# Topic 8 Electromagnetic

Induction and  Inductance

LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this topic, you should be able to: 1. Calculate the magnetic flux through a surface; 2. Calculate the induced electromagnetic force (emf) of the electromagnetic induction process according to faraday’s and lenz’s laws; 3. Calculate the motional emf is created in a conductor moving in a uniform magnetic field; 4. Explain how changing magnetic fields induce circulating currents or eddy currents in conducting materials; 5. Describe the principle of an inductor as device to store an electrical energy in the form of a magnetic field; 6. Define self inductance and mutual inductance and apply them to related problems; 7. Calculate the energy stored in an inductor and to define the magnetic energy density; and 8. Describe the principle and uses of a transformer.

INTRODUCTION

The discovery of electromagnetic induction by Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry in 1831 has changed our understanding of electricity and magnetism. Prior to that, it was known that a battery was a source of electromotive force (emf). However, in electromagnetic induction, the changing magnetic flux through a

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circuit induces an emf and an electrical current in the circuit and also in a neighboring circuit. A changing current in a coil induces an emf in adjacent coil. The coupling between the coils is known as the mutual inductance. This is the principle of a transformer used to step the voltage of an alternating current (ac) up and down. Thus phenomenon of electromagnetic induction is the central principle behind the operation of power-generating stations and transformers. In this chapter we will discuss how electromagnetic induction occurs in a circuit by changing the magnetic flux, which causes a motion of charged particles in a conductor, thus inducing an emf or a current through a coil of conductor. Faraday’s law and Lenz’s law are the central principles of electromagnetic induction. The effects of electromagnetic inductions are numerous, depending on the type conductor exposed to the change of magnetic flux. We will also learn about inductance RL circuits and transformers.

8.1

MAGNETIC FLUX

The concept of magnetic flux is vital in order for us to understand the occurrence of electromagnetic induction. An emf is induced in a coil whenever there is a change in the magnetic flux through it. In Topic 6 we learned how a magnetic field can be described in terms of magnetic lines of force. In this context, the magnetic lines of force help us visualise the magnetic field but provide us with no information on the “strength” of the field. In order to know this, we need to utilise the magnetic flux. Recall that we identified the electric flux through a surface as the number of electric field lines passing through the surface. We will now define the magnetic flux in a similar way. Consider a single turn coil of area A. Let the normal to this surface area make an angle θ with the uniform magnetic field B passing through it. Figure 8.1. Then, the magnetic flux through the coil is defined as: Φ B = BA cos θ (8.1)

Notice that B cos θ is just the component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the coil.

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Figure 8.1: Definition of magnetic flux

When θ = 90o , the magnetic field lines are parallel to the plane of the loop, then the flux is zero. See Figure 8.1(a) On the other hand, when θ = 0o , the field is perpendicular to the plane of the loop and the flux is at the maximum value of BA. See Figure 8.1(b).

Figure 8.2: The Minimum and maximum flux through a coil

Magnetic flux thus is a measure of the number of magnetic field lines passing through the surface of the coil. For a bar magnet, the flux lines are more concentrated at the poles, where the magnetic field strength is the greatest. If the coil contains more than one turn, then the flux through the coil is the sum of the total flux through all the individual turns. This is called the flux linkage through the whole coil. If the flux contains N turns, then the total flux linkage is given by:

Φ B = NBA cos θ

(8.2)

The SI unit of magnetic flux is equal to the unit of magnetic field (T) times the unit of area (m2) or the Weber (Wb). 1 Wb = 1 T. m2.

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Example 8.1
The normal of the surface of a circular loop of radius r = 2 cm makes an angle of θ = 60° with a magnetic field of magnitude B =0.5 T that passes through this loop. Calculate the magnetic flux through the loop.

