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**recognition of North Cyprus-style car license plates. Images are
**

usually taken from a camera at a toll gate and preprocessed by a fast

and robust 1-D DFT scheme to find the plate and character

positions. We examine a new wavelet video method of processing

signals for continuous-wave.

Keywords- Feedforward, Denoising, WaveNet, and Discrete

Fourier Transform.

I. INTRODUCTION

ar license recognition is important in several fields of

application:

- traffic control in restricted areas;

- automatic payment of tolls on highways or bridges;

- general security systems wherever there is the need of

identifying vehicles.

Some approaches exist and have been described in literature.

They are mainly based on pattern matching and normalized

correlation with a large database of stored templates.

In this paper we describe an experimental system for the

recognition of Cyprus-style car license plates. The system is

based on the use of a feedforward neural network (FNN). This

learning approach has been shown to guarantee high rates of

convergence and properties of stability and robustness of the

solution. The data at hand consist of digitized images of cars,

acquired by a high-resolution x4 photo camera and collected

in a Photo CD. The processed images (see Fig.1) are 390 by

480 pixels wide. The distance and the angle of view simulate

a car passing through a toll gate.

Manuscript received June 26, 2006. This work was supported in part by the

Near East University, Electrical & Electronics Engineering, North Cyprus,

Turkey via Mersin-10, KKTC.

Jamal Fathi Abu Hasna was born in Tulkarm on November 19, 1964. He came

to the North Cyprus in 1997, and graduated with a

Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical & Electronics

Engineering from Near East University in 1998-99. He

continued to the graduate program at Near East

University and completed the Master of Science in 2000-

2001 and continued the Doctor of Philosophy degrees in

2001 and now in process.

His current interests include neural computing, adaptive signal processing,

cellular communications, control systems, and wavelets,

Phone: 00905338658472, mail: jamalfathi2004@yahoo.com,

The recognition process starts with the search and the

extraction of the portion of the original image containing the

car plate, or even any part of the car. The characters

contained in the plate are localized by a robust processing

using a non-traditional Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT),

and subsequently isolated and classified by the neural

network.

The scores are validated by a post-processor which takes into

account the syntax of Cyprus-style plates.

The processing of video data in real time is considered to be

somewhat impractical given the current state of technology.

The utility of such processing in real-world applications

would therefore seem to be limited. However, recent

developments at Trident Systems, Incorporated have made

available real-time wavelet processing of video, in the form of

the WaveNet technology [2]. Also, in the future a variety of

fast architectures for computing wavelet transforms will

surely be developed. With respect to a recently published

work, our approach is able to reduce the complexity of the

learning phase (no feature extraction and pattern matching

are required). The character recognition has been speeded up

by the parallel architecture of the FNN. The algorithm has

been tested on a workstation and the Matlab software.

Fig. 1 Original Image

II. PREPROCESSING WITH WAVELET DENOISING

To improve performance for noisy Doppler signals, we apply

Donoho’s ( ) O n wavelet denoising algorithm [3]. The

algorithm first does the discrete wavelet transform with

Mallat’s pyramid algorithm [4].

The pyramid algorithm computes the transform for some J

dyadic levels of scale, resulting in vectors of detail and

smooth wavelet coefficients d1, d

2

,…,d

J-1

,s

J

.

The algorithm then shrinks the detail coefficients for scales

1 j J s ÷ to obtain

1 2 1

, ,..

J

d d d

÷

. Here the

j

d

are

( )

j j

j j

d d

=

,

C

Car Plate Recognition by Neural Networks and

Image Processing Using Integration of Wavelets

Jamal Fathi Abu Hasna

where ( ) x

is a nonlinear threshold shrinkage function

given by

0 | |

( )

( )(| | ) | |

if x

x

sign x x if x

s ¦

=

´

÷ >

¹

This threshold shrinkage function is shown in Fig 2.

Fig. 2 Nonlinear threshold shrinkage function for wavelet denoising

The threshold shrinkage function δ

λσ

(x) is parameterized by a

threshold λ and an estimate of the standard deviation of the

noise σ. We use a universal threshold

2log( )

j

N =

,

where

N

is the number of data samples [56]. For

we use

the median absolute deviation, which is a robust estimation of

standard deviation.

Finally, the wavelet denoising algorithm computes the inverse

discrete wavelet transform using the new coefficients

1 2 1

, ,.. , ,

J J J

d d d d s

÷

This results in a non-parametric estimate of the signal

without the noise. The entire wavelet denoising algorithm is

shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3 Wavelet denoising algorithm, where noisy Image and the

denoised one are shown in fig 4, and fig 5.

III. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS FOR PATTERN

RECOGNITION

The continuous wavelet transform correlates a Doppler signal

with time-localized wavelets at various scales and shifts. It

gives the change in local signal scale over time, which in this

case is the Doppler period or inverse frequency. When a

moving window is placed on the incoming Doppler signal

and the windowed signal is wavelet transformed, the

corresponding time-varying transform imagery constitutes

video. Samples of this wavelet-generated video over time

then form signal features for pattern recognition neural

networks. These networks are then trained to extract the

Doppler frequency shift over time. This frequency shift is

critical information for proximity sensing.

