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Pumps & Hydraulic Turbines

The most common types of pumps used in gas processing Modern practice is to use centrifugal rather than positive
plants are centrifugal and positive displacement. Occasionally displacement pumps where possible because they are usually
regenerative turbine pumps, axial-flow pumps, and ejectors less costly, require less maintenance, and less space. Conven-
are used. tional centrifugal pumps operate at speeds between 1200 and
8000 rpm. Very high speed centrifugal pumps, which can operate

FIG. 12-1

A = cross-sectional area of plunger, piston, or pipe, sq in. T = torque, ft lb

a = cross-sectional area of piston rod, sq in. tr = temperature rise, °F
AC = alternating current u = impeller peripheral velocity, ft/sec
bbl = barrel (42 U.S. gallons) VE = volumetric efficiency, fraction
bhp = brake horsepower VEo = overall volumetric efficiency
C = constant (Fig. 12-16) VEρ = volumetric efficiency due to density change
Cp = specific heat at average temperature, Btu/(lb • °F) VEl = volumetric efficiency due to leakage
cfs = cu ft/sec v = liquid mean velocity at a system point, ft/sec
D = displacement of reciprocating pump, gpm z = elevation of a point of the system above (+) or
DC = direct current below (–) datum of the pump. For piping, the ele-
d = impeller diameter, in. vation is from the datum to the piping center-
e = pump efficiency, fraction line; for vessels and tanks, the elevation is from
g = 32.2 ft/sec2 (acceleration of gravity) the datum to the liquid level.
gpm = U.S. gallons/minute Greek:
H = total equipment head, ft of fluid ρ = density at average flowing conditions, lb/ft3
h = head, ft of fluid pumped ρi = inlet density, lb/ft3
hyd hp = hydraulic horsepower ρ o = outlet density, lb/ft

k = factor related to fluid compressibility (Fig. 12-16) Subscripts:

L = length of suction pipe, ft a = acceleration
Ls = stroke length, in. bep = best efficiency point, for maximum impeller
m = number of plungers or pistons diameter
NPSH = net positive suction head of fluid pumped, ft c = compression
NPSHA = NPSH available, ft d = discharge of pump
NPSHR = NPSH required, ft dv = discharge vessel
n = speed of rotation, revolutions/minute (rpm) D = displacement
ns = specific speed, rpm f = friction
∆P = differential pressure, psi i = inlet of equipment
P = pressure, psia or psig l = leakage
Pvp = liquid vapor pressure at pumping temperature, psia o = outlet of equipment
psi = lb/sq in. ov = overall
psia = lb/sq in. absolute p = pressure
psig = lb/sq in. gauge r = rise
Q = rate of liquid flow, gpm s = static, suction of pump, specific, or stroke
r = ratio of internal volume of fluid between valves, sv = suction vessel
when the piston or plunger is at the end of the suc- v = velocity
tion stroke, to the piston or plunger displacement. vp = vapor pressure
RD = relative density to water at standard temperature w = water
s = slip or leakage factor for reciprocating and rotary pumps x = point x in the system
S = suction specific speed (units per Eq 12-7) y = point y in the system
sp gr = specific gravity at average flowing conditions. 1 = impeller diameter or speed 1
Equal to RD 2 = impeller diameter or speed 2

FIG. 12-1 (Cont’d)

