BN++ to the 8ho(esa(ers7 As the BN++ 8e(( -ne8, =a*a) 8as a rin'(eader o$ the 'an' on 8hi6h Berdin had stoo(ed7 A$ter te((in' hi, to return the next da), the) #honed the 0ren6h nar6oti6s #o(i6e7 &n &6to*er 6, 0ren6h #o(i6e arrested =a*a) and three other heroin tra$$i6-ers, and $ound 106 -i(os o$ heroin in =a*a)9s Ko(-s8a'en7

2h) did =a*a) sho8 u# at the :7S7 nar6oti6s o$$i6e, and 8hat did he rea(() #ro#oseG 3here has *een no (a6- o$ ans8ers7 So,e sa) =a*a) 8as e,#(o)ed on the sa,e side as +e(ouette, *) $or6es see-in' either to dis6redit the ne8 S+E4E (eadershi# or to destro) the transAt(anti6 dru' 6rusade7 &thers *e(ie5e the 6ontrar) L that =a*a) 8as a 4IA S+E4E dou*(e a'ent ,ade into a s6a#e'oat 8hen Berdin san'7 Andre =a*a) had *een another o$ Pierre =e,ar6hand9s *ar*outes in A('eria7 Not -no8n $or his $i'htin', he 8as sent to s#) *ehind &AS terrorist (ines7 In (ate 1961 <a6Cues 0o66art sent hi, to ;inshasa >in the 4on'o?, the I5or) 4oast and Ha*on7 Ba6- in 0ran6e he i,,ediate() Foined SA4 as a $und raiser7 0or reasons un-no8n =a*a) *e'an 'oin' his o8n route in the ,id sixties7 2ith his 6(ose $riends, 4IA a'ent 0ernand =e'ros and 3hierr) de Bonna), he had his 1in' in the internationa( art trade7 .e 'ot in5o(5ed 8ith a Be('ian insuran6e 6o,#an) that 6o((a#sed 8ith E6 ,i((ion in de*ts, and, (i-e =e'ros, he a(so #rodu6ed se5era( ,o5ies7 =a*a) and de Bonna) ran the Parisian hote( at 8hi6h the Moro66an 4o(one( +(i,i sta)ed in the a$ter,ath o$ the Ben Bar-a a$$air7 It 8as a(so the hote( that dou*(ed as a ,er6enar) re6ruitin' station $or the ;atan'ese ar,) o$ Moise 3sho,*e, 8ho, the =a*a)J=e'rosJde Bonna) threeso,e he(#ed a*du6t to A('eria7 And in his Hene5a a#art,ent, =a*a) on6e hid the A('erian re5o(utionar), Be(-asse, ;ri,, 8ho 8as (ater ,urdered7 A13B In 1968 =a*a) 8ent to .aiti, 8here he ,ade a s,a(( $ortune $ro, a $a6tor)7 .e 8as o$ten 5isited there *) =e'ros, and the t8o *e6a,e #ersona( $riends o$ the .aitian di6tator 0ran6ois @Pa#a +o6@ +u5a(ier7 =a*a) in'ratiated hi,se($ 8ith +u5a(ier9s dau'hter Marie+enise, (eadin' so,e to sus#e6t he 8as her (o5er7 In .aiti he ser5ed as an S+E4E 4IA dou*(e a'ent7 .e sta)ed in 6(ose tou6h 8ith :7S7 'an'sters <oe Bonnano and Max Intrattor, and one o$ his Hene5a 6onta6ts 8as the =ans-) s)ndi6ate9s $inan6ia( *rain, <ohn Pu((,an7A1"B +rcel !o'c+# =ate in the e5enin' o$ 29 0e*ruar) 19/2 the sixt) ton shri,#*oat #aprice de 3e,#s sai(ed out o$ the 6oI) har*or o$ Ki((e$ran6e on 0ran6e9s Mediterranean 6oast7 3he shi# 8as re'istered in Huade(ou#e7 Its s-i##er 8as the $i$t) ei'ht )ear o(d $or,er #ara6hutist Mar6e( Bou6an, a .e,in'8a) t)#e in ,ore 8a)s than one7 Bou6an 8as a 6har,in' o(d so(dier7 Sin6e the 8ar he had s,u''(ed a(6oho( and 6i'arettes $ro, 3an'iers to 0ran6e, and 8ea#ons the other 8a), $irst on *oard l'0iseau des $les and (ater the #aprice de Temps. To stran'ers he 8as Fust another shri,# $isher,an7 In $a6t, unti( 19!/ he 8as the 6hair,an o$ the 4a'nes $isher,an9s union, and 8as a(so an extraordinari() 8e(( read and 6(e5er ,an 8hose 6a*in $eatured the 8or-s o$ ;a$-a, Ba(Ia6, 4a,us, and ;ant7 .e 8as ,arried to a 8o,an $ro, Huade(ou#e and in his (ater )ears he o$ten sai(ed throu'h the 0ren6h 2est Indies7 As he 8as stea,in' out o$ Ki((e$ran6e on 28 0e*ruar) 19/2 the 6usto,s 6ruiser Sirocco 8as (ea5in' Ni6e7 .ours (ater 6usto,s a'ents hai(ed do8n the #aprice de Temps. Bou6an ordered $u(( stea, ahead, *ut 6han'ed his ,ind 8hen the Sirocco $ired a sa(5o7 A*oard the shri,#*oat the a'ents $ound "2! -i(os o$ heroin, the (ar'est sin'(e shi#,ent e5er 6on$is6ated7 3he siIe o$ the (oad su''ested des#eration a,on' s,u''(ers $o((o8in' the 19/1 roundu# o$ se5era( nar6oti6s rin's7 3he heroin had *een destined $or Santo 3ra$$ii6ante, Fr79s 0(orida *ased 4u*an Mo*7A1!B

Bou6an 8as s(a##ed 8ith a $i$teen )ear senten6e on ! <anuar) 19/37 .is 6ourtroo, arro'an6e and no*(e 6oo(ness ir-ed Fud'es so ,u6h, that his a##ea( *rou'ht three ,ore )ears7 Su6h se5erit) 8as unheard o$ in 0ran6e7 A doIen Marsei((es 'an'sters 8ere a(so (o6-ed u# in the a$ter,ath7 3he) 8ere a(( $ro, the sa,e 6ir6(e o$ 6roo-s that had #arti6i#ated in the =a*a) a$$air, 8hi6h ,ade it (i-e() that the ,en u#stairs, 8ho need(ess to sa) 8ent untou6hed, 8ere a(so $ro, the sa,e #o(iti6a( $a6tion7 T3e L+5or+tor$es In Au'ust 19/1 <ohn 4usa6-, the head o$ the :7S7 Bureau o$ Nar6oti6s and +an'erous +ru's >BN++?, de6(ared in Paris that ei'ht Marsei((es heroin (a*oratories, $inan6ed *) in$(uentia( *a6-ers, 8ere o#eratin' 8ith 6o,#(ete i,,unit) $ro, #rose6ution7 In return $or his $ran-ness 4usa6- *e6a,e persona non grata in 0ran6e and 8as re6a((ed to the :7S7A7 But his 8ords san- in7 Pressure 8as #ut on 0ren6h authorities *) the A,eri6ans, 8ho 8ondered 8hat 'ood it did to round u# nar6oti6s rin's 8hen the heroin #rodu6tion itse($ 8ent on una*ated7 &n 2/ <anuar) 19/2 0ren6h #o(i6e stor,ed a heroin (a* in Marsei((es9 Monto(i5et Cuarter7 3he (a*orator), 8hi6h #rodu6ed $ort) -i(os o$ 'ood Cua(it) heroin ea6h 8ee-, 8as run *) Marius and MarieAntoinette Pastore7 Marius 'ot $i$teen )ears on 29 Se#te,*er 19/2 8hi(e Marie Antoinette 'ot $i5e7 &n 16 Mar6h 19/2 the #o(i6e ,ade an i,#ressi5e arrest that *ro-e the heart o$ ,an) a #o(iti6ian, *an-ro((er, and 6o#7 3he 6at6h 8as heroin9s 'rand o(d ,an, <o 4esari, re#uted() the *est heroin 6he,ist in the 8or(d7 Born in Bastia, 4orsi6a in 191!, 4esari 8as $irst a sai(or, then a 'ro6er, *artender, and $ar,er7 In the ear() $i$ties he a##renti6ed hi,se($ to his ha($ *rother +o,iniCue A(*ertini, the ,ana'er o$ se5era( Marsei((es heroin (a*s7 In 1962 4esari #ur6hased a (uxurious Au*a'ne estate, =a 1oseraie, that in6(uded an enor,ous ,ansion, a #ar-, a s8i,,in' #oo( and a tennis 6ourt7 No one 6ou(d $i'ure out 8here the o(d sai(or had 'otten his ,one)7 4esari 8ou(d (ea5e his estate $or (on' stret6hes o$ ti,e7 In 196" nar6oti6s #o(i6e shado8ed hi, $or se5era( ,onths, and 6on5er'ed on 4(os Saint Antoine, an a*andoned estate 8here he had set u# t8o heroin (a*s and #ut $our assistants to 8or-7 Po(i6e stor,ed the estate, arrestin' 4esari and his sta$$7 3he) a(so ,ade an interestin' dis6o5er) in one o$ the *a6- roo,s: the ne#he8 o$ Mar6e( 0ran6is6i7A16B Months ear(ier the *o)9s $ather, on an unannoun6ed tri# *a6- to 4orsi6a, had dis6o5ered his 8i$e 8ith a (o5er, 8ho, he #ro6eeded to shoot throu'h the throat *e$ore returnin' to 0ran6e 8ith his son <ean 0ran6ois7 As head o$ the $a,i(), Mar6e( 0ran6is6i (oo-ed a$ter his ne#he87 .e #(a6ed hi, under the 8in's o$ a 4esari (a*orator) 8or-er and his 8i$e7 3his is the sa,e 0ran6is6i 8ho denies an) in5o(5e,ent 8ith heroin7 4esari 8as senten6ed to se5en )ears in #rison, *ut 8as re(eased a (ot sooner7 As soon as he 8as out he returned to the s)nthesis o$ his $a5orite or'ani6 6o,#ound, and 6onsu(ted $or se5era( (a*oratories *esides his o8n7 .is 19/1 #rodu6tion 8as esti,ated at t8ent) -i(os o$ heroin dai(), 8hi6h ,eans (ar'e (ots 8ere shi##ed to the :nited States7 4esari ,ost #ro*a*() #rodu6ed the hu'e 6ar'os that, a66ordin' to nar6oti6s #o(i6e, rea6hed Mia,i 5ia Mar6e( Bou6an and the #aprice de Temps. In Mar6h 19/2, as 4esari 8as settin' u# a (a* in the SuIanne *ui(din' in Au*a'ne, #o(i6e tra6ed hi, throu'h an assistant and arrested hi,7 3heir #risoner 8as a haun6hed, si6-() o(d $i'ure, ruined *) )ears

o$ a6id 'as inha(ation7 4esari 8as on() $i$t) ei'ht7 &n Mar6h 22 he han'ed hi,se($ in his Bau,ettes #rison 6e((, o5er6o,e, no dou*t, *) the s#e6tre o$ a (on' senten6e7 .e -ne8 he9d ne5er 6o,e out a(i5e7 4esari (e$t *ehind (etters ,a-in' it 6(ear he had #(anned to sett(e do8n in =atin A,eri6a and ex#eri,ent 8ith 6o6aine, ,ost (i-e() in #artnershi# 8ith 4hristian +a5id, 8hose rin' sur5i5ed as one o$ the (ar'er re,nants o$ the on6e 'reat 0ren6h nar6oti6s e,#ire7 4esari9s death 8as a hard *(o8 to Marsei((es9 heroin industr)7 No one 6ou(d $i(( his shoes7A1/B 0ren6h and A,eri6an #o(i6e a(i-e tried in 5ain to du#(i6ate his #ro6ess $or #rodu6in' #ure heroin7 &n 1! <u() 19/2 0ren6h nar-s 6(osed out a series o$ raids (eadin' to the 6(osin' o$ three (a*s, a(( *e(on'in' to the =on' *rothers7 A $e8 da)s (ater President Nixon te(e'ra,,ed 6on'ratu(ations to Po,#idou $or the 'reat strides he had ,ade7 Marsei((es has ne5er *een the sa,e7 ##s7 91 103
Notes 17 3he sa,e threeso,e turns u# in se5era( other 6ir6u,stan6es, in6(udin' Bar*erot9s ,)sterious tri# to 4u*a in 19687 .e 8as Foined then *) Santena6, +e(ouette and Hi(*ert BeauFo(in, a 8e(( -no8n $inan6ier 6(ose() tied to <a6Cues 0o66art7 27 P7 4hairo$$: %ossier ? 777 comme ?ar"ou+es >A(ain Moreau, 19/!?7 37 =7 HonIa(eI Mata: #ygne >Hrasset, 19/6?7 "7 17 Pe)re$itte: a Vie E.traordinaire de 8ernand egros >A(*in Mi6he(, 19/6?7 !7 3he Ne8sda) Sta$$: The ,eroin Trail >Sou5enir Press, 19/"?7 67 P7 Ha(ante and =7 Sa#in: The &arseilles &afia >27.7 A((en, 19/9?7 /7 3here is dou*t as to 8hether 0ournier e5er -ne8 +e(ouette 8as $or,a(() read,itted into the S+E4E7 In 19/2 (ewsday re#orters 'ot ho(d o$ a 2/ &6to*er 1969 (etter $ro, +e$ense Minister +e*re to 4o(one( Bar*erot in 8hi6h +e*re, 5o8in' to ta-e 6are o$ the ,atter, as-ed that +e(ouette9s a##(i6ation and de,and not *e dis6ussed 8ith other S+E4E (eaders7 87 A7 <au*ert: %ossier %... comme %rogue >A(ain Moreau, 19/"?7 97 I$ Pastou9s testi,on) is 6orre6t, then +e(ouette (ied a*out de(i5erin' heroin to an S+E4E a'ent na,ed M6Na**, and there9s no truth to 4o(one( 0ournier9s a((e'ed in5o(5e,ent7 2hat re,ains are one ,an9s 8ord a'ainst anothers and se5era( #ossi*(e ex#(anations7 0irst, 0ournier ,i'ht not ha5e 8anted +e(ouette *a6- in the S+E4E *e6ause he -ne8 hi, to *e Bar*erot9s ,an and, there$ore, tied to $or6es #ur'ed $ro, the S+E4E7 0ournier 6ou(d a(so ha5e *een #ressured $ro, a*o5e to rehire +e(ouette, and then seen the heroin a$$air as an o##ortunit) to 'et rid o$ hi,7 3hat see,s rather $ar$et6hed, sin6e S+E4E nar6oti6s net8or- 8ith the 4IA and BN++ 8as Po,#idou9s #et idea7 0ournier 8ou(d hard() ha5e ris-ed his Fo* to 'et rid o$ a sin'(e a'ent7 Another #ossi*i(it) is that Bar*erot, or $or6es he re#resents, 8e(6o,ed the o##ortunit) to 6o,#ro,ise their o##osition 8ithin the S+E4E a*o5e a(( 0ournier and 6hie$ o$ sta$$ de Maren6hes7 3hat 0ournier (ater ,ade a,ends 8ith the A,eri6ans is su''ested *) his o#enin' a restaurant in Ne8 Dor- in 19/87 107 3he Ne8sda) Sta$$, o#7 6it7

117 Pe)re$itte, o#7 6it7 127 17 Berdin: #ode (ame *ichard >+utton, 19/"?7 137 3he exi(ed A('erian #o(iti6ian Be(-asse, ;ri, 8as a $or,er (eader o$ the re5o(utionar) ,o5e,ent, 0=N7 A$ter A('eria 8on its inde#enden6e, he 6a,e into 6on$(i6t 8ith the 6ountr)9s $irst 6hie$ o$ state, Ah,ed Ben Be((a7 3o'ether 8ith the (atter9s ,inister o$ $inan6e, Moha,,ed ;hider, ;ri, $(ed A('eria, 8hi(e re$usin' to hand o5er the 0=N9s E20 ,i((ion 8ar 6hest to the A('erian re'i,e7 ;hider had de#osited the ,one) in his o8n na,e at Hene5a9s BanCue 4o,,er6ia(e Ara*e, and on() he and ;ri, -ne8 the a66ount nu,*er7 &n 3 <anuar) 196/ ;hider 8as shot do8n in Madrid7 ;ri, 8as ,urdered in a 0ran-$urt hote( roo, on 20 &6to*er 19/07 Both had *een 6(ose() 6onne6ted 8ith Moro66o9s interior ,inister &u$-ir7 1"7 E7 Herdan: %ossierA 777 comme Armes >A(ain Moreau, 19/"?7 3he Ma$ia9s a6ti5ities in 4u*a 8ere 6ontro((ed *) <oe Bonnano, 8hose 6(ose #artners toda) in the so 6a((ed Southern 1i, Ma$ia are Santo 3ra$$i6ante, Fr7 and 4ar(os Mar6e((o7 =a*a) 8as a(so 6(ose() tied to Intra Ban- $ounder Dusse$ Beidas7 1!7 <au*ert, o#7 6it7 167 ', 1" &6to*er 19687 1/719/9 8as the )ear o$ the ru,or7 Not on() 8as 4hristian +a5id a((e'ed to *e *a6- in 0ran6e, it 8as a(so said that the o(d 0ren6h 4onne6tion 8as a*out to resu,e the shi#,ent o$ heroin $ro, Marsei((es to the :7S7A7 2hen the heroin 6he,ist <a6Cues Masia 8as arrested in Au'ust 19/9, 0ren6h ne8s#a#ers 8ent so $ar as to s#e6u(ate that he 8as a re5ita(iIed 5ersion o$ <o 4esari hi,se($P 3he (atter, it 8as ex#(ained, had not rea(() 6o,,itted sui6ide, *ut had *een @shee#di##ed@ and used as an under6o5er a'ent *) the +EA and 0ren6h nar6oti6s #o(i6e >Po(iti-en, 28 Au'ust 19/9?7


Au'uste 1i6ord9s Mar6h 19/1 i,#rison,ent in Para'ua) tau'ht 4hristian +a5id and =u6ien Sarti that it 8as ti,e to ,o5e on7 3heir 6hoi6e o$ (o6ation 8as BraIi(, in #arti6u(ar I(ha Be((a, an is(and o$$ the 6oast north o$ Santos, 6on5enient() on() t8o hours $ro, Sao Pau(o and $i5e $ro, 1io de <aneiro7 It a(so #ro5ided a s,a(( har*or and (andin' stri#7 3he t8o ho(ed u# in the Borde(ao, a s,a(( hote( run *) .aide AranteI and 4(audio 1odri'ueI, $riends o$ Sarti9s BraIi(ian ,istress, .e(ena 0erreira7 Beau Ser'e 8as *) then the undis#uted *oss o$ @3he BraIi(ian 4onne6tion7@ Its other (eaders 8ere Sarti, Mi6he( Ni6o(i, Andre 4onde,ine, 0ran6ois 4anaIIi, <ean =unardi, 0ran6ois 4hia##e, 1o*ert Bourdou(ous, and 0ran6ois >@0an 0an@? &rsini7 Most had -no8n +a5id throu'h SA47 So,e had *een 8ith 1i6ord in Para'ua)7 Ne86o,ers &rsini and 4anaIIi 8ere 8anted in 0ran6e $or atte,#ted ,urder7 Not a(( the 6a#os (i5ed on I(ha Be((a7 So,e 8ere strate'i6a(() #(a6ed e(se8here L4hia##e in Buenos Aires, Pastou in Sao Pau(o, Sans in Bar6e(ona7 =oose() 6onne6ted to the #er,anent 6ore 8as a (on' strin' o$ 6o((a*orators7 3he or'aniIation 8as so(id7 .eroin $(o8ed steadi() $ro, Marsei((es to I(ha Be((a and on to Mia,i or Ne8 Dor-7 But Beau Ser'e ran into a ,aFor o*sta6(e: the Ita(ian Ma$ia7 3o,asso Bus6etta, one o$ the Si6i(ians9 ,ost notorious thu's, 8as ordered to BraIi( in 19/0 to #re#are a ta-eo5er o$ the nar6oti6s tra$$i6 a (o'i6a( ste# in a (ar'er #(an to *e des6ri*ed (ater7 Bus6etta 8as 8anted in Ita() $or ,urderin' t8e(5e #eo#(e, in6(udin' se5en #o(i6e,en, in the 4is6u((i ,assa6re in Si6i()7A1B .e9s a(so a((e'ed to ha5e *een res#onsi*(e $or the disa##earan6e o$ re#orter Mauro de Mauro, 8ho had stu6- his nose into the ,urder o$ the Ita(ian oi( ,a'nate Enri6o Mattei7A2B

2ithin a )ear o$ his arri5a( in Sao Pau(o, Bus6etta had his (e'iti,ate 6o5er: 2!0 taxis, a 6hain o$ sna6- *ars, and an a(u,inu, #(ant7 It 8as a(( a $ront, and 8hen 1i6ord 8as #ut a8a) Bus6etta de6ided the hour had arri5ed to ,o5e in on the ,u(ti ,i((ion do((ar do#e *usiness7 .o8e5er, he hadn9t re6-oned 8ith Beau Ser'e7 0o((o8in' an extended stru''(e that ended 8ith +a5id sti(( on to#, Bus6etta 8as $or6ed to #(a) *a(( (i-e an)one e(se, and *rou'ht 8ith hi, into the or'aniIation his son Benedetto, Pau(o =i(io Hi'ante, and Hu'(ie(,o 4asa(ini7 =i$e, thou'h, 8as not a(( hard 8or- $or +a5id and 6o,#an)7 3he) a(so $ound ti,e $or ni'ht (i$e in 1io and Sao Pau(o, thre8 (a5ish #arties, and ,ixed 8ith $i(, stars, sin'ers and other internationa( 6e(e*rities7 And sti(( there 8as ti,e $or #o(iti6s7 +a5id and others too- #art in the Ar'entine Anti6o,,unist A((ian6e9s >AAA? ,assa6res in Ar'entina, and re,ained on 'ood $ootin' 8ith the BraIi(ian +eath SCuad7 At the sa,e ti,e SA4 a'ents $ro, +a5id9s 6oterie (ent their ex#ertise to the torture 6ha,*er o$ Ser'io 0(eur), head o$ Sao Pau(o9s in$a,ous +eath SCuad7A3B .o8e5er, (i-e a(( other 'ood thin's +a5id9s 6a,e to an end7 0or Beau Ser'e and his BraIi(ian 4onne6tion, 19/2 8as a $ate$u( )ear in ,ore 8a)s than one7 It *e'an 8ith the arrest in <anuar) o$ Sarti and his 'ir( $riend .e(ena on sus#i6ion o$ #assin' 6ounter$eit ,one)7 3hat #ro5ed to *e on() a #o(i6e 6a((in' 6ard, as the 6ou#(e 8as soon *a6- on the streets7 3he (ate 19/1 #(u''in' o$ 0ren6h dru' s,u''(in' routes had ,ade thin's di$$i6u(t $or their :7S7 *u)ers7 A8are that 0ran6o A,eri6an $or6es 8ere *ent on 6rushin' the entire 0ren6h net8or-, Ne8 Dor- and Mia,i Ma$ia dons treaded 6autious()7 Moreo5er, the arrest o$ se5era( dea(ers (e$t the BraIi(ian 4onne6tion short o$ 6usto,ers in ear() 19/27 In 0e*ruar), short() *e$ore 6arni5a( in 1io, +a5id, Sarti, Bus6etta and Ni6o(i s#ent three da)s 8ith 4ar(o Mi##o, a Ma$ia e,issar) $ro, Ne8 Dor-7A"B At the ,eetin', 8hi6h trans#ired at 1io9s #(ush 4o#a6a*ana, Pa(a6e hote(, the ,o*sters de5e(o#ed a ne8 net8or- and *u)er s)ste,7 Sarti, Fitter) a$ter his arrest, 8ou(d ,o5e to Mexi6o 4it), the ne8 transit #oint7 In Mar6h Sarti 8ent to Mexi6o 4it), 8here he 8as Foined *) his 8i$e =i(iane in an attra6ti5e residentia( distri6t a#art,ent7 Sarti had no notion that the #o(i6e had *een trai(in' hi, e5er sin6e his entr) into Mexi6o7 So,e*od) had ti##ed the, o$$7 3he Huate,a(an authorities 8ere a$ter hi, $or an ar,ed atta6- on a *an-% he 8as a(so 8anted *) the Bo(i5ian #o(i6e% and Inter#o( had issued des6ri#tions o$ hi, e5er)8here7 In the e5enin' o$ A#ri( 1/, Sarti and =i(iane (e$t their hideout to 'o to the ,o5ies7 Be$ore the) 'ot to their 6ar, the) 8ere surrounded *) #o(i6e7 Sarti 8as unar,ed, *ut the #o(i6e shot and -i((ed hi,, and arrested =i(iane7A!B 3he next da) the Mexi6an Minister o$ <usti6e de6(ared that the internationa( dru' tra$$i6-er had *een -i((ed in a 6on$rontation 8ith the #o(i6e7 A 6ou#(e o$ ,onths (ater, 0ren6h ne8s#a#ers added that 4hristian +a5id had *een in Mexi6o 4it) at the ti,e o$ Sarti9s death, *ut that he had es6a#ed and ,ade it a(( the 8a) *a6- to BraIi(7A6B &n / Ma) 19/2 BraIi(ian #o(i6e $ound the *od) o$ a )oun' 8o,an 8ashed ashore on an I(ha Be((a *ea6h7 It 8as .aide AranteI, o8ner o$ the Borde(ao, the +a5id 'an' hideout7 Exa,ination re5ea(ed the 6ause o$ death as stran'u(ation7 Another *od) a##eared in the sa,e #(a6e the next da)7 3his ti,e it 8as .aide9s *o) $riend and #artner, 4(audio 1odri'ueI, 8ho9d had his head *usted in7 3he dou*(e ,urder sus#e6t 8as natura(() Beau Ser'e, 8ho 8as *e(ie5ed to ha5e -no6-ed o$$ the hote( o8ners $or dis6(osin' the Mexi6an (o6a(e7 Sarti9s ,istress .e(ena 0erriera 8as Fai(ed $or her o8n sa$et) 8hi(e BraIi(ian #o(i6e, e''ed on stron'() *) :7S7 nar6oti6s a'ents, hunted a$ter the +a5id 'an'7 Besides entertainin' the #o(i6e 8ith

stories o$ the 'an'9s es6a#ades, Ms7 0erreira a(so 6(ai,ed the) ,et $reCuent() 8ith the 0ren6h ,i((ionaireJ#(a)*o)Jart dea(er 0ernand =e'ros7 2hether *e6ause o$ 6orru#tion in BraIi(ian #o(i6e ran-s or an a'ree,ent in5o(5in' the 4IA and BN++, +a5id9s 'an' re,ained at (ar'e $or the ti,e *ein', not8ithstandin' the #o(i6e ,anhunt7 I$ he 8as to *e extradited, the) 8ou(d ha5e to 6at6h hi, in the a6t7 +a5id, in the ,eanti,e, 8as ens6on6ed in a 1io 5i((a 8here he9d set u# his ,istress Si,one +e(a,are7 In ear() &6to*er 19/2 the 4IA and BN++ 8ere $ina(() read) to stri-e 8hen, in 1io de <aneiro har*or, the) dis6o5ered sixt) -i(os o$ heroin a*out to *e shi##ed *) the 'an' to Mia,i a*oard the $rei'hter Mor,a6 A(tair7 Po(i6e #i6-ed u# Mi6he( Ni6o(i in Sao Pau(o, and na**ed ,ost o$ the other ,e,*ers 8ithin da)s7 &n &6to*er 1/, a (ar'e #o(i6e $or6e 8as dis#at6hed to Si,one +e(a,are9s house, 8here +a5id9s #resen6e 8as no (on'er a se6ret7 But Beau Ser'e 8as ti##ed o$$ and ,ana'ed to s(i# a8a) one ,ore ti,e7 &n &6to*er 21, t8o a(ert #o(i6e,en noti6ed an o*5ious() ner5ous )oun' 8o,an sho##in' in Sa(5ador, in the BraIi(ian state o$ Bahia7 3he) $o((o8ed her to a third 6(ass hote( in the seedier side o$ to8n7 She (oo-ed too 8e(( dressed and so#histi6ated to sta) at su6h a di5e, so the t8o o$$i6ers *rou'ht her in7 At headCuarters the) soon deter,ined she 8as +a5id9s 'ir( $riend Si,one7 Short() therea$ter Beau Ser'e 8as #a6-in' u# 8hen six #o(i6e,en s,ashed throu'h the door to his roo,7 .e (un'ed $or a #isto(, *ut 8as 'ra**ed *e$ore he 6ou(d $ire a shot7 2hat $o((o8ed 8as a tuss(e the o$$i6ers 8on9t $or'et7 @.e 8as a ,aster o$ -arate,@ one o$ the, (ater re#orted7 @.e thre8 us around (i-e *a((s7 I$ there had on() *een $our o$ us, I don9t see ho8 8e 6ou(d ha5e hand(ed hi,7@ .and6u$$s and $oot 6hains 8ere needed to restrain Beau Ser'e7 Nor did he re(ent as he (a) on the $(oor, *attered and exhausted, *ut rather tried *ri*in' the BraIi(ian o$$i6ers to re(ease hi,7 .e o$$ered ea6h E100,000 #(us ti6-ets an)8here $or their entire $a,i(ies7 =ea5in' the hote( roo,, he ,ana'ed, hand6u$$s and a((, to 'ra* a drin-in' '(ass, s,ash it and 6ut dee#() into his 8rist7 .is 'oa( 8as a hos#ita( 8here o##ortunities $or es6a#e 8ere nu,erous7 But his hos#ita( sta) 8as too short7 Huards -e#t 6(ose 8at6h as he 8as se8n u# in an e,er'en6) roo, *e$ore *ein' thro8n into a 6e((7 B) the next da) he 8as in a #rison in Sao Pau(o7 In Beau Ser'e9s 5a(ise #o(i6e $ound one 9 ,, Bro8nin', one si(en6ed Beretta, one short *arre(ed S,ith and 2eson re5o(5er, three 6artrid'es o$ a 6ri##(in' #oison, ninet) *u((et 6artrid'es o$ 5arious 6a(i*er,A/B and a :ru'ua)an di#(o,ati6 #ass#ort in the na,e o$ Edouard +a5rieux, 8ith a #hoto o$ 4hristian +a5id7 3he arrest 8as 'reeted 8ith ,ixed rea6tions in 0ran6e7 2orr), an'er, and anxiet) 8ere aroused in 6ertain 6ir6(es, Fo) in others7 At (east one #erson 8as de(i'hted: #o(i6e (ieutenant Be((e,in Noe(, 8ho (oo-ed $or8ard to $ina(() sett(in' the s6ore 8ith the ,urderer o$ his #rede6essor Ha(i*ert Lor so he thou'ht7 <ust ho8 'reat an e$$ort the 0ren6h ,ade to ha5e +a5id extradited re,ains in dou*t7 4ertain() so,e 8anted hi, *a6- to stand tria(7 &thers #re$erred that he ne5er a'ain ha5e the o##ortunit) to ta(-7 3here 8ere re#resentati5es o$ ea6h #ersuasion in the hi'hest #o(iti6a( e6he(ons7 Sin6e internationa( (a8 #(a6ed 0ran6e in the dri5er9s seat, its e$$orts at extradition ,ust ha5e *een ,ee- at *est7 Man) 8ere du,*$ounded 8hen BraIi( extradited 4hristian +a5id to the :7S7A7 8ithout $irst noti$)in' the 0ren6h 'o5ern,ent7

Be$ore extradition to the :7S7A7, ho8e5er, +a5id sho6-ed the 8or(d *) @ad,ittin'@ his 6o,#(i6it) in the Ben Bar-a a$$air7 .e a(so 6ut the arter) in his 8rist a se6ond ti,e, and on the da) *e$ore his trans$er to the :7S7A7, he 'ot ho(d o$ a (i'ht *u(*, 6rushed it, and s8a((o8ed the $ra',ents7 .o8e5er, he re6ei5ed no ,edi6a( treat,ent *e$ore arri5in' in the :nited States7 A66ordin' to his o8n (ater testi,on), he 8as una8are o$ his destination 8hen :7S7 nar-s 6a,e $or hi,7 Presu,in' it 8as 0ran6e, he resisted 5io(ent()7 3he A,eri6ans, he 6(ai,ed, #u,#ed hi, so $u(( o$ dru's he didn9t -no8 8hat 8as ha##enin'7 +urin' the tria( that *e'an 8ithin da)s o$ his arri5a( in Broo-()n, ne8s#a#ers re#orted he had *een a 5i6ti, o$ torture7 +a5id hi,se($ said: @I 8as tortured *) BraIi(ian #o(i6e $or thirt) da)s and $ed nothin' $or t8ent) six7 3he) sto(e a(( ,) ,one)7 3oda) I 6an9t a$$ord a (a8)er, I ha5en9t a 6ent7@ +a5id and Mi6he( Ni6o(i, 8ho, 8ith 4(aude Andre Pastou, had *een extradited to the :7 S7 *e$ore +a5id L ea6h 6(ai,ed the) had *een hun' head do8n o5er a stea, #u$$in' #i#e as the BraIi(ians ad,inistered e(e6tri6 sho6-s to their 'enita(s7 2hi(e +a5id (oo-ed a8$u( in 6ourt $ro, his se($ in$(i6ted 8ounds, not a tra6e o$ the a((e'ed torture 6ou(d *e seen on Ni6o(i7 3he stor) o$ torture 6ertain() doesn9t $it +a5id9s (ater desire to return to #rison in BraIi(7 &n +e6e,*er 1 the 6ourt handed do8n its senten6es7 Au'uste 1i6ord, extradited $ro, Para'ua) t8o ,onths ear(ier, had 'otten t8ent) se5en )ears7 +a5id and Ni6o(i no8 'ot t8ent)7 Pastou, 8ho 'a5e the A,eri6ans i,#ortant in$or,ation on the +e(ouette a$$air, 'ot se5en7 &ther 0ren6h,en in +a5id9s 'an' 8ere extradited *a6- to 0ran6e, 8here the) 8ere 8anted $or ,urder and other 6a#ita( 6ri,es7 3he on() one to a5oid arrest 8as Andre 4onde,ine, 8ho 8ent under'round on() to *e ,urdered7 0ran6ois 4hia##e a5oided extradition unti( 19/6, 8hen he 8as senten6ed in Ne8 Dor- to t8ent) )ears7 3o,asso Bus6etta and the 'an'9s three other Ita(ians 8ere na**ed on ! No5e,*er 19/2, near() t8o 8ee-s a$ter +a5id, and 8ere shi##ed o$$ to Ita()7 0ernand =e'ros, the ,)ster) ,an in this and ear(ier intri'ues, 8as a##arent() #(a6ed under #rote6ti5e 6on$ine,ent in 1io short() a$ter +a5id9s senten6in' in the :nited States7 &$$i6ia(() he 8as arrested in 6onne6tion 8ith art $rauds7A8B Ea6h da), thou'h, he 8as *rou'ht (a5ish ,ea(s in6(udin' (o*ster, 6ha,#a'ne, 6o'na6, and $at .a5ana 6i'ars7 3he *i' 0ren6h under8or(d sha-edo8n *e'an Fust as =e'ros 8as @i,#risoned7@ I$ =e'ros had aided the 4IA in the +a5id a$$air, he ,ust ha5e *een hi'h on the (ist o$ those to *e ta-en 6are o$ on the other side o$ the At(anti67 In 19/" SA4 a'ents -idna##ed =e'ros in BraIi(, $(e8 hi, *a6- to 0ran6e and (o6-ed hi, u#7A9B So,e*od) 8as interested in the #art he had #(a)ed in 6ertain a$$airs7 .o8e5er, =e'ros9 $riend .enr) ;issin'er, then se6retar) o$ state, 6a,e to his aid7 ;issin'er de,anded his re(ease, #rotestin' shar#() the -idna#in' o$ a :7S7 6itiIen7A10B =e'ros sti(( $ears $or his (i$e7 As re6ent() as the s#rin' o$ 19/6 a ner5ous =e'ros, surrounded *) *od)'uards, said he had *een threatened *) 4hristian +a5id9s *ar*ouIe 6o((ea'ues and had de,anded #o(i6e #rote6tion7 ##s 10! 110
Notes 17 3he Ne8sda) Sta$$: The ,eroin Trail >Sou5enir Press, 19/"?7 27 <7 SaraIin: %ossier &. . . comme &ilieu >A(ain Moreau, 19//?7 37 P7 4hairo$$: %ossier ? 777 comme ?ar"ou+es >A(ain Moreau, 19/!?7

