You are on page 1of 21

LUMMUS CATADIENE n-Butane Dehydrogenation Unit for Butadiene Production

Technical Information

Table of Contents

Introduction........................................................................................1 Technology Overview .......................................................................4 Technical Information Feedstock and Product Specifications ...................................6 Process Description and Process Flow Diagram ...................7 Overall Material Balance.....................................................10 Utility Consumption ............................................................11 Catalyst and Chemical Consumption...................................11 Environmental Considerations.............................................11 Plant Operation ....................................................................13 Plot Requirements................................................................14 Manpower Requirements.................................................................15 Licensor Capabilities - Sole Source Responsibility.........................16 Experience .......................................................................................17

CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene

(8/11)

Introduction

CATADIENE is the only one-step route from n-butane to butadiene

Lummus Technology, a CB&I Company (Lummus) is pleased to present this technical information document to support your efforts to build a CATADIENE plant to produce butenes or/and butadiene. The CATADIENE process is the only available technology to convert normal butane to n-butenes and n-butenes to butadiene in a single reaction step. By selecting our CATADIENE technology for a 1,3butadiene project, the producer is provided with the worlds most widely used process backed by Lummus commitment to technical excellence. Nineteen CATADIENE plants have been constructed worldwide with a combined capacity in excess of 1,200,000 MTA of butadiene. The most recent CATADIENE plant to start up is located in Tobolsk, Russia. This plant, at a capacity of 180,000 MTA, continues to operate reliably today. Most of the earlier CATADIENE plants were shut down in the 1970s and 1980s when cheap byproduct butadiene from steam cracking of liquid feeds made butane dehydrogenation uneconomical. A recent trend to lighter feedstocks has reduced the amount of byproduct butadiene and the butane dehydrogenation route to butadiene is once again attractive in many locations. The CATADIENE process was the forerunner to the widely accepted CATOFIN technology and uses the same basic reaction system. Building on the well-proven CATADIENE system, CATOFIN was developed to meet the rapidly growing demand for propylene and isobutylene. CATOFIN is currently used for about 65% of the worlds propane/isobutane dehydrogenation capacity. Commercial operating experience demonstrates the capability to exceed design capacity, yield, and catalyst life. The CATOFIN process is used for the worlds largest dehydrogenation units in operation. Two new i-C4 CATOFIN projects have been awarded to Lummus in 2010 to produce isobutylene from isobutane. A total of ten C3 CATOFIN units have been licensed for production of propylene. Licensed capacities range from 250 KMTA to 650 KMTA. Lummus is currently carrying out the basic design of a 600 KMTA C3 CATOFIN Unit for Tianjin Bohua Petrochemical Co., China. In addition, the basic design for a 650 KMTA C3 CATOFIN Unit for Ibn
CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene

Unmatched Commercial Experience

Introduction
Rushd, a SABIC Affiliate in Saudi Arabia has been completed. These two designs represent the largest single train propane dehydrogenation facilities in the world. Lummus completed the basic design of a 500 KMTA C3 CATOFIN Unit for Kazakhstan Petrochemical Industries Inc. (KPI) in Kazakhstan. Lummus completed the design for a 545 KMTA C3 CATOFIN Unit for PL Propylene in Houston, USA. The Plant started up in 2010 and met or exceeded all performance guarantees. This unit represents the worlds largest propane dehydrogenation unit in operation. Lummus has two operating units at 455,000 MTA propylene design capacity. The Saudi Polyolefins (SPC) plant for production of 455,000 MTA of propylene came on stream in the first quarter of 2004. The Advanced Polypropylene Co. (APPC) plant came on stream in February 2008. The plants continue to run above 100% capacity. The CATOFIN/CATADIENE dehydrogenation technology has several hundreds of years of operating experience throughout the world. These plant operations support the capability to exceed capacity, overall yield, and catalyst life. High Reliability On-stream factors exceeding 97% are routinely achieved in commercial operations. This is reflected in reduced plant size and maintenance costs compared to competing technologies. The CATADIENE process has no significant fouling problems and design throughput is quickly achieved after a startup. The process uses fixed bed reactors containing a robust Sd-Chemie catalyst that is resistant to the typical feed contaminants. Therefore, no feed treatment facilities are required for the CATADIENE process. Effective technology transfer is a critical factor in the success of a large project. Lummus is committed to supporting its licensees through the entire life cycle of a project to ensure that the technology transfer is successful. In addition to our process technology, Lummus offers advanced process control, computer simulators, operating training, detailed engineering, and start-up services.