Solution:
Refer to Fig.8.1 with B = 0.5T , θ = 60 ,

A = π r 2 = 3.14 × 0.02 × 10−2

(

)

2

= 1.26 × 10−7 m 2

From Eq.8.1,the magnetic flux through the loop is given by Φ B = BA cos θ = 0.5 × 1.26 ×10−7 × cos 60 = 3.15 ×10−8 Wb

Example 8.2
1. A loop of area 0.1 m 2 is placed in a constant magnetic field of 10 Tesla acting downward. What is the flux through the wire loop when the face of the loop is: (a) Perpendicular to the magnetic field, (b) Parallel to the magnetic field, and (c) At an angle of 45° to the magnetic field as shown in the figure below?

Solution:
The broken lines indicate the normal to the plane of the loop. For this example B = 10 T, A =0.1 m 2 (a) (b) (c)

θ = 0 , Φ B = BA cos θ = 10 × 0.1× cos 00 = 1 Wb

θ = 90 , Φ B = BA cos θ = 10 × 0.1× cos 900 = 0 Wb
θ = 45 , Φ B = BA cos θ = 10 × 0.1× cos 450 = 0.71 Wb

mg (m/l)g (11.65×10-3 kg/m)(9.8 m/s 2 ) B= = = = 1.6 ×10-2 T Il I 7.0 A

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8.2

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

In Topic 6, we learned about Oersted’s remarkable discovery: an electric current produces a magnetic field. This remarkable discovery inspired Faraday to think whether it was possible to do the opposite, i.e., to create a current from a magnetic field. He began his experiment in 1825 and did not succeed until 1831. The results of Faraday’s work showed that an induced current is produced in a coil by a changing magnetic field. This phenomenon is known today as electromagnetic induction. We can attempt to demonstrate electromagnetic induction by doing a simple experiment as shown in Figure 8.3. Consider a coil of wire connected to a galvanometer. When a magnet is moved towards the coil as in Figure 8.3(a), the galvanometer needle will deflect in one direction. If the magnet is moved away from the coil, the galvanometer needle will deflect in the opposite direction. See Figure 8.3(b). Finally, if the magnet is held stationary relative to the coil as in Figure 8.3(c), no deflection is observed. We can also do the experiment by moving a coil relative to the magnet and obtain similar results. From these observations, we can conclude that a current is set up in the circuit as long as there is relative motion between the magnet and the loop of wire. If there is no relative motion, electromagnetic induction cannot take place.

Figure 8.3: Electromagnetic induction

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ACTIVITY 8.1
An interactive simulation of the experiment above can be found here: http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/java/faraday2/index.html Observe the movement of the galvanometer as you move the magnet back and forth. The induced current is a result of the induced emf. In Figure 8.1, if we had used a coil of higher resistance, the induced current will be smaller. This is because the induced emf is the same, but the resistance is greater. From experiment, it is also observed that the induced current (and the induced emf) will be greater if we (i) (ii) Use a coil with a larger surface area Use a stronger magnet.

(iii) Increase the number of turns in the coil (iv) Increase the speed of the magnet

8.3

Let’s reconsider the experiment shown in Figure 8.3(a) in terms of the magnetic flux near the coil. When the magnet was pushed towards the coil, this action caused a sudden change in the magnetic flux near the coil. This change was the result of more magnetic field lines from the magnet entering the coil. As there was a change in magnetic flux experienced by the coil, an induced emf was set up in the coil. Since there was an induced emf and a closed circuit, an induced current flowed in the coil. What can we conclude from here? According to Faraday, whenever there is a change in the magnetic flux through a coil, an emf is induced in the coil. Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction states that: the induced emf in a closed loop equals the rate of change of the magnetic flux through the loop.

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Mathematically, Faraday’s law can be written as

ε =−

ΔΦB Δt

(8.3)

where ε is the induced emf and ΔΦ B is the change in the magnetic flux in the circuit in a time interval of Δt . Faraday’s law is used to determine the magnitude of the induced emf obtained in electromagnetic induction. If the circuit is a coil consisting of N loops the induced emf is given by

ε = −N

ΔΦ B Δt

(8.4)

The negative sign in the equation is a consequence of Lenz’s Law.