"7 Mi##o 8as a ,e,*er o$ the Ne8 Dor- Ha,*ino $a,i() >Ne8sda), o#7 cit./, 8hi6h is interestin' inso$ar as the #ri,e 6usto,ers o$ the +a5idJ 1i6ord or'aniIation 8ere Santo 3ra$$i6ante, Fr7 and his 4u*an Ma$ia% it is es#e6ia(() interestin' in (i'ht o$ the a##arent ri$t *et8een the so 6a((ed Southern 1i, or Sun*e(t Ma$ia an a((ian6e ,ain() o$ <ose#h Bonnano, 3ra$$i6ante and 4ar(os Mar6e((oL and the Ne8 Dor- $a,i(ies% see +7 Mo(dea: The ,offa Wars >4harter Boo-s, 19/8?7 Bonnano, /!, and his ne#he8 <a6- +e0i((i#i, re6ent() 8ent on tria( on $edera( 6ons#ira6) 6har'es in5o(5in' the (aunderin' o$ Ma$ia ,one)7 !7 P7 Ha(ante and =7 Sa#in: The &arseilles &afia @W.,. A((en, 19/9?7 ;. 'Aurore, 2/ <u() 19/27 2. e (ouvel 0"servateur, 13 No5e,*er 19/27 4. 'Aurore, 61 Ma) 19/67 97 0ren6h ne8s#a#ers #u*(ished 5ar)in' 6onFe6tures as to the 'rounds $or =e'ros9 arrest7 Most 'uessed he had *een i,#(i6ated in nar6oti6s s,u''(in' *) asso6iation 8ith +a5id9s 'an'7 None su##osed =e'ros ,i'ht ha5e he(#ed (a) a tra# $or Beau Ser'e, and there$ore 8as in Fai( $or his o8n #rote6tion7 107 =e'ros had *e6o,e an A,eri6an 6itiIen 8hi(e 8or-in' $or the 4IA7



2ith 4hristian +a5id *ehind *ars in I((inois9 Marion #rison, on() one i,#ortant 0ren6h nar6oti6s rin' re,ained a6ti5e, and that 8as run *) the 0ran6is6i Kenturi ,o*7 3heir net8or- 6onsisted o$ su6h #i((ars o$ the Marsei((es under8or(d as Pau( Mondo(ini, <ean Ba#tiste 4ro6e, A(*ert Bistoni and, unti( ,id 19/2, Etienne Mos6a7 Inte((i'ent, ex#erien6ed 'an'sters 8ho (e$t nothin' to 6han6e, the) 8ere 6onsidered untou6ha*(e7 Mondo(ini, the ,ost hi'h() res#e6ted o$ a((, is 6onsidered Mar6e( 0ran6is6i9s 6ro8n #rin6e7 &n / <u() 19/2 Mos6a 8as arrested in =)ons, stunnin' the entire 0ren6h under8or(d7 2ere the untou6ha*(es rea(() to *e hitG But 8hen there 8as no $o((o8 u#, a(( si'hed in re(ie$7 =i'htnin' stru6- six ,onths (ater on 19 <anuar) 19/37 0ren6h nar-s shado8ed 4ro6e and Bistoni to the Hondo(ier *ar in Marsei((es9 o(d har*or Cuarter7 Both 8ere arrested on the 8a) out o$ the *ar, #o(i6e ha5in' *(o6-ed the ,ain road7 +is*e(ie$ 'a5e 8a) to sus#i6ion 8hen Bistoni 8as re(eased short() therea$ter7 .ad he ta(-edG 4ro6e9s arrest #ro5ed to *e the tri''er $or a des#erate, ruth(ess 'an'(and 8ar that ,easured u# to #rohi*ition 4hi6a'o7 In the $irst ha($ o$ 19/3, thirt) 0ren6h ,o*sters 8ere ,urdered #ri,ari() in Paris, Marsei((es, and =)ons7A1A &n Mar6h 31, Bistoni 8as at Marsei((es9 3ana're restaurant 8ith t8o o$ his stron',en7 3he door o#ened and in 8a(-ed three ,en, #isto(s dra8n7 Se6onds (ater Bistoni, his thu's and the restauranteur 8ere 'oners7 3he -i((in's 8ere 6o,,on -no8(ed'e *) the ti,e #o(i6e arri5ed7 A,on' the ,an) sensationa( shootouts o$ ear() 19/3, se5era( 8ere 6onne6ted to 4hristian +a5id7

Po(i6e $ished a dri$tin' trun- $ro, the Seine on 28 <u() 19/37 Inside 8as the 6or#se o$ a ,an 8ith *u((ets in his heart and ne6-7 It 8as Andre 4onde,ine, the +a5id 'an'9s ,inister o$ trans#ortation and its on() ,e,*er to a5oid arrest7 Po(i6e in5esti'ation esta*(ished he had *een dead sin6e 0e*ruar)7 Perha#s 4onde,ine had had so,ethin' to do 8ith the arrest o$ <ean Ba#tiste 4ro6e7 It 8as no se6ret that 4onde,ine had sou'ht to re6onstru6t a =atin A,eri6an nar6oti6s net8or- and had sett(ed on Mexi6o, 4ro6e9s territor)7 A,on' +a5id9s other $riends 8ho 8ere -no6-ed o$$ in those he6ti6 ,onths, the $irst to 'o 8as 1o'er +adoun7 A $or,er ,e,*er o$ *oth 0e(ix =es6a9s 'an' and the internationa( 'unrunnin' Mo* +a5id had Foined u#on arri5a( in =atin A,eri6a, +adoun 8as shot do8n in the Paris su*ur* o$ Neui(() on 13 Mar6h 19/37 +adoun9s *est $riend >and a 6(ose one o$ Beau Ser'e9s as 8e((? 8as =ouis Nes,oI7 .e had she(tered Heor'es 0i'on durin' the Ben Bar-a a$$air and (ater he(#ed the &rsini *rothers s,u''(e heroin 5ia Bar6e(ona to +a5id in BraIi(7 Nes,oI a5en'ed +adoun9s death *) shootin' <oe( Ar$oiu((oux and 1a),ond E(*aI in Paris9s 4(e,en6e *istro on / A#ri( 19/37 Next it 8as Nes,oI9 o8n turn to taste (ead7 &n Ma) 19, as he and t8o o$ his ,en dined at the Henti(() restaurant in Paris, t8o ,en entered and shot the three o$ the,7 Det another 8as -i((ed on 1! <une 19/37 <ean Au'e, the =)ons area SA4 6hie$ and 6ri,e s)ndi6ate *oss 8ho had *een in tou6h 8ith 1i6ord in Para'ua) and on 'ood ter,s 8ith +a5id, Nes,oI, and +adoun, 8as $ound a$ter a s(o8 and #ain$u( death 8ith ei'ht *u((ets in his sto,a6h7A2B 2hi(e the 'an'sters 8ere 6uttin' ea6h other do8n, the #o(i6e 8ere not exa6t() on 5a6ation7 &n 10 A#ri( 19/3 the Marsei((es and Paris $or6es tea,ed u# on a ,aFor dri5e that sent thirt) ,o*sters *ehind *ars7 3he 'an' 8ar su*sided *) ,id 19/3, *ut has ne5er 6o,#(ete() ended7 2ith heroin no (on'er a 5ia*(e 6o,,odit), there are ,ore #o6-ets than 6an *e $i((ed *) other under8or(d o#erations, and so the ,urders 6ontinue at re'u(ar inter5a(s7 3he 19/! to(( in6(uded 'an'(and *oss 2i((ia, Me,,our, 8ho 8as 'i5en a ro)a( *uria( and es6orted to his 'ra5e *) an)thin' a*(e to 8a(-, 6ree#, or 6ra8( in the Parisian under8or(d7 Se5era( *i' na,es resorted to untraditiona( ,eans o$ sur5i5a(7 0ran6ois 4hia##e, the +a5id 'an' hea5) stationed in Ar'entina, 8as arrested in 4ordo*a7 .e 8as i,#risoned in 19/2, Fust as the rest o$ the 'an' 8as *ein' na**ed in BraIi(7 But 4hia##e had ex6e((ent 6onne6tions in ri'ht 8in' Peronist 6ir6(es7 A $or,er &AS 4o,,ando +e(ta ,e,*er in A('eria, he had re,ained in tou6h 8ith other &AS $i'ures asse,*(ed in the Pa(adin 'rou#, a 0as6ist terrorist 6o,*ine $ounded in S#ain *) the NaIi 8ar 6ri,ina( 4o(one( &tto S-orIen)7A3B It 8as a,on' the or'aniIations to 8hi6h <uan Peron9s 're) e,inen6e, <ose =o#eI 1e'a, a((ied hi,se($ 8hen he $or,ed the dreaded terrorist 'rou#, the Ar'entine Anti6o,,unist A((ian6e >AAA?7 2hen the Peronist .e6tor 4a,#ora *e6a,e #resident o$ Ar'entina in Ma) 19/3, 4hia##e 8as re(eased and i,,ediate() re6ruited into the AAA7 2hen Peron hi,se($ returned a ,onth (ater $ro, ei'hteen )ears o$ exi(e in S#ain, an enor,ous 6ro8d 'athered at EIeiIa air#ort on <une 20 to 'reet hi,7 A,on' the, 8as a (ar'e 6ontin'ent o$ Montoneros and other (e$tists7 Se6urit) #o(i6e 8ere 8e(( a8are o$ their #resen6e7 Po(i6e and AAA terrorists (ed *) 4o(one( <or'e &sinde atta6-ed the de,onstrators 8ith ,a6hine 'uns and hand 'renades7 So,e 100 8ere -i((ed and 300 8ere *ad() 8ounded7 3he AAA9s #risoners 8ere dra''ed to the air#ort #ar-in' (ot and tortured7 38o o$ the ,ore Iea(ous hat6het ,en 8ere 4hia##e and $or,er &AS 6o(one( <ean Hardes7A"B

&n Au'ust 6, 4hia##e9s 8i$e 5isited the Ar'entine #rison 6o,,issioner on her hus*and9s *eha($, to reCuest that he *e #(a6ed in #rote6ti5e 6on$ine,ent7A!B 4hia##e had 'otten the Fitters a$ter the dis6o5er) o$ his $riend 4onde,ine in the Seine7 Besides, he 8as in 6onstant dan'er o$ a*du6tion *) the A,eri6ans, 8ho had (on' *een de,andin' his extradition7 3he #rison 6o,,issioner 6onta6ted the hi'hest #o(iti6a( authorities, and Buenos Aires9 Ki((a +e5ote #rison soon o#ened its doors7 3here 4hia##e (ed the sa,e 6har,ed (i$e as Au'uste 1i6ord in Para'ua), and 0ernand =e'ros in BraIi(7 .is @6e((@ 8as out$itted 8ith e(e'ant $urniture, 3K and a radio, and $irst 6(ass $ood 8as *rou'ht in $ro, to8n7 Natura(() he 8as @#aro(ed@ 8hene5er =o#eI 1e'a or Isa*e( Peron thre8 a #art), and the threat o$ extradition ended 8hen the ne8 Ar'entine re'i,e, on orders $ro, Peron, said a $ina( no to the :nited States7 Instead 6oo#eration *et8een the t8o 6ountries too- a di$$erent $or,7 In Ma) 19/" the :7S7 a,*assador in Buenos Aires, 1o*ert 47 .i((, and =o#eI 1e'a L8ith 8ho, he had 8or-ed 6(ose() $or )ears L #u*(i6() si'ned an a'ree,ent to 8a'e 6o,,on 8ar a'ainst the dru' tra$$i6-ers7 At the si'nator) 6ere,on), =o#eI 1e'a de6(ared that the dru' 8ar 8ou(d auto,ati6a(() *e an anti'ueri((a 6a,#ai'n as 8e((, under the rationa(e that the Montoneros 8ere the rea( tra$$i6-ers7 Pursuant to the a'ree,ent, the :7S7 sent to Ar'entina a (ar'e nu,*er o$ nar6oti6s a'ents trained at the 4IA9s s#e6ia( s6hoo( in Heor'eto8n7A6B &ne )ear (ater, a re#ort o$ Ar'entina ,i(itar) inte((i'en6e re5ea(ed a 'iant nar6oti6s net8orres#onsi*(e $or s,u''(in' 6o6aine to the :7S7 ,ar-et7 Its (eaders 8ere none other than =o#eI 1e'a% his son in (a8 1au( =astiri% Senator <uan 4ar(os 4orneFo% 1o*ert 1o,ero, ,ana'in' editor o$ Ar'entina9s (ar'est #ro5in6ia( ne8s#a#er, E( Tri"uno- and 4o(one(s &sinde and 1au( =a6a*anne, *oth o$ 8ho, $(ed to sa$et) in Para'ua)7A/B 2hen a ,i(itar) 6ou# de#osed Isa*e( Peron, 8ho had assu,ed the #residen6) on the death o$ her hus*and, #o8er 8as seiIed *) Henera( <or'e Kide(a, 8ho #ro$essed a stri6t, a(*eit se(e6ti5e, ,ora(it)7 .e re$used to har*or a hardened 6ri,ina( (i-e 4hia##e in s#ite o$ the ,an) (e$tists he had dis#osed o$7 In (ate A#ri( 19/6 Kide(a extradited 4hia##e to the :7S7A7 to share the $ates o$ 1i6ord, +a5id, Ni6o(i, and Pastou7A8B Si,u(taneous() 8ith the 19/2 /3 attrition in 0ren6h under8or(d ran-s, President Heor'es Po,#idou too- the o##ortunit) to #ur'e SA4 o$ its undesira*(es7 3hou'h it see,ed as i$ SA4 8as *ein' e(i,inated a(to'ether, su6h 8as not the 6ase7 No an'e( hi,se($, Po,#idou 8ou(d 6a(( on the 6or#s at e(e6tion ti,e and 8hene5er e(se he sa8 $it7 But Po,#idou did e(i,inate those e(e,ents o##osed to hi, #ersona((), 8ho had 6ontinued to ,a-e trou*(e $or the ne8 re'i,e7 So,e /000 ,en 8ere 8eeded out, ,an) o$ the, 6ri,ina(s 8ho had enFo)ed SA4 #rote6tion and no8 *e6a,e eas) ,ar-s $or the #o(i6e7 Man) o$ the *ar*ouIes *ooted $ro, SA4 $(ed to S#ain to Foin the Pa(adin 'rou#, 8here the) (earned to 8or- side *) side 8ith their $or,er ar6h ene,ies, the &AS terrorists7 Not a(( SA4 a'ents 8ere as $ortunate7 4har(es =as6orI, a 6harter ,e,*er o$ SA4 and its 6hie$ $or southeastern 0ran6e, 8as a,on' the ,an) hunted do8n *) the #o(i6e7 A(on' 8ith his SA4 a6ti5ities, he had a(so headed a (ar'e s,u''(in' and s8ind(in' ,o* 6o,#rised ex6(usi5e() o$ SA4 a'ents, as had his 6o((ea'ue <ean Au'e in =)ons7 Po(i6e tra6-ed =as6orI% to a Paris a#art,ent in ear() 19/2 and sent t8o o$$i6ers to $et6h hi,7 <ust ho8 he did it is not -no8n, *ut =as6orI ,ana'ed to (ure the, to a 6e((ar and (o6- the door *ehind hi,7 .e then $(ed to S#ain, ta-in' the SA4 ar6hi5es 8ith hi,7 But S#anish #o(i6e arrested hi, on 23 <anuar) 19/2 and #ut hi, in 4ara*an6he( #rison7 3he) extradited hi, to 0ran6e t8o ,onths (ater, *ut not *e$ore the S#anish inte((i'en6e a'en6) +HS had #hoto6o#ied the ar6hi5es7 =as6orI% 8as senten6ed in 0ran6e to three )ears in #rison a"on' 8ith ei'ht o$ his SA4 6ohorts7

Bet8een ,id 19/1 and ,id 19/3 the 0ren6h es#iona'e and under8or(ds su$$ered sta''erin' (osses7 A su66ession o$ untou6ha*(es *it the dust, ,ost #ro,inent a,on' the, <ose#h &rsini, <o 4esari, <o Attia, Heor'es Bou6hesei6he, <u(ien (e N), Pierre +u*ai(, Andre 4onde,ine, =u6ien Sarti, A(*ert Bistoni, <ean Au'e, =ouis Nes,oI, and 1o'er +adoun7 Bet8een $ort) and $i$t) 'an'sters #erished in the 0ren6h heroin 8ar durin' that interi,, on() t8o o$ the, o$ natura( 6auses7 In addition, a horde o$ 0ren6h heroin s,u''(ers, the entire e(ite in6(uded, 8as #ut *ehind *ars7 3he *i' na,es 8ere Au'uste 1i6ord, 4hristian +a5id, Mi6he( Ni6o(i, 1o'er +e(ouette, Andre =a*a),A9B <eanBa#tiste 4ro6e, <o Si'no(i, An'e Si,on#ieri, <ean 4(aude ;e((a, <ean &rsini, 1o6h &rsini, Martin &rsini, =aurent 0io66oni, Etienne Mos6a, Mar6e( Bou6an, and 1i6hard Berdin7 A '(an6e at 0ren6h arrest $i'ures re5ea(s the ,a'nitude o$ the s(au'hter o$ the 0ren6h heroin Ma$ia7 38ent) $i5e tra$$i6-ers 8ere arrested in 1969 /07 In 19/1 a(one the nu,*er 8as 26 and in 19/2 it shot u# to 1087 2ith the ex6e#tion o$ a (one *ehind the s6enes *an-ro((er, a(( 8ere a6ti5e, #ro$essiona( s,u''(ers7 An e5en 'reater nu,*er o$ 0ren6h tra$$i6-ers 8ere arrested in 19/2 in the :7S7 and e(se8here7 More than ha($ the 'an'sters -i((ed or i,#risoned durin' those t8o $ate$u( )ears 8ere 6onne6ted to inte((i'en6e a'en6ies S+E4E andJor SA47 2hether or not the t8o or'aniIations had dire6t() #ro$ited $ro, heroin tra$$i6-in' and a6tua(() ,ana'ed and $inan6ed #art o$ it re,ains a su*Fe6t o$ s#e6u(ation7 Near() a(( 0ren6h nar6oti6s s)ndi6ates then in existen6e 8ere s,ashed *e)ond re6o'nition7 3hose that tried 6o,e*a6-s did not su66eed 5er) 8e((7 +ead or i,#risoned s,u''(ers 6ou(d *e re#(a6ed 8ith ti,e7 More serious 8as the shorta'e o$ heroin (a*s in the a$ter,ath o$ the 'reat raids7 3he 'ood 6he,ists, (i-e the s,u''(ers, 8ere either de6eased or *ehind *ars7A10B Moreo5er, 0ren6h nar6oti6s #o(i6e #(a6ed an iron 6o((ar around Marsei((es7 3heir $or6e in6reased *) ,ore than 1000 #er6ent *et8een 19/0 and 19/3, and the 0ren6h #ort *e6a,e a sta(-in' 'round o$ :7S7 nar-s7A11B ECua(() disastrous, 3ur-e) ha(ted its i((i6it o#iu, #rodu6tion *) an a'ree,ent 8ith the :7S7 8hi6h ensured the 3ur-s 6o,#ensation7 In 19/3, o$ 6ourse, there 8ere sto6-s o$ ,or#hine *ase to *e $ound in 3ur-e), =e*anon, and Marsei((es7 .o8e5er, the $reCuent seiIure o$ heroin shi#,ents had thinned the, out *ad()7 In 19/0 Marsei((es su##(ied rou'h() 80 #er6ent o$ the heroin on the :7S7 ,ar-et7 0i$teen #er6ent 6a,e $ro, Mexi6o and on() $i5e #er6ent $ro, Southeast Asia7 B) 19/3 the 0ren6h share had $a((en *e(o8 !0 #er6ent, and in 19/! it 8as esti,ated at (ess than 1! #er6ent7 0ro, the (a8 en$or6e,ent stand#oint, the 0ren6h heroin Ma$ia 8as e$$e6ti5e() 6rushed, and the :7S7 nar6oti6s inte((i'en6e a'en6), the +ru' En$or6e,ent Ad,inistration >+EA?, 6onsidered ,o5in' its Euro#ean headCuarters $ro, Paris to A,sterda,7A12B 3he 0ren6h under8or(d and its ,ore @res#e6ta*(e@ *an-ro((ers 8ere de#ri5ed o$ an annua( in6o,e o$ so,e E1!0 ,i((ion $or a Cuantit) o$ heroin 8hi6h 8hen 6ut in the :7S7 6ou(d *rin' a street #ri6e o$ E20 *i((ion7 But did the su##() o$ heroin to the internationa( ,ar-et rea(() $a(( *) an a,ount eCua( to the 0ren6h shareG +id it $a(( at a((G 2asn9t it true that #ure heroin 6ou(d on() *e #rodu6ed in Marsei((es and that the 8or(d9s dru' ha*it 8ou(d *e (ar'e() re(ie5ed i$ on() one 6ou(d s,ash the 0ren6h and 3ur-ish su##(iersG Isn9t that 8hat Nixon to(d Po,#idouG

Des, *ut ho8 o$ten did Nixon te(( the truthG ##s7 111 11/
Notes 17 Karious sour6es 6(ai, that so,e o$ these ,urders 8ere @(iCuidations@ exe6uted *) a s#e6ia( @assassination sCuad@ set u# *) the 2hite .ouse and (ed *) a $or,er 4IA a'ent, =t7 4o(7 =u6ien 4oneinLsee, $or exa,#(e, E7<7 E#stein: A'en6) o$ 8ear >Putna,, 19//?% <7 .ou'an: S#oo-s >2i((ia, Morro8, 19/8?% and 6ha#ter $i$teen o$ this 5o(u,e7 27 A $i$th ,e,*er o$ this 6ir6(e, +idier Barone, 8as a(so in5o(5ed in heroin tra$$i6-in' 8ith *oth <ean 4(aude ;e((a and 4hristian +a5id7 2hat is es#e6ia(() interestin' a*out Barone is his 6onne6tion to 0ernand =e'ros, 8ith 8ho, he 8as in5o(5ed in art dea(s7 37 P7 4hairo$$: %ossier ? ... comme ?ar"ou+es >A(ain Moreau, 19/!?7 =. i"eration, 19 <u() 19/67 !7 'Aurore, 31 Ma) 19/67 67 #ounterspy, Vol. 6, No7 2, 19/67 2. atin America 'olitical *eport, 19 +e6e,*er 19/!7 4. 'Aurore, 31 Ma) 19/67 97 Andre =a*a) and <o Si'no(i 'ot thirt) and t8ent) )ears res#e6ti5e() in a Paris 6ourt on / +e6e,*er 19/37 107 3he =on' *rothers 8ere senten6ed on 11 &6to*er 19/37 Ar,and and Mar6e( ea6h 'ot ei'hteen )ears and =ouis 'ot t8e(5e7 Another @(a* o8ner,@ =ouis A,*rosiono, 8as senten6ed to t8ent) on No5e,*er 307 117 3he Ne8sda) Sta$$: The ,eroin 'ail >Sou5enir Press, 19/"?7 127 <ohn 4usa6- in +ru' Enforcement, S#rin', 19/67 3he (ast t8o ,aFor tria(s o$ 4orsi6ans 8ere he(d in Marsei((es7 In <u() 19/", t8ent) se5en ,en and t8o 8o,en 8ere senten6ed7 3he) 8ere the re,nants o$ the 0ran6is6i e,#ire run *) <ean Ba#tiste 4ro6e7 0ina(() on 26 Ma) 19//, e(e5en ,en 8ere senten6ed in 6onne6tion 8ith the Mar6e( Bou6an a$$air7 A -e) $i'ure in the (ast ,entioned 6ase 8as =aurent 0io66oni7 2ith the aid o$ a #rison 6ha#(ain he $(ed $ro, Manhattan9s 0edera( .ouse o$ +etention in 19/" to'ether 8ith six other ,aFor nar6oti6s tra$$i6-ers Ernest Ma(iIia, EnriCue Barrera, Hi(*ert 0ornsIteFn, Mario Perna, Ne(son HarIia, and A,ado =o#eI7 0io66oni 8as arrested in Bo'ota, 4o(o,*ia in 19/! on() to es6a#e on6e ,ore @(ew )or! Times, 1" A#ri( 19//?7 3he (ast o$ the 1i6ord or'aniIation to *e arrested 8as +o,iniCue &rsini7 In 19/! he 8as tra6-ed do8n in Sene'a(, A$ri6a *) +EA a'ents and *rou'ht *a6- to the :7S7 &n 12 A#ri( 19/8 he 8as $ound ,urdered in his iso(ation 6e(( in the 0edera( #en in At(anta @8rance Soir, 13 A#ri( 19/8?7 Months ear(ier his 6e((,ate Kin6ent Pa#a had *een ,urdered, as had their (a8)er, Hino Ha((ina7 =i-e &rsini, Pa#a had *een ,ixed u# in 3he 0ren6h 4onne6tion7 .e 8as the -e) to the the$t o$ 398 #ounds o$ heroin $ro, the Ne8 Dor- 4it) Po(i6e +e#art,ent9s #ro#ert) roo, @?oston Blo"e, 1> Au'ust 19/8?7 &rsini and Pa#a had a((e'ed() *een ne'otiatin' 8ith the 0BI 5ia Ha((ina $or redu6ed senten6es in return $or in$or,ation @8rance Soir, 13 A#ri( 19/8?7 Perha#s the in$or,ation 6on6erned #o(i6e,en in5o(5ed in the the$t7 Ironi6a((), a(( three ,en 8ere ru**ed out short() *e$ore the #u*(i6ation o$ P7 1osen*er' and S7 Hrasso9s 'oint ?lan! >Hrosset and +un(a#, 19/8?, in 8hi6h Pa#a9s na,e has 6(ear() *een 6han'ed to @=arr) Boston7@ OOOOO


@2e ha5e turned the 6orner on heroin,@ de6(ared a #roud 1i6hard Nixon a$ter the ,assa6re o$ the 4orsi6an Ma$ia7 But shuttin' o$$ the #i#e(ine o$ heroin $ro, Marsei((es did not #rodu6e the shorta'e he #redi6ted7 Ex6e#t $or a *rie$ #eriod in 19/3, the su##() in6reased, tre,endous()7 B) 19/! the heroin '(ut $ar sur#assed e5en that o$ the 4orsi6an he)da) o$ the (ate sixties7 A66ordin' to a 19// re#ort o$ the .ouse Se(e6t 4o,,ittee on Nar6oti6s A*use, heroin addi6tion had dou*(ed in $our )ears7 &ne )ear (ater Ne8 Dor-9s s#e6ia( nar6oti6s #rose6utor, Ster(in' <ohnson, <r7 stated: @3here is ,ore do#e on the streets no8 than at an) ti,e sin6e the (ate sixties and ear() se5enties, 8hen 8e had an e#ide,i6 'oin'7 2e95e 'ot another e#ide,i6, and ,ore 6riti6a(7@A1B 2hen the heroin $(o8 $ro, Marsei((es 8as shut o$$ in 19/2 /3, t8o ne8 sour6es o$ su##() i,,ediate() $i((ed the 5a6uu,7 Southeast Asia =aos, Bur,a and 3hai(and sudden() #rodu6ed 5ast a,ounts o$ 8hite no7 " heroin, the t)#e that su##osed() 6ou(d on() *e #rodu6ed *) Marsei((es 6he,ists7 3he hi'h Cua(it) heroin 8ent #ri,ari() to the "0 #er6ent o$ a(( :7S7 heroin addi6ts 8ho 8ere (i5in' in Ne8 Dor-, and 8ho 8ere a66usto,ed to Marsei((es heroin7 3he other ne8 sour6e 8as Mexi6o7 But its #rodu6t, the (ess #ure @*ro8n su'ar,@ ser5ed ,ain() to re'u(ate the ,ar-et and to 'enerate ne8 6usto,ers7 3he re,ar-a*(e s8it6h $ro, Mir-e) Marsei((es :7S7A7 to Southeast Asia Mexi6o :7S7A7 shi$ted *i((ions o$ do((ars and the #o8er that 6o,es 8ith it7 Su6h a ,ar-et re5o(ution 6ou(d not ha5e ha##ened 8ithout astute #(annin' and dire6tion, 8hi6h de,anded #o(iti6a( sa55) and #o(iti6a( 6oo#eration7 3he #(ans $or this tre,endous heroin 6ou# 8ere on so,e*od)9s dra8in' *oard *e$ore Nixon and Heor'es Po,#idou ,et in ear() 19/07 3he) 8ere ,ade (on' *e$ore Attorne) Henera( <ohn Mit6he(( and 0ren6h <usti6e Minister 1a),ond Mar6e((in ,et in Paris on 26 0e*ruar) 19/1, 8hen the) si'ned the antinar6oti6s a'ree,ent that (ed to the eradi6ation o$ the 4orsi6an dru' Ma$ia7 Most #ro*a*() the) 8ere in #(a6e *) 19687 3he o66urren6e o$ su6h a 6ons#iratoria( heroin 6ou# is, o$ 6ourse, a h)#othesis7 In the $o((o8in' 6ha#ters I 8i(( tra6e the (o'i6 and the (i-e(ihood o$ its ha5in' trans#ired7 In5o(5ed in one 8a) or another in the #(annin', the exe6ution, or *oth, 8ere: President Nixon and #art o$ the 2hite .ouse sta$$% Me)er =ans-)9s 6or#orate 'an'ster s)ndi6ate in #arti6u(ar its 4u*an exi(e 8in' run *) 0(orida 6a#o Santo 3ra$$i6ante, <r7% the 4u*aJ4hina (o**)% u(trarea6tionar) $or6es in Southeast Asia, #ri,ari() the ;uo,intan' 4hinese on 3ai8an and in the Ho(den 3rian'(e% and inte((i'en6e and (a8 en$or6e,ent $a6tions o$ the 4IA and BN++J+EA7 It 8as, need(ess to sa), not a 8i(($u( 6ons#ira6) o$ all the a*o5e7 But 8e 6an assert 8ith reasona*(e 6ertaint) that the 4IA, 3ra$$i6ante, and other ,a$iosi, 6ertain Southeast Asians, and so,e #eo#(e in the 2hite .ouse ,ust ha5e *een in the -no87 3he #(an too- three )ears to exe6ute7 3hou'h the ,aFor ,aneu5ers *e'an in 19/0, one 6ou(d dete6t the o#enin' s-ir,ishes soon a$ter Nixon9s e(e6tion 5i6tor) in 1968: R .enr) ;issin'er #ut #ressure on Para'ua) to extradite Au'uste 1i6ord, the ,ain 4orsi6an su##(ier o$ nar6oti6s to the :7S7 ,ar-et7A2B Para'ua)9s President A($redo Stroessner at $irst 6hose to i'nore that #ressure7A3B R In 1968 the Ma$ia9s #re,ier heroin i,#orter, Santo 3ra$$i6ante, <r7, tra5e((ed to Southeast Asia to 6he6- out #ossi*i(ities $or a ne8 su##() net8or- in5o(5in' 4hinese o#iu, ,er6hants7A"B 2hen he ,ade the tri#, the 4orsi6an Ma$ia 8as su##()in' 3ra$$i6ante 8ith a(( the no7 " heroin he 6ou(d se((7

R Nixon and Po,#idou ,et in <anuar) 19/0 to restore 6(ose 0ran6o A,eri6an #artnershi#7 It 8as a 6ru6ia( ste# in the destru6tion o$ the 0ren6h nar6oti6s a##aratus that 6ontro((ed 80 #er6ent o$ the heroin trade7 R At the start o$ <u() 19/0, 2hite .ouse sta$$er E'i( ;ro'h #ro#osed &#eration .eroin, a ,aFor a6tion a'ainst the nar6oti6s s,u''(ers7 .is idea 8as a##ro5ed7 R :7S7 Ma$ia 6a#os he(d a su,,it <u() " 16 at the .ote( So(e in Pa(er,o, Si6i()7 3here the) de6ided to #our ,one) into Southeast Asia and trans$or, it into the ,ain sour6e o$ heroin7A!B R &n 23 <u() 19/0 1i6hard Nixon a##ro5ed the .uston P(an to esta*(ish an es#iona'e 'rou# that 8ou(d su#er6ede existin' inte((i'en6e and en$or6e,ent a'en6ies7 3he su#er 'rou# 8as to *e steered $ro, the 2hite .ouse, thus 'i5in' the #resident e$$e6ti5e 6ontro( o5er a(( inte((i'en6e in6(udin' do,esti6 s#)in' on :7S7 6itiIens7 3he #(an $e(( throu'h, ,ost() due to the o##osition o$ <7 Ed'ar .oo5er7 .o8e5er, the 2hite .ouse 6ontinued to de5e(o# the #(an under 6o5er o$ its $ast 'ro8in', ,edia h)#ed nar6oti6s 6a,#ai'n7 R In Au'ust 19/0 the 4orsi6ans, a##arent() in$or,ed o$ the out6o,e o$ the Pa(er,o ,eetin' 8ee-s ear(ier, 6a((ed their Southeast Asian 6onne6tions to an e,er'en6) ,eetin' at Sai'on9s 4ontinenta( .ote(7 3herea$ter t8o (oads o$ ,or#hine *ase 8ou(d *e sent to Marsei((es ea6h ,onth7A6B .o8e5er, the shi#,ents 8ere 6ontinua(() sa*ota'ed, and rare() arri5ed at their destination7 RAnother ,aFor de5e(o#,ent in 19/0 8as the i,#(e,entation o$ Nixon9s Kietna,iIation #ro'ra,, throu'h 8hi6h the 6ontro(s in Kietna, 8ere returned to the 4IA7 3he #ro'ra, #u,#ed a $ortune into South Kietna,, ,u6h o$ it #o6-eted *) o$$i6ia(s7 In5esti'ations o$ ende,i6 6orru#tion a,on' non 6o,s and senior :7S7 Ar,) #ersonne( (ed to a .on' ;on' o$$i6e run *) a (ieutenant o$ dru' 6Iar 3ra$$i6ante7A/B R Pure no7 " heroin a##eared in Sai'on in 19/0, 6reatin' an e#ide,i6 o$ addi6tion a,on' HIs7 A(( #re5ious() a5ai(a*(e heroin had *een o$ the 6oarse $or, that 6ou(d on() *e s,o-ed7 3he ne8 heroin 8a5e 8as hushed u#7 3here 8ere t8o other si'ni$i6ant de5e(o#,ents in 19/0: >1? to end #ersistent ri5a(r) a,on' 6usto,s, the Interna( 1e5enue Ser5i6e >I1S? and the Bureau o$ Nar6oti6s and +an'erous +ru's >BN++?, Nixon na,ed the BN++ the so(e :7S7 re#resentati5e on dru' ,atters% and >2? the Ma$ia dis#at6hed the notorious 3o,asso Bus6etta to BraIi( to #re#are a ta-eo5er o$ nar6oti6s s,u''(in' u#on Au'uste 1i6ord9s extradition to the :7S7 R &n 26 0e*ruar) 19/1 0ran6e and the :nited States si'ned the de$initi5e a'ree,ent $or a 6o,*ined assau(t on heroin7 2ithin da)s 1i6ord 8as senten6ed in a"sentia. &n A#ri( 6 1o'er +e(ouette 8as #i6-ed u# in Ne8 Dor-7 As detai(ed in 6ha#ter ten, a$ter that the 4orsi6an net8or- 6o((a#sed Cui6-()7 R &n 2/ Ma) 19/1 4on'ress,en Mor'an Mur#h) and 1o*ert Stee(e issued their re#ort, The World ,eroin 'ro"lem. A,on' their sensationa( $indin's 8as that so,e 1! #er6ent o$ the HIs in Kietna, 8ere addi6ted to heroin7 3he 6auses 8ere eas) to identi$)7 Most o*5ious 8as the sudden a##earan6e o$ enor,ous Cuantities o$ no7 " heroin7 0ourteen )ear o(d 'ir(s so(d 90 #er6ent #ure heroin $or #eanuts7 Pushers stu$$ed it into so(diers9 #o6-ets $ree o$ 6har'e7 Add to that the 6ra6-do8n that e$$e6ti5e() e(i,inated ,ariFuana and hash $ro, the *arra6-s7 R &n the da) the Mur#h) Stee(e re#ort 8as issued, Nixon, <ohn Er(i6h,an, and ;ro'h a'reed to se6ret() *ud'et E100 ,i((ion $or a 6o5ert BN++ -idna#in' and assassination #ro'ra,7 Be$ore that the