The continuous wavelet transform constitutes a frame rather

than a basis. Such a redundant representation allows more

flexibility in the selection of signal features. In terms of the

most efficient signal representation, these features should be

orthogonal. However, such a representation in which the

features are completely independent is less robust with respect

to noise immunity and fault tolerance. The search for the best

representation is therefore a tradeoff between redundancy and

robustness [5].

We extract the Doppler shift with feedforward multilayer

neural networks, known as multilayer perceptrons [6]. After

computing the continuous wavelet transform of the denoised

Doppler signal, we sample the transform coefficients to

provide inputs for the multilayer perceptrons. The networks

are trained with the Levenberg-Marquardt [7][8] rule to

provide the Doppler shift at a given time. This rule is a

powerful generalization of gradient descent that employs an

approximation of Newton’s method. It is much faster than

standard gradient descent algorithms such as

backpropagation, although it does require more memory.

IV. PROPOSED MODEL

In our scheme we place a window of fixed width over the

incoming signal, so as to localize the processing near the

present time. We then perform a continuous wavelet

transform on the signal within the window, resulting in an

image of the transform. As the signal window then moves

forward in time, the corresponding sequence of transform

-λσ

δ

λσ

(x)

x

λσ

d1

d2

d4

s4

DWT

d3

Inverse

DWT

Wavelet

Coefficients

Noisy

Image

Denoised

Image

Coefficient

Shrinkage

Fig. 4 Noisy Image

Fig. 5 Denoised Image

images forms a video. From this wavelet transform video, we

then extract features as input to pattern recognition

algorithms such as artificial neural networks. This is shown

in fig 6.

Our model has the generation of wavelet transform video

from time varying camera proximity fuze signal. Temporary

expansion of dimensionality allows us to extract salient

features, leading to reduced computational complexity

Fig. 6 Proposed Model

Proximity sensing is widely applied in manufacturing

automation and robotics. More recently, there has also been a

strong interest in proximity sensing for automobile collision

avoidance. Our proposed method is also applicable to

processing signals in sonar sensors.

V. ADVANTAGES OF OUR APPROACH

Besides, in our proposed scheme, wavelet video processing is

not a particular computational hindrance, but rather allows

salient features to be extracted via the wavelet coefficients.

Because of the quality of the wavelet video features, it is

likely that fewer numbers of inputs will be needed for pattern

recognition. In this sense our scheme could be considered to

be a form a data compression.

In particular, it seems to be a form of data compression that is

ideal for pattern recognition.

The multiresolution nature of wavelets also allows us to

explore the tolerance of imprecision in the processing of

signals. This provides the freedom to tailor the design of the

sensor to the resolution requirements of the signals being

processed. This tolerance of imprecision is in the spirit of

fuzzy logic, but in this case the imprecision is in the scale of

the signal structures rather than in the membership of sets.

The important idea is that useful information in signals is

generally found at the larger scales (lower frequencies). The

less useful, smaller scale signal structures can therefore be

disregarded. Neglecting unnecessary details allows a

reduction in the amount of data to be processed. This in turn

reduces the complexity of the processing, leading to

improvements in processing time, system size, and system

cost.

This reduction of data through the explicit use of scale is a

powerful form of data compression. While there are several

other strategies for data compression, this one has the

advantage of being based on the extraction of signal features.

Through wavelet transform time integration, a single

coefficient provides the correlation between the signal and a

wavelet at a particular scale and time shift. Wavelets are

known to provide good signal features for pattern recognition

algorithms such as artificial neural networks. Indeed, natural

sensors such as eyes and ears carry out wavelet-type

processing.

The continuous wavelet transform effectively increases the

dimensionality of the signal representation from one to two.

While this might cause some concern at first glance, it is

really not a problem. The reason is that the wavelet

representation will be used to extract signal features only.

Thus the pattern recognition neural networks need not suffer

from the “curse of dimensionality.” After all, the extracted

features are of a single dimension only, so that the increase in

dimensionality is only temporary. Indeed, because of the high

quality of wavelet features, it is quite possible that fewer

features will be needed, and that recognition performance will

be improved.

Mallat’s multiresolution analysis [9] leads to discrete

orthogonal wavelets at dyadic scales and shifts, implemented

via the efficient pyramid algorithm. These discrete wavelets

have been successful in many applications, particularly data

compression. However, discrete wavelets have limited utility

for pattern recognition problems. This is because interesting

signal structures are not constrained to follow such power-of-

two patterns. In particular, discrete wavelet transform

coefficients are shift-variant, which in general causes

problems for pattern recognition.

In contrast, the continuous wavelet transform has coefficients

at all scales and shifts, not just dyadic ones. The continuous

transform therefore has the desirable property of shift

invariance. Another advantage of continuous wavelets is that

they have less stringent requirements for admissibility, which

allows a wider choice of basis functions. They also have the

possibility of being basis functions for adaptive wavelet

networks.