8.4

LENZ’S LAW

The minus sign in Faraday’s law is a consequence of Lenz’s law. Lenz’s law is also convenient way of determining the sign or direction of an induced current or emf. Lenz’s law states that: the induced current in a coil always flows in a direction so that it always opposes the change that caused it. By “change”, we mean an increase or decrease in the magnetic flux through a coil. As an example, let us consider the situation in Figure 8.4(a), where a magnet is moving toward a coil. As the magnet gets closer to the coil, the magnetic flux in the coil increases. The “change” in the coil is equivalent to an increase in the magnetic flux through the coil. According to Lenz’ law, the induced current in the coil must now flow in a direction to oppose this change. For this to happen, the induced current must produce its own magnetic field (called the induced magnetic field) to oppose the increase in the flux created by the magnet. Notice that the end of the coil facing the approaching magnet has been induced as a north pole as shown in Figure 8.4(b). Thus, this repulsion between the two north poles will oppose the motion of the magnet and consequently reduce the amount of flux entering the coil.

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The right-hand grip rule can be used to determine the direction of the induced current. Point the fingers in the direction of the induced north. The thumb will then give the direction of the current, which is counter clockwise in this case.

A current is induced in the coil as the magnet is moved towards it

The induced current creates Application of the right hand its own magnetic field in the grip rule to determine the coil to oppose the increasing direction of the induced flux current Figure 8.4: Applications of Lenz’s law

ACTIVITY 8.2
An interactive Java applet that illustrates Lenz’s law can be found here: http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/java/lenzlaw/ Observe the direction of the induced current in the stationary conducting ring as you move the magnet towards or away from it.

Example 8.3
What are the induced emf and current in the coil if its magnetic flux changes according to the following? Assume the resistance of the coil is 100 Ω . (a) (b) From 200 mWb to 800 Wb in 4 s. From 250 mWb to 20 mWb in 5 s.

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Solution:
(a) induced emf equals the rate of change of magnetic flux

ε= –

Φ -Φ (800 – 200) mWb ΔΦ = –150 mV =– 2 1 =– 4.0s Δt Δt

induced current I = (b)

ε –150 mV = = –1.5 mA R 100 Ω

induced emf equals the rate of change of magnetic flux

ε= –

Φ – Φ1 (20 – 250) mWb ΔΦ = 46 mV =– 2 =– 5.0s Δt Δt ε 46 mV = 0.46 mA = R 100 Ω

induced current I =

Example 8.4
A coil of area 0.01m 2 and 100 turns has a total resistance of 0. 1Ω . A uniform magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the plane of the coil. The magnitude of this field is decreased from 1 T to zero in 0.5s. (a) (b) Find the magnitude of the induced emf in the coil Find the magnitude of the induced current

Solution:

A = 0.01m 2 , N = 100, R = 0.1Ω, Δt = 0.5s Φ1 = Bi A = 1× 0.01 = 0.01Wb Φ 2 = B f A = 0 × 0.01 = 0 Wb

( Φ − Φ1 ) = − ( 0 − 0.01) = 0.02V ΔΦ =− 2 0.5 Δt Δt ε 0.02 (b) i = = = 0.2A R 0.1
(a) ε = −

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EXERCISE 8.1
1. A plane circular loop of area 0.01m2 and possessing 10 turns is placed in a uniform magnetic field. The direction of the magnetic field makes an angle of 60° with respect to the normal direction to the loop. The magnetic field strength is now increased from 1 T to 5 T in a time interval of 5 s. What is the emf generated around the loop during this time? 2. The magnetic flux in a single loop coil of area 10 cm2 steadily changes from 10mWb to 15mWb in 1 s. What emf is induced in the coil? 3. A coil of wire of cross-sectional area 3.0 cm2 and with 500 turns per meter is placed perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field. If the total resistance of the coil is 50 Ω, at what rate should the magnetic field be changing to induce a current of 0.24 mA?