Alignment: The straight line relation between the pump on the system characteristics, liquid properties and oper-
shaft and the driver shaft. ating conditions.
Casing, Axially Split: A pump case split parallel to the NPSHR: The minimum total suction absolute head, at the
pump shaft. suction nozzle, referred to the standard datum, minus the
Casing, Radially Split: A pump case split transverse to liquid vapor absolute pressure head, at flowing temperature,
the pump shaft. required to avoid cavitation. For positive displacement
pumps it includes internal acceleration head and losses
Cavitation: A phenomenon that may occur along the flow caused by suction valves and effect of springs. It does not
path in a pump when the absolute pressure equals the include system acceleration head. NPSHR depends on the
liquid vapor pressure at flowing temperature. Bubbles pump characteristics and speed, liquid properties and flow
then form which later implode when the pressure rises rate and is determined by vendor testing, usually with water.
above the liquid vapor pressure.
Pelton Wheel: A turbine runner which turns in reaction to
Coupling: A device for connecting the pump shaft to the the impulse imparted by a liquid stream striking a series
driver shaft consisting of the pump shaft hub and driver of buckets mounted around a wheel.
shaft hub, usually bolted together.
Recirculation Control: Controlling the quantity of flow
Coupling, Spacer: A cylindrical piece installed between through a pump by recirculating discharge liquid back
the pump shaft coupling hub and driver shaft coupling to suction.
hub, to provide space for removal of the mechanical seal
without moving the driver. Rotor: The pump or power recovery turbine shaft with the
impeller(s) mounted on it.
Cutwater: The point of minimum volute cross-sectional
area, also called the volute tongue. Rotor, Francis-type: A reverse running centrifugal pump
impeller, used in a hydraulic power recovery turbine, to
Datum Elevation: The reference horizontal plane from convert pressure energy into rotational energy.
which all elevations and heads are measured. The pumps
standards normally specify the datum position relative to Run-out: The point at the end of the head-capacity per-
a pump part, e.g. the impeller shaft centerline for centrifu- formance curve, indicating maximum flow quantity and
gal horizontal pumps. usually maximum brake horsepower.
Diffuser: Pump design in which the impeller is surrounded Runner: The shaft mounted device in a power recovery tur-
by diffuser vanes where the gradually enlarging passages bine which converts liquid pressure energy into shaft power.
change the liquid velocity head into pressure head. Shut-off: The point on the pump curve where flow is zero,
Displacement: The calculated volume displacement of a usually the point of highest total dynamic head.
positive displacement pump with no slip losses. Simplex: Pump with one plunger or piston.
Double Acting: Reciprocating pump in which liquid is Single Acting: Reciprocating pump in which liquid is dis-
discharged during both the forward and return stroke of charged only during the forward stroke of the piston.
the piston.
Slip: The quantity of fluid that leaks through the internal
Duplex: Pump with two plungers or pistons. clearances of a positive displacement pump per unit of
Efficiency, Mechanical: The ratio of the pump hydraulic time. Sometimes expressed on a percentage basis.
power output to pump power input. Surging: A sudden, strong flow change often causing exces-
Efficiency, Volumetric: The ratio of the pump suction or sive vibration.
discharge capacity to pump displacement. Suction, Double: Liquid enters on both sides of the impeller.
Head: The flowing liquid column height equivalent to the Suction, Single: Liquid enters one side of the impeller.
flowing liquid energy, of pressure, velocity or height above
the datum, whose sum is the total head. Also used to ex- Throttling: Controlling the quantity of flow by reducing the
press changes of energy such as the friction losses, the cross-sectional flow area, usually by partially closing a valve.
equipment total head and the acceleration head. Triplex: Pump with three plungers or pistons.
Head, Acceleration: The head equivalent to the pressure Vanes, Guide: A series of angled plates (fixed or variable)
change due to changes in velocity in the piping system. set around the circumference of a turbine runner to con-
HPRT: Hydraulic power recovery turbine. trol the fluid flow.

Impeller: The bladed member of the rotating assembly of a Volute, Double: Spiral type pump case with two cutwaters
centrifugal pump which imparts the force to the liquid. 180° apart, dividing the flow into two equal streams.

NPSHA: The total suction absolute head, at the suction noz- Volute, Single: Spiral type pump case with a single cutwa-
zle, referred to the standard datum, minus the liquid va- ter to direct the liquid flow.
por absolute pressure head, at flowing temperature Vortex Breaker: A device used to avoid vortex formation in
available for a specific application. For reciprocating the suction vessel or tank which, if allowed, would cause
pumps it includes the acceleration head. NPSHA depends vapor entrainment in the equipment inlet piping.