2hite .ouse had as-ed BN++ dire6tor <ohn In'erso(( to dra$t a #(an $or @6(andestine (a8 en$or6e,ent@ that 8ou(d in6(ude assassination o$ ,aFor tra$$i6-ers7A8B R +a)s (ater Nixon set u# a s#e6ia( nar6oti6s a6tion and inte((i'en6e 'rou# ri'ht in the 2hite .ouse7 In the sa,e #eriod the S#e6ia( In5esti'ation :nit >the in$a,ous P(u,*ers? set u# sho# in 1oo, 16 o$ the Exe6uti5e &$$i6e Bui(din'7 3he t8o 'rou#s o5er(a##ed, and se5era( o$ their ,e,*ers 8ere asso6iates o$ Ma$ia -in'#in 3ra$$i6ante7 R &n 1/ <une 19/1 Nixon, on te(e5ision, de6(ared 8ar on nar6oti6s: @I$ 8e 6annot destro) the dru' ,ena6e in A,eri6a, then it 8i(( destro) us7 I a, not #re#ared to a66e#t this a(ternati5e7@ R &n 30 <une 19/1 the :nited States and 3ur-e) si'ned an a'ree,ent that 8ou(d ha(t 3ur-ish o#iu, 6u(ti5ation7 In return the :7S7 handed the 3ur-ish 'o5ern,ent E30 ,i((ion7 R &n 1 <u() 19/1 Nixon ad5isor 4har(es 4o(son re6ruited $or,er 4IA a'ent .o8ard .unt as a 2hite .ouse 6onsu(tant7A9B .unt and Hordon =idd) 8ou(d 8or- out o$ 1oo, 16 on nar6oti6s inte((i'en6e, one o$ .unt9s s#e6ia(ties7 R &n 2! <u() 19/1 the Asian Peo#(es Anti 4o,,unist =ea'ue >APA4=? and 2or(d Anti 4o,,unist =ea'ue >2A4=? ,et in Mani(a7 3he t8o internationa( (o**ies $or the Nationa(ist 4hinese, #ri,e *an-ro((ers o$ internationa( o#iu, and heroin s,u''(in', an'ri() atta6-ed Nixon $or his a##roa6hin' tri# to Pe-in'7 A10B In Au'ust 19/1 the BN++ announ6ed the (o6ation in Southeast Asia o$ t8ent) nine dru' re$ineries, $i$teen o$ the, a((e'ed() #rodu6in' heroin7 A,on' the (ar'est 8as one in Kientiane, =aos, 8hi6h 8as 6a,ou$(a'ed as a Pe#si 4o(a #(ant7 Nixon, re#resentin' Pe#si9s interests in 196!, had #ro,oted its 6onstru6tion7 3hou'h the #(ant ne5er 6a##ed a *ott(e, it 6ontinued to *e su*sidiIed *) :7S7A7I7+7A11B In &6to*er 19/1 to# BN++ ana()st <ohn 2arner to(d an inter5ie8er that the 6ontinued $(oodin' o$ the :7S7 heroin ,ar-et, des#ite the shutdo8n o$ 0ren6h su##() routes, indi6ated that ,ore than the #re5ious() assu,ed ! #er6ent o$ :7S7 heroin 8as ori'inatin' in Southeast Asia7 &n 1 No5e,*er 19/1 BN++ a'ents arrested a di#(o,at atta6hed to the Phi(i##ine e,*ass) in =aos, and a 4hinese Fourna(ist $ro, 3hai(and, atte,#tin' to s,u''(e $ort) -i(os o$ heroin into the :7S7A7 3hat sa,e )ear BN++ a'ents at <0; air#ort arrested the son o$ Pana,a9s a,*assador to 3ai8an 8ith $i$t) -i(os o$ heroin7 0ina((), and ,ost dra,ati6a((), Parisian #o(i6e na**ed the =aotian Prin6e 4hao So#saisana atte,#tin' to s,u''(e in sixt) -i(os7 So#saisana, the head =aotian de(e'ate to the APA4=, 8as a*out to *e6o,e =aos9 e,issar) in Paris7A12B 3he $o6us ne5erthe(ess re,ained on the 0ren6h nar6oti6s tra$$i6-ers7 Nixon 6ou(d a(so #rodu6e resu(ts in the ne8() arisen Southeast Asian dan'er Ione, *ut those a,ounted to the s,ashin' o$ the re,nants o$ the 4orsi6an Ma$ia and their Southeast Asian su##() net8or-7 3hrou'h it a(( the :7S7 su##orted Marsha(( N'u)en 4ao ;) and other South Kietna,ese #o(iti6ians -no8n to *e ,a-in' i,,ense #ro$its $ro, the heroin tra$$i67 2hen :7S7 re#orters ex#osed ;)9s nar6oti6s air(i$t, the 4IA station and :7S7 e,*ass) in Sai'on issued *(an-et denia(s7 A13B In (ate 19/1 BN++ dire6tor In'erso(( issued the $o((o8in' state,ent: @3he 4IA has $or so,e ti,e *een this Bureau9s stron'est #artner in identi$)in' $orei'n sour6es and routes o$ i((e'a( trade in nar6oti6s7 =iaison *et8een our t8o a'en6ies is 6(ose and 6onstant in ,atters o$ ,utua( interest7 Mu6h

o$ the #ro'ress 8e are no8 ,a-in' in identi$)in' o5erseas nar6oti6s tra$$i6 6an, in $a6t, *e attri*uted to 4IA 6oo#eration7@ A1"B 3he 6at6h 8as that BN++ @#ro'ress@ and 4IA @6oo#eration@ 8ent on() as $ar as the 0ren6h Ma$ia7 4IA 6oo#eration on Southeast Asia 8as another ,atter7 3he a'en6) hindered BN++ a'ents and -e#t the #ress in the dar-, 8hi(e itse($ s,u''(in' (ar'e Cuantities o$ o#iu, 5ia Air A,eri6a7A1!B A nota*(e dis6re#an6) arose in 19/2 *et8een 4IA and BN++ esti,ates o$ the heroin tra$$i67 4IA re#orts had 2! #er6ent o$ the heroin 6o,in' $ro, Mexi6o, the rest $ro, Marsei((es7 3he BN++ esti,ated that Southeast Asia a(read) su##(ied 30 #er6ent o$ the heroin on the :7S7 ,ar-et7A16B R In <anuar) 19/2 Nixon 6reated, a'ain *) de6ree, the &$$i6e $or +ru' A*use =a8 En$or6e,ent >&+A=E? to $(ush out #ushers in thirt) ei'ht 6ities7 Si,u(taneous(), Ne8 Dor-9s #o(i6e nar6oti6s sCuad 8as reor'aniIed $o((o8in' re5e(ations o$ *(atant 6orru#tion7 &+A=E 6eased to exist on 1 <u() 19/3 8hen it, the BN++ and the nar6oti6s inte((i'en6e *ran6hes o$ the <usti6e +e#art,ent and 4usto,s Bureau 8ere ,er'ed to *e6o,e the +ru' En$or6e,ent Ad,inistration >+EA?, 8hi6h no8 o#erates in the :7S7 and 8or(d8ide7 R &n 1/ <u() 19/2 <a,es M64ord, 0ran- Stur'is, Bernard Bar-er, Eu'enio 1o(ando MartineI, and Kir'i(io HonIa(eI, (ed *) .unt and =idd), *ro-e into the +e,o6rats9 2ater'ate o$$i6es in 2ashin'ton7 &$ these se5en ,en, $our 8ere $ro, Mia,i, $our 8ere a6ti5e or $or,er a'ents o$ the 4IA, $our had *een in5o(5ed in the Ba) o$ Pi's in5asion, and three 8ere 6(ose() (in-ed to the 4u*an nar6oti6s Ma$ia7 R 3he sa,e da) Nixon te(e'ra,,ed Po,#idou his 6on'ratu(ations7 38o da)s ear(ier, 0ran6e had 6(osed out a series o$ raids a'ainst the Marsei((es heroin (a*s7 3he 'reat heroin 6ou# 8as 8e(( on its 8a) to 6o,#(etion7 &n 9 Au'ust 19/2 Nixon ,ade 2i((ia, 47 Su((i5an the dire6tor o$ the &$$i6e o$ Nationa( Nar6oti6s Inte((i'en6e >&NNI?, 8hi6h 8ou(d 6oordinate do,esti6 dru' inte((i'en6e7 Su((i5an had *een the #resident9s 6hoi6e to head the .uston P(an9s a*orted su#er inte((i'en6e a'en6)7A1/B 2ith E'i( ;ro'h exe6uti5e dire6tor o$ the 4a*inet 4o,,ittee on Internationa( Nar6oti6s 4ontro(, 6o5erin' $orei'n nar6oti6s inte((i'en6e,A18B 6o,#(ete 6ontro( o5er nar6oti6s ,ana'e,ent 8as in the #resident9s hands7 R In Au'ust 19/2 :7S7 troo#s 8ere 8ithdra8n $ro, South Kietna,7 3he 6ountr) 8as turned o5er to the 4IA and a nar6oti6s tra$$i6-in' South Kietna,ese 'o5ern,ent7 In (ate Au'ust, in the ,idst o$ Nixon9s ree(e6tion 6a,#ai'n, the BN++ announ6ed the $irst noti6ea*(e heroin shorta'e on the streets o$ A,eri6a7 Nixon9s *att(e 8ith the 0ren6h Ma$ia had *orne $ruit7 Soon he 8ou(d rid the :7S7A7 entire() o$ the 2hite +eath7 .o8e5er, so,eone had $or'otten to ,ention that returnin' HIs had he(#ed tri#(e the :7S7 addi6t #o#u(ation $ro, the 1969 $i'ure o$ 2!0,0007 In rea(it), then, the tota( heroin su##() 8as a##re6ia*() greater than that #re5ai(in' #rior to Nixon9s 6a,#ai'n a'ainst the 0ren6h7 A,eri6ans, ho8e5er, 8ou(d ree(e6t Nixon, 8ho 6ited a##arent 'ains in $orei'n a$$airs and the stru''(e a'ainst the dru' #(a'ue7 R &n 12 Au'ust 19/2 Ne8 Dor- 6ri,e $a,i(ies de6ided at a Staten Is(and su,,it to resu,e the dru' tra$$i6 the) had su##osed() a*andoned in the $i$ties7A19B 4itin' @so6ia( res#onsi*i(it),@ the) de6ried the 4u*an and B(a6- Ma$ias9 sa(e o$ heroin in the su*ur*s to 6hi(dren o$ @de6ent #eo#(e,@ and 5o8ed that the dru's 8ou(d therea$ter re,ain in the 'hetto7 But the i,#ortan6e o$ the $a,i(ies had 8aned7 &thers, es#e6ia(() 3ra$$i6ante9s 4u*an or'aniIation, had *e6o,e too stron'7

3he heroin 6ou# 8as 6o,#(ete *) 19/37 3he 0ren6h 8ere out, and ne8 (a*s, routes, and *u)er net8or-s 8ere in #(a6e, 8ith Southeast Asia the ,ain su##(ier7 3hat )ear the :7S7 heroin su##() did $a(( noti6ea*(), (ar'e() *e6ause #art o$ the #(an 8as a*out to $a(( throu'h7 South Kietna,, =aos, and 4a,*odia 8ere s(i##in' out o$ :7S7 hands, 0or6in' tra$$i6-ers and *an-ro((ers to re'rou# in sa$er surroundin's, a*o5e a(( in 3hai(and7 A20B A $ina( ite, o$ interest in 19/3 8as the a##earan6e *e$ore a Senate 6o,,ittee o$ the internationa( s#e6u(ator and s,u''(er 0ran- Pero$$, 8ho had ser5ed as an under6o5er a'ent $or the +EA a'ainst the 4otroni *rothers o$ Montrea(7 .e testi$ied that the rene'ade internationa( *usiness,an, 1o*ert Kes6o L a ,aFor su##orter o$ 1i6hard Nixon L and his asso6iate Nor,an =e*(an6, 8ere *an-ro((ers o$ internationa( heroin tra$$i6-in'7A21B ##s7 121 128
Notes 17 B7 .er*ert: @3he 0(eet8ood ;ids,@ 'enthouse, Au'ust 19/87 27 =7 HonIa(eI Mata: #ygne >Hrasset, 19/6?7 37 Interestin'(), 4IA a'ent 0ernand =e'ros arri5ed that )ear in Para'ua) and ne'otiated a 8ea#ons dea( 8ith the re'i,e o$ di6tator Stroessner see 17 Pe)re$itte: a Vie E.traordinaire de 8ernand egros >A(*in Mi6he(, 19/6?7 "7 A7M64o): The 'olitics of ,eroin in Southeast Asia >.ar#erS 1o8, 19/2?7 Prior to the #u*(i6ation o$ this *ooon 20 Au'ust 19/2, 4ord Me)er, <r7, a 4IA 6o5ert o#erations di5ision (eader, 5isited .ar#er S 1o8 to de,and the 'a((e)s7 3he #u*(isher re$used, su*Fe6t to re6ei#t o$ an o$$i6ia( 4IA reCuest7 2hen that 6a,e the #roo$s 8ere de(i5ered o5er M64o)9s o*Fe6tions7 3he a'en6) returned the, 8ith 6orre6tions, *ut the #u*(isher reFe6ted the, and the *oo- 8as #u*(ished una(tered7 !7 07 2u($$ in the +anish *apport, 1" A#ri( 19/!7 67 47 =a,our and M717 =a,*erti: es Brandes &aneuvres de l'>pium >Editions de Seui(, 19/2?7 /7 M64o), o#7 cit. 87 E7<7 E#stein: Agency of 8ear >Putna,, 19//?7 97 E7.7 .unt: Undercover >Ber-e(e) Putna,, 19/"?7 107 +o6u,ents o$ the !th 2A4= and 1/th APA4= 4on$eren6e, 3ai8an, No5e,*er 19/17 11. (.A. #. .A. *eport, &6to*er 19/27 127 P7+7 S6ott: @0ro, +a((as to 2ater'ate,@ *amparts, No5e,*er 19/37 137 M64o), o#7 cit. 1"7 3he 4o,,ittee o$ 4on6erned Asian S6ho(ars: The 0pium *ail >Ne8 En'(and 0ree Press, 19/1?7 1!7 P7+7 S6ott: The War #onspiracy >Bo**s Merri((, 19/2?7 167 M64o), op. cit.

1/7 S7 B(u,enta(: @.o8 the 0BI 3ried to +estro) the B(a6- Panthers,@ in Bovernment "y Bunplay, S. B(u,enta( and .7 DaIiFian, Eds7 >Ne8 A,eri6an =i*rar), 19/6?7 187 P7+7 S6ott: @0ro, +a((as to 2ater'ate,@ o#7 cit. 197 3he Ne8sda) Sta$$: The ,eroin *ail >Sou5enir Press, 19/"?7 207 3he heroin entre#reneurs had a(so *een undu() o#ti,isti6 a*out their su##()7 B) the start o$ 19/3 the) *e'an in5estin' in a ne8, Euro#ean ,ar-et, 8hi(e sti(( su##()in' the :7S7 Nonethe(ess, the s(i'ht hit6h in Southeast Asia 8as ra#id() dea(t 8ith, and soon the $(ood o$ heroin hit Euro#e (i-e a tida( 8a5e7 217 =7.7 2hitte,ore: 'eroff >Ba((antine Boo-s, 19/!?7



3he #(a6e 8as ;un,in' in the South 4hina #ro5in6e o$ Dunnan7 3he ti,e 8as the end o$ 2or(d 2ar II7 A,id the 6haos o$ 8ar, o#iu, and 'o(d *e6a,e the #ri,ar) ,edia o$ ex6han'e, and 6u(t (i-e *onds 8ere $or'ed a,on' a s,a(( sta$$ o$ A,eri6ans and hi'h ran-in' 4hinese7 Dunnan 8as a 6enter o$ 4hinese o#iu, 6u(ti5ation and ;un,in' 8as the hot*ed o$ ,i(itar) o#erations, a,on' the, 4(aire 4hennau(t9s 1"th Air 0or6e and +eta6h,ent 202 o$ the &$$i6e o$ Strate'i6 Ser5i6es >&SS?7 A,on' +eta6h,ent 2029s notorious 6o((e6tion o$ s#e6ia( a'ents, one in #arti6u(arLE7 .o8ard .unt has needed no introdu6tion sin6e the 2ater'ate *rea- in7 In ;un,in', the s#) no5e(ist 8ho (ater *e6a,e a 6o,rade o$ 4u*an exi(es and 4hina =o**)ists *e$riended an eCua(() intri'uin' 6hara6ter, the 0ren6h 0orei'n =e'ionnaire turned &SS a'ent, 4a#tain =u6ien 4onein7A1B A(thou'h not #art o$ +eta6h,ent 202 #ro#er, 4onein $reCuented ;un,in' 8hi(e a8aitin' #ara6hutin' o5er Indo6hina7A2B Indo6hina re,ained 4onein9s *ase o$ o#eration a$ter 2or(d 2ar II, 8hen, (i-e .unt, he s(id o5er $ro, the &SS to its su66essor, the 4IA7 .e then o#erated throu'hout South and North Kietna,, 4a,*odia, and Bur,a, and *e6a,e the to# :7S7 ex#ert on the area as 8e(( as on the o#iu, s,u''(in' 4orsi6an Ma$ia7 .e 8as A,*assador .enr) 4a*ot =od'e9s ,idd(e ,an in the 1963 #(ot to o5erthro8 South Kietna,9s President N'o +inh +ie, >8ho 8as assassinated a(on' 8ith his *rother N'o +inh Nhu, the 4orsi6ans9 #artner in the dru' tra$$i6?7 A de6ade (ater, 4onein and .unt, 8or-in' $or the Nixon 2hite .ouse P(u,*ers, 8ou(d atte,#t to ,a-e it a##ear that the #(ot had *een ordered *) <0;7 Both 4onein and 2i((ia, 4o(*), ,aster,ind o$ the 4IA9s Phoenix assassination #ro'ra,, 8ere re6a((ed to the :7S7 at the start o$ the se5enties7 A$ter Mao 3se tun'9s rise to #o8er in 4hina, &SS 5eterans $or,ed a nu,*er o$ $ir,s that 8ou(d *e (in-ed *oth to the 4IA and to its rea6tionar) 6(ient re'i,es in the 0ar East7 2ith $inan6ia( assistan6e $ro, his $riends in Asia, &SS 4hina hand 47K7 Starr 'ained 6ontro( o$ se5era( :7S7 insuran6e 6o,#anies7 As *rou'ht to (i'ht durin' the M64(e((an hearin's, <i,,) .o$$a a8arded one o$ the,, :7S7 =i$e, and a s,a((er 6o,#an), :nion 4asua(t) 8hose a'ents Pau( and A((en +or$,an 8ere a,on' .o$$a9s (in-s to the under8or(dA3BLa 3ea,sters :nion 6ontra6t des#ite a (o8er *id $ro, a (ar'er, ,ore re#uta*(e insuran6e $ir,7A"B

Starr9s attorne) 8as the #o8er$u( 2ashin'ton *ased 3o,,) @3he 4or-@ 4or6oran7 4or6oran9s (a8 #artner, 2i((ia, Doun',an, 8as a dire6tor o$ :7S7 =i$e7 4or6oran9s other 6(ients in6(uded the :nited 0ruit 4o,#an), 4hian' ;ai she-9s in$(uentia( *rother in (a8 37K7 Soon', and the ,)sterious air(ine, 4i5i( Air 3rans#ort >4A3?, o$ 8hi6h 60 #er6ent 8as o8ned *) the 3ai8an re'i,e and "0 #er6ent *) the 4IA7A!B &n *eha($ o$ :nited 0ruit, 4or6oran tri''ered a 4IA #(ot L in 8hi6h E7 .o8ard .unt 8as the a'en6)9s 6hie$ #o(iti6a( a6tion o$$i6er L to o5erthro8 Huate,a(a9s President <a6o*o Ar*enI in 19!"7A6B &SS 4hina hand 2i((is Bird sett(ed in Ban'-o-, 3hai(and to head an o$$i6e o$ Sea Su##(), In67, a 4IA #ro#rietar) headCuartered in Mia,i, 8hi6h $urnished 8ea#ons to o#iu, s,u''(in' Nationa(ist 4hinese >;M3? troo#s in Bur,a7 &ne 2i((ia, Bird, re#resentin' 4A3 in Ban'-o-, 6oordinated 4A3 airdro#s to ;M3 troo#s and ran an en'ineerin' $ir, that 6onstru6ted short airstri#s used $or the 6o((e6tion o$ =aotian o#i,u7A/B Sea Su##() a(so #ro5ided ar,s and aid to Phao Sri)anonda, the head o$ 3hai(and9s "!,000 ,an #ara,i(itar) #o(i6e $or6e and re#uted() one o$ the ,ost 6orru#t ,en in the histor) o$ that 6orru#tion ridden nation7 0or )ears his troo#s #rote6ted ;M3 o#iu, s,u''(ers and dire6ted the dru' trade $ro, 3hai(and7A8B 2hen President <ohn 07 ;enned) in 1962 atte,#ted a 6ra6-do8n on the ,ost ha8-ish 4IA e(e,ents in Indo6hina, he sou'ht the #rose6ution o$ 2i((is Bird, 8ho had *een 6har'ed 8ith the *ri*er) o$ an aid o$$i6ia( in Kientiane7 But Bird ne5er returned to the :7S7 to stand tria(7 :#on returnin' to Mia,i, the &SS 4hie$ o$ S#e6ia( Inte((i'en6e and head o$ +eta6h,ent 202 in ;un,in', 4o(one( Pau( .e((i8e((, 8as a *us) ,an7 In Mia,i o$$i6es o$ the A,eri6an Ban-ers Insuran6e 4o7 he $un6tioned si,u(taneous() as the 3hai 6onsu(, an the 6ounse( $or Sea Su##() as 8e(( as $or insuran6e 6o,#anies run *) his $or,er su*ordinate 47K7 Starr7A9B A,eri6an Ban-ers Insuran6e 8as itse($ a ,ost unusua( $ir,% one o$ its dire6tors, <a,es =7 ;in', 8as a(so a dire6tor o$ the Mia,i Nationa( Banthrou'h 8hi6h the =ans-) s)ndi6ate re#orted() #assed ,i((ions en route to Hene5a9s S8iss Ex6han'e and In5est,ent Ban-7 &ne o$ the S8iss *an-9s dire6tors, =ou Po((er, a(so sat on the *oard o$ ;in'9s Mia,i Nationa( Ban-7A10B Moreo5er, in the $i$ties and sixties, 3hai and Nationa(ist 4hinese 6a#ita( 8as in5ested in 0(orida9s ex#(osi5e de5e(o#,ent, ,u6h o$ it *) 8a) o$ the Henera( +e5e(o#,ent 4or#oration 6ontro((ed *) asso6iates o$ Me)er =ans-)7A11B It9s i,#ortant to note the du*ious a((ian6e o$ Southeast Asian #o8er 'rou#s 8ith those 6on6erned 8ith 0(orida and 4u*a7 3his ear() ,utua(it) o$ *usiness interests is the -e) to a(( that $o((o8s, and Mia,i is the ner5e 6enter to 8hi6h 8e 8i(( 6ontinua(() return7 3he a((ian6e 8as 6o,#rised o$ the 4hina =o**), &SS 4hina hands, 4u*an exi(es, the =ans-) s)ndi6ate, and 4IA ha8-s #ushin' $or a(( out in5o(5e,ent in Indo6hina and a'ainst 4astro9s 4u*a7 It 6oa(es6ed *et8een 1961 and 1963, and its ,e,*ers had three thin's in 6o,,on: a ri'ht 8in' #o(iti6a( out(oo-, an interest in Asian o#iu,, and a thirst $or #o(iti6a( ,i'ht7 3he (ast $a6tor (ed to another 6o,,on deno,inator in 8hi6h the a((ian6e in5ested hea5i(): 1i6hard M7 Nixon7 So,e #eo#(e e$$e6ti5e() o5er(a# the entire s#e6tru, o$ the a((ian6e7 A,on' the, are .o8ard .unt and 3o,,) 4or6oran, the ,an *ehind :nited 0ruit9s dirt) 8or-7 :nited 0ruit 8as a 6(ient o$ the Mia,i *ased +ou*(e 4he- 4or#7, a 4IA $ront that su##(ied #(anes $or the Ba) o$ Pi's in5asion7A12B 4or6oran 8as the 2ashin'ton es6ort o$ Henera( 4hennau(t9s 8ido8 Anna 4hen 4hennau(t, erst8hi(e head o$ the 4hina =o**), the -e) to Southeast Asian o#iu,7A13B

Another -e) $i'ure in the 4hina =o**) 8as 8ea#ons dea(erJ$inan6ier 2i((ia, Pa8(e), the A,eri6an 6o$ounder o$ 4hennau(t9s 0()in' 3i'ers7A1"B Pa8(e)9s na,e 8as the #ass8ord to intri'ue: &SS 4hina, 3o,,) 4or6oran,A1!B 4IA 6o5er $ir,s,A16B and ar,s shi#,ents to ;M3 4hinese on 3ai8an in de$ian6e o$ a State +e#art,ent re$usa( o$ authoriIation7@ A(( 8ere either dire6t() or indire6t() 6onne6ted to Pa8(e)7 .e a(so ru**ed e(*o8s 8ith the :7S7 heroin Ma$ia 8hen, in 1963, he, Santo 3ra$$i6ante, <r7 and 4u*an exi(es too- #art in one o$ the 6ount(ess *oat raids on 4u*a7A18B 3he 4hina =o**)9s Southeast Asian 6onne6tion natura(() 8ent 5ia the 3ai8an re'i,e, 8hi6h 6ontro((ed the o#iu, 'ro8in' 4hinese in the Ho(den 3rian'(e and, 8ith the 4IA, o8ned the o#iu, runnin' 4A3 air(ines7 As 1oss D7 ;oen 8rote in 196": @3here is 6onsidera*(e e5iden6e that a nu,*er o$ Nationa(ist 4hinese o$$i6ia(s are en'a'ed in the i((e'a( s,u''(in' o$ nar6oti6s into the :nited States 8ith the $u(( -no8(ed'e and 6onni5an6e o$ the Nationa(ist 4hinese 'o5ern,ent7 3he e5iden6e indi6ates that se5era( #ro,inent A,eri6ans ha5e #arti6i#ated in and #ro$ited $ro, these transa6tions7 It indi6ates $urther that the nar6oti6s *usiness has *een an i,#ortant $a6tor in the a6ti5ities and #er,utations o$ the 4hina =o**)7@ A19B British 8riter 0ran- 1o*ertson 8ent one ste# $urther in 19//: @3ai8an is a ,aFor (in- in the 0ar East nar6oti6s route, and a heroin #rodu6er7 Mu6h o$ the a6eti6 anh)dride the 6he,i6a( ne6essar) $or the trans$or,ation o$ ,or#hine into heroin s,u''(ed into .on' ;on' and 3hai(and, 6o,es $ro, this is(and, a di6tatorshi# under the iron ru(e o$ the (ate 4hian' ;ai she-9s son, 4hian' 4hin'-uo7@A20B 2hen the 4o,,unists routed 4hian' ;ai she-9s $or6es in 19"9, so,e 10,000 ;M3 troo#s $(ed to Southeast Asia and sett(ed in a re,ote #art o$ Bur,a7 .ea5i() ar,ed, the) soon assu,ed 6ontro( o$ the area and inter,arried 8ith the (o6a( #o#u(ation7 :nder Henera( =i Mi the) 6ontinued to in$i(trate 4hina #ro#er, *ut ea6h ti,e the) 8ere re#u(sed7 2hi(e a8aitin' 4hian'9s si'na( $or a $ina(, t8o $ront ons(au'ht, Bur,a9s ;M3 ar,) needed a sour6e o$ in6o,e7 Man) had 'ro8n o#iu, in Dunnan and so the #o##ies, 8hi6h $(ourished on the hi((sides, *e6a,e the $or6e9s 6ash 6ro#7 Around 19!0 the 4IA *e6a,e interested in the ;M3 troo#s7 2ith Henera( +ou'(as Ma6Arthur #ushin' to ar, the, $or an atta6- on 1ed 4hina, the a'en6) se6ret() $(e8 the, 8ea#ons in 4A3 air#(anes7 But 8hen the ;M3 instead used the 8ea#ons a'ainst the Bur,ese ar,), Bur,a #rotested *e$ore the :N, 8here it 8as de6ided that 2000 ;M3 troo#s 8ou(d *e $(o8n *) 4A3 to 3ai8an *) 19!"7 3hose 8ho e5entua(() ,ade the tri#, ho8e5er, 8ere on() $ar,ers and ,ountain #eo#(e in ;M3 uni$or,s, and the 8ea#ons the) too- out 8ere o*so(ete7A21B Nonethe(ess, 8ith he(# $ro, the 1ed 4hinese ar,), Bur,a dro5e ,ost o$ the ;M3 $or6es into 3hai(and and =aos, thou'h ,an) (ater returned7 3he ;uo,intan' and their -in no8 nu,*er o5er !0,0007 3hou'h on() a $ra6tion are so(diers, the ;M3 sti(( 6ontro(s hundreds o$ thousands o$ 4hinese o66u#)in' the re'ion, es#e6ia(() in 3hai(and7 3he Fun6tion o$ Bur,a, 3hai(and, and =aos, the Ho(den 3rian'(e, is the site o$ the *u(- o$ the 8or(d9s o#iu, #rodu6tion and there*) the sour6e o$ enor,ous $ortunes $or the 0ren6h and (ater the A,eri6ans7 3he 0ren6h he(d e$$e6ti5e 6ontro( o5er the Southeast Asian o#iu, tra$$i6 unti( 196!7 Bet8een 19"6 and 19!! the Mixed Air*orne 4o,,ando Hrou# >MA4H? and the 0ren6h Air 0or6e ,ana'ed the shi#,ent o$ o#iu, $ro, Bur,a to =aos7 A 'ueri((a 6or#s 6o,#rised ,ost() o$ =aotian Meo tri*es,en and (ed *) 4o(one( 1o'er 3rinCuier, MA4H re,ained unusua(() inde#endent des#ite its dire6t 6onne6tions to the S+E4E and +euxie,e >Se6ond? Bureau7 3o $inan6e their se6ret Indo6hina o#erations, these or'aniIations turned to the s,u''(in' o$ 'o(d and o#iu,, 8ith MA4H in 6har'e o$ the (atter7 =ar'e Cuantities o$ o#iu, 8ere shi##ed to 0ren6h Sai'on headCuarters and #assed on to the 4orsi6an Ma$ia, 8ho in turn s,u''(ed the dru' to Marsei((es7