8.5

MOTIONAL ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE

Consider a straight conductor of length l moving with constant velocity v perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field B directed into the paper as in Fig. 8.2. Using the right-hand rule, the free electrons in the conductor will experience a downward force having a magnitude F = qvB . Here, q represents the charge of an electron. The magnetic force causes the free electrons to move to the lower end of the conductor, thereby creating an excess of positive charges at the upper end of the conductor. As a result, an electric field E is created that is directed upward. The upward force FE = qE due to the electric field exactly equals the downward force Fm = qvB due to downward magnetic force.

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Figure 8.5: Motional emf created in a conductor moving in a uniform magnetic field

At the equilibrium, where all free electrons have moved to the lower end of the conductor, we have FE = Fm Or But recall from Topic 3 that E = qE = qvB E = vB (8.5)

ΔV , where ΔV is the potential difference d between the upper and lower ends of the conductor. Here d = l,
This potential difference is also known as the induced emf or the motional emf. Then

ε = ΔV = E l = vB l
Example 8.5

(8.6)

A 10 cm long rod in Figure 8.5 is moving at 5 m/s. What is the strength of the magnetic field if a 0.9 V emf is induced in the rod?

Solution

l = 10cm = 0.1m, v = 5m/s, ε = 0.9V ε = ΔV = El = vBl ε 0.9 B= = = 1.8T vl 5 × 0.1

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EXERCISE 8.2
A square loop of wire with resistance of 100Ω and length of 4.0 cm is moved at constant speed of 5.0 m/s across a uniform magnetic field of 0.8 T. What are the induced emf and the current in the loop?

8.6

EDDY CURRENTS

In section 8.5, we saw that an induced current is created when a coil of conductor moves in a uniform magnetic field, and the direction of the current can be determined using Lenz’s law. If we replace the coil with a metal piece, and allow it to oscillate in a magnetic field, induced currents that circulate throughout the volume of the metal are produced. These circulating currents are called eddy currents. Figure 8.6 shows a metal plate oscillating in a magnetic field that is acting into the plane of the page. As it moves across the field, eddy currents are induced within the plate in the directions shown.

Figure 8.6: When a plate oscillates in a magnetic field, eddy currents are formed.

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By Lenz’ Law, these currents will flow in such a direction so as to oppose the movement of the plate by creating a resistive force. This resistive force F will result in the oscillations becoming damped. Such effects can be used to stop the rotation of a circular saw quickly when the power is turned off. Some electricallypowered trains use eddy-currents as breaking systems. Electromagnets on the train near the train’s rails are turned on creating eddy currents in the rails. Another important result of eddy currents is the Joule heating effect through I2R, where R is the resistance through which the current is passing. In induction furnaces, eddy currents are used to heat materials in a completely sealed container to avoid any contamination introduced into the materials. However, heating effects of eddy currents are often undesirable since they dissipate electrical energy, especially in alternating-current transformers and motors, To minimise these effects, the core conducting materials are laminated with thin layers by a non-conducting material to minimise eddy currents formed and thereby increase the efficiency of this devices.

8.7

SELF INDUCTANCE

A magnetic field is formed around a current-carrying coil of conductor and its magnitude can be determined using Ampere law or the Biot-Savart law. The laws are applied when there is no current change in the coil. However, whenever we change the current in a coil of wire, the magnetic field it produces will also change. That will in turn change the magnetic flux through the coil. Hence according to Faraday’s law, an induced emf will be produced in the coil. If the coil contains N turns, then from Faraday’s law, the induced emf is:

ε = −N

ΔΦ Δt

(8.7)

The relationship between the emf and the current in the coil is known as the selfinductance (or inductance) L.

ε = −L

ΔI Δt

(8.8)

The negative sign means that the induced emf opposes the change (an increase or decrease in the current) causing it.

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From Equation 8.8, we may identify the self-inductance as the magnitude of induced emf per unit rate of change of current. From (8.7) and (8.8), the selfinductance L is given by

L=

NΦ I

(8.9)

The unit of inductance, L, is the henry (H), measured in volt-second per ampere. One henry is equal to one volt-second per ampere or one ohm-second. So self-inductance is a measure of a coil's ability to establish an induced voltage as a result of a change in its current. Such a coil is called an inductor. Figure 8.7 is the two circuit symbols for an inductor. Either one can be used in an electrical circuit.