FIG. 12-2
Common Pump Equations

Given ⇒ 3
multiply by ft /sec bbl/day bbl/h UK gal./min m3/h lb/h
to get ⇓
US gal./min 449 0.0292 0.700 1.2009 4.40 1/(500 • sp gr)
Given ⇒ * std atm
multiply by kPa ft water m water ft liquid bar 760 mm Hg kgf/cm2
to get ⇓ at 39.2°F at 0°C at 0°C
lb/in2 0.145 0.4335 1.422 sp gr / 2.31 14.5038 14.6959 14.2233
Given ⇒
multiply by kg/m3 lb/US gal lb/UK gal kg/lt API gravity Baumé gravity
to get ⇓
lb/ft3 0.062428 7.48047 6.22884 62.428 See Fig. 1-3

144 • P 2.31 • P Q • H • sp gr Q • ∆P ** Q • H • sp gr Q • ∆P **
hp = = hyd hp = = bhp = = (for pumps)
ρ sp gr 3,960 1,714 (3,960)(e) 1,714 • e
hv =
(d)(n) hyd hp (bhp)(5252)
u= bhp = (for pumps) T =
229 e n
(Q) (0.321) bhp = hyd hp • e (for turbines) ⁄41
v = n•√
Qbep n • Hbep • √
A ns = =
3⁄4 Hbep
sp gr = specific gravity (Hbep)
1 HP = 0.7457 kW Water density at 60°F = 62.37 lb/ft3 See Fig. 1-7 for viscosity relationships
= 550 ft • lbf/s Standard gravity acceleration: *Standard atmospheric pressure:
= 33,000 ft • lbf/min g = 9.80665 m/s2 = 32.1740 ft/s2 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kPa = 14.696 psi
**See Eq. 12-3 and 12-4.


1: Values at initial conditions
2: Values at new conditions
Q2 = Q1 (n2/n1) Q1 (d2/d1) Q1 (d2/d1) (n2/n1)
h2 = h1 (n2/n1)2 h1 (d2/d1)2 h1 [(d2/d1) (n2/n1)]

bhp2 = bhp1 (n2/n1)3 bhp1 (d2/d1)3 bhp1 [(d2/d1) (n2/n1)]


NPSHR2 = NPSHR1 (n2/n1)2 — NPSHR1 (n2/n1)2

FIG. 12-3
Pump Selection Guide

FIG. 12-4 between these points and the equipment total head. Eleva-
tions are measured from the equipment datum.
Datum elevation
The total head at any system point is:
Pump type Standard Datum
2.31 • P v2
elevation h = z + hp + hv = z + + Eq 12-1
sp gr 2•g
Centrifugal, hori- API 6101 Shaft centerline
zontal Hydraulic Institute5
The system friction head is the inlet system friction head plus
Centrifugal, verti- API 6101 Suction nozzle the outlet system friction head:
cal in-line centerline
Centrifugal, other API 6101 Top of the hf = hfx + hfy Eq 12-2
vertical foundation
The equipment total head is the outlet nozzle total head minus
Centrifugal, verti- Hydraulic Institute5 Entrance eye to
cal single suction, the first stage the inlet nozzle total head:
volute and diffused impeller
vane type 2.31 (Po − Pi) v2o – v2i
H = ho − hi = zo – zi + + Eq 12-3
Centrifugal, verti- Hydraulic Institute5 Impeller sp gr 2•g
cal double suction discharge
horizontal When the elevation and size of inlet and outlet nozzles are the
centerline same, the equipment total head (H) equals the difference of
pressure heads. H is positive for pumps and negative for
Vertical turbine. AWWA E10118 Underside of the
Line shaft and sub- discharge head HPRTs.
mersible types or head baseplate
When using any suction-and-discharge-system points the fol-
Reciprocating Hydraulic Institute5 Suction nozzle lowing general equation applies:
Rotary Hydraulic Institute5 Reference line or 2.31 • Px v2x 2.31 • Py v2y
suction nozzle zx + + – hfx +H = zy + + + hfy
sp gr 2•g sp gr 2•g
Eq 12-4