2hen the 0ren6h 8ithdre8 $ro, Indo6hina in 19!! a$ter their de$eat *) the Kiet,inh, and a$ter the 4IA #ushed aside the S+E4E, MA4H (eaders 6o,,uni6atin' throu'h 4IA a'ent =u6ien 4onein o$$ered the A,eri6ans their entire 'ueri((a $or6e7 A'ainst 4onein9s ad5i6e the) re$used7A22B .istor) 8ou(d 6ast dou*t on the 8isdo, o$ that de6ision7 In 19!! 4IA a'ent Henera( Ed8ard =ansda(e *e'an a 8ar to (iCuidate the 4orsi6an su##() net8or-7 2hi(e =ansda(e 8as 6ra6-in' do8n on the 0ren6h in$rastru6ture, his e,#(o)er the 4IA 8as runnin' #ro#rietaries, (i-e Sea Su##() and 4A3, that 8or-ed hand in hand 8ith the o#iu, s,u''(in' Nationa(ist 4hinese o$ the Ho(den 3rian'(e, and 8ith the 6orru#t 3hai *order #o(i6e7A23B 3he =ansda(eJ 4orsi6an 5endetta (asted se5era( )ears, durin' 8hi6h ,an) atte,#ts 8ere ,ade on =ansda(e9s (i$e7 &dd() enou'h, his #rin6i#a( in$or,ant on 4orsi6an dru' routes and 6onne6tions 8as the $or,er 0ren6h 0orei'n =e'ionnaire, =u6ien 4onein, then o$ the 4IA7 4onein -ne8 Fust a*out e5er) o#iu, $ie(d, s,u''(er, trai(, airstri#, and 4orsi6an in Southeast Asia7 .e s#ent his $ree ti,e 8ith the 4orsi6ans, 8ho 6onsidered hi, one o$ their o8n7 A##arent() the) ne5er rea(iIed it 8as he 8ho 8as turnin' the, in7A2"B 2hen =ansda(e returned $ro, Kietna, in the (ate $i$ties, the 4orsi6ans re6ou#ed so,e o$ their (osses, 6harterin' a'in' air6ra$t to esta*(ish Air &#iu,, 8hi6h $un6tioned unti( around 196!7 3hat )ear, the 4orsi6ans9 ne,esis =ansda(e returned to Kietna, as an ad5isor to A,a*assadorAsi6B =od'e7 3here 8as a(so an u#hea5a( in the nar6oti6s tra$$i6, and #erha#s the t8o 8ere 6onne6ted7 4IA *a6-ed South Kietna,ese and =aotian 'enera(s *e'an ta-in' o5er the o#iu, tra$$i6 L and as the) did so, in6reasin' a,ounts o$ ,or#hine and (o8 Cua(it) heroin *e'an sho8in' u# on the Sai'on ,ar-et7 3he $irst heroin re$ineries s#ran' u# in =aos under the 6ontro( o$ Henera( &uane 1atti-one7 President ;) in Sai'on 8as initia(() in 6har'e o$ s,u''(in' $ro, the =aotian re$ineries to the South Kietna,ese% and =ansda(e9s o$$i6e, it is to *e re,e,*ered, 8as 8or-in' 6(ose() 8ith ;)7 =ansda(e hi,se($ 8as one o$ ;)9s heartiest su##orters, and 4onein 8ent a(on' 8ith 8hate5er =ansda(e said7A2!B &ne resu(t o$ the s,u''(in' ta-eo5er *) the 'enera(s 8as the end o$ the 4orsi6ans9 Air &#iu,7 3he ;M3 4hinese and Meo tri*es,en 8ho 6u(ti5ated ra8 o#iu, either trans#orted it the,se(5es to the re$ineries or had it $(o8n there *) the 4IA 5ia 4A3 and its su66essor, Air A,eri6a, another a'en6) #ro#rietar)7 3hou'h the 4orsi6ans sti(( sent dru's to Marsei((es, the #ri6e 8as *e6o,in' #rohi*iti5e, sin6e the) 8ere $or6ed to *u) o#iu, and ,or#hine in Sai'on and Kientiane rather than #i6- u# the o#iu, $or #eanuts in the ,ountains7 In 196/ a three sided o#iu, 8ar *ro-e out in =aos *et8een a Bur,ese Shan State 8ar(ord, ;M3 4hinese and Henera( 1atti-one9s =aotian ar,)7 1atti-one e,er'ed 5i6torious, 6a#turin' the o#iu, shi#,ent 8ith the he(# o$ :7S7 su##(ied air6ra$t7 3he ;M3, $or its #art, ,ana'ed to reassert its do,inan6e o5er the 8ar(ord7 3he s,u''(in' #i6ture 8as *e6o,in' si,#(i$ied, 8ith Southeast Asian o#iu, di5ided a,on' $e8er hands, and ,ost o$ the 4orsi6ans out o$ the 8a)7 Henera( =ansda(e returned to the :7S7 in 196/, (ea5in' 4onein in Kietna,7 3he next )ear 4onein 'reeted a ne8 *oss, 2i((ia, 4o(*)7 Sin6e 1962 4o(*) had run the a'en6)9s s#e6ia( di5ision $or 6o5ert o#erations in Southeast Asia, 8here his res#onsi*i(ities in6(uded the @ se6ret@ 4IA 8ar in =aos 8ith its 30,000 ,an Meo ar,)7 .e shared that res#onsi*i(it) 8ith the :7S7 a,a*assadorAsi6B in =aos, 2i((ia, .7 Su((i5an, 8ho 8ou(d (ater #reside o5er the 3ehran e,*ass) durin' the $a(( o$ the Shah7 Man) o$ the a'ents 8ho ran the 4IA9s 8ar in =aos had ear(ier trained 4u*an exi(es $or the Ba) o$ Pi's in5asion, and a$ter8ard had ta-en #art in the a'en6)9s 6ontinued se6ret o#erations a'ainst

4u*a7A26B Sin6e exi(es 8ere $urnished *) the 3ra$$i6ante ,o*,A2/B inte((i'en6e a'ents had inter,in'(ed 8ith re#resentati5es o$ A,eri6a9s nu,*er one nar6oti6s or'aniIation7 3he sa,e a'ents 8ou(d no8 *e6o,e in5o(5ed 8ith the extensi5e o#iu, s,u''(in' $ro, Meo tri*es,en 6a,#s to Kientiane7A28B In 196/ 4o(*) de5ised a #(an o$ terror $or the @#a6i$i6ation@ o$ Kietna,7 &#eration Phoenix or'aniIed the torture and ,urder o$ an) Kietna,ese sus#e6ted o$ the s(i'htest asso6iation 8ith Kiet6on'7 <ust as =ansda(e 8as tra5e((in' ho,e, 4o(*) 8as sent to South Kietna, to #ut his *rain6hi(d to 8or-7 A66ordin' to 4o(*)9s o8n testi,on) *e$ore a Senate 6o,,ittee, 20,8!/ Kiet6on' 8ere ,urdered in Phoenix9s $irst t8o )ears7 3he $i'ure o$ the South Kietna,ese 'o5ern,ent $or the sa,e #eriod 8as o5er "0, 0007A29A It 8as durin' 4o(*)9s tour in Kietna, that the heroin turned out *) Henera( &uane 1atti-one9s (a*s a##eared in Cuantit), and 8ith unusua(() hi'h Cua(it)7 3he 'reat heroin 8a5e *rou'ht on a HI addi6tion e#ide,i6 in 19/0% 4on'ressiona( re#orts indi6ated that so,e 22 #er6ent o$ a(( :7S7 so(diers sa,#(ed the dru's and 1! #er6ent *e6a,e hoo-ed7A30B 0or,er Air Marsha(, then Ki6e President, N'u)en 4ao ;) >no8 a(i5e and 8e(( in the :nited States? and his under(in's sti(( 6ontro((ed ,ost o$ the tra$$i67 President N'u)en Kan 3hieu and his $a6tion, 6o,#rised ,ost() o$ ar,) and na5) o$$i6ers, 8ere a(so in it u# to their ne6-s7 A66ordin' to NB49s Sai'on 6orres#ondent, 3hieu9s 6(osest ad5isor, Henera( +an' Kan Nuan', 8as the ,an ,ost res#onsi*(e $or the ,on-e) on the :7S7 Ar,)9s *a6-7 But the :7S7 Sai'on e,*ass), 8here 4o(*) 8as se6ond in 6o,,and, $ound no su*stan6e to the a66usations, ;)9s re6ord not8ithstandin': ;) had *een re,o5ed $ro, :7S7 &#eration .a)(i$t, 8hi6h $(e8 6o,,ando units into =aos, $or (oadin' his air6ra$t 8ith o#iu, on the return tri#s7 In the $a6e o$ s-)ro6-etin' HI heroin a*use, the Ar,) 4ri,ina( In5esti'ation +i5ision >4I+? (oo-ed into Henera( N'o +Iu9s 6o,#(i6it) in the heroin tra$$i6 and $i(ed a (en'th) re#ort at the :7S7 e,*ass)7A31B 3he e,*ass) i'nored the re#ort and 6hose not to $or8ard it to 2ashin'ton7A32B 3he BN++ a(so in5esti'ated the roots o$ the heroin e#ide,i6, *ut 8as i,#eded in its 8or- *) the 4IA and :7S7 e,*ass)7 In 19/1, ho8e5er, a strin' o$ heroin (a*s 8ere un6o5ered in 3hai(and, and a nu,*er 8ere 6(osed do8n7 In 19/1, $urther,ore, 4o(*) and 4onein 8ere re6a((ed to the :nited States7 4o(*) *e6a,e the +e#ut) +ire6tor o$ &#erations, the ,an in 6har'e o$ the 4IA9s 6o5ert o#erations7 More re,ar-a*(e, thou'h, 8as 4onein9s ho,e6o,in' a$ter t8ent) $our )ears o$ #eriodi6 ser5i6e to the 4IA in Indo6hina, raisin' the Cuestion o$ 8h) the :7S79s $ore,ost ex#ert on Indo6hina had *een *rou'ht *a6- to 2ashin'ton Fust as the 6ru6ia( #hase o$ Kietna,iIation 8as a*out to *e'in7A33B Ironi6a((), 4orsi6an $riends sti(( around $or 4onein9s de#arture #resented hi, 8ith a $are8e(( 'o(d ,eda((ion *earin' the sea( o$ the 4orsi6an :nion7 At the 8ar9s 6ata6()s,i6 end, the 4IA ad,itted that @6ertain e(e,ents in the or'aniIation@ had *een in5o(5ed in o#iu, s,u''(in' and that the i((e'a( a6ti5ities o$ :7S7 a((ies had *een o5er(oo-ed to retain their (o)a(ties7 In rea(it), the a'en6) had *een $or6ed to 6on$ess *e6ause o$ its ina*i(it) to re$ute the ta(es o$ returnin' HIs, a,on' the, that o$ Hreen Beret Pau( 2ithers, a re6i#ient o$ nine Pur#(e .earts, the +istin'uished Ser5i6e 4ross and Si(5er and BronIe Stars: @A$ter 6o,#(etin' *asi6 trainin' at 0ort +ix in the $a(( o$ 196! A2ithersB 8as sent to Nha 3ran', South Kietna,7 A(thou'h he 8as ostensi*() stationed there, he 8as #(a6ed on 9(oan9 to the 4IA in <anuar) 1966 and sent to Pa- Sen', =aos7 Be$ore 'oin' there he and his 6o,#anions 8ere stri##ed o$ their uni$or,s and a(( A,eri6an 6redentia(s7 3he) 8ere issued 4Ie6hos(o5a-ian 'uns and ;orean uni$or,s7 Pau( e5en si'ned *(an- sheets o$ #a#er at the *otto, and the 4IA (ater t)#ed out (etters and

sent the, to his #arents and 8i$e7 A(( this 8as done to hide the $a6t that there 8ere A,eri6an troo#s o#eratin' in =aos7 @3he ,ission in =aos 8as to ,a-e $riends 8ith the Meo #eo#(e and or'aniIe and train the, to $i'ht the Pathet =ao7 &ne o$ the ,ain tas-s 8as to *u) u# the entire (o6a( 6ro# o$ o#iu,7 A*out t8i6e a 8eean Air A,eri6a #(ane 8ou(d arri5e 8ith su##(ies and -i(o *a's o$ o#iu, 8hi6h 8ere (oaded on the #(ane7 Ea6h *a' 8as ,ar-ed 8ith the s),*o( o$ the tri*e7@A3"B 3he 4IA, re#orted(), did not su##ort an) $or, o$ s,u''(in' a$ter 19687 +e( 1osario, a $or,er 4IA o#erati5e, had so,ethin' to sa) a*out that: @In 19/11 8as an o#erations assistant $or 4ontinenta( Air Ser5i6e, 8hi6h $(e8 $or the 4IA in =aos7 3he 6o,#an)9s trans#ort #(anes shi##ed (ar'e Cuantities o$ ri6e7 .o8e5er, 8hen the $rei'ht in5oi6e 8as ,ar-ed 9+i5erse9 I -ne8 it 8as o#iu,7 As a ru(e an o$$i6e te(e#hone 8ith a s#e6ia( nu,*er 8ou(d rin' and a 5oi6e 8ou(d sa) 93he 6usto,er here9 that 8as the 6ode desi'nation $or the 4IA a'ents 8ho had hired us7 9;ee# an e)e on the #(anes $ro, Ban .ouai Sai7 2e9re sendin' so,e 'oods and so,eone9s 'oin' to ta-e 6are o$ it7 No*od)9s a((o8ed to tou6h an)thin', and nothin' 6an *e un(oaded,9 8as a t)#i6a( ,essa'e7 3hese shi#,ents 8ere a(8a)s to# #riorit)7 So,eti,es the o#iu, 8as un(oaded in Kientiane and stored in Air A,eri6a de#ots7 At other ti,es it 8ent on to Ban'-o- or Sai'on7A3!B E5en 8hi(e the 4IA tra$$i6-ed in o#iu,, President Nixon ranted on 3K a'ainst dru' a*use and (auded the 6ra6-do8n a'ainst 0ren6h s,u''(in' net8or-s7 ##s7 129 139
Notes 17 E7.7 .unt: Undercover >Ber-e(e) Putna,, 19/"?7 27 Another o$ 4onein9s &SS side-i6-s, Mit6he(( 2erBe(( 111, 8as )ears (ater indi6ted in a ,aFor dru' 6ons#ira6) 6ase >37 +un-in: @3he Hreat Pot P(ot,@ Soldier of 8ortune, Vol. 7, No7 1, 19//?, and no8 runs an antiterrorist trainin' s6hoo( in Heor'ia >37 +un-in: @2erBe((9s 4o*ra) S6hoo(,@ Soldier of 8ortune, Ko(7 !, No7 1, 1980?7 37 +7 Mo(dea: The ,offa Wars >4harter Boo-s, 19/8?7 "7 :7S7 4on'ress, Senate, Se(e6t 4o,,ittee on I,#ro#er A6ti5ities in the =a*or or Mana'e,ent 0ie(d, ,earings, 8!th 4on'7, 2nd Sess7 >6ited in P7+7 S6ott: The War #onspiracy, Bo**s Merri((, 19/2?7 !7 4A3, 8hi6h *e6a,e Air A,eri6a, 8as a(so identi6a( 8ith the @4A34=@ that e,er'ed $ro, 4(aire 4hennau(t9s 0()in' 3i'ers7 67 +7 2ise and 37B7 1oss: The $nvisi"le Bovernment >1ando, .ouse, 196"?% .unt, o#7 cit. /7 S6ott, o#7 cit. 87 07 1o*ertson: Triangle of %eath >1out(ed'e and ;ea'en Pau(, 19//?% A7 M64o): The 'olitics of ,eroin in Southeast Asia >.ar#er S 1o8, 19/2?7 97 S6ott, o#7 cit. 1>. (ew )or! Times, 1 +e6e,*er 1969% .7 Messi6-: ans!y >Ber-e(e), 19/1?7 117 4ar( 07 .o$$,ann, the $or,er &SS a'ent and 'enera( 6ounse( o$ the 3hai -in' in Ne8 Dor- in 19"! !0, (ater *e6a,e the 6hair,an o$ =ans-) asso6iates9 0irst 0(orida 1esour6e 4or#7

127 =7 HonIa(eI Mata: #ygne >Hrasset, 19/6?7 137 17D7;oen: The #hina o""y in American 'olitics >.ar#erS 1o8, 19/"?7 1"7 Pa8(e), the u(tra6onser5ati5e $or,er Pan A, exe6uti5e and Assistant Se6retar) o$ *oth State and +e$ense, set u# the 0()in' 3i'ers under a se6ret order o$ President 0ran-(in +7 1oose5e(t exe,#tin' hi, $ro, :7S7 neutra(it) #ro5isions% see A7 4han 4hennau(t: #hennault's 8lying Tigers >Eri-sson, 1963?7 1!7 4or6oran assisted in the esta*(ish,ent o$ the 0()in' 3i'ers and (ater 4i5i( Air 3rans#ort% see S6ott, o#7 cit. 167 =indse) .o#-ins, <r7, 8hose siIa*(e in5est,ents in6(uded Mia,i Bea6h hote(s, 8as an o$$i6er o$ the 4IA #ro#rietar), Menith 3e6hni6a( Enter#rises o$ Ba) o$ Pi's note7 .e 8as a(so an o$$i6er o$ the S#err) 4or#7, throu'h 8hose su*sidiar), the Inter6ontinenta( 4or#7, Pa8(e) he(#ed $ound the 0()in' 3i'ers in 19"17 Pa8(e) 8as Inter6ontinenta(9s #resident7 See S6ott, o#7 cit. 1/7 :7S7 4on'ress, Senate, 4o,,ittee on <udi6iar), #ommunist Threat to the United States through the #ari""ean, ,earings, 86th 4on'7, 2nd Sess7 >6ited in S6ott, o#7 cit./. 187 See 6ha#ter $i$teen% it has a(so *een re5ea(ed that a #ro,inent 4hinese A,eri6an, +r7 Mar'aret 4hun' o$ San 0ran6is6o, 8ho 8as a ,aFor su##orter o$ the 0()in' 3i'ers, tra$$i6-ed in nar6oti6s to'ether 8ith the S)ndi6ate% see P7+7 S6ott: @&#iu, and E,#ire,@ ?ulletin of #oncerned Asian Scholars, Se#te,*er 19/37 197 ;oen, o#7 cit. 207 1o*ertson, o#7 cit.. A$ter a one )ear sus#ension, the :7S7 State +e#art,ent re6ent() a##ro5ed the sa(e o$ E280 ,i((ion in ,i(itar) 8ea#onr) to the re#ressi5e 3ai8an re'i,e @(ew )or! Times, 20 <anuar) 1980?, the sa,e re'i,e 8hose disdain $or hu,an ri'hts 8as ,ost re6ent() ex#ressed *) the #re#aration o$ 6ases o$ sedition a'ainst sixt) $i5e o##osition de,onstrators @(ew )or! Times, 2" <anuar) 1980?7 3he 4IA9s 3ai8an station 6hie$ in the (ate $i$ties and ear() sixties, 8hen the unho() a((ian6es 8ere $or'ed, 8as 1a) S7 4(ine7 4(ose() asso6iated 8ith the 4hina =o**), 4(ine *e6a,e $a,ous $or his drun-en *in'es 8ith 4hian' 4hin' -uo, 6urrent() the #resident o$ 3ai8an >see K7 Mar6hetti and <7+7 Mar-s: 4IA and #ult of $ntelligence, <onathan 4a#e, 19/"?7 A 4IA ha8-, 4(ine a(so he(#ed a 'i'anti6 Ba) o$ Pi's st)(e in5asion o$ the 4hinese ,ain(and 8hi6h 8as reFe6ted *) President ;enned)7 4(ine is 6urrent() the @dire6tor o$ 8or(d #o8er studies@ at Heor'eto8n9s 4enter $or Strate'i6 and Internationa( Studies >4SIS?, 8hi6h, a66ordin' to 8riter 0red =andis >@Heor'eto8n9s I5or) 3o8er $or S#oo-s,@ $nFuiry, 30 Se#te,*er 19/9?, @is ra#id() *e6o,in' the Ne8 1i'ht9s ,ost so#histi6ated #ro#a'anda ,i((7@ In testi,on) *e$ore the .ouse Se(e6t 4o,,ittee on Inte((i'en6e, 4(ine de$ended 4IA ,ani#u(ation o$ the #ress, sa)in' @Dou -no8 that $irst a,end,ent is on() an a,end,ent7@ 217 M64o), o#7 cit. 227 +7 2arner: The ast #onfucian >An'us S 1o*ertson, 196"?7 237 M64o), o#7 cit. 2"7 4onein to(d 8riter M64o): @3he 4orsi6ans are s,arter, tou'her and *etter or'aniIed than the Si6i(ians7 3he) are a*so(ute() ruth(ess and are the eCua( o$ an)thin' 8e -no8 a*out the Si6i(ians, *ut the) hide their interna( $i'htin' *etter7@ >M64o), o#7 cit./. 2!7 M64o), o#7 cit. 267 37 Bran6h and H7 4ri(e III: @3he ;enned) Kendetta,@ ,arper's, Au'ust 19/!7 2/7 :7S7 4on'ress, Senate, Se(e6t 4o,,ittee to Stud) Ho5ern,enta( &#erations 8ith res#e6t to Inte((i'en6e A6ti5ities, Alleged Assassination 'lots $nvolving 8oreign eaders, Interi, 1e#ort, 9"th 4on'7, 1st Sess7 Senate 1e#ort No7 9" "63, 19/!7 287 47 =a,our and M717 =a,*erti: es Brandes &aneuvres de l'>pium >Editions du Seui(, 19/2?% M64o), o#7 cit.4o,,ittee o$ 4on6erned Asian S6ho(ars: The 0pium *ail >Ne8 En'(and 0ree Press, 19/1?7 297 Mar6hetti and Mar-s, o#7 cit.

307 4on'ress,an M707 Mur#h) and 17.7 Stee(e: The World ,eroin 'ro"lem >:7S7 Ho5t7 Printin' &$$i6e, 19/1?7 317 =i-e N'u)en 4ao ;), N'o +Iu 6a,e to the :7S7 as a re$u'ee a$ter the $ina( de*a6(e in South Kietna,7 3hou'h a66used *) 1e#7 Stee(e o$ res#onsi*i(it) $or the addi6tion o$ thousands o$ HIs to heroin, +Iu 8ent a*out as a $ree ,an unti( his 13 0e*ruar) 19// death in Sa6ra,ento o$ a##arent heart $ai(ure7 327 M64o), o#7 6it7 337 4onein9s su,,ons ho,e 6oin6ided 8ith .o8ard .unt9s re6ruit,ent *) the 2hite .ouse and the 6reation o$ the s#e6ia( nar6oti6s and P(u,*ers 'rou#s7 3"7 4o,,ittee o$ 4on6erned Asian S6ho(ars, o#7 cit. 3!7 =a,our and =a,*erti, o#7 cit. >Cuote retrans(ated $ro, the 0ren6h?7



Me)er =ans-), the S)ndi6ate9s $inan6ia( 8iIard and its 6hair,an $ro, around 19"/, *e'an *ui(din' his 4u*an e,#ire in the ear() $orties7 2hen $ree e(e6tions 6hased his 6(ose $riend and di6tator 0u('en6io Batista $ro, o$$i6e in 19"", =ans-) a(so (e$t the is(and, entrustin' his e,#ire to the 3ra$$i6ante $a,i() headed *) Santo, Sr7 =ans-) and Batista sett(ed in .o(()8ood, 0(orida, Fust north o$ Mia,i7 Be$ore (on', =ans-) 8as runnin' an i((e'a( 6asino e,#ire on the 6oast, and in 19"/ he e(i,inated Bu's) Sie'e( and ,o5ed into =as Ke'as7 A(( the 8hi(e =ans-) ex#anded the nar6oti6s trade $ounded *) =u6-) =u6iano7 3he o(der Ma$ia dons dee,ed the trade ta*oo, so =ans-)9s 8in' o$ the S)ndi6ate 6ornered the ,ar-et, 8ith 3ra$$i6ante9s e(dest son, Santo, <r7, o5erseein' the heroin tra$$i67A1B 2hen 0(orida9s i((e'a( 6asinos 8ere shut do8n in 19!0, =ans-) #ro,oted Batista9s return to #o8er in 4u*a7 3he dri5e *ore $ruit in 19!27 2ith 3ra$$i6ante, Sr79s death in 19!", Santo, <r7 *e6a,e =ans-)9s ri'ht hand ,an and ,ana'er o$ his 4u*an interests7 :nti( then, he had ,ana'ed the Sans Sou6i 4asino, a *ase $or runnin' .a5ana9s tourist trade and -ee#in' ta*s on heroin shi#,ents $ro, Marsei((es to Ne8 Dor- 5ia 0(orida and 4u*a7A2B 3ra$$i6ante, <r7 has #ro5en ,ore ta(ented than his $ather7 Extraordinari() inte((i'ent and ener'eti6, he has hand(ed the ,ost a6ute 6rises 8ith deta6hed 6a(,7 =u6iano 6hara6teriIed hi, as @7 7 a 'u) 8ho a(8a)s ,ana'ed to hu' the *a6-'round, *ut he is rou'h and re(ia*(e7 In $a6t, he9s one o$ the $e8 'u)s in the 8ho(e 6ountr) that Me)er =ans-) 8ou(d ne5er tan'(e 8ith7@A3B In no ti,e, 3ra$$i6ante, <r7 in'ratiated hi,se($ 8ith di6tator Batista, 8hi(e re,ainin' (o)a( to =ans-), 8ho a##ointed hi, ,ana'er o$ his o8n 0(orida interests in addition to those in 4u*a7 =ans-) needed to s#end in6reasin' a,ounts o$ ti,e in Ne8 Dor-, *et8een tra5e(s to =as Ke'as, 1o,e, Marsei((es, Beirut, and Hene5a7 Man) en5ied =ans-)9s e5er in6reasin' #o8er and 8ea(th, a,on' the, Murder, In67 6hair,an o$ the *oard A(*ert Anastasia7 In 19!/ the (atter tried en(istin' 3ra$$i6ante9s aid in re,o5in' =ans-) $ro, the .a5ana s6ene7 It 8as one o$ Anastasia9s (ast ,o5es7 3ra$$i6ante arran'ed a @$riend()@ ,eetin' in Ne8 Dor-9s Sheraton .ote(7 An hour a$ter 3ra$$i6ante had 6he6-ed out, Anastasia 8as ,urdered in the hote(9s *ar*er sho#, sha5in' 6rea, sti(( on his $a6e7A"B

A66ordin' to Peter +a(e S6ott, @6ertain :7S7 *usiness interests 6o((a*orated 8ith the nar6oti6s (in-ed A,eri6an Ma$ia in 4u*a as the) did 8ith si,i(ar net8or-s in 4hina and (ater in Kietna, $or the Ma$ia su##(ied the ne6essar) (o6a( inte((i'en6e, 6ash and ,us6(e a'ainst the threat o$ 6o,,unist ta-eo5er7A!B As S6ott 8rote those 8ords in 19/3, 4u*an A,eri6ans re6ruited *) the 4IA 8ere sus#e6ted *) $edera( and 6it) authorities to *e @in5o(5ed in e5er)thin' $ro, nar6oti6s to extortion ra6-ets and *o,*in's7@A6B 3he 4hur6h 6o,,ittee and other Senate and (a8 en$or6e,ent re#orts 8ou(d 6on$ir, these a((e'ations7 A'ain 8e o*ser5e the 4u*aJ Southeast AsiaJ 4IA trian'(e, and it9s no se6ret 8ho ,ana'ed the 4u*an side7 3here 3ra$$i6ante, <r7 hired the $ast (earnin' nati5es, 8hi(e di6tator Batista9s ,en ,ade the e,#ire sa$e $or or'aniIed 6ri,e, o$ten a##earin' ,ore (o)a( to 3ra$$i6ante than to Batista hi,se($7 In return the 4u*ans (earned the *usiness7 2ith 0ide( 4astro9s 1 <anuar) 19!9 ouster o$ Batista, =ans-) and 3ra$$i6ante 8ere in trou*(e7 3hou'h the) 8ere ex#e((ed $ro, their 4u*an -in'do,, near() a )ear e(a#sed *e$ore the S)ndi6ate de#arted and the 6asinos 8ere 6(osed7 A(on' 8ith 93ra$$i6ante and =ans-), ha($ a ,i((ion 4u*ans (e$t the is(and in the )ears $o((o8in' 4astro9s ta-eo5er7 So,e 100,000 sett(ed in the Ne8 Dor- 4it) area, es#e6ia(() Manhattan9s 2ashin'ton .ei'hts and Ne8 <erse)9s .udson 4ount)7 Another 100,000 headed to S#ain, others to =atin A,eri6a, and a Cuarter o$ a ,i((ion ,ade their ne8 ho,e in 0(orida, the site o$ 3ra$$i6ante9s ne8 headCuarters7 &ut o$ the 3ra$$i6ante trained 6or#s o$ 4u*an o$$i6ers, se6urit) sta$$ers and #o(iti6ians, a 4u*an Ma$ia e,er'ed under the ,o*ster9s 6ontro(7 It s#e6ia(iIed in nar6oti6s, $irst =atin A,eri6an 6o6aine, then Marsei((es heroin7 2ith his 4u*ans 3ra$$i6ante a(so 'ra**ed 6ontro( o$ =a Bo(ita, the nu,*ers 'a,e that too- 0(orida *) stor, and *e6a,e a S)ndi6ate 'o(d ,ine7A/B Besides the 4u*ans, 8ho 6o,#rised the ,ain 8in' o$ his or'aniIation, 3ra$$i6ante a(so 8or-ed 6(ose() 8ith the non Ita(ian .ar(an B(a6-*urn ,o*, a *rea- 8ith Ma$ia tradition7A8B But the 6ore o$ the 3ra$$i6ante $a,i() re,ained Ita(ian, and the Ita(ians a(so dea(t in dru's7 In 1960 his ,an Benedetto @Beni the 4rin'e@ Indi5i'(io ne'otiated the o#enin' o$ a nar6oti6s route 8ith <a6Cues I9A,eri6ain, the re#resentati5e o$ 4orsi6an *oss <ose#h &rsini7A9B Benedetto and his *rothers 1o,ano, Arno(d, 4har(es and 0rederi6- e5entua(() ran 3ra$$i6ante9s Montrea( *ound s,u''(in' net8or-, and 8ere (ater Foined *) the notorious Ne8 Dor- 8ho(esa(er =ouis 4iri((o7A10B 3ra$$i6ante sett(ed in 3a,#a, *ut 6ontinued to run so,e o$ his a6ti5ities $ro, <i,,) .o$$a9s 3ea,ster =o6a( 320 in Mia,i7 3ra$$ii6ante and +a5id Daras o$ Sa, Hian6ana9s 4hi6a'o ,o* 8ere instru,enta( in $oundin' =o6a( 320, 8hi6h, a66ordin' to the M64(e((an hearin's, 8as a $ront $or S)ndi6ate nar6oti6s a6ti5ities7A11B A$ter (osin' his .a5ana #aradise, $ar si'hted Me)er =ans-) used stra8 ,en to *u) u# ,u6h o$ Hrand Baha,a Is(and and ere6ted a ne8 'a,*(in' 6enter around the 6it) o$ Nassau7 But thou'h =ans-) and 3ra$$i6ante ea6h sur5i5ed in st)(e, neither the) nor the 4u*an exi(es re(inCuished ho#e o$ a return to 4u*a7 Moreo5er, the) 8ere not a(one in drea,in' o$ o5erthro8in' 4astro7 3he 4IA in #arti6u(ar (et its i,a'ination run 8i(d to this end7 Its 6o5ert o#erations ex#ert, Henera( Ed8ard =ansda(e, serious() #(anned to send a su*,arine to the shore outside .a5ana, 8here it 8ou(d 6reate an in$erno o$ (i'ht7 At the sa,e ti,e, 4u*a *ased a'ents 8ou(d 8arn the re(i'ious nati5es o$ the se6ond 6o,in' o$ 4hrist and the Sa5ior9s distaste $or 0ide( 4astro7 .o8e5er, @E(i,ination *) I((u,ination@ 8as she(5ed in $a5or o$ (ess $antasti6 su''estions $or 4astro9s assassination7 3he (atter *rou'ht to'ether the 4IA, 4u*an exi(es, and the S)ndi6ate in the #erson o$ Santo 3ra$$i6ante7

In 1960 the 4IA as-ed its 6ontra6t a'ent 1o*ert Maheu to 6onta6t the ,o*ster <ohn 1ose((i7 1ose((i introdu6ed Maheu to 3ra$$i6ante and Sa, Hian6ana, the 4hi6a'o 6a#o, and the stran'e *ed$e((o8s arran'ed an atte,#t on the (i$e o$ 4astro7A12B 3he a'en6) had #re5ious() stationed an a'ent on 4u*a 8ho 8as to $(ash the 'reen (i'ht 8hen assassination o##ortunities arose7 .e 8as 0ran- An'e(o 0iorini, a one ti,e s,u''(er o$ 8ea#ons to 4astro9s re5o(utionar) ar,), to 8ho, 4astro had entrusted the (iCuidation o$ the 'a,*(in' 6asinos7A13B 3hrou'h the (atter assi'n,ent 0iorini had ,ade the a6Cuaintan6e o$ 3ra$$i6ante7 In 0e*ruar) 1961 Maheu, T3ra$$i6ante and 1ose((i ,et at Mia,i9s 0ountaine*(eu .ote(7 3here Maheu 'a5e the hoods untra6ea*(e #oison 6a#su(es $or de(i5er) to a 4u*an exi(e 6onne6ted 8ith the 3ra$$i6ante ,o*7A1"B 0ther 4u*ans 8ere to s,u''(e the, to the is(and and #oison 4astro% *ut the atte,#t $ai(ed7 3ra$$i6ante en'ineered ,ore atte,#ts, in6(udin' one in Se#te,*er 1962,A1!B and his or'aniIation a(so #ro5ided 4u*ans $or the Ba) o$ Pi's in5asion7A16B Ne5er *e$ore had there existed a ,ore re,ar-a*(e, $anati6a( 'rou# o$ 6ons#irators than that asse,*(ed to 6reate, $inan6e, and train the Ba) o$ Pi's in5asion $or6e7 3he to# 4IA $i'ures 8ere =ansda(e #rote'e Na#o(eon Ka(eriano, the ,)sterious 0ran- Bender, and E7 .o8ard .unt, 8ho 8as hi,se($ in5o(5ed in at (east one o$ the atte,#ts on 0ide( 4astro9s (i$e7 3he) 8ere su##orted *) a s,a(( ar,) o$ 4IA o#erati5es $ro, $our o$ its Mia,i 6o5er $ir,s7A1/B 1unner u# to .unt $or the Most Intri'uin' 4IA 4ons#irator a8ard is Bender, a Her,an re$u'ee 8hose true identit) re,ains a ,atter o$ s#e6u(ation7 So,e 6ontend that he had *een an a'ent o$ the 2est Her,an Heh(en es#iona'e net8or- under the na,e +re6her% others 6ontend it 8as +ro((er7A18B 3he $or,er se6urit) 6hie$ $or +o,ini6an 1e#u*(i6 di6tator 1a$ae( 3ruFi((o 6(ai,s that Bender 8as in $a6t one 0ritI S8end, a Heh(en 6o((a*orator and (eader o$ ex NaIis in Peru7 Prior to the Ba) o$ Pi's in5asion S8end 8as a((e'ed() the 4IA9s ,an in the +o,ini6an 1e#u*(i6 as +on 0rederi6o7 3here he #ur#orted() #(anned the in5asion a(on' 8ith ,o*ster 0ran- 4oste((o and ex4u*an di6tator Batista7A19B 3he in5asion9s ,ora( and $inan6ia( su##orters in6(uded ,an) (eadin' 4hina =o**)ists7 Most i,#ortant 8as the ,u(ti ,i((ionaire *ehind 4(aire 4hennau(t9s 0()in' 3i'ers, 2i((ia, Pa8(e)7A20B Pa8(e) had *een in5o(5ed in the 4IA9s 19!" o5erthro8 o$ Huate,a(a9s de,o6rati6a(() e(e6ted Ar*enI re'i,e7 =i-e =ans-) and 3ra$$i6ante, Pa8(e) had had a *i' sta-e in 4u*a7 Prior to 4astro9s ta-eo5er he had o8ned the .a5ana *us s)ste, and su'ar re$ineries7 .e ,et 8ith President Eisenho8er se5era( ti,es in 19!9 to #ersuade the #resident to assist 4u*an exi(es in o5erthro8in' 4astro7 Pa8(e) then he(#ed the 4IA re6ruit anti 4astro 4u*ans7A21B 3he -e) 4u*an exi(e 6ons#irators in the Ba) o$ Pi's o#eration and the ensuin' atta6-s on 4u*a and 4astro in6(uded Manue( Arti,e, &r(ando Bos6h, 0e(i#e de +ie'o, and 1o(ando MartineI the $irst a 6(ose $riend o$ .o8ard .unt9s, the (ast t8o $uture 2ater'ate *ur'(ars7 3he na,e o$ Bos6h 8as to *e6o,e s)non),ous 8ith terroris,7 +istin'uishin' the non6ri,ina( e(e,ent a,on' the Ba) o$ Pi's9 anti 4astro 4u*ans is no eas) ,atter, sin6e so ,an) e,er'ed $ro, 3ra$$i6ante9s 4u*an Ma$ia7 A66ordin' to a'ents o$ the BN++, near() 10 #er6ent o$ the 1!00 ,an $or6e had *een or e5entua(() 8ere arrested $or nar6oti6s 5io(ations7A22B Its re6ruiters in6(uded S)ndi6ate 'an'sters (i-e 1i6hard 4ain, the $or,er 4hi6a'o #o(i6e,an 8ho *e6a,e a (ieutenant $or Sa, Hian6ana7 3he +o,ini6an 1e#u*(i6, a $o6a( #oint in the in5asion s6he,e, a(so *e6a,e a transit #oint $or 3ra$$i6ante9s nar6oti6s tra$$i67 0urther,ore, the 4IA, a66ordin' to a'ents o$ the BN++, he(#ed or'aniIe