Figure 8.7: Two circuit symbols commonly used for an inductor

An inductor is basically a solenoid of length l consisting of n turns per meter of loops of wire and having the self-inductance of:

L=

NΦ NBA Nμ0 nIA = = = μ0 n 2lA I I I

(8.10)

where μ0 = 4π × 10 -7 Wb/A.m .

Example 8.6
What is the self-inductance in a coil of conductor consisting of 1000 turns, which carries a steady current of 2.0 A and produces a magnetic flux of 15 mWb?

Solution:
NΦ (1000)(1.5× 10 -2 Wb) The self-inductance L = = = 7.5 H. I 2.0A

Example 8.7
Consider a coil where the current is increased from zero to 2.0 A in 1.0 ms. If the magnitude of the induced voltage across the inductor during this time is 15 V, what is the inductance of the solenoid?

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Solution:

ε = 15V, Δt = 1.5×10−3 s, ΔI = 2 A
From ε = L ΔI Δt ε 15 L= = = 0.0.375 H 2 ΔI Δt 5 × 10 −3

8.8

MUTUAL INDUCTANCE

We already know that an emf can be induced in a coil by moving a magnet toward it. Figure 8.8 shows another method of inducing an emf by using two neighbouring coils of wires. A current flowing in a primary coil 1 produces a magnetic flux Φ 1 and hence a magnetic flux Φ 2 through a secondary coil 2. If the current in coil 1, I 1 changes, the magnetic flux through coil 2 changes as well and an emf ε 2 is induced in coil 2. A change in the current in one coil that can induce an emf in an adjacent coil is known as the mutual inductance.

Figure 8.8: A changing current in the primary coil induces an emf in the secondary coil.

When I 1 changes, the magnetic flux Φ 2 through coil 2 also changes, which induces an emf ε 2 in coil 2, given by

ε 2 = − N2

ΔΦ 2 ΔI = −M 1 Δt Δt

(8.11)

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where N2 is the number of turns of coil 2 and M is the mutual inductance of the two coils. Since N2 and M are constant, from Equation 8.11 we can write:
N 2Φ2 = MI 1

(8.12)

where N 2Φ2 is the total flux linkage or the total flux through the secondary coil. Now, we can define the mutual inductance as:

M=

N 2Φ2 I1

(8.13)

The SI unit of mutual inductance is henry (H). The effect is truly mutual: changing the current in coil 2 can cause a changing magnetic flux Φ 1 in coil 1 and hence an emf ε 1 in coil 1. Consequently, we can write:

ε2 = -M

dI1 dI and ε1 = -M 2 (mutually induced emf’s) dt dt

where the mutual inductance can be represented as:

M=

N 2Φ2 N1Φ1 = I1 I2

(mutual inductance)

(8.14)

EXERCISE 8.3
1. A steady current of 2 A in a coil of 400 turns causes a flux of 1× 10−4 Wb to pass through the loops of the coil. Calculate: (a) the average emf induced in the coil if the current is stopped in 0.08s. (b) the inductance in the coil (c) the energy stored in the coil 2. The mutual inductance between the primary and secondary of a transformer is 0.50 H. Find the induced emf in the secondary when the primary current changes at a rate of 5.0 A/s

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8.9

MAGNETIC-FIELD ENERGY

Because of the inductance, the emf induced in an inductor prevents a power source or a battery from establishing instantaneous current. Therefore, the power source has to do work against the inductor to create a steady current I. In an ordinary d.c. circuit, part of the energy from the power source is dissipated as heat due to the resistance R, and the other part is stored as magnetic field in the inductor. When there is no current, no energy is stored in the inductor. But when the steady current I is passing through the inductor, the total energy is:

UB =

1 2 LI 2

(8.15)

This energy is stored in the form of a magnetic field. In the solenoid with the inductance L = μn 2 Al and the magnetic field of B = μnI , Equation (8.15) may be written as:

1 2 B2 U B = LI = Al 2 2μ

(8.16)

8.10 TRANSFORMERS
A transformer is a device in which two circuits are coupled by a magnetic field that is linked to both. Its function is to transfer electrical energy from the first circuit to the other. The transformer works on the principle of mutual inductance of the primary and secondary coils winding on an iron core as shown Figure 8.3(a). The circuit symbol for a transformer with an iron core is shown in Figure 8.3(b).