CATOFIN has worlds largest unit in operation

Support and Commitment to Technical Advancement

CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene

Introduction
Sud-Chemie, the exclusive supplier of the proprietary CATOFIN and CATADIENE catalysts, and Lummus in its role as licensor, are firmly committed to the continued development of the dehydrogenation technologies. Lummus technologies, experience, and capabilities ensure a successful project Because of its commercial success and the cost savings resulting from its high yields, on-stream availability, and lower investment cost, the Lummus dehydrogenation processes are the technology of choice in todays market for the dehydrogenation of propane or butanes. The selection of the CATADIENE technology will be instrumental in attaining the financial and project goals targeted by your company.

CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene

Technology Overview

CATADIENE Technology Overview

Using the CATADIENE process, butadiene can be produced from either a butane rich or a mixed butane/butylene stream. The processing scheme for the CATADIENE butadiene process is shown in the overall process flow schematic and consists of the following steps: 1. Dehydrogenation of the butane to make butadiene 2. Compression of reactor effluent 3. Recovery and purification of the product The technology utilizes cyclic fixed-bed reactors with continuous production and has demonstrated safe and reliable operation with hundreds of years of operating experience. Features of the technology include:

High tolerance to C4 feed impurities No halide (chlorine) facilities needed for reheat Inexpensive and robust catalyst No catalyst losses Demonstrated catalyst life No hydrogen recirculation No steam dilution Technically sound and commercially proven process equipment No significant fouling problems Minimum time required to achieve design throughput after a shut-down Robust reactor design and internals Low sulfur injection (15 wppm on reactor feed)

The current CATADIENE design includes feed back from actual plant operations, which results in improved reliability, operation and efficiency.

CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene

Technology Overview

Process Flow Schematic


Air Heater Steam

Gas Turbine Air

Quench Section Cooler

Reactor on Reheat

Fuel Heat Recovery Fresh Butane Recycle Butane/ Butenes Charge Heater

Reactors on Stream

Reactor on Purge

Heat Recovery

Steam To Stack Waste Heat Boiler

Fuel Gas Cooler


Low Temp Section

DeC3

Flash Drum Product Compressor Cooler

Product to Prefractionator and BDE Unit

CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene

Technical Information
The CATADIENE unit can be designed to process a wide variety of feedstocks. A typical feedstock has the following characteristics: Butane Feed Component Isobutane N-Butane C5 + Wt% 2.0 97.8 0.2

Feedstock and Product Specifications

Lower purity butane streams can be handled in the CATADIENE unit. However, any increase in the level of C3 and C5 impurities would increase the amount of offgas since these impurities are cracked to lighter hydrocarbons. The CATADIENE unit is designed to produce a C4 stream containing 27 wt. % butadiene as feed to a downstream butadiene extraction unit. Butadiene extraction unit can be designed to produce the following high purity product. The raffinate from the extraction unit, consisting of unconverted butane and butylenes is recycled to the CATADIENE unit for ultimate conversion to butadiene. 1,3-Butadiene Product 1,3 Butadiene Propadiene 1,2 Butadiene Acetylenes NMP (BASF solvent) By-Products Offgas from the recovery section is produced as a by-product and is normally burned as fuel. A significant portion of the hydrogen in the offgas can be recovered at high purity in a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit. 99.7 wt% < 5 ppm by wt < 20 ppm by wt < 20 ppm by wt < 5 ppm by wt

CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene

Technical Information
Process Description and Process Flow Diagram The process description provided in this section can be followed more clearly by referring to the Process Flow Schematic in the Technology Overview section. Process Overview The CATADIENE process converts normal butane and n-butenes to butadiene by successive dehydrogenation in a single step operation employing a chromia-alumina catalyst. The unconverted normal butane and n-butenes are recycled to the reactor section so that butadiene is the only net product. Operating conditions for the process are selected to optimize the relationship among selectivity, conversion, and energy consumption in the temperature and pressure range of 575-625oC and 0.14-0.24 bar absolute. Side reactions produce light hydrocarbon gases in small quantities, along with hydrocarbons heavier than the feed (polymer). The heaviest of these hydrocarbons are deposited as coke on the catalyst. A key feature of the process is that the heat is absorbed from the catalyst bed by the reaction as dehydrogenation proceeds, gradually reducing the temperature of the catalyst bed. This temperature reduction, coupled with coke deposited on the catalyst decreases its ability to produce the desired products. To remove coke and to restore the necessary heat to the catalyst bed, periodic reheat of the catalyst with hot air is required. The process is carried out in a train of fixed-bed reactors that operate on a cyclic basis and in a defined sequence to permit continuous uninterrupted flow of the major process streams. In one complete cycle, hydrocarbon vapors are dehydrogenated and the reactor is then purged with steam and blown with air to reheat the catalyst and burn off the small amount of coke that is deposited during the reaction cycle. These steps are followed by an evacuation and reduction and then another cycle is begun. Cycle timing instrumentation sequences the actuation of hydraulically operated valves to control the operation. The system is suitably interlocked to ensure safe operation of the valves in sequence and prevent mixing of air and hydrocarbon gas.

CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene

Technical Information
Process Description Reaction Section In the reaction section, butane is converted to butadiene while passing through a catalyst bed. Fresh butane feed is combined with recycle butane and butenes from the downstream butadiene extraction unit. The total feed is then vaporized by heat exchange with a circulating quench oil stream. Upstream of this exchanger, a small quantity of a sulfiding agent is added to the feed to passivate metals in the alternating oxidating and reducing atmosphere of the reactors. The total feed is then brought to reaction temperature in the gas fired charge heater and sent to the reactors. Non-selective cracking of hydrocarbons is minimized by injecting fuel gas during the reheat portion of the cycle to keep the heater outlet temperature as low as possible. Hot effluent from the reactors flows to a pre-quench tower and the main quench tower where the vapor is cooled by direct contact with a circulating quench oil stream. Polymeric compounds in the reactor effluent are absorbed by the quench oil. In order to maintain the properties of the quench oil, a slipstream is withdrawn and charged to a quench oil vaporizer. Steam is injected and the stream is partially vaporized. The vapor portion is returned to the system and the heavy liquid is rejected. Make-up quench oil may be added intermittently to maintain system inventory. In the reactors, the hydrocarbon on-stream period takes place at 0.140.24 bar absolute pressure. While the system is still under vacuum, the reactor is thoroughly purged with steam, thereby stripping residual hydrocarbons from the catalyst and reactor into the recovery system. Reheat of the catalyst takes place at slightly above atmospheric pressure. Reheat air is supplied typically by a gas turbine or air compressor and heated to the required temperature in a direct-fired duct burner before passing through the reactors. The reheat air serves to restore both the temperature profile of the bed to its initial onstream condition and catalyst activity, in addition to burning the coke off the catalyst. The reheat air leaving the reactors is used to generate steam in a waste heat boiler. When the reheat of a reactor is complete, the reactor is re-evacuated before the next on-stream period. Prior to introducing butane feed, hydrogen rich offgas is introduced to the reactor for a short time to
CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene

Technical Information
remove absorbed oxygen from the catalyst bed. This reduction step decreases the loss of feed by combustion and restores the chrome on the catalyst to its active state. The reheat air stream leaving the reactors flows to the waste heat boiler which generates and superheats high pressure steam. Automatic Process Control The reactor system consists of a train of reactors operating in a cyclic fashion. The cycle results in continuous uninterrupted flow of hydrocarbon and air through the reactor system. The process streams to the individual reactors are controlled by hydraulically-operated valves. A central cycle timing device controls the operation of these valves. The cycle timer sends electrical control impulses in a programmed sequence and at precisely space intervals. Some of the impulses actuate relays that control the motion of the valves, while others are used for testing reactor conditions and valve positions. Mixing of air and hydrocarbon streams is prevented by electrically interlocking both the valve operators and valve operations with key reactor conditions. The hydraulically-operated valves are of a special design, permitting frequent operation with little maintenance. A seal valve furnished with the main valve actuator admits an inert gas seal to the valve bonnet when the main valve is in the closed position. The seal gas prevents mixing of process streams if there should be any leakage between the wedge and the seat. Inert gas such as N2 or steam is used for valve sealing. The main reactor valves are also equipped with limit switches which, through relays, provide the necessary contacts for valve actuation, position testing, valve interlocking and valve position indication in the control room. Compression Section In this section, the cooled effluent gas from the quench tower flows to the product compressor train where it is compressed in several successive stages to a suitable pressure for the operation of the recovery section. For each stage, a compression ratio is selected to optimize compressor performance and keep gas temperature low to minimize polymer formation. Any water that condenses after each stage of compression is separated in the interstage knock-out drums. Additionally, a sodium nitrite solution is circulated in the final stage suction drum as an oxygen
CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene

Technical Information
scavenger to aid in the prevention of polymer in the downstream gas plant section. The compressor discharge vapor is cooled and the resulting vaporliquid is separated in a flash drum. The reactor effluent condensate and the uncondensed reactor effluent vapor streams both flow to the recovery section. Recovery Section The recovery section removes inert gases and light hydrocarbons from the compressed reactor effluent. The vapor from the flash drum is dried and sent to the low temperature recovery system where butanes are recovered by chilling and condensation. These butanes are combined with liquid from the flash drum and sent to the depropanizer. The depropanizer removes C3 and lighter hydrocarbons from the butanes and heavier material. The C4s and heavier components are sent to downstream facilities where 1,3butadiene is recovered (typically by solvent extraction) and normal butane and n-butenes are recycled to the CATADIENE reactors. The following material balance is typical of the average performance of the unit and is based on producing 125,000 MTA of 1,3-butadiene. Butane Feed (97.8 wt%) 1,3-Butadiene Product Light ends C5+ and coke 213,500 MTA 125,000 MTA 68,750 MTA 19,750 MTA

Overall Material Balance

The light ends produced by the CATADIENE process are typically used within the unit as fuel. However, they contain significant amounts of hydrogen, as well as C2 and C3 components which could be recovered for higher value uses.

CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene

10

Technical Information
The estimated overall normal utility requirements only for the CATADIENE unit for processing a 97.8 wt.% butane fresh feed to produce 125,000 MTA of 1,3-butadiene are summarized in the following table. Total Per Ton of Product Power 140 kWh Boiler Feed water (BFW) 1.3 metric ton Cooling Water(1) 525 m3 Fuel(2) Net Gas Consumption 4.7 MWh Notes: 1. Based on 10 oC temperature rise. 2. Offgas and C 5+ streams from the CATADIENE unit are consumed as fuel within the CATADIENE unit. Catalyst and Chemical Consumption Catalyst Requirements The dehydrogenation reactors contain a mixture of chromia-alumina catalyst and inert grain. The expected catalyst life is 2.5 years. The inert material is recovered and reused when the catalyst is changed. Annual Cost The annual cost of catalyst and inert materials loaded into the reactors (inert grain and alumina balls) based on producing 125,000 MTA of butadiene is approximately $US 19 per metric ton of butadiene product. Chemical Requirements A sulfiding agent is added to the total reactor feed to passivate the metals in the alternating oxidizing and reducing atmosphere in the reactors. If the fresh and recycle feeds contain no sulfur, the maximum addition rate is about 15 ppm. Environmental Considerations Atmospheric Emissions There are two sources of process waste gas from the CATADIENE unit: the reheat effluent and the evacuation ejector effluent. If required, the reheat effluent can be sent to a thermal or catalytic incinerator to convert the trace amounts of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide present into carbon dioxide and water. Selective catalytic reduction can also be applied for NOx reduction. The flue gas is
CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene

Utility Consumption

11

Technical Information
discharged to the atmosphere after being cooled in waste heat recovery. The ejector effluent stream is discharged to atmosphere via the waste heat recovery stack. Flue gas from the charge heater is the only other continuous emissions from the CATADIENE unit. Fugitive emissions from equipment are minimized by the application of the following engineering practices:

All pumps in light liquid service are equipped with dual mechanical seals. All sampling connections are equipped with a closed purge system or closed vent system. All open-end valves or lines are equipped with a cap or plug. Each vapor relief valve is tied into a flare system. Provisions are made to depressure all equipment to the flare system prior to opening for maintenance.

Spent Catalyst Disposal The CATADIENE catalyst operates in fixed-bed reactors so no losses from attrition or breakage occur. The catalyst is not dangerous and only normal precautions are necessary when unloading to prevent losses and inhalation of dust. Tests on commercial CATADIENE plants have shown that no catalyst dust is detectable in the emissions from the plant. The primary ingredients of CATADIENE dehydrogenation catalyst are alumina and chromium oxide. Once the catalyst becomes spent, its ingredients can be utilized as raw material for metal industry and refractory applications. Uses include the production of ferro chromium and other alloys for the specialty steel industry, as an additive or conditioner for slags, and as an ingredient in the production of refractory. Similar catalysts have been used in the alumina smelting industry to make certain chromium alumina alloys. Lummus and Sud-Chemie can offer assistance for catalyst disposal.

CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene

12

Technical Information
Turndown Plant Operation The CATADIENE unit can be operated economically at 60% of the design capacity. At this point, the limiting factor is usually turndown capacity of the product compressor. Operating below 60% of capacity is possible by use of recycle in the compression section, but this requires increased energy costs for compression of the recycle. Safety The CATADIENE reactors operate on a cyclic basis. By use of multiple reactors, continuous flow of the major process streams is achieved. This type of system has been in continuous commercial operation since 1944 when the first Houdry CATADIENE unit was placed on stream for production of butadiene from butane. The CATOFIN/CATADIENE unit operating dependability is widely acknowledged by current licensees. The operating plants have experienced in excess of 40 million reactor cycles without serious mishap. This safety record is based on the very careful design of the system. The reactor system as well as the operation of all other items of major equipment within a CATADIENE unit have been subjected to critical reviews by technical experts within Lummus, using state-of-the-art analysis techniques and methodology for process hazards analysis. This type of analysis is directed at identification and prevention of undesired events and results in calculation of an average hazard rate for the plant. The rate calculated for the CATDIENE process was found to be well within the corporate goals established by major chemical companies. On-Stream Factor Achieving a high on-stream factor is critical to the projects economics. As mentioned above, the CATADIENE unit operating dependability is widely acknowledged. All processing plants are only as reliable as their individual parts and all parts of a CATADIENE plant have withstood the test of time, having maintained their operating integrity. The CATADIENE technology has repeatedly demonstrated on-stream efficiencies well in excess of 97%. This proven record, as well as the robust reactor design which withstands transient conditions and quick

CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene

13

Technical Information
restarts, is a significant advantage over competitive PDH processes which use fragile reactor internals. Maintenance Total maintenance costs for the CATADIENE unit, including turnaround costs, but excluding the catalyst, are normally about 2% of replacement capital cost. This compares favorably with the maintenance costs in the refining industry.

Plot Requirements

An area of about 30,000 m2 will be sufficient for the ISBL CATADIENE unit to produce 125,000 MTA of butadiene. The plot plan can be optimized based on site-specific limitations.

CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene

14

Manpower Requirements
Staffing Staffing requirements for the CATADIENE units have been established through Lummus experience. The following table summarizes the personnel required to operate the complex. Shift Operations Foreman Board Operator Outside - Operator Laboratory Supervisor Laboratory Technician Maintanance Technician 1 1 2 1 1 Day 1

CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene

15

Licensor Capabilities Sole Source Responsibility


As licensor of the CATADIENE technology, Lummus can provide:

Feasibility studies Basic design engineering Interface with the detailed engineering contractor Supply of catalyst Training of client's personnel Plant start-up services Follow-up technical services after start-up

In addition, Lummus can provide the detailed engineering, procurement and construction management. With engineering and project execution centers strategically located around the world, our team of experienced professionals stands ready to provide the latest process technologies and the following project-related services with unequaled quality and satisfaction:

Preliminary estimates & scheduling Project financing Site surveys Permitting Environmental Services Detailed design Estimating and scheduling Worldwide procurement Construction Project management

This sole source responsibility greatly simplifies the coordination of the project work, thus enabling a faster schedule to be achieved, fewer construction problems to arise, and simplifying the task of the client's team of resident engineers. Ultimately, these advantages result in a lower cost facility.

CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene

16

Experience
Currently two CATADIENE units are in operation producing over 250,000 MTA of butadiene. Fifteen CATOFIN dehydrogenation plants have been commissioned for the production of isobutylene and propylene, in addition to many other units for the production of butadiene. Eleven CATOFIN plants are currently on stream producing over 2,300,000 MTA of isobutylene for the production of 101,000 BPSD of MTBE, and 1,700,000 MTA of propylene. These plants have established CATOFIN's track record, and provide valuable data on commercial performance and yield. A summary of these and other CATOFIN/CATADIENE projects are shown on the following table. Lummus completed the design for a 545 KMTA C3 CATOFIN Unit for PL Propylene in Houston, USA. The Plant started up in 2010 and met or exceeded all performance guarantees. This unit represents the worlds largest propane dehydrogenation unit in operation. Lummus now has two operating units at 455,000 MTA propylene design capacity. The Saudi Polyolefins (SPC) plant for production of 455,000 MTA of propylene came on stream in the first quarter of 2004. The capacity was achieved in a single reaction train. Recently, the plant has run above 515,000 MTA propylene production. The Advanced Polypropylene Co. (APPC) plant came on stream in February 2008. The plants continue to run above 100% capacity.
CATOFIN/CATADIENE Process Licensed Units Onstream Date 2015 2013 Capacity MTA* 600,000 684,000 Products Primary Propylene Isobutylene Status Alternate Products