the dru' route *) #ro5idin' I+s and s#eed*oats to $or,er Batista o$$i6ers in the +o,ini6an 1e#u*(i6 in 6har'e o$ nar6oti6s shi#,ents to 0(orida7A23B It is o$ #ara,ount i,#ortan6e to note the 6(ose 4IA 6oo#eration 8ith 3ra$$i6ante9s 4u*an Ma$ia, 8hose o5erridin' sour6e o$ in6o,e 8as the s,u''(in' o$ dru's7 &ne o$ 3ra$$i6ante9s #ersona( 4IA 6onta6ts $or the Ba) o$ Pi's 8as 0ran- 0iorini, 4astro9s (iCuidator o$ Mo* 6asinos, 8ho no8 #re$erred the na,e 0ran- Stur'is7A2"B In (ate 1960 Stur'is ran the Mia,i *ased Internationa( Anti 4o,,unist Bri'ade >IA4B?, said to *e $inan6ed *) the S)ndi6ate7A2!B A66ordin' to 1i6hard 2hatt(e), a *ri'ade ,e,*er hired $or the in5asion, @3ra$$i6ante 8ou(d order Stur'is to ,o5e his ,en and he9d do it7 &ur u(ti,ate 6on6(usion 8as that 3ra$$i6ante 8as our *a6-er7 .e 8as our ,one) ,an7@A26B Another detai( $ro, Stur'is9s #ast is es#e6ia(() interestin' in (i'ht o$ 0ran- Bender9s a((e'ed ties to the Heh(en or'aniIation7 0or a #eriod in the ear() $i$ties Stur'is 8as in5o(5ed in es#iona'e a6ti5ities in Ber(in, ser5in' as a 6ourier *et8een 5arious nations9 inte((i'en6e a'en6ies, and 8as there*) ine5ita*() in 6onta6t 8ith the Heh(en net8or-7A2/B 3he Ba) o$ Pi's in5asion 8as, o$ 6ourse, a $ias6o7 But that hard() sto##ed the 4IA, the S)ndi6ate, or their 4u*an exi(e troo#s7 2hee(s 8ere soon turnin' on ne8 assassination atte,#ts under 4IA a'ent 2i((ia, .ar5e), 8ho a'ain 6o((a*orated 8ith the under8or(d7 2ithin ,onths, the Mia,i 4IA station <MJ2a5e 8as a'ain in $u(( s8in'7 It s#onsored a series o$ hit and run atta6-s on strate'i6 4u*an tar'ets that s#anned three )ears and in5o(5ed 'reater ,an#o8er and ex#enditures than the Ba) o$ Pi's in5asion itse($7 3o head the <MJ2a5e station, the 4IA 6hose one o$ its u# and 6o,in' a'ents, the thirt) $our )ear o(d 3heodore Sha6-(e), 8ho 6a,e dire6t $ro, Ber(in7 .is 6(osest 4u*an exi(e asso6iates 8ere <oaCuin San'enis and 1o(ando >2ater'ate *ur'(ar)? MartineI7A28B So,e 300 a'ents and " 6000 4u*an exi(e o#erati5es too- #art in the a6tions o$ <MJ2a5e7 As (ater re5ea(ed, one o$ its (ast o#erations 8as 6(osed do8n *e6ause one o$ its air6ra$t 8as 6au'ht s,u''(in' nar6oti6s into the :nited States7A29B Sha6-(e) is another 6ontender $or the Most Intri'uin' 4IA 4ons#irator a8ard7 A$ter )ears o$ 6o((a*oration 8ith 3ra$$i6ante or'aniIation 4u*ans, he and #art o$ his Mia,i sta$$ 8ere trans$erred to =aos,A30B 8here he Foined =u6ien 4onein7A31B 3here the) he(#ed or'aniIe the 4IA9s se6ret Meo tri*es,en ar,), the se6ond su6h ar,) dru,,ed u# *) Sha6-(e) that 8as u# to its ears in the dru' tra$$i67 Kientiane, 8here Sha6-(e) 8as the station 6hie$, *e6a,e the ne8 6enter o$ the heroin trade7 =ater he ran the station in Sai'on, 8here the tra$$i6 $(o8ed under the #ro$iteerin' ad,inistration o$ Pre,ier N'u)en 4ao ;)7 2hen the a'en6) #re#ared its 6ou# a'ainst the 4hi(ean President Sa(5ador A((ende, Sha6-(e) 8as its 6hie$ o$ 6o5ert o#erations in the 2estern .e,is#here7 2hen 2i((ia, 4o(*) *e6a,e the dire6tor o$ the 4IA in 19/3, Sha6-(e) too- o5er his Fo* as 6hie$ o$ 6o5ert o#erations in the 0ar East7 E5entua(() he 8as *ooted out o$ the a'en6) as #art o$ the sha-eu# ordered *) its 6urrent dire6tor Stans$ie(d 3urner7A32B In the <MJ2a5e #eriod a 'reat ex#ansion in 4hina =o**) 3ra$$ii6ante 4u*an exi(e 4IA 6onne6tions o66urred7 2i((ia, Pa8(e) $inan6ed a ,)sterious su,,er 1963 *oat raid a'ainst 4u*a in his o8n )a6ht, the 0()in' 3i'er II7 Besides Pa8(e) hi,se($, the 6re8 in6(uded ,a$ioso <ohn Martino, 8ho had o#erated rou(ette 8hee(s in one o$ 3ra$$i6ante9s .a5ana 6asinos% 4IA a'ents 6ode na,ed 1i#, Mi-e, and ;en% the u*iCuitous 1o(ando MartineI% and a doIen other 4u*an exi(es (ed *) Eddie Ba)o and Eduardo PereI, ,an) o$ 8ho, e5entua(() disa##eared ,)sterious()7A33B =oren .a((, another $or,er 3ra$$i6ante 6asino

e,#(o)ee, 6(ai,ed that *oth his *oss and Sa, Hian6ana had he(#ed #(an the raid7A3"B 4Iaire Boothe =u6e, a Cueen#in o$ the 4hina =o**), testi$ied durin' Senate hearin's on the 4IA that she had $inan6ed an exi(e 'un*oat raid on 4u*a a$ter <0; had ordered the a'en6) to ha(t su6h raids7 I 8i(( not 8ander dee#() into the Cua',ire o$ 6ir6u,stan6es surroundin' the ,urder o$ President <ohn 07 ;enned)7 .o8e5er, it is 8orth re#eatin' a $e8 (ines $ro, the $ina( re#ort o$ the .ouse Se(e6t 4o,,ittee on Assassinations: @3he 4o,,ittee9s extensi5e in5esti'ation (ed to the 6on6(usion that the ,ost (i-e() $a,i() *osses o$ or'aniIed 6ri,e to ha5e #arti6i#ated in su6h a uni(atera( assassination #(an 8ere 4ar(os Mar6e((o and Santo 3ra$$i6ante7@A3!B &$ the ,an) 6onne6tions *et8een 3ra$$i6ante and +a((as the ,ost i,#ortant are his asso6iation 8ith <a6- 1u*), 8ho 5isited hi, in a .a5ana #rison in 19!9% his state,ent to 4u*an exi(e $inan6ier <ose A(e,an that ;enned) @is 'oin' to *e hit@% and his 6(ose asso6iation 8ith $e((o8 Ma$ia 6a#o 4ar(os Mar6e((o7 3he 4u*an exi(es, dru' ra6-eteers, and the 4IA had no shorta'e o$ anti ;enned) ,oti5es, 8hi6h 8ere a(( the ,ore intensi$ied as the three $or6es 'radua(() 8e(ded to'ether7 3he anti 4u*a a6tions 6ontinued 8e(( into 196!, at 8hi6h ti,e a 6ru6ia( three )ear turna*out $or the =ans-) S)ndi6ate *e'an7 Its ,one) had *een in5ested in the unsu66ess$u( atte,#ts at to##(in' 4astro and in its ne8 6asino 6o,#(ex in Nassau, 8hi6h 8as threatened *) (o6a( anti'a,*(in' $or6es7 So 8hen Southeast Asia *e'an e,er'in' as a ne8 heroin ex#ort 6enter, =ans-) sent his $inan6ia( ex#ert <ohn Pu((,an to 6he6- out the o##ortunities $or in5est,ent7 4(ose on his hee(s 8ent 0ran- 0ur6i, the son o$ a 3ra$$i6ante (ieutenant7A36B 0ro, 1968 on, 3ra$$i6ante9s 4u*ans 8ere in e$$e6ti5e 6ontro( o$ the tra$$i6 in heroin and 6o6aine throu'hout the :nited States7A3/B 3he 0(orida 6a#o9s on() 'an'(and #artner o$ si'ni$i6an6e 8as the 4otroni $a,i() in Montrea(7 3ra$$i6ante 6arried out his *usiness in a 6oo( and 6o((e6ted ,anner7 Ne5er out o$ (ine 8ith the nationa( S)ndi6ate, he enFo)ed re(ati5e anon),it) 8hi(e other, (ess #ro,inent 'an'sters 8rote their na,es in histor) 8ith *(ood7 .is or'aniIation 8as so airti'ht that 8hen nar6oti6s in5esti'ators $ina(() rea(iIed ho8 *i' a $ish he 8as, the) had to ad,it he 8as untou6ha*(e7 3he BN++ tried na**in' hi, in its 1969 /0 &#eration Ea'(e, then the ,ost extensi5e a6tion e5er dire6ted a'ainst a sin'(e nar6oti6s net8or-7 3he Bureau arrested o5er 120 tra$$i6-ers, 8ho(esa(ers, and #ushers, *ut ,ade no rea( dent7 2ithin da)s, 8e(( trained 4u*ans ,o5ed into the 5a6ated s(ots7A38B 3o the BN++9s sur#rise, a 5er) (ar'e nu,*er o$ those arrested in &#eration Ea'(e 8ere 4IA trained 5eterans o$ the Ba) o$ Pi's and &#eration "07 A,on' the, 8ere <uan 4esar 1esto), a $or,er 4u*an senator under Batista, A((en Eri6 1udd Marrero, a #i(ot, and Mario Es6andar7A39B 3heir $ates 8ere ,ost unusua(7 Es6andar and 1esto), a((e'ed (eaders o$ the nar6oti6s net8or-, 8ere arrested in <une 19/0 *ut $(ed $ro, Mia,i 4it) <ai( in Au'ust7 Es6andar turned hi,se($ in, *ut 8as re(eased soon a$ter8ard 8hen it 8as esta*(ished that Attorne) Henera( <ohn Mit6he(( had ne'(e6ted to si'n the authoriIation $or the 8ireta# that in6ri,inated Es6andar7 .e returned to nar6oti6s and 8as arrested in 19/8 $or -idna##in', a 6ri,e #unisha*(e *) (i$e, *ut $or 8hi6h he 'ot on() six ,onths7A"0B As this *oo8ent to #ress the 0BI 8as in5esti'atin' Es6andar9s re(ationshi# 8ith the +ade 4ount) >Mia,i? #o(i6e $or6e7 <uan 1esto), on the other hand, turned to *(a6-,ai(7 .e threatened to ex#ose a 6(ose $riend o$ President Nixon9s as a nar6oti6s tra$$i6-er, i$ not 'i5en his $reedo, and E3!0,0007A"1B 1esto) 8as shot and -i((ed *) nar6oti6s a'ents, as 8as 1udd Marrero7

In (ate 19/0, in the 8a-e o$ &#eration Ea'(e, Ba) o$ Pi's 5eteran Hui((er,o .ernandeI 4arta)a set u# the 2or(d 0inan6e 4or#oration >204?, a (ar'e 6o,#an) a((e'ed to *e a 6onduit $or 3ra$$ii6ante in5est,ents and $or the in6o,e $ro, his nar6oti6s a6ti5ities7A"2B +une) PereIA(a,o, a 4IA trained ex#(osi5es ex#ert in5o(5ed 8ith se5era( 4u*an exi(e terrorist 'rou#s, 8as a *ui(din' ,ana'er $or the 2047 <uan 1o,ana6h, a 6(ose 3ra$$i6ante asso6iate, 8as a 204 *an- dire6tor7A"3B As .an- Messi6#ut it: @Es6andar, o$ 6ourse, 8as a $riend o$ .ernandeI 4arta)a, 8ho 8as a $riend o$ +i6- 0in6her, 8ho 8as a $riend o$ Be*e 1e*oIo, 8ho 8as a $riend o$ 1i6hard Nixon, 8ho on6e to(d <ohn +ean he 6ou(d 'et a ,i((ion do((ars in 6ash7A""B In 1968 3ra$$i6ante hi,se($ 8ent on an extended *usiness tri# to the 0ar East, *e'innin' in .on' ;on', 8here he had (o6ated his e,issar) 0ran- 0ur6i 7A"!B A$ter a s(o8 196! 66 start, 0ur6i had ,ade 'reat head8a)7 3hrou'h his o8n Marade,, =td7 he had 6ornered the ,ar-et on Sai'on9s ni'ht s#ots 6aterin' to HIs7A"6B .e e5en ran o$$i6er and so(dier ,ess ha((s, and he had set u# a 6hain o$ heroin (a*s in .on' ;on' to ser5e the HI ,ar-et7 0ro, .on' ;on', 3ra$$i6ante Fourne)ed to Sai'on, re'isterin' at the 4ontinenta( Pa(a6e hote( o8ned *) the 4orsi6an 0ran6hini $a,i()7 .is (ast sto# 8as in Sin'a#ore, 8here he 6onta6ted a *ran6h o$ the s#(intered 4hinese Ma$ia7 Se5era( doors had to *e o#ened to 'ain a66ess to the o#iu, treasure7 3he $irst (ed to the 4IA 6ontro((edSi8an re'i,e, the se6ond to the Ho(den 3rian'(e9s ;M3 4hinese and =aotian Meo tri*es,en7 3he (atter door had a(read) *een o#ened *) the 4IA7 Sti(( another (ed to the 3riads >4hinese 'an'ster or'aniIations? in .on' ;on'7 3ra$$ii6ante o#ened that door 8ith the he(# o$ 0ur6i, 8ho 'a5e hi, a66ess to Southeast Asia9s o5erseas 4hinese7 3here 8as no 8a) around the Nationa(ist 4hinese su##(iers and ,idd(e ,en7 3he 8or(d had (on' *een to(d that the nar6oti6s 6a,e $ro, 1ed 4hina, *ut the $a6ts *e(ied that #ro#a'anda 6(ai,7A"/B 3ra$$i6ante (i-ed 8hat he sa8 in his Southeast Asian tour7 2ith enou'h trained 6he,ists, his Mo* 6ou(d *e su##(ied 8ith heroin at a $ra6tion o$ 8hat it 8as then #a)in' out to the 4orsi6ans7 But $irst the s,u''(in' net8or-s had to *e 8or-ed out and the 4orsi6ans had to *e e(i,inated7 So Santo 3ra$$ii6ante *e'an his 8ar a'ainst the 4orsi6ans7A"8B .is ,aFor $oe, Au'uste 1i6ord in Para'ua), 8asn9t a*out to ro(( o5er and die7 1i6ord 'ot ho(d o$ his o8n .on' ;on' 6onne6tion, N' Si- ho,A"9B a(so -no8n as @=i,#) .o,@ a ,aFor Nationa(ist 4hinese heroin s,u''(er 8e(( 6onne6ted to the 3ai8an re'i,e7A!0B A$ter 1i6ord9s e,issaries had tra5e((ed t8i6e in 19/0 to <a#an, 8here the) ,et 8ith Mr7 .o,A!1B heroin shi#,ents *e'an 'oin' to Para'ua) 5ia, a,on' other transit #oints, 4hi(e7 62 2hen in 19/2 1i6ord 8as extradited to the :7S7, =i,#) .o tried esta*(ishin' his o8n s,u''(in' route to the :7S7 5ia Kan6ou5er7 But that $ai(ed 8hen t8o o$ his (ieutenants, Sa,,) 4ho and 4han' Du 4hin', 8ere arrested in the :7S7 8ith $i$t) #ounds o$ #ure heroin7 B) ear() 19/0, Southeast Asian #rodu6ed heroin 8as read) to *e tested on HI 'uinea #i's7 Me)er =ans-), $a6in' 6har'es o$ *usiness i((e'a(ities, turned o5er 6ontro( to 3ra$$i6ante and $(ed to Israe(7 &n <u() " =ans-) nar6oti6s asso6iates re#orted() ,ade their in5est,ent #(ans $or Southeast Asia at a t8e(5e da) ,eetin' 8ith re#resentati5es o$ se5era( Ma$ia $a,i(ies at the .ote( So(e in Pa(er,o, Si6i()7A!3B 2ee-s (ater the 4orsi6an Ma$ia 6onte,#(ated 6ounter ,o5es in a ,eetin' at Phi(i##e 0ran6hini9s suite in Sai'on9s 4ontinenta( Pa(a6e .ote(7 3ur-ish o#iu, #rodu6tion 8as a(read) 8anin' and 6ou(d no (on'er *e re(ied u#on7 :nrest in the Midd(e East 8as desta*i(iIin' the #rodu6tion o$ ,or#hine *ase7

3he 4orsi6ans had to do so,ethin' to re'ain 6ontro( o5er their (on'ti,e Southeast Asian do,ain, a tas- ,ade a(( *ut i,#ossi*(e *) the :7S7 #resen6e7 But the 4orsi6ans sti(( had (ar'e sto6-s o$ ,or#hine, their Marsei((es (a*s, and a s,ooth() $un6tionin' s,u''(in' net8or-7 3ra$$i6ante and 6o,#an) 6ou(d a'ree that i$ the 4orsi6ans 8ere to *e neutra(iIed, it had to *e done tota(() and e$$e6ti5e()7 3hat 8as a Fo* $or President Nixon and his 2hite .ouse sta$$, the BN++J2hite .ouse +eath SCuad, and the 4entra( Inte((i'en6e A'en6)7 ##s7 1"1 1!2
Notes 17 Santo 3ra$$i6ante, <r79s $irst i,#ortant a##earan6e in his ro(e as o5erseer o$ the heroin tra$$i6 ,i'ht ha5e *een at a 19"/ su,,it in .a5ana re#orted() attended *) Au'uste 1i6ord, a(ias =u6ien +ar'e((es, the 0ren6h NaIi 6o((a*orator 8ho *e6a,e =atin A,eri6a9s nar6oti6s 6Iar% see K7 A(exandro5: a &afia des SS >Sto6-, 19/8?7 27 A7M64o): The 'olitics of ,eroin in Southeast Asia >.ar#erS 1o8, 19/2?7 37 M7 Hos6h and 17 .a,,er: The ast Testament of uc!y uciano >=itt(e, Bro8n S 4o7, 19/"?7 "7 =ans-) 8as not then entire() sure o$ 3Ua$$i6ante9s (o)a(t)7 .e had the (atter s8ear a @ho()@ oath, 8itnessed *) Kin6ent A(o: @2ith an an6ient S#anish da''er L none $ro, Si6i() 8as a5ai(a*(e L 3ra$$i6ante 6ut his (e$t 8rist, a((o8ed the *(ood to $(o8, and 8et his ri'ht hand in the 6ri,son strea,7 3hen he he(d u# the *(ood) hand: 9So (on' as the *(ood $(o8s in ,) *od),9 he intoned so(e,n(), 9do 1, Santo 3ra$$i6ante, s8ear a((e'ian6e to the 8i(( o$ Me)er =ans-) and the or'aniIation he re#resents7 I$ I 5io(ate this oath, ,a) I *urn in .e(( $ore5er79@ L .7 Messi6-: ans!y >Ber-e(e), 19/1?7 !7 P7+7 S6ott: @0ro, +a((as to 2ater'ate,@ *amparts, No5e,*er 19/37 67 (ew )or! Times, 3 <une 19/37 /7 E7 1eid: The Brim *eapers >Banta,, 19/0?7 87 $"id. 97 P7 Ha(ante and =7 Sa#in: The &arseilles &afia >27.7 A((en, 19/9?7 107 3he Ne8sda) Sta$$: The ,eroin Trail >Sou5enir Press, 19/"?7 117 +7 Mo(dea: The ,offa Wars >4harter Boo-s, 19/8?7 127 :7S7 4on'ress, Senate, Se(e6t 4o,,ittee to Stud) Ho5ern,enta( &#erations 8ith res#e6t to Inte((i'en6e A6ti5ities, Alleged Assassination 'lots $nvolving 8oreign eaders, Interi, 1e#ort, 9"th 4on'7, 1st Sess7, Senate 1e#ort No7 9" "63, 19/!7 >.en6e$orth re$erred to as Assassination *eport/. 137 P7 Mes-i((: @Mannen so, Ki((e M)rde 0ide( 4astro,@ Ki &enn, 19/67 1"7 Assassination *eport, op. cit. 1!7 $"id. 167 $"id. 1/7 +7 2ise and 37B7 1oss: The $nvisi"le Bovernment >1ando, .ouse, 196"?% P7+7 S6ott: The War #onspiracy >Bo**s Merri((, 19/2?7

187 3he na,e +re6her a##ears in 37 SIu(6: #ompulsive Spy >Ki-in', 19/"?% +ro((er is used in P7 2)den: The ?ay of 'igs >Si,on S S6huster, 19/9?7 197 =7 HonIa(eI Mata: #ygne >Hrasset, 19/6?7 A66ordin' to this sour6e >the author 8as the 6hie$ o$ se6urit) $or the +o,ini6an 1e#u*(i69s di6tator, 1a$ae( 3ruFi((o?, .o8ard .unt 8ent to the +o,ini6an 1e#u*(i6 8ith the ,o*ster <ohn 1ose((i in Mar6h 19617 207 Pa8(e) e5entua(() *ui(t $i5e (ar'e air#(ane $a6tories around the 8or(d7 It is a(so (i-e() that he 8as in5o(5ed in the 4IA9s +ou*(e 4he- 4or#7 in Mia,i, as he had si,i(ar() *een in the 0()in' 3i'ers7 3he 4IA9s air #ro#rietaries are said to sti6- to'ether7 2hen in 19!8, 4IA #i(ot A((en Po#e 8as shot do8n and ta-en #risoner in Indonesia, he 8as $()in' $or 4A37 2hen he 8as re(eased in 1962 he *e'an $()in' $or Southern Air 3rans#ort, another a'en6) #ro#rietar), 8hi6h o#erated as (ate as 19/3 out o$ o$$i6es in Mia,i and 3ai8an7 Southern9s attorne) in 1962 8as A(ex E7 4ar(son, 8ho a )ear *e$ore had re#resented +ou*(e 4he- 8hen it $urnished #i(ots $or the Ba) o$ Pi's in5asion% see K7 Mar6hetti and <7+7 Mar-s: 4IA and the #ult of $ntelligence ><onathan 4a#e, 19/"?7 &n 23 Mar6h 1980, Fust as Iran9s re5o(utionar) 'o5ern,ent 8as a*out to reCuest that Pana,a extradite Shah 1eIa Pa(e5i, the ex di6tator 8ho had *een insta((ed on his throne in 19!3 *) a 4IA 6ou#, he 8as $(o8n o$$ to 4airo on an E5er'reen Internationa( Air(ines 6harter7 As re#orted *) Ben Brad(ee o$ the ?oston Blo"e, >20 A#ri( 1980?, in 19/! E5er'reen had assu,ed 6ontro( o5er Inter,ountain A5iation, In67, a 4IA #ro#rietar)7 Heor'e +ee(e, <r7, a #aid 6onsu(tant $or E5er'reen, 6ontro((ed the 4IA9s 8or(d8ide net8or- o$ se6ret air(ines $or near() t8o de6ades7 217 M7 A6o6a and 17;7 Bro8n: @3he Ba)o Pa8(e) A$$air,@ Soldier of 8ortune, Ko(7 1, No7 2, 19/67 227 3he Ne8sda) Sta$$, o#7 cit. 237 .7 ;ohn: @Stran'e Bed$e((o8s,@ *olling Stone, 20 Ma) 19/67 2"7 3he ,ain 6hara6ter in .o8ard .unt9s 19"9 s#) no5e(, ?imini *un, 8as Stur'is7@ 2! 7 .7 3anner: #ounter3*evolutionary Agent >H737 0ou(es, 19/2?7 267 ;ohn, o#7 cit. 2/7 Mes-i((, o#7 cit. 287 Sha6-(e) 8as a(so indire6t() res#onsi*(e $or MartineI9s #arti6i#ation in the 1/ <une 19/2 2ater'ate *rea-in% see 37 Bran6h and H7 4ri(e III: 3he ;enned) Kendetta,@ ,arper's, Au'ust 19/!7 297 (ew )or! Times, " <anuar) 19/!7 307 Bran6h and 4ri(e, o#7 cit. 317 <7 .ou'an: Spoo!s >2i((ia, Morro8, 19/8?7 327 Sha6-(e) ,i'ht a(so ha5e *een res#onsi*(e $or the 4IA9s ta##in' o$ a(( te(e#hone 6on5erstions to and $ro, =atin A,eri6a in the $irst ha($ o$ 19/3 @in 6onne6tion 8ith nar6oti6s o#erations@ >see (ewswee!, 23 <une 19/!?7 A66ordin' to Bran6h and 4ri(e, o#7 cit., Sha6-(e), as 6hie$ o$ the 4IA9s 2estern .e,is#here +i5ision o$ 4(andestine Ser5i6es, @had o5era(( res#onsi*i(it) $or the a'en6)9s e$$orts to o5erthro8 the A((ende re'i,e in 4hi(e7@ In a re6ent arti6(e in 8hi6h he re$ers to Sha6-(e) as one o$ @the 4IA9s ,ost estee,ed o$$i6ers,@ Fourna(ist Mi6hae( =edeen 6(ai,s that Sha6-(e) (e$t the a'en6) 5o(untari() 8hen @$or6ed to 6hoose *et8een retire,ent and a66e#tin' a #ost that 8ou(d ha5e re#resented a de $a6to de,otion7@ @(ew )or!, 6 Mar6h 1980?7 =edeen, in6identa((), is a 6o((ea'ue o$ 1a) S7 4(ine at Heor'eto8n9s ri'ht8in' #ro#a'anda ,i((, the 4enter $or Strate'i6 and Internationa( Studies >see 6ha#ter 1", $ootnote 20?7 337 A6o6a and Bro8n, o#7 cit. 3"7 +7 1usse((: @=oren .a(( and the Po(iti6s o$ Assassination,@ Village Voice, 3 &6to*er 19//7

3!7 3he (ew )or! Times, ed7: The 8inal Assassinations *eport >Banta,, 19/9?7 In ear() 1980 the <usti6e +e#art,ent 8as in5esti'atin' a((e'ations that Mar6e((o had o$$ered Mario 37 Noto, the +e#ut) 4o,,issioner o$ I,,i'ration, a 'uaranteed @#(ush Fo*@ a$ter retire,ent, in return $or Noto9s he(# in (i$tin' Mar6e((o9s tra5e( restri6tions7 Noto9s attorne), ironi6a((), is M)(es A,*rose, 8ho ste##ed do8n $ro, his Fo* at the head o$ the BN++ in the 8a-e o$ 6orru#tion a((e'ations7 @(ew )or! Times, 11 0e*ruar) 1980?7 367 M64o), o#7 cit. 3/7 .7 Messi6-: The &o"s and the &afia >S#rin' Boo-s, 19/2?7 387 3he Ne8sda) Sta$$, o#7 cit. 397 .7 Messi6-: 0f Brass and Snow >Prenti6e .a((, 19/9?% 3he Ne8sda) Sta$$, op. cit. "07 &iami ,erald, 30 Mar6h 19/87 "17 Messi6-: 0f Brass and Snow, op. 3cit. "27 $"id. "37 $"id. ""7 $"id. "!7 M64o), o#7 cit. "67 $"id. "/7 In the ear() se5enties the o#iu, *an-ro((ers in 3ai8an sent out, throu'h their internationa( (o**), the 2A4=, #ro#a'anda 6har'in' 1ed 4hina 8ith @the dru''in' o$ the 8or(d7@ 3he #ro#a'anda 8as dire6ted at Nixon9s ra##ro6he,ent 8ith ,ain(and 4hina7 A 19/2 BN++ re#ort stated, ho8e5er, that @not one in5esti'ation into heroin tra$$i6 in the area in the #ast t8o )ears indi6ates 4hinese 4o,,unist in5o(5e,ent7@ "87 3he existen6e o$ su6h a dru' 8ar is a(so ,entioned in A7 <au*ert: %ossier % 777 comme %rogue >A(ain Moreau, 19/"?7 "97 S7 &94a((a'han: The Triads >27.7 A((en, 19/8?7 !07 07 1o*ertson: Triangle of %eath >1out(ed'e and ;ea'en Pau(, 19//?7 !17 &94a((a'han, o#7 cit. !27 M64o), o#7 cit. !37 07 2u($$ in the +anish *apport, 1" A#ri( 19/!7 A BN++ a'ent on the s6ene 8as re#orted() dis6o5ered and (iCuidated7 A##arent() he hadn9t -no8n that the 6ode 8ords 8ere @*a66io (a ,ano@ L I -iss )our hand7 Su*Fe6t nu,*er one o$ the ,eetin' 8as Southeast Asia, 8hi6h the 6on$erees de6ided 8ou(d re#(a6e 3ur-e) and Marsei((es as the ,ain sour6e o$ o#iu, and heroin7 Mexi6o, to 8hi6h Sa, Hian6ana 8as sent, 8ou(d *e a sa$et) 5a(5e7 &n one thin' the) 8ere uanani,ous: the 4orsi6ans had to *e e(i,inated7 3o *e'in 8ith, E300 ,i((ion 8as to *e in5ested in the *ri*er) o$ #o(iti6ians, as 8e(( as o$ ,i(itar) and #o(i6e o$$i6ers in 3hai(and, Bur,a, =aos, South Kietna,, and .on' ;on'7 Another nine $i'ure su, 8as set aside to ,axi,iIe o#iu, #rodu6tion in the Ho(den 3rian'(e7



1i6hard Nixon9s 6onne6tions to the S)ndi6ate and its stoo'es are a ,atter o$ re6ord7 3he on() Cuestion is 8hen the) *e'an7 So,e sa) it 8as 19"6, 8hen Nixon ran $or 4on'ress in 4a(i$ornia and Murra) 4hotiner, a to# S)ndi6ate de$ense attorne), ran his 6a,#ai'n 8ith su##ort $ro, the 'an'ster Mi6-e) 4ohen7A1B &thers #(a6e the Nixon under8or(d 8eddin' as ear() as 19"3, 8hen Nixon 8as 8or-in' in the &$$i6e o$ Pri6e Ad,inistration, at a des- res#onsi*(e $or 6ontro((in' the ,ar-et in ru**er 'oods7 3here he a((e'ed() ,et his $uture #a(s Heor'e @3he Senator $ro, 4u*a@ S,athers and the 4u*an A,eri6an Be*e 1e*oIo 8ho (ater stru6- it ri6h in rea( estate7 3he t8o 8ere then s,a(( ti,e: S,athers a (a8)er $or a S)ndi6ate $ront s,u''(in' auto tires $ro, 4u*a, 1e*oIo the o8ner o$ a 'as station that so(d the tires7A2B 3he 0(orida 6(iCue 8as a ha##) $a,i()7 Nixon (i-ed to ta-e $ishin' Faunts 8ith the (i-es o$ 1e*oIo, Me)er =ans-)9s asso6iate 3atu, @4hu**)@ 2o$$ord,A3B and 1i6hard +anner, 8ho 8ou(d (ater ,ana'e the Sands 6asino in =as Ke'as $or .o8ard .u'hes7A"B .e a(so 'ot to -no8 #eo#(e e5en 6(oser to the S)ndi6ate, 8ho had extensi5e interests in 4u*a7 In 19!2, one short ,onth a$ter the di6tator Batista9s 6o,e*a6-, Nixon and +anner Foined thron's o$ tourists 8ho un(oaded their sa5in's at one o$ the S)ndi6ate9s 4u*an 6asinos7A!B Nixon 8ou(d return $reCuent()7 .e, 1e*oIo, and S,athers a((e'ed() in5ested in the is(and durin' the $i$ties,A6B and in 19!!, as 5i6e #resident o$ the :nited States, Nixon 8ou(d #in an a8ard on Batista, 8ith 8ho, he 8as #hoto'ra#hed in the di6tator9s #a(a6e7 Nixon a(so he(#ed #(an the Ba) o$ Pi's in5asion in 19!97 4hairin' the !"J12 Hrou#, a Nationa( Se6urit) 4oun6i( su*6o,,ittee in 6har'e o$ 6o5ert a6tions, the 5i6e #resident #ushed $or the #(an9s a##ro5a( *e$ore his 1960 #residentia( ra6e a'ainst <ohn 07 ;enned)7A/B A66ordin' to .o8ard .unt, Nixon 8as the in5asion9s @se6ret a6tion o$$i6er@ in the 2hite .ouse7A8B President Eisenho8er, 8ho 8ou(d (ater #(ead i'noran6e o$ the #(an9s extent, assu,ed it 8as (i,ited to su##ort $or anti 4astro 'ueri((as in the ,ountains7A9B 2hen <0; too- o5er the o5a( o$$i6e, he 8as #resented 8ith a fait accompli. I$ Eisenho8er 8as rea(() (e$t out in the 6o(d on the #(an9s ,a'nitude, then 2i((ia, Pa8(e) ,ust ha5e *een a,on' Nixon9s 6o 6ons#irators7 As ,entioned ear(ier, Pa8(e) ta(-ed Eisenho8er into ar,in' the anti 4o,,unist 4u*ans7A10B Pa8(e) 8as and 8ou(d re,ain one o$ Nixon9s ,ost ardent su##orters7A11B 2hen the in5asion #ro5ed a *ust, Nixon9s 5oi6e 8as a,on' the (oudest a66usin' ;enned) o$ under,inin' it *) re$usin' rein$or6e,ents7 In the )ears that $o((o8ed he 6ontinued to 6u(ti5ate su##ort a,on' the 4u*an exi(es and other ri'ht 8in' 6onstituen6ies7 4u*ans $or Nixon and Asians $or Nixon touted hi, as a ,an 8ho 8ou(d not $orsa-e the 6ause o$ anti6o,,unis,7 3he Nixon o$ near h)steri6a( anti6o,,unis, 8ou(d 8in additiona( a((ies in the S)ndi6ate and in #o8er$u( *usiness 6ir6(es tied in 8ith the ,i(itar) and es#ion'e7Asi6B 0ortunate() $or Nixon, $or6es *ehind the a*o5e (o**ies 8ere a(so in$(uentia( in or'aniIed (a*or, es#e6ia(() the 3ea,sters :nion7 3ea,ster *oss <i,,) .o$$a *e6a,e a #a8n o$ the =ans-) s)ndi6ate, 8hi6h *orro8ed ,i((ions $ro, the union9s #ension $und7 .o8e5er, .o$$a9s o*seCuiousness to8ards the Mo* 8as da,#ened *) Attorne) Henera( 1o*ert ;enned)9s a''ressi5e in5esti'ation o$ 3ea,ster #o(i6ies7 In 196/, #rior to Nixon9s de6isi5e e(e6tora( 6a,#ai'n, .o$$a (anded in Fai( 8ith a thirteen )ear senten6e $or ,isuse o$ union $unds7 3he ne8 3ea,ster stron',en, 0ran- 0itIsi,,ons and Anthon) @3on) Pro@ Pro5enIano, 8ere $riends o$ Nixon and in the hands o$ the S)ndi6ate7A12B 2hen Nixon #ardoned .o$$a Fust #rior to 4hrist,as 19/1, .o$$a had to #ro,ise to sta) out o$ or'aniIed (a*or7 In the sixties Nixon 're8 e5en 6(oser to his $riends in Mia,i, 8ho *) then had ,ade ,i((ions in (and s#e6u(ation7 +ade 4ount) north o$ Mia,i *e6a,e -no8n as @=ans-)5i((e,@ as a strin' o$ see,in'()