Figure 8.3: (a) Schematic diagram of a transformer (b) circuit symbol

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An a.c. power source causes an alternating current in the primary coil, which sets up an alternating magnetic flux in the core and the changing flux induces an emf in the secondary coil. The induced emf in the secondary coil gives rise to an alternating current in the secondary coil.

ε1 = -N1

dΦ dΦ and ε2 = -N 2 dt dt

(8.17)

or

ε1 N1 = ε2 N 2 V1 N1 = V2 N 2

(8.18)

(8.19)

If a resistance R completes the secondary circuit, then the power delivered to the primary equals the power of the secondary.
I 1V1 = I 2V2

(8.20) (8.21)

And

I 2 N1 = I1 N 2
SELF-CHECK 8.1

In practice, the core of a transformer is not made of a single solid iron block, but consists of iron sheets laminated with non-conducting material. Why? Example 8.8 What turns ratio would be needed for an ideal transformer to provide 12 V (rms) when connected to 240 V (rms) mains supply. Solution

V1 N1 12 1 = = or n = V2 N 2 240 20 The primary has the greater number of turns by a factor of 20.
According to Equation (8.19)

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EXERCISE 8.4
A step up transformer is used on a 200 V line to produce 800 V. The primary has 100 turns. Find the number of turns on the secondary.

A changing magnetic field or magnetic flux produces an electric current or electromotive force, which can be explained using Faraday’s law and Lenz’s law. Faraday’ law states that the induced emf in a close loop equals the negative of the rate of change of magnetic flux through the loop. In short, the law can be ΔΦB written as ε = − Δt Lenz’s law is used to determine the sign or direction of an induced current or emf. Lenz’s law states that the direction of any magnetic induction effect is such as to oppose the cause of the effect. Motional emf is created in a conductor moving in a uniform magnetic field. The induced emf is given by ε = B l v . The direction of emf is reversed when we reverse the motion of the conductor. Circulating currents are induced in a bulk piece of conductor moving in magnetic fields or located in changing magnetic fields. These circulating currents are called eddy currents. Eddy currents produce breaking and heating effects and can be used in many applications. A changing current in a coil causes a changing magnetic flux and induces an emf in the same coil. The inductance L is the magnitude of induced emf per unit rate of change of current. The inductance L is the change of magnetic flux per change of current. A changing current in coil 1 causes a changing magnetic flux in coil 2 and an emf is induced in coil 2; likewise a changing current in coil 2 induces an emf in coil 1.

• •

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• • •

A change in the current in one coil that can induce an emf in an adjacent coil is known as mutual inductance. An inductor with inductance L carrying current I has energy U B =

1 2 LI 2

Transformers are employed to step up or down voltage in a.c. power transmission.

Eddy currents Electromegnetic induction Faraday’s law Lenz’s law

Magnetic flux Mutual inductance Self induction Transformer

1. A loop of diameter 4cm is placed in a magnetic field of magnitude 1 T. The normal to the loop makes an angle of 45° with the magnetic field. If the field decreases to 0.75 T, what is the change in the magnetic flux through the loop? 2. The magnetic field of a TV signal through a circular antenna of radius 5 cm changes at a rate of 0.1 T/s. Find the induced emf in the antenna if the signal is normal to the plane of the antenna. 3. 2 coils, A and B are placed at two fixed positions. When coil B has no current and the current in A increases at a rate of 5A/s, the emf induced in B is 10 mV. (a) (b) Find the mutual inductance. At a certain instant, the current in A is zero and the current in B is 2.5A.What is the total flux linkage through A ?