Client/Location Ningbo Haiyue New Material Co., China Liaoning Tongyi Petrochemical Co., (Chengheng), China Tianjin Bohua Petrochemical Co., China Shandong Yuhuang Chemical Co., China KPI, Kazakhstan Ibn Rushd, Saudi Arabia

Engineering Engineering

2013 2013 2015 On hold

600,000 300,000 500,000 650,000

Propylene Isobutylene Propylene Propylene

Engineering Engineering Engineering BE completed

CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene

17

Experience
CATOFIN/CATADIENE Process Licensed Units Onstream Date On hold 2010 2008 2004 On hold Cancelled 1995 Cancelled 1995 1994 1993 1992 1992 1991 1990 1988 1988 1974 1974 1974 Capacity MTA* 250,000 545,000 455,000 455,000 315,000 315,000 315,000 513,000 350,000 452,000 452,000 315,000 250,000 315,000 235,000 310,000 180,000 235,000 60,000 90,000 Products Primary Propylene Propylene Propylene Propylene Isobutylene for MTBE Isobutylene for MTBE Isobutylene for MTBE Isobutylene for MTBE Propylene Isobutylene for MTBE Isobutylene for MTBE Isobutylene for MTBE Propylene Isobutylene for MTBE Isobutylene for MTBE Isobutylene for MTBE Butadiene Isobutylene for MTBE Butadiene Butadiene Status Alternate Products

Client/Location Confidential, Africa PL Propylene (Petrologistics), USA Advanced Polypropylene Co, Al-Jubail, Saudi Arabia Saudi Polyolefins Co, Al-Jubail, Saudi Arabia Confidential Confidential Dubai Natural Gas, UAE Mobil/Chemvest Pemex, Morelos, Mexico SABIC/IBN SINA Al Jubail, Saudi Arabia SABIC/IBN ZAHR 2 Al Jubail, Saudi Arabia Global Octanes, USA Borealis, Kallo, Belgium Super-Octanos, Jose, Venezuela Texas Petrochemicals, Houston, TX, USA SABIC/IBN ZAHR 1, Al Jubail, Saudi Arabia TMI, Tobolsk, USSR Texas Petrochemicals, Houston, TX, USA PEMEX Madero, Mexico TMI, Nizhnekamsk, USSR

On hold Operating Operating Operating On hold Cancelled Operating Cancelled after BE Shut down Operating Operating Shut down in 2004 Operating Operating Operating Operating Operating 2 trains Operating Shut down Operating 18

Butadiene

CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene

Experience
CATOFIN/CATADIENE Process Licensed Units Onstream Date 1972 1970 1968 1966 1960 1960 1958 1957 1957 1957 1957 1957 1957 1944 Capacity MTA* 100,000 60,000 50,000 50,000 50,000 50,000 70,000 100,000 70,000 100,000 100,000 70,000 70,000 20,000 Products Primary Butylenes Butadiene Butadiene Butadiene Butadiene Butadiene Butadiene Butadiene Butadiene Butylenes Butylenes Butadiene Butadiene Butadiene Status Alternate Products Butadiene

Client/Location Petro-Tex, No. 3, Houston, TX USA Polimex, Plock, Poland Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Pasa, Rosario, Argentina Japan Synthetic Rubber, Yokkaichi, Japan ANIC, Ravenna, Italy Chemische Werke Huels, Marl, Germany El Paso Products Co., Odessa, TX USA Arco Chemical, No., 2, Channelview, TX, USA Petro-Tex, No.2, Houston, TX, USA Petro-Tex, No. 1, Houston, TX, USA Firestone, Orange TX, USA Arco Chemical, No. 1, Channelview, TX, USA Standard Oil Co. of California, El Segundo, CA, USA Magnolia Petroleum, Beaumont, TX, USA * Based on primary product

Shut down Shut down Shut down Shut down Shut down Shut down Shut down Shut down Shut down Shut down Shut down Shut down Shut down Shut down

Butylenes Butylenes Butadiene Butadiene Butylenes Isoprene Butylenes Butylenes

1944

Butadiene

Shut down

CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene

19