(e'iti,ate rea( estate $ir,s hand(ed the =ans-) Mo*9s enor,ous ho(din's7 A,on' the ,ore #ro,inent $ir,s 8ere:A13B 1? 3he 4a#e 0(orida +e5e(o#,ent 4o7, run *) +ona(d Ber' and Nixon9s #a( 1e*oIo7 3he t8o 8or-ed 6(ose() 8ith A( Po(iIIi, the $or,er head o$ the S)ndi6ate9s Ma)$ie(d 1oad Han' in 4(e5e(and, then in 6har'e o$ the S)ndi6ate9s 0(orida 6ontra6tors7 An in5esti'ation into the #(a6e,ent o$ sto(en se6urities at 1e*oIo9s *an- 8as ni##ed in the *ud7 2? 3he Mar) 4arter Paint 4o7, 8hi6h in 196/ *e6a,e 1esorts Internationa(, that no8 runs the 8or(d9s ,ost #ro$ita*(e 6asino in At(anti6 4it), Ne8 <erse), and 8as #ur#orted() the *rain6hi(d o$ Mr7 =ans-)7 1esorts9 Paradise Is(and 6asino in the Baha,as 8as ,ana'ed *) Ed 4e((ini, a (on'ti,e =ans-) 6asino o#erator7 3? 3he Henera( +e5e(o#,ent 4or#7, run *) t8o =ans-) stra8,en, 2a((a6e Hro5es and =ou 4hes(er7 Its *oard o$ dire6tors in6(uded =ans-) *ro-er Max &ro5itI and the 'an'ster 3ri''er Mi-e 4o##o(a7 Hro5es *ou'ht u# ha($ o$ Hrand Baha,a Is(and $or the S)ndi6ate and 6ontra6ted 8ith Nixon9s (a8 6(ient, Nationa( Bu(- 4arriers, to 6onstru6t a har*or there7 "? 3he MaFor 1ea(t) 4o7, 8hose 6ontro((in' shareho(ders 8ere Senator S,athers and =ans-)9s ,en &ro5itI and Ben Sie'e(*au,7 3hrou'h his $riends, Nixon a6Cuired (and on ;e) Bis6a)ne and 0isher9s Is(and, o$$ the 0(orida 6oast7 In return he readi() ,ade hi,se($ a5ai(a*(e $or #ersona( a##earan6es7 2hen Mar) 4arter in 196/ o#ened the Nassau Ba) 4(u* 6asino on Hrand Baha,a Is(and, Nixon 8as the 'uest o$ honor7 &ne )ear (ater he 8as there 8hen 1esorts Internationa( o#ened its 6asino on Paradise Is(and7 Nixon a(so ex#ressed his $riendshi# in other 8a)s7 .o$$a 8as not the on() one 8ho did not ha5e to #a) his $u(( de*t to so6iet)7 Neither did =eonard Bursten, 4ar( ;o5ens, or Morris Shen-er, a(( S)ndi6ate asso6iates, the (ast t8o so(id Nixon 6a,#ai'n su##orters7A1"B 1o*ert Mor'enthau, the $edera( attorne) $or the southern distri6t o$ Ne8 Dor-, *e6a,e interested in so,e o$ Nixon9s $riends in 19687 .e #ro5ed Max &ro5itI 'ui(t) o$ 8i(($u( 5io(ation o$ sto6- re'istration (a8s, and 8as in5esti'atin' S)ndi6ate ,one) trans$ers to S8itIer(and7 3he (atter threatened to (ead to an indi6t,ent o$ Nixon9s $riend <ohn M7 ;in' o$ In5estor9s &5erseas Ser5i6e >I&S?7A1!B Mor'enthau, ho8e5er, 8as re,o5ed $ro, o$$i6e7 H(an6in' at ,aFor 6ontri*utors to Nixon9s 1968 and 19/2 6a,#ai'n 6hests, one $inds the na,es o$ Mia,i stra8 ,en =ou 4hes(er and 1i6hard Piste((, 1esorts9 #resident <a,es 4ros*) and <ohn M7 ;in', the 3exas *i((ionaire .o8ard .u'hes, ,aster s8ind(er 1o*ert Kes6o, and the 4a(i$ornia ,i((ionaire 47 Arnho(dt S,ith, a 6(ose asso6iate o$ the 'an'ster <ohn A(essio and (ater 6on5i6ted o$ ,isuse o$ *an$unds7 3he (ist o$ Nixon9s ,aFor #ersona( and #o(iti6a( su##orters starts 8ith 1e*oIo, S,athers, +e8e), .o$$a, and 0ran- 0itIsi,,ons, a(( 8ith their S)ndi6ate asso6iations% and 'oes on to in6(ude 2i((ia, Pa8(e) and the 4hina =o**)9s Mada,e Anna 4han 4hennau(t7 Near() a(( o$ Nixon9s ,aFor su##orters in 0(orida 8ere in5o(5ed in one 8a) or another in the Ba) o$ Pi's o#eration7 3he sa,e 6an *e said o$ the to# S)ndi6ate $i'ures, $our o$ 8ho, es6orted the in5asion $or6e in a )a6ht $or #art o$ the 5o)a'e, 8hi(e 3ra$$i6ante9s (ieutenants in Mia,i and the +o,ini6an 1e#u*(i6 stood read) to seiIe the 6asinos7 Moreo5er, one 6annot o5er(oo- Nixon9s #arti6u(ar 6onne6tion to I&S ,u(ti,i((ionaire Kes6o, 8ho unti( re6ent() 8as in exi(e in 4osta 1i6a, 8here he a((e'ed() $inan6ed the s,u''(in' o$ nar6oti6s7A16B

Kes6o #ro5ided 6o5ert $inan6ia( aid to Nixon9s ree(e6tion 6a,#ai'n, and 8as 6(ose() asso6iated 8ith Nixon9s *rother Ed8ard and ne#he8 +ona(d, <r7 1i6hard Nixon hi,se($ is a((e'ed to ha5e ,et se6ret() 8ith Kes6o in Sa(I*ur', Austria7A1/B 3he 2hite .ouse, $ina((), 6a,e to Kes6o9s aid in a 6ase *rou'ht a'ainst hi, *) the Se6urities and Ex6han'e 4o,,ission,A18B Fust as an in5esti'ation o$ his nar6oti6s a6ti5ities 8as si,i(ar() 6ho-ed o$$7A19B ##s7 1!3 1!/
Notes 17 .7 ;ohn: @Stran'e Bed$e((o8s,@ *olling Stone, 20 Ma) 19/67 27 47 &'(es*): @Presidentia( Assassinations and the 4(osin' o$ the 0rontier,@ in Bovernment "y Bunplay, S. B(u,entha( and .7 DaIiFian, eds7 >Ne8 A,eri6an =i*rar), 19/6?7 37 3he 19!0 ;e$au5er in5esti'ation dis6o5ered that one o$ =ans-)9s (ar'est *a6- roo, 6asinos in Mia,i 8as set u# in the 2o$$ord .ote( run *) 3atu, @4hu**)@ 2o$$ord7 "7 .o8ard .u'hes he(#ed Nixon out as ear() as 19!6 8ith a se6ret E100,000 donation, as 8e(( as a E20!,000 (oan to his *rother +ona(d7 !7 <7 Herth: @1i6hard Nixon and &r'aniIed 4ri,e,@ in Bovernment "y Bunplay, op. cit. 67 ;ohn, o#7 cit. /7 .7H7 ;(ein in the San %iego Union, 2! Mar6h 19627 87 ;ohn, o#7 cit. 97 &'(es*), o#7 cit. 107 M7 A6o6a and 17;7 Bro8n: @3he Ba)o Pa8(e) A$$air,@ Soldier of 8ortune, Ko(7 1, No7 2,19/67 117 <7 .ou'an: Spoo!s >2i((ia, Morro8, 19/8?7 127 Time, 18 Au'ust 19/!7 Six ,onths a$ter an 88 6ount indi6t,ent, 0ran- 0itIsi,,ons9 son 1i6hard, a 3ea,sters or'aniIer, 8as re6ent() senten6ed to thirt) ,onths and a E10,000 $ine $or a66e#tin' *ri*es $ro, tru6-in' 6o,#an) o$$i6ia(s @?oston Blo"e, 1; 0e*ruar) 1980?7 137 In$or,ation on the $our $ir,s is $ro, the &6to*er 19/2 (A# A *eport. 1"7 Bursten, a $riend o$ .o$$a9s 8ho 8as at one ti,e a dire6tor o$ the Mia,i Nationa( Ban-, sa8 his $i$teen )ear senten6e, in 6onne6tion 8ith the *an-ru#t6) o$ a Be5er() .i((s housin' de5e(o#,ent that had re6ei5ed a E12 ,i((ion 3ea,ster #ension $und (oan, redu6ed to #ro*ation a$ter the inter5ention o$ Murra) 4hotiner7 ;o5ens, another (eadin' 0(orida 3ea,ster o$$i6ia(, 8as 6on5i6ted in the sa,e #ension $raud 6ase as .o$$a, *ut re(eased $ro, $edera( #rison 8ith the he(# o$ Senator S,athers7 and then 8ent on to 6o((e6t E!0,000 $or Nixon9s 19/2 ree(e6tion 6a,#ai'n7 Shen-er, 8ho, ife ,a'aIine in 19/1 6a((ed the @$ore,ost ,o* attorne),@ sa8 the <usti6e +e#art,ent9s ,u(ti )ear in5esti'ation o$ his tax 5io(ations turned do8n *) Nixon9s Attorne) Henera( 1i6hard ;(eindienst on the *asis o$ @insu$$i6ient e5iden6e,@ a$ter 8hi6h the $i(es on Shen-er at the o$$i6es o$ the :7S7 Attorne) at St7 =ouis disa##eared% see Herth, o#7 cit. 1!7 (A# A *eport, op. cit. 167 .ou'an, o#7 cit. 1/7 $"id.

187 Time, 6 Ma) 19/"7 197 =7.7 2hitte,ore: 'eroff >Ba((antine, 19/!?7 As o$ No5e,*er 19/9, a $edera( 'rand Fur) in Ne8 Dor- 4it) 8as in5esti'atin' Kes6o9s ,aster,indin' an a((e'ed s6he,e 8here*) =i*)an 'o5ern,ent o$$i6ia(s 8ere to #a) o$$ ,e,*ers o$ the 4arter ad,inistration to $a6i(itate =i*)a9s #ur6hase o$ A,eri6an 4 130 trans#ort #(anes% see the (ew )or! Times, " No5e,*er 19/97 0i5e ,onths (ater, in the ,idst o$ <i,,) 4arter9s ree(e6tion 6a,#ai'n, an assistant :7S7 attorne) announ6ed that a se6ond $edera( 'rand Fur) in 2ashin'ton had returned no indi6t,ents $o((o8in' its in5esti'ation o$ a((e'ations that Kes6o had atte,#ted to *ri*e 4arter ad,inistration o$$i6ia(s to $ix his (on' standin' (e'a( #ro*(e,s7 3he 'rand Fur)9s $ore,an, 1a(#h :(,er, i,,ediate() 6riti6iIed the in6o,#(eteness o$ the announ6e,ent, 6har'in' that @the state,ent is in6o,#(ete and thus ,is(eadin', 8hi6h is a*out #ar $or the 6ourse $or the <usti6e +e#art,ent7@ @(ew )or! Times, 2 A#ri( 1980?7 :(,er had ear(ier 6har'ed that @6o5er u# a6ti5ities are *ein' or6hestrated 8ithin the <usti6e +e#art,ent under the 6on6e#t that the Ad,inistration ,ust *e #rote6ted at a 6osts777 A,on' other thin's in$or,ation 8as 8ithhe(d $ro, the 'rand Fur)777 a 8itness 8as en6oura'ed to *e (ess than 6andid 8ith the 0BI7@ @?oston Blo"e, 6> Au'ust 19/97?



Ne5er had 1i6hard Nixon9s 2hite .ouse sta$$ *een so #reo66u#ied 8ith nar6oti6s ,atters as in the su,,er o$ 19/17 3he) 8ere o*sessed 8ith t8o #roFe6ts: a ne8 2hite .ouse inte((i'en6e and en$or6e,ent unit as en5isioned *) the .uston P(an, and a 6o,#rehensi5e nar6oti6s 6ontro( a##aratus, si,i(ar() under dire6t #residentia( 6ontro(7 3he t8o idees 6on5er'ed in a 6ons#iratoria( and #o(iti6a( 6ri,ina( net8or- o$ hitherto uni,a'ined di,ensions7 3hat su,,er the 2hite .ouse set u# the S#e6ia( A6tion &$$i6e $or +ru' A*use Pre5ention a(on'side the S#e6ia( In5esti'ation :nit, other8ise -no8n as the P(u,*ers7 Se5era( o$ the P(u,*ers a(so 8or-ed on nar6oti6s a$$airs7 3he 'rou#s9 -e) $i'ures in6(uded: E'i( ;ro'h >6hie$ P(u,*er?L8ho $o((o8ed <ohn Er(i6h,an >$or 8hose (a8 $ir, he had 8or-ed #art ti,e? to the 2hite .ouse in 1968 8ithin ,onths o$ his 'raduation $ro, the :ni5ersit) o$ 2ashin'ton =a8 S6hoo(7 .e 8as na,ed de#ut) assistant to the #resident $or (a8 en$or6e,ent, and 8ithin three )ears $ound hi,se($ in 6har'e *oth o$ Nixon9s nar6oti6s and (a8 en$or6e,ent 6a,#ai'n, and o$ the @P(u,*ers sCuad7 .is sin'(e ,inded a,*ition sur$a6ed in a de6(aration to the noted #s)6hiatrist and nar6oti6s ex#ert, +r7 +anie( S7 0reed,an, 8hen the (atter re$used to su##ort one o$ ;ro'h9s #ro'ra,s: @2e((, don9t 8orr)7 An)one 8ho o##oses us 8e9(( destro)7 As a ,atter o$ $a6t, an)one 8ho doesn9t su##ort us, 8e(( destro)7@A1B ;ro'h 8ou(d 8ind u# in Fai( $or the *rea- in at the o$$i6e o$ +anie( E((s*er'9s #s)6hiatrist, +r7 =e8is 0ie(din'7 2a(ter Minni6- >te,#orar) P(u,*er?La )oun' 'raduate o$ .ar5ard Business S6hoo( and $or,er a'ent o$ the 4IA, 8ho Foined ;ro'h9s nar6oti6s sta$$ in s#rin' 19/1 and (ater he(#ed dra$t the reor'aniIation #(an that 6reated the +EA7 <ohn 4au($ie(d >P(u,*er?La $or,er a'ent o$ the Ne8 Dor- 4it) Po(i6e +e#art,ent9s Bureau o$ S#e6ia( Ser5i6es >B&SS?, 8hi6h s#e6ia(iIed in nar6oti6s and @,onitorin' the a6ti5ities o$ terrorist or'aniIations7@ In the 1960 #residentia( 6a,#ai'n he had *een assi'ned to #rote6t 6andidate Nixon in Ne8 Dor- 4it)7 3hat and his 6(ose re(ationshi# 8ith Nixon9s #ersona( se6retar), 1ose Mar) 2oods >o$ ei'hteen and one ha($ ,inute ta#e 'a# $a,e?, 'ained hi, a $oot in the door o$ the 2hite .ouse7A2B

M)(es A,*roseLthe $or,er 4usto,s 4o,,issioner, 8ho 8as na,ed head o$ the nar6oti6s 6a,#ai'n9s do,esti6 stri-e $or6e7 .e 8ou(d (ater (ea5e 'o5ern,ent ser5i6e in dis'ra6e7 H7 Hordon =idd) >P(u,*er? a $or,er 0BI a'ent 8hose nar6oti6s inte((i'en6e Fo* at the 3reasur) +e#art,ent had *een ter,inated, on() 8ee-s #rior to his re6ruit,ent *) the 2hite .ouse, $or his outs#o-en (o**)in' a'ainst 'un 6ontro( (e'is(ation7 E5entua((), he 8ou(d 'et six to t8ent) $or his ro(e in the *rea- in at the 2ater'ate 6o,#(ex and one to three $or the Fo* at 0ie(din'9s o$$i6e7 .o8ard .unt >P(u,*er?La $or,er 4IA a'ent 6(ose() 6onne6ted to the a'en6) trained 4u*an exi(es, ,an) o$ 8ho, had e,er'ed $ro, Santo 3ra$$i6ante9s 4u*an nar6oti6s Ma$ia7 .unt 8as e,#(o)ed as a s#e6ia( ad5isor on nar6oti6s #ro*(e,s in Southeast Asia7 In No5e,*er 19/3 <ud'e <ohn Siri6a 8ou(d senten6e hi, to t8o and a ha($ to ei'ht )ears L redu6ed $ro, an initia( thirt) $i5e L $or the 2ater'ate *rea- in7 =u6ien 4oneinLa 4IA a'ent, Ed =ansda(e9s ri'ht hand ,an in Kietna,, and an ex#ert on Southeast Asian nar6oti6s 6enters and the 4orsi6an Ma$ia7 .e 8as *rou'ht into the 2hite .ouse *) his o(d *udd) .unt7 +a5id Doun'La )oun' (a8)er 8ho #ut u# a si'n outside his o$$i6e, @Mr7 Doun', P(u,*er,@ 8hen a##rised that he 8ou(d *e #(u''in' (ea-s and that the trade had run in his $a,i()7 .e 6a,e to ;ro'h9s sta$$ $ro, .enr) ;issin'er9s Nationa( Se6urit) 4oun6i(7 It 8as a stran'e ,ix o$ no5i6es and ex#erien6ed a'ents 8ith the ,ost intri'uin' #asts7 .unt and =idd) 8ere (o6ated in 1oo, 16 o$ the Exe6uti5e &$$i6e Bui(din', headCuarters $or the P(u,*ers 'rou#9s se6ret nar6oti6s ,issions and other, 6roo-ed o#erations on *eha($ o$ the 4o,,ittee to 1e E(e6t the President >41EEP?7 3he P(u,*ers9 $irst assi'n,ent 8as the *rea- in at the o$$i6e o$ +anie( E((s*er'9s #s)6hiatrist7A3B 0or the *rea- in dirt) 8or-, .unt en(isted Bernard Bar-er, Eu'enio 1o(ando MartineI and 0e(i#e de +ie'o, three o$ his 4u*an $riends 8ho had *een in5o(5ed in the Ba) o$ Pi's in5asion7 MartineI and de +ie'o a(so too- #art in the 4IA9s $o((o8 u# &#eration "0, and the u*iCuitous MartineI 8as in on 3ra$$i6ante ,aster,inded *oat raids on 4u*a7A"B B) the su,,er o$ 19/1 the 2hite .ouse +eath SCuad 8as 8e(( on its 8a)7 .unt sou'ht out Bar-er in Mia,i $or 8hat .unt 6a((ed @a ne8 nationa( se6urit) or'aniIation a*o5e the 4IA and 0BI7@ Bar-er 8ou(d asse,*(e a $or6e o$ 120 4IA trained exi(es $or &#eration +ia,ond, 8hi6h, under 6o5er o$ nar6oti6s en$or6e,ent, 8ou(d -idna# or assassinate #o(iti6a( ene,ies7 Bar-er si'ned u#7A!B In the $a(( o$ 19/1 .unt as-ed another o$ his 4u*an $riends, Ba) o$ Pi's 5eteran Manue( Arti,e, to set u# @hit tea,s@ $or the (iCuidation o$ nar6oti6s dea(ers7 As (ater re5ea(ed, Arti,e9s #ri,ar) tar'et 8as to ha5e *een the Pana,anian stron',an, Henera( &,ar 3orriFos7A6B ;ro'h and his sta$$, ,ean8hi(e, ti'htened their 'ri# on nar6oti6s 6ontro(7 A$ter the BN++ ta-eo5er o$ 6usto,s9 internationa( Furisdi6tion, ;ro'h #ushed Bureau 6hie$ <ohn In'erso(( $or resu(ts to $eed 4on'ress and the #ress7 In Se#te,*er 19/1 ;ro'h 8as na,ed to dire6t the ne8() $or,ed 4a*inet 4o,,ittee on Internationa( Nar6oti6s 4ontro(7 In 6o((a*oration 8ith the State +e#art,ent, BN++, 4IA and .enr) ;issin'er9s o$$i6e, the 6o,,ittee 6oordinated the internationa( stru''(e a'ainst nar6oti6s7 State +e#art,ent nar6oti6s ad5isor Ne(son Hross, 6hosen to su#er5ise the Foint a6tions, 8as (ater senten6ed to t8o )ears $or atte,#ted *ri*er) and in6o,e tax e5asion7A/B E'i( ;ro'h 8as (ess than satis$ied 8ith existin' nar6oti6s e$$orts, es#e6ia(() those o$ the 4IA, 8hose inte((i'en6e re#orts, a66ordin' to In'erso((, 8ere de6isi5e $or the 8or- o$ the BN++7 ;ro'h 8anted the

2hite .ouse instead to hand(e the BN++9s inte((i'en6e 8or-7 Nixon9s sta$$ 8ou(d then de6ide 8hi6h dru' tra$$i6-ers to #ursue7 ;ro'h9s dissatis$a6tion 8as ex#ressed to .unt, 8ho i,,ediate() #ro#osed an &$$i6e o$ Nationa( Nar6oti6s Inte((i'en6e >&NNI? 8here a(( nar6oti6s inte((i'en6e re#orts 8ou(d *e ana()Ied and $o((o8 u# a6tions de6ided7A8B .unt to(d ;ro'h he 6ou(d en(ist $or the o$$i6e ex#erien6ed 4IA $i'ures, startin' 8ith =u6ien 4onein at its head7A9B Nixon, ho8e5er, 6hose 2i((ia, 47 Su((i5an instead7 &n6e se6ond to <7 Ed'ar .oo5er in the 0BI, Su((i5an had ,ana'ed +i5ision 0i5e, 8hi6h in5esti'ated es#iona'e, sa*ota'e, and su*5ersion7A10B .e a(so dire6ted &#eration 4ointe(#ro, the *ureau9s 5endetta a'ainst dissident #o(iti6a( and 6u(tura( 'rou#s >su6h as the B(a6- Panthers?, and had *een Nixon9s 6hoi6e to dire6t the .uston P(an9s e(a*orate sur5ei((an6e o$ :7S7 6itiIens7A11B .unt, ne5erthe(ess, $ound a ni6he $or his $riend7 4onein 8as assi'ned to the BN++ as a @strate'i6 inte((i'en6e o$$i6er,@ and 6a,e to 6ontro( o5erseas nar6oti6s inte((i'en6e, ori'ina(() the do,ain o$ &NNI,A12B 8hi(e Su((i5an 6on6entrated on do,esti6 a$$airs7A13B 3he 2hite .ouse no8 6ontro((ed nar6oti6s inte((i'en6e at ho,e and a*road7 But that sti(( 8asn9t enou'h7 Nixon9s sta$$ a(so sou'ht to 6ontro( en$or6e,ent itse($, and that reCuired e$$e6ti5e stri-e $or6es7 In <anuar) 19/2 the 2hite .ouse set u# the &$$i6e $or +ru' A*use =a8 En$or6e,ent >&+A=E? a66ordin' to a #(an 6on6ei5ed *) Hordon =idd)7 It *e6a,e the do,esti6 stri-e $or6e under M)(es A,*rose L 8hose 'o5ern,ent 6areer ended 8ith ne8s o$ his #(easure tri# to the ran6h o$ a 3exan indi6ted $or nar6oti6s and 'un runnin'7A1"B &+A=E soon *e6a,e notorious $or its re6ord o$ i((e'a( raids, no -no6- entries into #ri5ate ho,es, and *eatin's o$ inno6ent #eo#(e7A1!B So,e 6a((ed it the A,eri6an Hesta#o7 &5erseas, as 8e((, the 2hite .ouse 8as dissatis$ied 8ith the BN++9s en$or6e,ent #o8ers7 +r7 <7 3ho,as :n'er(eider, a ,e,*er o$ the Nationa( 4o,,ission on MariFuana and +ru' A*use, noted in a re6ord o$ his 6on5ersations 8ith BN++ o$$i6ia(s: @3here 8as so,e ta(- a*out esta*(ishin' hit sCuads >assassination tea,s?, as the) are said to ha5e in a South A,eri6an 6ountr)7 It 8as stated that 8ith 1!0 -e) assassinations, the entire heroin re$inin' o#eration 6an *e thro8n into 6haos7 9&$$i6ia(s9 sa) it is -no8n exa6t() 8ho is in5o(5ed in these o#erations *ut 6an9t #ro5e it7@ .unt, =idd) and others in 1oo, 16 did not 6on$ine the,se(5es to nar6oti6s 6a,#ai'ns and #o(iti6a( assassinations7 &n *eha($ o$ 41EEP the) raised 6a,#ai'n $unds $ro, ,ore or (ess shad) sour6es and sa*ota'ed the 6a,#ai'ns o$ Heor'e 2a((a6e, .u*ert .u,#hre), Ed,und Mus-ie, and Heor'e M6Ho5ern7 .unt9s 4IA 6o((ea'ues are a,on' those 8ho sus#e6t he s#i-ed Mus-ie9s (e,onade 8ith an =S+(i-e su*stan6e #rior to the 6andidate9s $a,ous tear$u( s#ee6h7A16B Besides .unt9s 4u*ans, the $a,i(iar 0ran- Stur'is, 8ho had ear(ier ta-en orders $ro, Santo 3ra$$i6ante, too- on nar6oti6s 8or- and s#e6ia( assi'n,ents $or 41EEP7A1/B A66ordin' to a 19/2 0BI re#ort, sour6es in Mia,i had 6(ai,ed Stur'is 8as then asso6iated 8ith or'aniIed 6ri,e a6ti5ities7 .e (ater to(d an inter5ie8er that he had aided .unt in a 19/1 in5esti'ation o$ the dru' tra$$i6 rea6hin' the :7S7 $ro, Para'ua) 5ia Pana,a7A18B .e 8as in on se5era( a6tions 6onne6ted 8ith the in5esti'ation, 8hi6h $o6ussed ex6(usi5e() on Au'uste 1i6ord9s Hru#o 0ran6es7A19B Stur'is 8as e5er)8here in the he6ti6 s#rin' o$ 19/27 In Ma) he 8as a,on' the ,en 8ho assau(ted +anie( E((s*er' on the ste#s o$ the 4a#ito(7 =ater that ,onth he and 4u*ans in6(udin' Bernard Bar-er arran'ed a Mia,i de,onstration in su##ort o$ Nixon9s de6ision to ,ine .ai#hon' har*or7 Stur'is hi,se($ 8as at the 8hee( o$ the tru6- (eadin' the #ro6ession7 .e he(#ed re6ruit a'itators to disru#t the +e,o6rati6 nationa( 6on5ention, and in the <une 1/ 2ater'ate *rea- in Stur'is Foined 4IAJ 3ra$$i6ante 4u*ans and 2hite .ouse nar6oti6s 6ons#irators7A20B

As the noted Ber-e(e) resear6her Peter +a(e S6ott #ut it in 19/3: @In ,) o#inion it is no 6oin6iden6e that the -e) $i'ures in 2ater'ate L =idd), .unt, Stur'is, ;ro'h, 4au($ie(d had *een dra8n $ro, the 6ons#iratoria( 8or(d o$ 'o5ern,ent nar6oti6s en$or6e,ent, a shad) rea(, in 8hi6h o#erations o$ or'aniIed 6ri,e, 6ounter re5o(ution and 'o5ern,ent inte((i'en6e ha5e traditiona(() o5er(a##ed7@A21B In <u() 19/3 Nixon9s nar6oti6s $or6es 8ere essentia(() 6onso(idated a66ordin' to 1eor'aniIation P(an Nu,*er 38o 8or-ed out *) $or,er 4IA a'ent 2a(ter Minni6- and E'i( ;ro'h7 3he +ru' En$or6e,ent Ad,inistration >+EA? 8as $or,ed out o$ the BN++, &+A=E, &NNI and 4usto,s Inte((i'en6e7 0our thousand o#erati5es, in6(udin' $i$t) 4IA a'ents >,an) o$ the, 4u*ans $ro, the &+A=E hard 6ore?, $i5e hundred 6usto,s a'ents and ,ost o$ the BN++ sta$$ ,ade the +EA a #o8er$u( ne8 a'en6)7 In'erso(( o$ the BN++, A,*rose o$ &+A=E and Su((i5an o$ &NNI a(( resi'ned as <ohn 17 Barte(s *e6a,e the +EA9s $irst dire6tor7 .is 8as no s,a(( tas-7 Ear(ier ri5a(ries #ersisted7 3he stran'e *re8 o$ a'ents 8ith 8ide() 5ar)in' *a6-'rounds and assi'n,ents ,ade the +EA di$$i6u(t i$ not i,#ossi*(e to steer7 :7S7 nar6oti6s en$or6e,ent has a histor) o$ 6orru#tion, s6anda( and ex#osure o$ a'ent 6o((a*oration 8ith the 6ri,ina(s it has *een assi'ned to #o(i6e7 Sti((, no *ureau has *een as #(a'ued *) s6anda( as the +EA has in se5en )ears o$ existen6e7 3he ex#oses and 6har'es run the 'a,ut $ro, tra$$i6-in' in dru's, tea,8or- 8ith the Mo* and #rote6tion o$ ,aFor tra$$i6-ers, to thie5er), 'unrunnin', torture, and assassination o$ dru' tra$$i6-ers7A22B 2hen =u6ien 4onein *e6a,e the head o$ the +EA9s S#e6ia( &#erations Bran6h he a((e'ed() 6arried out an assassination #ro'ra, a$ter settin' u# the +EA9s S#e6ia( &#erations Hrou# >+EAS&H?, under 6o5er o$ the B717 0ox 4o,#an) and housed on 4onne6ti6ut A5enue in 2ashin'ton7A23B +EAS&H9s t8e(5e ,e,*ersLthe +irt) +oIen L8ere hard nosed and ex#erien6ed =atino 4IA a'ents trans$erred o5er to the dru' a'en6) $or the o66asion7 Prior to +EAS&H, 4onein had set u# another +EA @inte((i'en6e@ o#eration, +ea6on I, e,#(o)in' 4u*an exi(e 5eterans o$ 4IA trainin' 6a,#s, 8ho 8ere su#er5ised *) thirt) other 4u*ans, a(( $or,er() o$ the 4IA9s 4(andestine Ser5i6es7A2"B In res#onse to the 6(ai, that +EAS&H 8as a @hit tea,,@ 4onein to(d Fourna(ist Heor'e 4ri(e: @3hat is a *i' (ie7 3hat is *u(( .o8e5er, a +EA o$$i6ia( had to(d 4ri(e: @2hen )ou 'et do8n to it, 4onein 8as or'aniIin' an assassination #ro'ra,7 .e 8as $rustrated *) the *i' ti,e o#erators 8ho 8ere Fust too insu(ated to 'et to7@ +EA o$$i6ia(s a(so to(d 4ri(e that @,eetin's 8ere he(d to de6ide 8ho, to tar'et and 8hat ,ethod o$ assassination to e,#(o)7 4onein then assi'ned the tas- to three o$ the $or,er 4IA o#erati5es assi'ned to the 4onne6ti6ut A5enue sa$e house7@A2!B +EAS&H shared its 2ashin'ton o$$i6e 8ith an o(d $riend and 6o((ea'ue o$ .unt and 4onein9s $ro, &SS 4hina, the 8ea#ons dea(in' so(dier o$ $ortune and s#e6ia(ist in assassination, Mit6h 2erBe(( III726 2erBe(( to(d 4ri(e he had *een a *usiness #artner o$ 4onein9s as (ate as 152=, and that he and 4onein had 8or-ed to'ether on #ro5idin' the +EA 8ith assassination de5i6es7A2/B A,on' 2erBe((9s other asso6iates 8ere 0ran- Stur'is, 4u*an exi(e (eaders, and 1o*ert Kes6o, 8ho, (i-e 2erBe(( hi,se($, has *een 6har'ed 8ith *an-ro((in' nar6oti6s s,u''(in'7A28B 4ar(os .ernandeI 1u,*aut, the *od)'uard o$ Kes6o9s 6(ose $riend and *usiness #artner, $or,er 4osta 1i6an President Pe#e 0i'ueres, is a $or,er 4onein a'ent 8ho $(ed the 6ountr) to a5oid i,#rison,ent on a dru' 6on5i6tion7A29B .e has re#orted() reentered the :7S7 t8i6e 8ith a :7S7 di#(o,ati6 #ass#ort7A30B Assassination, it 6an *e ar'ued, *e6a,e a ,odus operandi under 1i6hard Nixon7 3he 4IA 6arried out assassination and exter,ination 6a,#ai'ns in Kietna,, Huate,a(a, Ar'entina, and BraIi(A31BL aided in =atin A,eri6a *) the (o6a( +eath SCuads7 3he 2hite .ouse a##ears to ha5e s#onsored a se6ret

assassination #ro'ra, under 6o5er o$ dru' en$or6e,ent7 It 8as 6ontinued *) the +EA, 8hi6h see,in'() o5er(a##ed 8ith the 4IA in #o(iti6a( rather than dru' en$or6e,ent7 :nti( 152= the trainin' o$ torturers and ,e,*ers o$ =atin A,eri6an death sCuads 6a,e under the aus#i6es o$ the 4IA and :SAI+9s &$$i6e o$ Pu*(i6 Sa$et)7 So,e 100,000 BraIi(ian #o(i6e,en, $or exa,#(e, 8ere trained and :76 o$ the, 8ere 6hosen $or 6ourses in the :7S7A7A32B 3he) 8ere trained at the Internationa( Po(i6e A6ade,) in Heor'eto8n, 2ashin'ton, +747 and at a se6ret 4IA 6enter in the sa,e 6it) on 1 Street, under 6o5er o$ Internationa( Po(i6e Ser5i6es, In67 2hen s6hoo( 8as out the #riIe #u#i(s returned ho,e to 8or-, *eside 4IA ad5isors, as $un6tionaries or torturers in su6h e$$e6ti5e re#ression a##aratuses as Sao Pau(o9s &#era6ao Bandeirantes7A33B Man) 8ou(d ,oon(i'ht 8ith the +eath SCuads7 A$ter 3u#a,aros 'ueri((as -idna##ed and -i((ed :7S7 #o(i6e ad5isor +an Mitrione in :ru'ua), 2ashin'ton9s s6hoo(s $or $orei'n #o(i6e 6a,e into the (i,e(i'ht and 4on'ress 6ut o$$ their $undin'7A3"B Nonethe(ess, the trainin' #ro'ra, and dire6t assistan6e and su#er5ision 6ontinued7 A 152; in5esti'ation authoriIed *) Senator <a,es A*oureI- re5ea(ed that the :7S7 torture a6ade,ies had not in $a6t *een 6o,#(ete() 6(osed do8n7 A66ordin' to <a6- Anderson, A*oureI- $ound su6h a s6hoo( had *een in o#eration sin6e 152= in =os 0resnos, 3exas at the site o$ a $or,er @*o,* s6hoo(7@ Another Fourna(ist, 2i((ia, .o$$,an, (ater 6on$ir,ed the existen6e o$ a s6hoo( $or torture in =os 0resnos, 8hi6h had sin6e ,o5ed to Heor'ia, 8here it 8as -no8n as the =a8 En$or6e,ent 3rainin' 4enter7A3!B Interestin'(), 4onein9s $riend 2erBe(( runs his o8n (ar'e trainin' 6enter in Heor'ia, 3he 0ar,7 It9s used $or, a,on' other thin's, the trainin' o$ (a8 en$or6e,ent o$$i6ers7A36B Mu6h o$ the o(d #o(i6e su##ort a##aratus 8as si,#() trans$erred to AI+9s Internationa( Nar6oti6s 4ontro( #ro'ra, >IN4?, 8hi6h rea(() s#e((ed +EA7 In 152= the +EA had so,e =>> a'ents in =atin A,eri6a, or rou'h() the nu,*er o$ ad5isors re6a((ed $ro, the &PS #ro'ra,7 IN49s *ud'et $or te6hni6a( eCui#,ent a*road, ,ean8hi(e, Fu,#ed $ro, H7.7 ,i((ion in 1526 to H17.: ,i((ion in 152=. 3he #o(iti6s o$ the ne8 dru' e$$ort 8ere ex#osed 8hen, in 152=, the ,an *ehind Ar'entina9s death sCuad >the Ar'entine Anti6o,,unist A((ian6e?, So6ia( Minister =o#eI 1e'a, a##eared on 3K 8ith :7S7 A,*assador 1o*ert 47 .i(( to #u*(i6iIe the t8o nations9 antinar6oti6s 6o((a*oration 8ith the 8ords: @Hueri((as are the ,ain users o$ dru's in Ar'entina7 3here$ore, the anti dru' 6a,#ai'n 8i(( auto,ati6a(() *e an anti 'ueri((a 6a,#ai'n as 8e((7VA31B It9s stri-in' ho8 6(ose the 5arious exter,ination and re#ression 6a,#ai'ns ha5e *een to the nar6oti6s tra$$i67 3he Meo Ar,) de#(o)ed *) the 4IA in =aos s,u''(ed (ar'e Cuantities o$ o#iu,7 =o#eI 1e'a and his Ar'entine AAA hen6h,en 8ere e5entua(() ex#osed as -e)s to a 6o6aine rin'7A38B &ne o$ the 6hie$ AAA hat6het ,en, 0ran6ois 4hia##e, 8as a (ieutenant in the 1i6ordJ+a5id heroin net8or-7A39B Para'ua)9s ,ost ruth(ess hi'h ran-in' o$$i6ers 8ere ex#osed as heroin #ro$iteers7 4hristian +a5id too#art in exter,ination 6a,#ai'ns in Ar'entina, BraIi(, and :ru'ua)7 &#era6ao Bandeirantes9 6hie$, Ser'io 0(eur), and se5era( o$ his 6o((ea'ues #o6-eted (ar'e #rote6tion #a)o$$s7A"0B 0(eur)9s nu,*er t8o ,an in the Sao Pau(o +eath SCuad, Ade,ar Au'usto, de &(i5eira, a(ias 0ininho, $(ed to Para'ua) a$ter he 8as 6har'ed 8ith ,urder7 3here, under the na,e Irineu7 Bruno da Si(5a, he 8or-ed $or the 1i6ord 'an'7A"1B 2hen +a5id9s su66essor, the BraIi(ian nar6oti6s dea(er Mi(ton 4on6a(5es 3hia'o, a(ias 4a*e6ao >3he Brain?, 8as arrested in 19/!, it 8as (earned that he had *een #a)in' o$$ the entire 1io de <aneiro +eath SCuad, 8hi6h in6(uded $our nar6oti6s #o(i6e (ieutenants 7"2 And $ina(() as 8e 'o to #ress 8e (earn that the di6tator, Pino6het, assu,ed 6ontro( o$ 4hi(e9s 6o6aine trade, then turned it o5er to his se6ret #o(i6e, +INA, 8hi6h shared the #ro$its 8ith its 4u*an exi(e hen6h,en7A"3B 3he #o(iti6a( 5io(en6e set in ,otion *) the 2hite .ouse nar6oti6s o$$i6es ran s,ooth()7 But 8hat o$ a6tua( dru' en$or6e,entG 0ro, its in6e#tion it $o6ussed on dis,ant(in' the 0ren6h nar6oti6s net8or-7