Through the inclusion of all scales and shifts, the continuous

wavelet transform effectively increases the dimensionality of

the signal representation. That is, the representation is made

to be a function of two variables rather than one. We note

that the discrete wavelet transform introduces no such

increase in dimensionality, since the number of transform

coefficients is the same as the number of signal sample

points. This is because the discrete wavelet transform

employs an orthonormal basis rather than an over complete

frame.

Sensor

signal

Time

One-

Dimensional

window

Time-Varying

signal in

window

Two-Dimensional

window

Continuous wavelet

transform

Scale

Shift

Moving In

Time

Moving In Time

Wavelet Video

features Pattern

Recognition

Neural Net Video From time-

varying Image in

window

However, the fact that we are using the continuous wavelet

transform coefficients merely for feature extraction means

that we need not be plagued by the curse of increased

dimensionality. In particular, the goal is to use only the

relatively few coefficients that provide the best features. In

fact, the use of such high quality features may well mean that

fewer numbers of inputs will be needed for the pattern

recognition neural networks. Of course, these high quality

features are also likely to improve the performance of the

neural networks.

Our scheme could therefore be considered a form a data

compression. The temporary increase in dimensionality

could then improve compression quality, at least when

measured with respect to pattern recognition performance.

If we disregard the issue of dimensionality, it might still be

argued that computation of the discrete wavelet transform is

faster, which has complexity ( ) O n . However, a continuous

wavelet transform implemented via the fast Fourier transform

has complexity ( log ) O n n , which is still quite acceptable for

many applications. Also, a continuous wavelet transform has

the potential for massive parallelism, and allows the

possibility of adaptive wavelet bases [10]

VI. SOME EXPERIMENTS

These practical experiments taken using the proposed model

for not only the plates, also for the body of the car, and these

experiments are as shown in fig 7 below.

Fig. 7 (a), (b), and (c) Samples of wavelet-generated video for

training and testing inputs to pattern recognition neural networks,

while (d), (e) and (f) are the outputs of the proposed model.

VII. CONCLUSION

We have just demonstrated the effectiveness of features

extracted from wavelet-generated video, and We tested the

pattern recognition performance of such features in the

estimation of time varying Doppler shift from noisy sensor

signals. In particular, we sampled the wavelet video; we saw

that the frequency estimation performance of the neural

networks is overall good.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

My deepest thanks are to Prof. Dr. Senol Bektas, and to Prof.

Dr. Fakhraddin Mamedov. I would like to express my

gratitude to my collegues in the department. Also I would like

to express my gratitude to my family.

REFERENCES

[1]. R.Parisi, E.D. Di Claudio, G. Orlandi and B.D. Rao, “A

generalized learning paradigm exploiting the structure of

feedforward neural networks,” IEEE Trans. on Neural

Networks, vol.7, no.6, November 1996.

[2]. P. Comelli, P. Ferragina, M. Notturno Granieri, and F.

Stabile, “Optical recognition of motor vehicle license

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

plates,” IEEE Trans. On Vehicular Technology, Vol.

44, No. 4, November 1995, pp. 790-799.

[3]. S.Haykin, Neural Networks-A Comprehensive

Foundation, IEEE Press, 1994.

[4] A. Papoulis, Probability Random Variables and

Stochastic Processes, Mc Graw-Hill, New York, 3

rd

Edition, 1991.

[5] W.A. Gardner, Statistical Spectral Analysis: A Non-

Probablistic Theory, Prentice Hall, 1988.

[6] P.J. Huber, Robust Statistics, John Wiley, New York,

1981. 0-7803-4455-3/98/$10.00 (c) 1998 IEEE

[7]. Antoniadis, A.; G. Oppenheim, Eds.(1995), Wavelets and

statistics, Lecture Notes in Statistics 103, Springer

Verlag.

[8]. Burke Hubbard, B. (1996), The world according to

wavelets, AK Peters, Wellesley. The French original

version is titled Ondes et Ondelettes. La saga d'un outil

mathématique, Pour la Science, (1995).

[9]. Chui, C.K. (1992a), Wavelets: a tutorial in theory and

applications, Academic Press.

[10]. Cohen, A. (1995), Wavelets and multiscale signal

processing, Chapman and Hall.

[11]. Cohen, A.; I. Daubechies, B. Jawerth, P. Vial (1993),

"Multiresolution analysis, wavelets and fast wavelet

transform on an interval," CRAS Paris, Ser. A, t. 316,

pp. 417-421.

[12]. Coifman, R.R.; Y. Meyer, M.V. Wickerhauser (1992),

"Wavelet analysis and signal processing," in Wavelets

and their applications, M.B. Ruskai et al. (Eds.), pp. 153-

178, Jones and Bartlett.

[13]. Teolis, A. (1998), Computational signal processing with

wavelets, Birkhauser.

[14]. Vetterli, M.; J. Kovacevic (1995), Wavelets and subband

coding, Prentice Hall.

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