2hen that 8as done, A,eri6a 8ou(d *e $ree o$ the heroin #(a'ue, or so said Nixon and his sta$$7 1e#orts o$ in6reasin' a,ounts o$ heroin $ro, Southeast Asia and Mexi6o 8ere o*s6ured *) the 'reat #u*(i6 re(ations 6a,#ai'n on the stru''(e a'ainst the 4orsi6ans7 3he 3ur-e)J Marsei((esJ :7S7 heroin #i#e(ine 8as indeed shut do8n, and the 0ren6h 4orsi6an Ma$ia 8as a(,ost tota(() de6i,ated7 But ,aFor ne8 su##(iers in Southeast Asia and South A,eri6a 8ere (e$t untou6hed L des#ite 8arnin's and re#orts L and des#ite the ,an) 4IA @ex#erts@ on the =atin A,eri6an dru' s6ene7 Not on() 8ere ,ost ,aFor heroin su##(iers in the t8o re'ions (e$t a(one, the) 8ere #rote6ted7 And the) 8ere aided *) the arrest o$ s,a(( ti,e 6o,#etitors7 At ho,e the stor) 8as near() the sa,e7 &+A=E and +EA na**ed on() ,inor distri*utors and side8a(- #ushers7 ##s7 1!9 169 Notes 17 =7 =urie: The $mpeachment of *ichard (i.on >Ber-e(e), 19/3?7 27 <7A7 =u-as: (ightmare >Ki-in', 19/6?7 37 It is interestin' to s#e6u(ate 8hether E((s*er'9s -no8(ed'e o$ to# se6ret o#erations in Kietna, tou6hed on nar6oti6s7 .is su#er5isors in Southeast Asia had *een Henera( =ansda(e and =ieutenant 4o(one( 4onein7 E((s*er' and 4onein 8ere a##arent() Cuite 6(ose in Kietna,7 4onein re#orted() sa5ed E((s*er'9s (i$e 8hen the (atter 'ot ro,anti6a(() in5o(5ed 8ith the ,istress o$ an 4orsi6an Ma$ia 6a#o7 3he 'an'ster threatened to -i(( E((s*er'7 4onein, in turn, to(d the 'an'ster it 8ou(d (ead to his o8n $unera( and 8ar *et8een the 4IA and the 4orsi6ans see <7 .ou'an: Spoo!s >2i((ia, Morro8, 19/8?7 "7 See 6ha#ter $i$teen7 !719// 4BS inter5ie8 o$ Bernard Bar-er% see a(so H7 4ri(e III in the Washington 'ost, 13 <une 19/67 67 <7 Marsha((: @3he 2hite .ouse +eath SCuad,@ $nFuiry, : Mar6h 19/97 /7 E7<7 E#stein: Agency of 8ear >Putna,, 19//?7 4. $"id. 97 $"id. 107 +7 2ise and 37B7 1oss: The $nvisi"le Bovernment >1ando, .ouse, 196"?7 117 S7 B(u,entha(: @.o8 the 0BI 3ried to +estro) the B(a6- Panthers,@ in Bovernment "y Bunplay, S. B(u,entha( and .7 DaIiFian, eds7 >Ne8 A,eri6an =i*rar), 19/6?7 127 .7 Messi6-: &$ Brass and Snow >Prenti6e .a((, 19/9?7 137 A 19/1 Ne8 Dor- in5esti'ation re5ea(ed that "/ #er6ent o$ the 6it)9s 300,000 addi6ts 8ere B(a6-, 2/ #er6ent .is#ani6 and on() 1: #er6ent 2hite see 47 =a,our and M717 =a,*erti: es Brandes &aneuvres de l'>pium >Editions du Seui(, 19/2?% i7e7, there 8ere so,e 1!0,000 B(a6- addi6ts in Ne8 Dor- 4it) a(one7 Sti((, Nixon na,ed as dire6tor o$ &NNI, 2i((ia, 47 Su((i5an7 3he ,an 8ho had

#(anned and exe6uted &#eration 4ointe(#ro 8ou(d no8 *att(e the $or6es do#in' the #otentia(() trou*(eso,e e(e,ents o$ the Hhetto7 Ironi6a((), Ma(6o(, Q and the Panthers, #ri,e 4ointe(#ro tar'ets, had *een the on() ones to ,a-e si'ni$i6ant head8a) a'ainst 'hetto dru' addi6tion7 1"7 37 Me(da( <ohnsen and K7 Doun': The $nterpol #onnection >+ia(, 19/9?7 1!7 E#stein, o#7 cit. 167 M7 4o#e(and: ?eyond #loa! and %agger >Pinna6(e Boo-s, 19/"?7 1/7 .7 ;ohn: @Stran'e Bed$e((o8s,@ *olling Stone, 20 Ma) 19/67 14. True, Au'ust 19/"7 197 In his *oo- #ygne >Hrasset, 19/6?, inte((i'en6e a'ent =uis HonIa(es Mata des6ri*es *ein' assi'ned a s#e6ia( tas- *) 4IA a'ent @1o*ert Ber'7@ .e 8as to 6on5in6e the Para'ua)an di6tator Stroessner that 1i6ord 8as *ehind a #(anned 6ou# atte,#t a'ainst hi, $inan6ed 8ith heroin $ro, 1ed 4hina7 Stroessner 8as in a *ind, sin6e he 5er) 8e(( -ne8 that the sour6e o$ the heroin 8as not 1ed 4hina *ut his *oso, *uddies in 3ai8an7 207 47 Bernstein and B7 2ood8ard: All the 'resident's &en >2arner Boo-s, 19/!?7 217 P7+7 S6ott: @0ro, +a((as to 2ater'ate,@ *amparts, No5e,*er 19/37 227 :7S7 <usti6e +e#art,ent +e0eo 1e#ort, 19/!% the (ist o$ +EA a*uses has re6ent() *een ex#anded to in6(ude a 6o,#uteriIed in$or,ation s)ste, 6o5erin' !/0,000 na,es >a nu,*er 8hi6h ,a) *e 6o,#ared 8ith the 8000 $edera( dru' arrests ea6h )ear? see E7 1asen: @.i'h 3e6h 0as6is,,@ 'enthouse, Mar6h 19807 237 .ou'an, o#7 cit. 2"7 $"id. 2!7 4ri(e, op. cit. 267 Another &SS 4hina hand, 4(ar- M6Hre'or, re#(a6ed <ohn Mit6he(( as the head o$ 41EEP7 2/7 4ri(e, o#7 cit. 287 37 +un-in: @3he Hreat Pot P(ot,@ Soldier of 8ortune, Vol. 2, No7 1, 19//% =7.7 2hitte,ore: 'eroff >Ba((antine, 19/!?7 297 .ou'an, o#7 cit. 307 4ri(e, o#7 cit. 317 4u*an exi(es too- #art in an exter,ination 6a,#ai'n in Huate,a(a *et8een 1968 and 19/17 A66ordin' to A,nest) Internationa(, 30,000 #eo#(e 8ere ,urdered there *et8een 1962 and 19/1, ,ost o$ the, in the (ast three )ears7 Si,i(ar(), anti 4astro 4u*ans had their hand in the Ar'entine AAA9s ,urder 6a,#ai'n *e(ie5ed to ha5e 6(ai,ed 10,000 (i5es7 In BraIi( the Sao Pau(o +eath SCuad a(one is

esti,ated to ha5e assassinated 2000 *et8een 1968 and 19/2, 8hi(e ,an) others #erished in the torture 6ha,*ers7 327 S!eptic, <anuar)J 0e*ruar) 19//7 337 A7<7 =an''uth: ,idden Terrors >Pantheon, 19/8?7 3"7 $"id. 3!7 Ballery, Ma) 19/87 367 +un-in, o#7 cit. A,on' other antiterroris, trainees at 2erBe((9s 6a,# in Po8der S#rin's ha5e *een se5era( ,e,*ers o$ :7S7 #residentia( 6andidate =)ndon =arou6he9s :7S7 =a*or Part)7 3he Marxist turned extre,e ri'htist and anti Se,iti6 :7S7 =a*or Part) has 5o(untari() sent the 0BI and (o6a( #o(i6e $or6es @inte((i'en6e@ re#orts on (e$t 8in' ,o5e,ents, and re'u(ar() ex6han'es in$or,ation 8ith one 1o) 0ran-houser, the se($ #ro6(ai,ed Hrand +ra'on o$ the ;u ;(ux ;(an in Penns)(5ania and a6ti5e ,e,*er o$ the A,eri6an NaIi Part) L see the (ew )or! Times, / &6to*er 19/97 3/7 P7=ernoux: @4orru#tin' 4o(o,*ia,@ $nFuiry, 30 Se#te,*er 19/97 In <u() 19/8, +EA 6hie$ Peter Bensin'er stron'() re6o,,ended that 4o(o,*ian authorities ,i(itariIe the HuaFira Peninsu(a, ho,e o$ the ,ariFuanaJ6o6aine tra$$i67 38o ,onths (ater, ne8() e(e6ted >and 6urrent? President <u(io 4esar 3ur*a) issued a se6urit) statute e,#o8erin' the ,i(itar) to arrest an) 4o(o,*ian dee,ed su*5ersi5e, 8ithout re6ourse to ha"eas corpus or other 6onstitutiona( 'uarantees7 In A#ri( 1980, the 4o(o,*ian Ar,) 8as a*out to a*andon its :7S7 $inan6ed ,u(ti ,i((ion do((ar dru' 8ar, its $ai(ure 6onne6ted, no dou*t, to an esti,ated E110 ,i((ion in #rote6tion ,one) distri*uted annua(() *) the s,u''(ers @(ew )or! Times, 3 A#ri( 1980?7 Mean8hi(e, the ,i(itar) has assu,ed the do,inant #osition in 8hat 8as one o$ =atin A,eri6a9s $e8 re,ainin' de,o6ra6ies7 :7S7 ,i(itar) aid to 4o(o,*ia L 8here, a66ordin' to A,nest) Internationa(9s A#ri( 1980 re#ort, ,i(itar) #ersonne( torture #o(iti6a( #risoners in thirt) three (o6ations throu'hout the 6ountr), resortin' to $i$t) identi$ia*(e te6hniCues tota((ed E1!! ,i((ion *et8een 19"6 and 19/!% 6200 4o(o,*ian ,i(itar) #ersonne( 8ere trained *) the :7S7 in the sa,e #eriod >N7 4ho,s-) and E7S7 .er,an: The Washington #onnection and Third World 8ascism, South End Press, 19/9?7 :7S7 ,i(itar) aid $or 19/9 8as E127/ ,i((ion, the hi'hest a,ount in =atin A,eri6a7 387 atin America, 19 +e6e,*er 19/!7 397 'Aurore, 31 Ma) 19/6% i"eration, 19 <u() 19/67 "07 e (ouvel 0"servateur, 21 Ma) 19/3% A7 =o#eI: 'Escadron de la &ort >4aster,an, 19/3?% .7 Bi6udo: &eu %epoimento so"re o EsFuadrao da &orte >19/6?7 "17 e (ouvel 0"servateur, 21 Ma) 19/37 "27 %iario, de (oticias, / Ma) 19/!7 "37 See the $ore8ord, $ootnote !27



In ear() 19/3 the +e#art,ent o$ .ea(th, Edu6ation and 2e($are esti,ated the nu,*er o$ :7S7 heroin addi6ts at 600,0007 B) the end o$ that )ear, +r7 1o*ert E'e*Fer', dire6tor o$ the A(6oho(, +ru' A*use and .ea(th Ad,inistration, #(a6ed the nu,*er at 300,0007 And in <une 19/" +EA internationa(

o#erations 6hie$ <ohn 37 4usa6-, testi$)in' *e$ore the .ouse 4o,,ittee on Internationa( Nar6oti6s 4ontro(, said that the addi6t #o#u(ation 8as do8n to 200,0007A1B 3his 'iant 6o5er u# hid the $a6t that Nixon9s heroin 8ar 8as no ,ore than 8indo8 dressin'7 &n / &6to*er 19/", six 8ee-s a$ter Nixon9s resi'nation, the head o$ the 2hite .ouse S#e6ia( A6tion &$$i6e on +ru' A*use Pre5ention, +r7 1o*ert +u#ont, 8as #ressured to re(ease a se6ret re#ort that the nu,*er o$ addi6ts had in $a6t risen, rea6hin' e5en into $or,er() untou6hed ,idd(e 6(ass su*ur*s7A2B &n 2/ A#ri( 19/6 President Hera(d 0ord said in a ,essa'e to 4on'ress: @B) ,id 19/3 ,an) 8ere 6on5in6ed that 8e had turned the 6orner on the dru' #ro*(e,7 :n$ortunate(), 8hi(e 8e had 8on an i,#ortant 5i6tor), 8e had not 8on the 8ar on dru's7 B) 19/! it 8as 6(ear that dru' use 8as in6reasin', that the 'ains o$ #rior )ears 8ere *ein' (ost, that in hu,an ter,s nar6oti6s had *e6a,e a nationa( tra'ed)7 3oda), dru' a*use 6onstitutes a 6(ear and #resent dan'er to the hea(th and the $uture o$ our Nation7@ In 0e*ruar) 19// the .ouse Se(e6t 4o,,ittee on Nar6oti6s A*use and 4ontro( re#orted that the addi6t #o#u(ation tota((ed so,e 800,0007 And in 19/8 Ne8 Dor- 4it)9s s#e6ia( nar6oti6s #rose6utor, Ster(in' <ohnson, s#o-e o$ a heroin e#ide,i6 8orse than that o$ the (ate sixties and ear() se5enties7A3B But the 6o5er u# hadn9t sto##ed in 19/"7 0ro, 19/! unti( the end o$ 19/8 the +EA 6onsistent() ,aintained that *et8een 80 and 90 #er6ent o$ the heroin 6onsu,ed in the :7S7 8as Mexi6an7 .o8e5er, the 6(ai, doesn9t stand u# a'ainst the $o((o8in' $a6ts: 1? 80 #er6ent o$ the 8or(d9s heroin exa6t() the $i'ure ex#orted $ro, Marsei((es unti( 19/2 8as, at (east unti( (ate 19/6, #rodu6ed $ro, o#iu, har5ested in the Ho(den 3rian'(e and distri*uted 5ia Ban'-o-, Sin'a#ore, and .on' ;on'%A"B 2? the nu,*er o$ arrests o$ 6ouriers en route $ro, Southeast Asia in6reased steadi() a$ter 19/3%A!B 3? re#orts $ro, Ne8 Dor- and other *i' 6ities testi$ied to the arri5a( o$ (ar'e shi#,ents o$ 8hite heroin $ro, Southeast Asia% "? the ,ar-et9s su##() o$ heroin did not d8ind(e des#ite aeria( destru6tion o$ an esti,ated 60 #er6ent o$ Mexi6o9s #o##) $ie(ds in ear() 19/6%A6B !? an e$$e6ti5e tida( 8a5e o$ Ho(den 3rian'(e heroin *e'an $(oodin' Euro#e in 19/3, 8hi(e ,an) 6ouriers en route to the :7S7 and 4anada 8ere na**ed *) Euro#ean #o(i6e% 6? the +EA 8as a8are o$ Santo 3ra$$i6ante9s dea(in's in Southeast Asia, as 8e(( as the (ater Ma$ia su,,it in Pa(er,o 8here (ar'e su,s o$ ,one) 8ere set aside $or in5est,ent in the Ho(den 3rian'(e% /? it 8as eas) to 5eri$) the nar6oti6s $(o8 $ro, Mexi6o, sin6e the *order 8as su*Fe6t to 6(ose sur5ei((an6e, *ut to 6on6(ude that ,ost o$ the heroin on the :7S7 ,ar-et ori'inated in Mexi6o 8as a stret6h o$ (o'i67 E5en the +EA had to ad,it the tenuousness o$ its 6(ai,s7 &n 2" 0e*ruar) 19/6, the +EA9s <ohn 4usa6- ad,itted that his a'en6)9s esti,ate that on() 8 #er6ent o$ :7S7 heroin 6a,e $ro, Southeast Asia 8as sur#risin', 6onsiderin' the re'ion9s #ro(i$i6 o#iu, #rodu6tion7 .e added: @2e are a(so 6on6erned a*out our dete6tion durin' 19/! o$ su*stantia( Cuantities o$ 8hite no7 " heroin ,o5in' dire6t() $ro, Ban'-o- to the :nited States7 In +e6e,*er, $or exa,#(e, $ort) six -i(o'ra,s o$ heroin 8ere seiIed in Ban'-o-, 6on6ea(ed in the househo(d e$$e6ts shi#,ent o$ a returnin' :7S7 ser5i6e,an7 0o((o8 u# in5esti'ation in the de5e(o#,ent o$ an extensi5e 6ons#ira6) #rose6ution has identi$ied t8e(5e additiona( shi#,ents enterin' the :nited States sin6e 19/"7@ 38e(5e su6h shi#,ents ,eant !!2 -i(os, or ,ore than the entire "/0 -i(os 6on$is6ated in the :7S7 in 19/! and $ro, on() one o$ ,an) Southeast Asian s,u''(in' net8or-s7 4usa6- 8ent e5en $urther: @It a##ears a(,ost 6ertain that the *u(- o$ the 8hite heroin $ound durin' 19/! in the inner 6it) areas o$ our eastern 6ities has *een Asian no7 " s,u''(ed $ro, Ban'-o-7@A/B

2h) then did the +EA 6ontinue to o5erstate Mexi6o9s ro(e and ,ini,iIe Southeast Asia e5en a$ter the #u*(i6ation, in 19/2, o$ A($red M64o)9s The 'olitics of ,eroin in Southeast AsiaI Perha#s to Fusti$) the 'reat ex#enditure in su##ort o$ ri'ht 8in' ,i(itar) and #o(i6e $or6es in =atin A,eri6a7 >3he (ater *oo, in 4o(o,*ian 6o6aine 8ou(d a(so #ro5ide Fusti$i6ation7? Southeast Asia 8as do8n#(a)ed so as not to Feo#ardiIe re(ations 8ith A,eri6a9s (o)a(, i$ 6orru#t, a((ies L ,ost o$ a(( 3hai(and, 3ai8an, and the (atter9s o5erseas a'ents7 3he) 8ere a((o8ed to #ro$it $ro, o#iu, and heroin in re(ati5e #ea6e7 Another reason: the +EA 6ou(d not ex#ose the Southeast Asia 6onne6tion 8ithout 6o,#ro,isin' the 4IA7 A se6ret 19// .ouse Ho5ern,ent &#erations su*6o,,ittee re#ort a66used the 4IA o$ he(#in' an Asian o#iu, rin' s,u''(e dru's into the :nited States and then ()in' a*out it to 4on'ress7 Putta#orn ;hra,-hruan, a 3hai nationa(, 8as arrested in 19/3 $or s,u''(in' $i$t) nine #ounds o$ #ure o#iu, into the :7S7 5ia <0; air#ort7 4itin' nationa( se6urit) interests, the a'en6) had the 6ase sCue(6hed, and ;hra,-hruan 8as sent *a6- ho,e7 .o8e5er, the .ouse su*6o,,ittee e5entua(() esta*(ished that he 8as a 4IA o#erati5e in 3hai(and7A8B In $a6t, he 8as on the #a)ro(( o$ a 4IA #ro#rietar) usin' the A'en6) $or Internationa( +e5e(o#,ent >AI+? as a 6o5er $or trainin' the 6orru#t 3hai *order #o(i6e7A9B 0urther,ore, ;hra,-hruan to(d a +EA in5esti'ator that he had *een an o$$i6er in the ;M3 ar,) and 'uarded o#iu, ,u(e 6ara5ans7 .is 4IA 6onta6t 8as the :7S7 6onsu( in 4hian' Mai, 3hai(and7A10B In its re#ort, the .ouse 4o,,ittee stated: @It 8as ironi6 that the 4IA shou(d *e 'i5en the res#onsi*i(it) o$ nar6oti6s inte((i'en6e, #arti6u(ar() sin6e the) are su##ortin' the #ri,e ,o5ers7@A11B In Mar6h 19// the +EA *e'an to s#ea- o$ @,aFor ,aneu5ers in the internationa( Asian nar6oti6s ,ar-et $or a share o$ the :7S7 dru' s6ene@ and o$ a @6oa(ition *et8een the :7S7 Ma$ia, the 4orsi6ans and the 4hiu 4hao 4hinese 3riad7@A12B 3he 6oa(ition had, in rea(it), existed at (east sin6e 19/0 and #erha#s as ear() as 3ra$$i6ante9s 1968 Fourne) to the East and it had $un6tioned e$$e6ti5e(), shi##in' (ar'e a,ounts o$ heroin to the :7S7, sin6e 19/2 /37 3he di$$eren6e 8as that the 4orsi6an ar, o$ the 6oa(ition, their o8n u,*re((a oArB'aniIation ha5in' *een s,ashed, 8as no8 essentia(() redu6ed to so,e 100 ,en 8or-in' 8ith the :7S7 Ma$ia and the 4hinese, ,ost o$ the, as 6he,ists in 3hai(and9s ,o*i(e heroin (a*s7A13B 2ho has 6ontro((ed the Ho(den 3rian'(e o#iu, tra$$i6 and heroin #rodu6tion sin6e the esta*(ish,ent o$ the Ma$ia 4hinese 6oa(ition L *esides the 4IA, that isG 3he ans8er is the ;uo,intan' >;M3? 4hinese and o5erseas 4hiu 4hao s)ndi6ate ,en su6h as 4han' 4hi$u, =o .sin' han, 3sai 4hien 4hen' and o(der, ,ore $a,i(iar $i'ures (i-e Henera( =iMi7A1"B Sti(( head o$ 8hat9s (e$t o$ the ;M3 $or6es, Henera( =i resides in (uxur) outside 4hian' Mai and re6ei5ed o$$i6ia( 5isits there $ro, the :nited States as re6ent() as (ate 19/67A1!B In 19/6 // a ,inor 8ar 8as a*out to eru#t o5er the 6ontro( o$ the re'ion9s o#iu, tra$$i6 and ,o*i(e re$ineries7 Potentia( 6o,*atants 8ere 4hu 4hi $u9s :nited Shan Ar,) >o$ re*e(s a'ainst the Bur,ese re'i,e? and ;M3 $or6es under Henera( =i7 .o8e5er, the o##osin' (eaders 8ere *rou'ht to'ether *) a senior 3hai o$$i6er and an a'ree,ent 8as rea6hed on the ,ar-etin' o$ dru's and su##() o$ ar,s to $i'ht 4o,,unist $or6es in Bur,a9s Shan states7A16B A'ain 8e see the 6onne6tion *et8een nar6oti6s and anti 4o,,unist #ara,i(itar) o#erations a(*eit 4hu 4hi $u (ater #u((ed out o$ the a'ree,ent, 8as arrested in 3hai(and, and e5entua(() extradited to Bur,a7 3he +EA9s Ho(den 3rian'(e unit, SN&, ,ade ,an) 8ho(e and ha($ hearted atte,#ts to eradi6ate the nar6oti6s #(a'ue7 A(( $ai(ed7 Produ6tion has *een 'reat, the 8or(d9s heroin ,ar-et ha5in' ,u(ti#(ied in the se5enties7 SN& 8on9t sa) outri'ht that the 4IA is under,inin' the,, nor that #o(iti6s under(ies their 6onstant $ai(ures7 A SN& a'ent, ne5erthe(ess, 6a,e 6(ose to doin' so in this 19/6 state,ent to A($red M64o):

@I$ the) 8ere se((in' shares in Ho(den 3rian'(e .eroin, In67 in $i5e, ten and t8ent) )ear *onds, I 8ou(d #ut ,) ,one) on a t8ent) )ear *ond7 3he on() thin' that 8ou(d end the 8ho(e Ho(den 3rian'(e *usiness 8ou(d *e a 6o,,unist ta-eo5er in 3hai(and7 I$ that ha##ened, Id se(( ,) sto6-7@A1/B Southeast Asia 8as initia(() the so(e su##(ier to the ra#id() 'ro8in' Euro#ean ,ar-et7 :nti( 19/2 heroin a*use 8as essentia(() an A,eri6an #ro*(e,7 But sin6e the heroin shi$t $ro, Marsei((es to Southeast Asia, the Euro#ean ha*it has ra#id() 8orsened7 In 19/2 ten -i(os o$ Ho(den 3rian'(e @*ro8n su'ar@ 8ere 6on$is6ated in Euro#e7 B) 19/! the $i'ure 8as u# to 22/ -i(os7 3he 6ountr) hardest hit has *een 2est Her,an), 8here the (ar'e :7S7 troo# 6on6entration ser5es as a ,a'net $or heroin, 8here it is esti,ated that so,e 60 80,000 Her,ans use hard dru's, and 8here there 8ere o5er !00 hard dru're(ated deaths in 19/97 In the su,,er o$ 19//, 8e ,i'ht note, the ad,inistration o$ <i,,) 4arter reFe6ted a #ro#osa( *) a 6onsortiu, o$ re*e( ar,) (eaders in northern Bur,a that the :7S7 s#end E36 ,i((ion o5er a six)ear #eriod to #ur6hase and destro) the Southeast Asia o#iu, 6ro#7A18B A,on' the o$$i6ia( ex#(anations 8as the a((e'ed #o(i6) o$ the :nited States to dea( on() 8ith re6o'niIed (o6a( 'o5ern,ents L a #o(i6) 8hi6h in its ti,e had $ound a nu,*er o$ ex6e#tions, (i-e the o5erseas ;uo,intan' 4hinese7A19B ##s7 1/1 1/6
Notes 17 17 0ran- and H7 1i6hardson: @E#ide,i6,@ 'enthouse, Se#te,*er 19//7 27 $"id. In (i'ht o$ re6ent )ears9 re5e(ations o$ 4IA ,ind 6ontro( ex#eri,entation 8ith =S+, it9s 8orth notin' the enor,ous s#read o$ the ha((u6ino'en in 19/1 /27 Behind it 8as the 6o5er or'aniIation, Brotherhood o$ =o5e, 8hose *a6-ers, (i-e Hu($ &i( heir 2i((ia, Me((on .it6h6o6-, ex#(oited and ,ani#u(ated se($ st)(ed =S+ #ro#hets (i-e 3i,oth) =ear)7 3he Brotherhood 8as dire6t() 6onne6ted to the 1o*ert Kes6o 6ontro((ed 0idu6iar) 3rust 4o,#an) o$ the Baha,as7 =S+ #ro6eeds 8ere (aundered throu'h the usua( S)ndi6ate *an-s in Hene5a7 See %er Spiegel, No7 39, 19/"7 37 B7 .er*ert: @3he 0(eet8ood ;ids,@ 'enthouse, Au'ust 19/87 "7 A7 M64o): @3he Ne8 Po(iti6s o$ .eroin in Southeast Asia,@ &ui, +e6e,*er 19/67 !7 07 1o*ertson: Triangle of %eath >1out(ed'e and ;ea'an Pau(, 19//?7 67 'oliti!en, 2/ Mar6h 19/67 /7 %rug Enforcement, S#rin' 19/67 87 <7 Anderson and =7 2hitten, ?oston Blo"e, 3 &6to*er 19//7 97 <7 .ou'an: Spoo!s >2i((ia, Morro8, 19/8?7 107 <7 Bur'ess: @3he 3hai(and 4onne6tion,@ #ounterspy, Vol. 7, No7 ", 19/67 117 Anderson and 2hitten, o#7 cit. 127 San 8rancisco E.aminer, 9 +e6e,*er 19//% 1o*ertson, o#7 cit. 137 1o*ertson, o#7 cit.

1"7 =o .sin' han and his su##orters at one ti,e aided the Bur,ese 'o5ern,ent in its $i'ht a'ainst 4o,,unist insur'ents in north8est Bur,a7 .o8e5er, 8hen the 'o5ern,ent as-ed hi, to dis*and his or'aniIation in 19/3, =o .sin' han re$used and si'ned a #a6t 8ith the re*e(s7 3he Bur,ese ar,) e5entua(() #ushed hi, and his ar,) into 3hai(and 8here he 8as arrested and extradited *a6- to Bur,a7 In the $a(( o$ 19// he (ost his $ina( a##ea( to Bur,a9s hi'hest 6ourt to Cuash a death #ena(t) $or treason7 @(ew )or! Times, / No5e,*er 19//?7 1!7 M64o), o#7 cit. 1;. 8ar Eastern Economic *eview, 1! A#ri( 19//7 1/7 M64o), o#7 6it7 14. (ew )or! Times, 16 Euly 1522. 197 A66ordin' to ,igh Times ,a'aIine >A#ri( 154>/, the Shan States re*e(s ha5e (on' *een su*sidiIed *) 3ai8an inte((i'en6e7 Moreo5er, the arti6(e 'oes on, inte((i'en6e sour6es in Bur,a ha5e su''ested that the +EA, in an a*out$a6e atte,#t to 8e(d to'ether a (o6a( $or6e a'ainst ri'ht 8in' o#iu, ar,ies, has a##roa6hed Bur,ese 4o,,unist 'ueri((as L 8ho, ha5in' *een a*andoned *) the 6urrent, (ess re5o(ution ,inded Pe-in' re'i,e, had the,se(5es ta-en ste#s to8ard ,o5in' in on the o#iu, trade7 OOOOO


3he exa''eration o$ Mexi6o9s and the do8n#(a)in' o$ Southeast Asia9s ro(es as su##(iers o$ heroin to the :nited States does not ,ean that Mexi6o 8as uni,#ortant7 But the +E A and the :7S7 #ress 6o,#ound the distortion *) 6onstant() assertin' that the #rodu6tion and s,u''(in' o$ heroin in Mexi6o is stri6t() a Mexi6an *usiness7 No :7S7 Ma$ia is su##osed() in5o(5ed, other than 6usto,ers on the other side o$ the *order7 .eroin shi#,ents are a((e'ed() 6ontro((ed *) se5en (ar'e Mexi6an $a,i(ies: the .erreras, the Ma6ia6es, the 1o,eros, the 0a5e(as, the Si6i(ia 0a(6ons, the Ka(enIue(as, and the A5i(es Nuinteros7 A1B =et9s ta-e a (oo- at one o$ the,7 A(*erto Si6i(ia 0a(6on, (eader o$ the Si6i(ia 0a(6ons, is not a Mexi6an at a((% he 8as *orn in MatanIas, 4u*a7 .e and his $a,i() (e$t the is(and i,,ediate() a$ter 4astro9s ta-eo5er to *e6o,e #art o$ Mia,i9s 4u*an exi(e ,i(ieu7 A$ter the Ba) o$ Pi's in5asion he 8as trained *) the 4IA at 0ort <a6-son $or &#eration "07A2B 0ro, there his trai( is $aint $or se5era( )ears7 .o8e5er, a66ordin' to Mexi6an #o(i6e, he 8as in 4hi(e he(#in' the 4IA to under,ine the 'o5ern,ent o$ Sa(5adore A((ende7 In ,id 19/3 he turned u# in Mexi6o, 8here in re6ord ti,e he esta*(ished a 'i'anti6 heroin and ,ariFuana rin'7 A66ordin' to +EA dire6tor Peter Bensin'er, in 19/! the rin' nu,*ered ,ore than 1600, in6(udin' $i(, stars and internationa( *usiness,en7 Si6i(ia 0a(6on hi,se($ resided in 5i((as in 3iFuana and San +ie'o7 .eroin 8as trans#orted to San +ie'o $ro, a 8arehouse in 4u(ia6an, ,ariFuana $ro, a #ro6essin' #(ant in Mexi6a(i to a :7S7 distri*ution 6enter in 4oronado ;a)s7 In (ate 19/3 one o$ Si6i(ia 0a(6on9s tru6-ers 8as sto##ed on his 8a) *a6- to Mexi6o7 3he tru6- 8as (oaded 8ith ar,s *ound $or Ni6ara'ua7 A66ordin' to a (ater re#ort o$ the Bureau o$ A(6oho(, 3o*a66o and 0irear,s, one i((e'a( 8ea#ons dea(er in Bro8ns5i((e, 3exas a(one su##(ied Si6i(ia 0a(6on 8ith 12 ,i((ion rounds o$ a,,unition in 19/"7 3he 'uns $or dru's tra$$i6 #ro6eeded unhindered unti( ear() 19/!, 8hen the 'o5ern,ent o$ then President =uis E6he5erria dis6o5ered that Si6i(ia 0a(6on9s 8ea#ons shi#,ents 8ent to 'rou#s in

Mexi6o7 @Externa( $or6es are atte,#tin' to desta*i(iIe our 6ountr),@ said E6he5erria in a 19/! s#ee6h, in o*5ious re$eren6e to his nei'h*or to the north7 3hen the Mexi6ans *e'an an intense sur5ei((an6e o$ Si6i(ia0a(6on, 8ho, the) (earned, o$ten ,et and 6on5ersed *) te(e#hone 8ith a ,)ster) ,an in Huerna5a6a, so,e ninet) -i(o,eters south o$ Mexi6o 4it)7 2hen a (e,onade *ott(e *earin' the ,an9s $in'er#rints 8as sent to the 0BI, the *ureau in$or,ed Mexi6an authorities that the ,an 8as Sa, Hian6ana, the 4hi6a'o Ma$ia 6a#o, heroin tra$$i6-er, and 4IA 6o((a*orator7 3he Mexi6ans a'reed to a 0ren6h extradition reCuest $or Hian6ana, *ut 8hen his Paris *ound #(ane sto##ed o5er in .ouston, Hian6ana 8as 8his-ed a8a) *) :7S7 a'ents7 Soon therea$ter he 8as $ound ,urdered in his 4hi6a'o ,ansion7 Mexi6an interior ,inistr) o$$i6ia(s 6(ai,ed the 4IA had done a(( it 6ou(d to #re5ent the ,o*ster9s extradition7 &n 2 <u() 19/! Si6i(ia 0a(6on 8as arrested7 :nder rou'h interro'ation he 6(ai,ed to *e an a'ent o$ the 4IA, and that his dru' rin' had *een set u# on orders $ro, and 8ith the su##ort o$ the a'en6)7 Part o$ his #ro$its 8ere to 'o to8ards the #ur6hase o$ 8ea#ons and a,,unition $or distri*ution throu'hout 4entra( A,eri6a $or the desta*i(iIation o$ @undesira*(e@ 'o5ern,ents7 I$ true, :7S7 heroin addi6ts 8ere a'ain $ootin' the *i(( $or 6(andestine #ara,i(itar) o#erations and anti4o,,unist terror 6a,#ai'ns7 And Si6i(ia 0a(6on and his S)ndi6ate asso6iates 8ere not short o$ $unds7 In his #ossession #o(i6e $ound t8o S8iss *an- *oo-s to the tune o$ E260 ,i((ion7 Sti((, the stran'e testi,on) o$ A(*erto Si6i(ia 0a(6on did not end 8ith his 6on$ession7 .is $a,i()9s heroin and ar,s shi#,ents 6ontinued and, on 26 A#ri( 19/6, he and three o$ his (ieutenants es6a#ed $ro, =e6u,*erri #rison throu'h an e(e6tri6a(() (it, 100 )ard (on' tunne( du' $ro, outside7 3he) 8ere re6a#tured three da)s (ater, at 8hi6h ti,e Si6i(ia 0a(6on, $earin' $or his (i$e at the hands o$ the 4IA, reCuested trans$er to another #rison and additiona( se6urit)7A3B E6he5erria and Si6i(ia 0a(6on ea6h 8ere ri'ht a*out the desta*i(iIation #ro'ra,7 0BI do6u,ents re(eased (ater dis6(osed that *et8een 19/0 and 19/6 the 0BI ser5ed as a se6ret (in- *et8een the :7S7 e,*ass) in Mexi6o 4it) and the :7S7 Border Patro( in 4a(i$ornia and 3exas, @in order to he(# desta*i(iIe@ the 'o5ern,ent o$ President E6he5erria7 <7 Ed'ar .oo5er had *e(ie5ed that E6he5erria had surrounded hi,se($ 8ith @o(d 4o,,unists and 4o,,unist Part) s),#athiIers7A"B A ,e,o $ro, .oo5er to the :7S7 (e'a( atta6he #raises @the detonation o$ strate'i6 and e$$e6ti5e *o,*s in Mexi6o 4it)@ and @the 8a5e o$ ni'ht ,a6hine 'unnin's to di5ide su*5ersi5e (eaders7@A!B Besides E6he5erria9s #ro'ressi5e attitude, another reason $or :7S7 hosti(it) to8ards his 'o5ern,ent 8as the Mexi6an #resident9s re$usa( to a##ro5e 2or(d Ban- and Internationa( Monetar) 0und #(ans $or the ex#(oitation o$ Mexi6o9s ne8() dis6o5ered oi( reser5es7 3he $irst order o$ *usiness o$ his su66essor <ose =o#eI Porti((o in 19/6 8as a##ro5a( o$ the sa,e #(ans7 And the ne8s#a#er E( So( de &e.ico 8rote short() a$ter the (atter9s inau'uration that )ear: @3he ne8 'o5ern,ent is not interested in #u*(i6it) re'ardin' the Si6i(ia 0a(6on 6ase7 It 8i(( Cuiet() extradite hi, to the :7S7 as soon as the ne8 extradition a'ree,ent *et8een the t8o 6ountries 6o,es into e$$e6t7@ In the Si6i(ia 0a(6on 6ase the +EA and 4IA stru''(ed *itter() a'ainst one another7 It 8as s),#to,ati6 o$ a s#(it 8ithin the +EA9s o8n ran-s, a s#(it rooted in the e$$e6ti5e 6ontro( o$ its nar6oti6s inte((i'en6e di5ision *) trans#(anted a'ents o$ the 4IA7 Sin6e the +EA9s e,er'en6e ,an) o$ its a'ents ha5e resi'ned in dis'ust 8ith its modus operandi. =on' standin' 6on$(i6ts *et8een the 4IA and BN++ and *et8een the BN++ and 4usto,s did not e5a#orate 8hen a(( the nar6oti6s a'ents 8ere #oo(ed in the +EA7 Moreo5er, the 4IA see,s sti(( to *e 'uided *) #o(iti6a( interests in6o,#ati*(e 8ith dru' en$or6e,ent7

A 19/! Nar6oti6s 4ontro( A6tion P(an $or Mexi6o, dra$ted *) the +EA, 4IA and State +e#art,ent, o#ened the 8a) $or ne8 a##ro#riations $or $i'htin' nar6oti6s in Mexi6o throu'h IN47 3hirt) he(i6o#ters as 8e(( as other air6ra$t and 6o,#uter ter,ina(s 8ere *rou'ht in, and extensi5e trainin' #ro'ra,s 8ere initiated7 3he notorious &#eration 4ondor *e'an in <anuar) 19/6 8ith an ar,) o$ +EA trained Mexi6an nar6oti6s a'ents and their :7S7 su#er5isors, ,o*i(iIed to $i'ht the dru' tra$$i6 in the 6ountr)side7 1e#orts o$ the o#eration re5ea( that :7S7 tax#a)ers9 ,one) has in $a6t *een used $or #o(iti6a( exter,ination% that +EA he(i6o#ters are used *) #ri5ate (ando8ners to atta6- #easant re5o(utionaries 8ith ro6-ets, s,a(( ar,s $ire and na#a(,%A6B that (ar'e 'rou#s o$ $ar,ers and inde#endent nar6oti6s dea(ers ha5e *een ,urdered or tortured 8hi(e the ,aFor nar6oti6s $a,i(ies ha5e *een #rote6ted7A/B .ouse su*6o,,ittee in5esti'ators 8ent to Mexi6o in 19/! to deter,ine ho8 or'aniIed interna( 6orru#tion and #a)o$$ rin's 8ithin the +EA had ,ade #ossi*(e the ,ono#o() o$ Mexi6an heroin *) a $e8 #o8er$u( 6ri,e $a,i(ies7 A66ordin' to 8riter 1on 1osen*au,: @So,e 6riti6s o$ +E A 'o e5en $urther than the su*6o,,ittee in5esti'ators and 6har'e the #rote6tion o$ heroin #ro$iteers is not 6aused *) interna( 6orru#tion *ut is, in $a6t, the true $un6tion o$ the a'en6) under the #resent nar6oti6s (a8s7@A8B +EA su#er5ised -i((in' and torture had not sto##ed as o$ 19/8, 8hen the Mexi6an Bar Asso6iation do6u,ented ei'hteen $or,s o$ torture a##(ied *) Mexi6an nar6oti6s a'ents7 Prisoners and Mexi6an a'ents a(i-e a$$ir,ed that +EA a'ents not on() -ne8 o$ the torture, *ut at ti,es 8ere a(so #resent at the interro'ations7A9B ##s7 1// 180
Notes 17 +7 1osen: @3he Mexi6an 4onne6tion,@ 'enthouse, 0e*ruar) 19//7 27 @+ie 'e$ahr(i6hen Hes6ha$te des A(*erto Si6i(ia,@ %er Spiegel, No7 20,19//7 Mu6h o$ the $o((o8in' stor) 6o,es $ro, this a66ount7 6. $"id. =. ,igh Times, Au'ust 19/87 !7 $"id. ;. $"id. /7 47 P)es: @=e'a( Murders,@ Village Voice, " <une 19/97 87 171osen*au,: @3he +e6(ine and 0a(( o$ Nixon9s +ru' 4Iar,@ (ew Times, ! Se#te,*er 19/!7 97 P)es, o#7 cit.



In Au'ust 19/6 =u6ien 4onein9s 6hu, Mit6h 2erBe(( III >8hose B717 0ox 4o,#an) had shared a 2ashin'ton o$$i6e 8ith 4onein9s +E A S#e6ia( &#erations Hrou#? 8as *rou'ht *e$ore a Mia,i $edera( 6ourt on 6har'es o$ 6ons#ira6) to s,u''(e !0,000 #ounds o$ ,ariFuana a ,onth $ro, 4o(o,*ia to the :nited States7 .e and se5era( 6o6ons#irators had a((e'ed() hat6hed the #(ot in the su,,er o$ 19/!, Fust

8hen A(*erto Si6i(ia 0a(6on 8as arrested in Mexi6o7 Mu(ti ton ,ariFuana (oads 8ere to ha5e *een $(o8n $ro, 4o(o,*ia to an iso(ated ran6h in the 0(orida E5er'(ades near the 6o8to8n o$ &-ee6ho*ee7A1B 3he star #rose6ution 8itness 8as one o$ 2erBe((9s 6(ose asso6iates, the 6on5i6ted 6o6aine and ,ariFuana s,u''(er ;enneth Hordon Burnstine7 .o8e5er, 8ee-s *e$ore his s6hedu(ed 6ourt a##earan6e he died in the ,)sterious 6rash o$ his P !1 Mustan' at an air sho87 Most o$ the 5ita( ta#e re6ordin's and $i(,s o$ ,eetin's *et8een Burnstine, 2erBe((, and other de$endants 8ere no (on'er #rodu6i*(e in 6ourt7 2erBe((9s de$ense 8as that his ro(e in the #(ot had *een as an under6o5er a'ent $or 4onein7 Both 4onein and E'i( ;ro'h 8ere to ha5e *een 8itnesses on his *eha($7 But ;ro'h testi$ied that he didn9t -no8 2erBe(( had 8or-ed $or the +EA9s S#e6ia( &#erations Bran6h, and 4onein 8asn9t 6a((ed at a((7 Another de$ense 8itness 8as the so(dier o$ $ortune Herr) .e,,in', 8hose #ri5ate ar,) o$ 4u*an exi(es and A,eri6ans, the Internationa( Penetration 0or6e, a##ears, $ro, .e,,in'9s des6ri#tion o$ its ,issions, to ha5e #(a)ed an a6ti5e ro(e in &#eration "07 +urin' the tria(, .e,,in' 8ou(d sta) (ate into the ni'ht in 2erBe((9s hote( roo,7A2B 2erBe(( 8as $ound inno6ent and re(eased, Fust (i-e the 3hai o#iu, s,u''(erJ 4IA a'ent Putta#orn ;hra,-hruan *e$ore hi, in 19/37 .e 8ent ho,e to Heor'ia to #ursue his 8ea#ons *usiness and (a8 en$or6e,ent trainin' 6a,#7 A66ordin' to 8riter .an- Messi6-, in 19/8 he 8as in5o(5ed in $ar 1i'ht #o(iti6s 8ith the (i-es o$ MaFor Henera( <ohn ;7 Sin'(au* >8ho had *een re(ie5ed o$ his 6o,,and in ;orea a$ter outs#o-en 6riti6is, o$ President 4arter? and ,e,*ers o$ the A,eri6an Se6urit) 4oun6i(A3BL the -e) :7S7 (in- to the $ar 1i'ht9s internationa( u,*re((a or'aniIation, the 2or(d Anti 4o,,unist =ea'ue >2A4=?7 As re#orted re6ent() in the (ew )or! Times, the *ene$i6iaries o$ his antiterrorist trainin' ha5e in6(uded ,e,*ers o$ the $ar 1i'ht, anti Se,iti6 :7S7 =a*or Part)7A"B 2erBe(( o8ns ei'ht 6o,#anies, ,ost o$ the, dea(in' in $irear,s used *) (a8 en$or6e,ent and inte((i'en6e units7 &ne o$ the $ir,s, Studies in the &#erationa( Ne'ation o$ Insur'ents and 4ounter Su*5ersion >SI&NI4S?, s#e6ia(iIes in the #rodu6tion o$ M10 and M11 si(en6ed ,a6hine #isto(s7 3he (atter t8o 8ea#ons, desi'ned *) Hordon In'ra, and 2erBe((, are a*out the u(ti,ate 8ea#ons $or terror and exter,ination7 3heir sa(es a'ent 8as 2erBe((9s Mi(itar) Ar,a,ent 4or#oration7A!B 3o'ether 8ith the anti 4astro 4u*an ar,s dea(ers Anse(,o A((ie'ro and the ,er6enar) Herr) .e,,in', 2erBe(( $ounded the Para*e((u, 4or#oration in 19/1 in Mia,i7A6B Para*e((u,7 8as (i6ensed to se(( ar,s in =atin A,eri6a7 It 8as a(so the $ir, $ro, 8hi6h 2ater'ate *ur'(ar 0ran- Stur'is #(anned to o*tain 8ea#ons $or 4u*an exi(es 8ho 8ere 'oin' to >*ut e5entua(() did not? disru#t the 19/2 Mia,i 6on5entions7A/B In 19/" 2erBe(( a66ordin' to a ,otion $i(ed *) his o8n (a8)er 8hen 2erBe((, his son and his 6o,#an) +e$ense Ser5i6es, In67 8ere 6har'ed 8ith i((i6it 8ea#ons sa(es 8as in5o(5ed in a @6ons#ira6) a,on' the 4IA, 1o*ert Kes6o, and 5arious 6or#orations to $inan6e 6(andestine 'ueri((a a6ti5ities in =atin A,eri6a7@A8B Kes6o 8anted to #ur6hase 2erBe((9s sto6- o$ 2000 si(en6ed M10 ,a6hine #isto(s7 2hen 2erBe(( $ai(ed to se6ure an ex#ort (i6ense, he de5ised a #(an to s,u''(e the 8ea#ons to Kes6o7 3he t8o (ater ne'otiated the 6onstru6tion o$ a $a6tor) in 4osta 1i6a 8hi6h 8ou(d *e (i6ensed to $a*ri6ate the #isto(s7A9B Intri'uin'(), in that sa,e #eriod so,eone 8as ne'otiatin' 8ith a :7S7 $ir, $or ri'hts to $a*ri6ate, in Mexi6o, $u(() auto,ati6 8ea#ons $or 6(andestine 'ueri((a a6tions in =atin A,eri6a7 3hat so,eone 8as Mexi6o9s 4u*an exi(e heroin 6Iar, A(*erto Si6i(ia 0a(6on,A10B and a,on' the 8ea#ons he 8as ins#e6tin' 8as the In'ra, M10, 9 ,, Para*e((u,7A11B

A(thou'h the M10 and M11 6ou(d *e a6Cuired (e'a(() on() 8ith the s#e6ia( #er,ission o$ :7S7 o$$i6ia(s, (ar'e nu,*ers o$ si(en6ed M10s turned u# in the hands o$ Euro#ean $as6ist terrorists in 19/6 //7 8hen Pier(ui'i 4on6ute((i, a (eader o$ the Ita(ian terrorist 'rou# &rdine Nuo5o, 8as arrested in 1o,e in 0e*ruar) 19//, #o(i6e $ound in his a#art,ent the si(en6ed M10 8hi6h he had used to ,urder the 1o,e ,a'istrate Kittorio &66orsio7 A12B 066orsio had *een shot do8n on the streets o$ 1o,e in <u() 19/6 a$ter announ6in' he 8ou(d ex#ose the 6(ose 6o((a*oration *et8een 0as6ist terror 'rou#s and the Ma$ia7A13B .o8e5er, it 8as a,on' Spanish terrorists in #arti6u(ar that 2erBe((9s ,a6hine #isto(s a##eared in Cuantit)7A1"B Most nota*(), a siIa*(e 6onsi'n,ent o$ M10s, sent to S#ain under (i6ense $ro, :7S7 authorities, had *een #ur6hased *) S#anish inte((i'en6e a'en6) +HS,A1!B 8hi6h has a((e'ed() 6oordinated the a6tions o$ 0as6ist terrorists7A16B 3he $u'iti5e I&S *i((ionaire Kes6o e,#(o)ed a (ar'e 6ontin'ent o$ 4u*an exi(es in his 4osta 1i6a san6tuar)7A1/B Moreo5er, his 8ea#ons ne'otiations 6oin6ided 8ith the e$$orts o$ the $anati6 anti 4astro 4u*an (eader &r(ando Bos6h to asse,*(e 4u*an exi(e 'rou#s into an ar,) o$ terror, 4&1:, that 8ou(d (ater 6arr) out assassinations and other dirt) 8or- $or se5era( =atin A,eri6an re'i,es7 +urin' Bos6h9s 19/" /! dri5e, a 8a5e o$ ,urder stru6- Mia,i9s 4u*an exi(e ha5en7 Most 5i6ti,s had *een o##osed to Bos6h7 2ith the o*sta6(es to his #(an re,o5ed, 4&1: 8as esta*(ished in <une 19/67A18B 2hi(e Kes6o and 2erBe(( 8ere hat6hin' their 8ea#ons dea( Bos6h9s *ase o$ o#eration Fust ha##ened to *e Kes6o9s -in'do, o$ 4osta 1i6a and Ma$ia heroin *oss Santo 3ra$$i6ante, <r7 8as a(so re#orted() there *et8een <anuar) 19/" and the su,,er o$ 19/!7 <ourna(ist <i, .ou'an s#e6u(ates in his *ooS#oo-s that the three ,i'ht ha5e Foined $or6es in a 4IA 6ons#ira6) to es6a(ate anti 4o,,unist terror in =atin A,eri6a7A19B In 19/3 so,e o$ the detai(s *e'an to sur$a6e in a series o$ s6anda(s (in-in' these indi5idua(s7 +EA under6o5er a'ent 0ran- Pero$$ 6har'ed Kes6o 8ith $inan6in' extensi5e heroin s,u''(in'7 0or his initiati5e Pero$$ 8as $ired su,,ari() and his (i$e 8as threatened7 Be$ore the Senate In5esti'ations Su*6o,,ittee 6ou(d #ro*e dee#() the 6ase 8as sCue(6hed throu'h the inter5ention o$ the 2hite .ouse7 3he &5a( &$$i6e had a(read) he(#ed Kes6o a $riend o$ the Nixon $a,i() in his run in 8ith the Se6urities and Ex6han'e 4o,,ission, 8hi6h had sou'ht his #rose6ution $or the trai( o$ s8ind(e he had (e$t in the 8or(d o$ internationa( $inan6e7 Mid8a) throu'h the su*6o,,ittee in5esti'ation o$ the heroin 6har'es, the +EA announ6ed the disa##earan6e o$ its Kes6o $i(e7A20B &ne )ear (ater, as the su*6o,,ittee in5esti'ated 2erBe((9s 8ea#ons dea( 8ith Kes6o, it (earned that Kes6o had on6e e,#(o)ed 'o5ern,ent nar6oti6s a'ents7 In 19/2 t8o *u''in' s#e6ia(ists $ro, the BN++ $(e8 $ro, =os An'e(es to Ne8 <erse) to s8ee# Kes6o9s ho,e and o$$i6e o$ sur5ei((an6e de5i6es7 A66ordin' to the su*6o,,ittee, the s8ee#in' tour had *een arran'ed *) an ad,itted $riend o$ Kes6o9s 8ho 8as a(so in5o(5ed in su##()in' the $u'iti5e 8ith 2000 ,a6hine 'uns and he(#in' hi, estaA*B(ish a $a6tor) $or the 8ea#ons in 4osta 1i6a7A21B Huess 8ho7 3hat 8as not the (ast heard o$ 1o*ert Kes6o in 6onne6tion 8ith dru's7 In the su,,er o$ 19// #o(i6e un6o5ered the s,u''(in' o$ (ar'e Cuantities o$ heroin and 6o6aine to 1hode Is(and7 In one o$ the in5o(5ed shi#s the) dis6o5ered a (ed'er in 8hi6h it 8as 8ritten: @to Kes6oJ6 ,i((ionJhe #i6-ed u# 87 shri,#er >=ans-)?J94urier9 *eat :P7 @A22B Se5era( thin's #oint to Kes6o in5o(5e,ent in the (on' standin' #artnershi# o$ the 4IA, the =ans-)J3ra$$i6ante s)ndi6ate and the 4u*an exi(es, in a dru's $or 'ans $or terror dea( to ste# u# ar,ed su##ression and anti 6o,,unis, in =atin A,eri6a7 <ourna(ist .ou'an 5entures that the 6ons#irators

,i'ht ha5e used su6h 'o *et8eens and 6ouriers as the *eauti$u( Patri6ia 1i6hardson Martinson7 A66ordin' to her ex hus*and, the $or,er ar,) inte((i'en6e a'ent 2i((ia, S#e6tor, Ms7 Martinson had 5er) 6(ose re(ationshi#s 8ith a(,ost e5er)one o$ i,#ortan6e in the dru' *usiness: Dusse$ Beidas, the =e*anese $ounder and ,ana'in' dire6tor o$ IN31A Ban-, -no8n as one o$ the ,aFor $inan6iers o$ the heroin tra$$i6% Pau( =ouis 2ei((er, a 0ren6h $inan6ier si,i(ar() a((e'ed to *e *ehind the nar6oti6s trade% Eduardo Baroudi, a *i' ti,e heroin and 'un s,u''(er sus#e6ted o$ ha5in' arran'ed Beidas9 ,)sterious death in S8itIer(and% 4hristian @Beau Ser'e@ +a5id% 4onrad Bou6hard, a to# heroin tra$$i6-er hea5i() in5o(5ed in 0ran- Pero$$s Kes6o heroin a((e'ations% and Mar6e( Bou6an, the s-i##er o$ the #aprice du 3e,#s, 8hi6h 8as seiIed in 19/2 8ith "2! -i(os o$ #ure heroin7A23B Det another (i-e() inter,ediar) a,on' the a##arent 6ons#irators is the 4IA 6ontra6t a'entJar,s dea(erJart dea(er 0ernand =e'ros7 In 19/1 the 4IA he(#ed 'et Kes6o re(eased $ro, Saint Antoine #rison in Hene5a, 8here he had *een arrested in the Bernard 4orn$e(dJIn5estors &5erseas Ser5i6e 6ase7 =e'ros 8as in that sa,e #rison and s#o-e 8ith Kes6o7 In <anuar) 19/3 the t8o 8ere reunited in Nassau7A2"B =e'ros 8as seen in the 6o,#an) o$ Beidas in Hene5a and 1io de <aneiro7 .is 6(osest $riend 8as the 6on5i6ted heroin tra$$i6-er Andre =a*a), a 6(ose asso6iate o$ .aiti9s +u5a(ier d)nast)7 In Hene5a =e'ros a(so ,et $reCuent() 8ith E5e()ne .irs6h, the 8i$e o$ the i,#risoned *an-ro((er Andre .irs6h, 8hose South A,eri6an heroin 6onta6t had *een 4hristian +a5id7 <ust as the :7S7 #ut the s6re8s on the Para'ua)an 'o5ern,ent $or the extradition o$ Au'uste 1i6ord, =e'ros 8as in Para'ua) to 6(ose out a 8ea#ons dea( 8ith President Stroessner7 =ater, 8hen =e'ros 8as #(a6ed in #rote6ti5e 6on$ine,ent in BraIi(, ne8s#a#ers s#e6u(ated on his in5o(5e,ent in the +a5id Mo*9s nar6oti6s dea(s7 1e6ent )ears9 in5esti'ations into the 4IAJor'aniIed 6ri,e 6onne6tion ha5e resu(ted in an e#ide,i6 o$ sudden deaths7 In the 4IAJ+EAJ Kes6oJ S)ndi6ate s6he,e a(one one 6an ,ention ;enn) Burnstine% 2erBe(( asso6iate 4o(one( 1o*ert 07 Ba)ard, 8ho 8as shot do8n in an At(anta #ar-in' (ot in <u() 19/!%A2!B another 2erBe(( asso6iate and 6ode$endant in his ,ariFuana 6ase, <ohn Nardi, 8ho 8as shot in 4(e5e(and%A26B and Kes6o9s se6urit) 6hie$ Bo**) .a((, 8ho 8as shot to death in his =os An'e(es ho,e in <u() 19/67 A$ter the Senate In5esti'ations Su*6o,,ittee9s atte,#ted #ro*e into the Kes6o heroin 6ase 8as sa*ota'ed $ro, the hi'hest Cuarters, 6o,,ittee 6hair,an .enr) <a6-son as-ed: @+id the :7S7 'o5ern ,ent 8ish to -ee# Kes6o out o$ this 6ountr) $or so,e reasonG +id he ha5e so,e s#e6ia( in$or,ation 8hi6h he 6ou(d su##() to ex#(ain, in#art, the nationa( ni'ht,are 8e ha5e Fust (i5ed throu'hG @ &ne Senate in5esti'ator o$$ered an ans8er: @More than an) sin'(e #erson, Kes6o has in$or,ation 8hi6h, i$ he ta(-ed, 8ou(d ,a-e 2ater'ate (oo- (i-e a #i6ni67@A2/B ##s7181 18/
Notes 17 37 +un-in: @3he Hreat Pot P(ot,@ Soldier of 8ortune, Vol. 7, (o. 1, 1522. 7. $"id. A66ordin' to an inter5ie8 8ith .e,,in' #u*(ished in the A#ri( 152; issue o$ Argosy ,a'aIine, .e,,in' sett(ed in 0(orida a$ter 6onta6tin' the 4IA to te(( the a'en6) a(( he -ne8 a*out 4astro9s o#erations7 3here he $ounded Inter#en, 8hi6h s#e6ia(iIed in trainin' anti 4astro 4u*an exi(es in s#e6ia( 6a,#s in 0(orida $or (on' ran'e 'ueri((a 8ar$are a'ainst the 4astro re'i,e7 3hus *e'an a (on' and $riend() ad5isor) re(ationshi# not on() 8ith the 4IA, *ut 8ith the Mo*, the .u'hes e,#ire and other 8ea(th) and in$(uentia( A,eri6ans as 8e((7 A*out the $inan6in' o$ Inter#en, .e,,in' said, @3here 8ere dri*s and dra*s $ro, #eo#(e 6onne6ted 8ith or'aniIed 6ri,e, so,e $ro, the ri'ht 8in', and e5en $ro, so,e Cuite (i*era( sour6es7@ .e,,in' a(so said: @In 1961, so,e &o" people 8anted ,) 'rou# to do a 6ou#(e o$ Fo*s in 4anada@ L e,#hasis added L >a'ainst a shi# 8ith ,a6hiner) $or 4u*a?7 7 7 @<ohn 1ose((i I -ne8 L *ut I didn9t -no8 8ho he 8as@ 7 7 7

and a*out 4IAJ 4u*an terror in =atin A,eri6a: @A(( this 8as a -ind o$ &#eration Phoenix $or =atin A,eri6a7 3here9s a 'u) I -no8 in Mia,i 8ho 8or-ed on this ,ore than on6e7 E5ident() he9s no8 had a $a((in' out 8ith so,e 4u*ans in5o(5ed in nar6oti6s7 .e9s a 6(ose $riend o$ Be*e 1e*oIo, and 1e*oIo9s interested in #rote6tin' hi,7@ Inter#en re#orted() dis*anded in 196"7 37 .7 Messi6-: &$ Brass and Snow >Prenti6e .a((, 19/9?7 "7 (ew )or! Times, / &6to*er 19/97 A66ordin' to the ,a'aIine Soldier of 8ortune ><anuar) 1980?, 2erBe(( esta*(ished 4o*ra) Internationa(, In67, an antiterrorist s6hoo( #ri,ari() $or *usiness exe6uti5es, in Heor'ia in 19/97 Its a6tin' #resident, 4o(7 Barne) 4o6hran >:SA0 retired?, ser5ed as @de#ut) 6o,,ander $or the <oint :n6on5entiona( 2ar$are 3as- 0or6e E:1&PE @ in 19/0 /", and has a(so *een 6hie$ o$ the :n6on5entiona( 2ar$are Bran6h and s#e6ia( assistant $or 6ounterinsur'en6) and s#e6ia( a6ti5ities or'aniIation o$ the <oint 4hie$s o$ Sta$$7 In the (atter #ost he 8as res#onsi*(e $or de5e(o#,ent o$ @hard8are@ $or H(o*a( S#e6ia( &#erations and un6on5entiona( 8ar$are7 3he s6hoo(9s 6hie$ ,ar-s,anshi# instru6tor, Bert 2a(dron, ho(ds the re6ord $or sni#er -i((in's in Kietna, L 1137 !7 <7 .ou'an: Spoo!s >2i((ia, Morro8, 19/8?7 67 $"id.- see a(so Herr) .e,,in'9s inter5ie8 in Argosy, A#ri( 19/67 /7 Ar'os), o#7 cit. 87 +o6u,ents o$ the :7S7 +istri6t 4ourt, Northern +istri6t o$ Heor'ia, At(anta +i5ision, in 6ri,ina( 6ase no7 41 /" "/1 A >6ited in .ou'an, o#7 cit./. 97 .ou'an, o#7 cit. 107 @+ie 'e$ahr(i6hen Hes6ha$te des A(*erto Si6i(ia,@ %er Spiegel, No7 20,19//7 117 :7S7 4on'ress, Senate, 4o,,ittee on Ho5ern,ent &#erations, I((i6it Traffic in Weapons and %rugs Across the United States3&e.ican ?order, ,earings,3 9!th 4on'7, 1st Session >19//?7 127 Time, 2 0e*ruar) 19//% 07 =aurent: '0rchestre (oir >Sto6-, 19/8?7 137 Time, op. cit. 1"7 #am"io 1;, 20 0e*ruar) 19//7 1!7 =aurent, o#7 cit. 167 P7 4hairo$$: %ossier ? 777 comme ?ar"ou+es >A(ain Moreau, 19/!?% =7 HonIa(eI Mata: #ygne >Hrasset, 19/6?7 1/7 .ou'an, o#7 cit. 187 A66ordin' to the No5e,*er 19// issue o$ the %ominican *epu"lic Tas! 8orce (ewsletter >6ited in the <anuar) 0e*ruar) 19/8 (A# A *eport/, the Bonao, +o,ini6an 1e#u*(i6 site o$ the 4&1: $oundin' 8as a 6(u* $or exe6uti5es o$ the 0a(6on*rid'e Ni6-e( 4o,#an), 8hi6h is 6ontro((ed *) the ;e6- $a,i() o$ .ouston, 3exas7 3here is, ho8e5er, so,e 6on$usion a*out the date, 8hi6h the sa,e sour6e indi6ated 8as <une 19/!7 #ounterspy, Vol. 3, No7 2 (isted the date as <une 19/"7 3he su,,er 19/6 date, ho8e5er, is that used *) Bernard 4assen in e &onde %iplomatiFue o$ 0e*ruar) 19//, *) an anon),ous 6ontri*utor to the (ation o$ 19 Mar6h 19//, and *) B(a-e 0(eet8ood in (ew Times o$ 13 Ma) 19//7 Bos6h, in6identa((), (i-e Kes6o and 2erBe((, 8as asso6iated 8ith nar6oti6s, inso$ar as his dau'hter and son in (a8 8ere arrested in 19// $or s,u''(in' 6o6aine7 197 .ou'an, o#7 cit. Kes6o had his o8n 6onta6t in the =ans-) S)ndi6ate L +ino 4e((ini, 8ith 8ho, he had ,et se6ret() at 1o,e9s 0iu,i6ino Air#ort in 19/27 207 =7.7 2hitte,ore: 'eroff >Ba((antine, 19/!?7 217 $"id.

227 Messi6-, o#7 cit.- ?oston Blo"e, 30 Se#te,*er 19//7 237 .ou'an, o#7 cit. 2"7 17 Pe)re$itte: a Vie E.traordinaire de 8ernand egros >A(*in Mi6he(, 19/6?7 2!7 +un-in, o#7 cit. 267 Messi6-, o#7 cit. 2/7 2hitte,ore, o#7 cit. So,e8here a,on' 1o*ert Kes6o9s ,e,ora*i(ia $(oats the stran'e a$$air o$ the Brotherhood o$ =o5e7 3hrou'h it thousands o$ #otentia( a6ti5ists 8ere stoned $or )ears on =S+, and enor,ous #ro$its $ro, the sa(es o$ ta*(ets 8ere rein5ested throu'h the In5estors &5erseas Ser5i6e6ontro((ed 0idu6iar) 3rust 4o,#an) @%er Spiegel, No7 39, 19/"?7 In the sa,e 6onne6tion, it is interestin' to note that 8hen, in the $a(( o$ 19/8, Ita(ian #o(i6e in5esti'ated the A,eri6an 1ona(d Star-9s 6(ose in5o(5e,ent 8ith Ita(ian terrorists, the) dis6o5ered he had *een hea5i() in5o(5ed in the Brotherhood o$ =o5e unti( 19/1, and had run one o$ its =S+ (a*s in 4a(i$ornia7 In his terrorist #eriod Star- 8as 6(ose() in tou6h 8ith the :7S7 e,*ass) in =ondon, 8hi6h had o#ened a (etter to hi, 8ith @+ear 1on@ >Panora,a, 31 &6to*er 19/8?7

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