up to 23,000 rpm and higher, are used for low-capacity, high- When the points are located in tanks, vessels or low velocity
head applications. Most centrifugal pumps will operate with points in the piping, the velocity head is normally negligible,
an approximately constant head over a wide range of capacity. but may not be negligible in equipment nozzles. Note that the
subscripts "i" and "o" are used for variables at pumps and
Positive displacement pumps are either reciprocating or ro- HPRTs inlet and outlet nozzles, respectively, while the sub-
tary. Reciprocating pumps include piston, plunger, and dia- scripts "s" and "d" are used only for variables at pumps suction
phragm types. Rotary pumps are: single lobe, multiple lobe, and discharge nozzles. The subscripts "x" and "y" are used for
rotary vane, progressing cavity, and gear types. Positive dis- variables at points in each inlet and outlet subsystem and usu-
placement pumps operate with approximately constant ally are suction and discharge vessels. Also "x" and "y" are used
capacities over wide variations in head, hence they usually are for friction head from point "x" to equipment inlet nozzle and
installed for services which require high heads at moderate from equipment outlet nozzle to point "y".
capacities. A special application of small reciprocating pumps
in gas processing plants is for injection of fluids (e.g. methanol The work done in compressing the liquid is negligible for
and corrosion inhibitors) into process streams, where their practically incompressible liquids and it is not included in
constant-capacity characteristics are desirable. above equations. To evaluate the total head more accurately
when handling a compressible liquid, the compression work
Axial-flow pumps are used for services requiring very high should be included. If a linear relationship between density
capacities at low heads. Regenerative-turbine pumps are used and pressure is assumed, the liquid compression head that
for services requiring small capacities at high heads. Ejectors substitutes for the difference of pressure heads in the above
are used to avoid the capital cost of installing a pump, when a equations is:
suitable motive fluid (frequently steam) is available, and are
usually low-efficiency devices. These kinds of pumps are used  1 1 
Hc = 1.155 (Po – Pi)  +
gri 
infrequently in the gas+processing industry. Eq. 12-5
 sp gro sp
Fig. 12-1 provides a list of symbols and terms used in the
text and also a glossary of terms used in the pump industry. When the differential pressure is sufficiently high to have a
Fig. 12-2 is a summary of some of the more useful pump equa- density change of more than 10%, or when the pressure is
tions. Fig. 12-3 provides guidance in selecting the kinds of near the fluid’s critical pressure, the change in fluid density
pumps suitable for common services. and other properties with pressure is not linear. In these
cases, Equations 12-3 to 12-5 may not be accurate. A specific
fluid properties relationship model is required in this case. For
EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEM EQUATIONS pure substances, a pressure-enthalpy-entropy chart may be
used for estimating purposes by assuming an isentropic proc-
The energy conservation equation for pump or hydraulic ess. The pump manufacturer should be consulted for the real
turbine systems comes from Bernoulli’s Theorem and relates process, including the equipment efficiency, heat transfer, etc.
the total head in two points of the system, the friction losses to determine the equipment performance.

FIG. 12-5
Depropanizer Reflux Pump for Example 12-1

FIG. 12-6a FIG. 12-6b

Horizontal Single Stage Process Pump Vertical Inline Pump

NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD NPSH and Suction Specific Speed — Suction specific
speed is an index describing the suction capabilities of a first
See NPSH definition in Fig. 12-1. There should be sufficient stage impeller and can be calculated using Eq. 12-7. Use half
net positive suction head available (NPSHA) for the pump to of the flow for double suction impellers.
work properly, without cavitation, throughout its expected ca-
pacity range. Ususally a safety margin of about 2 to 3 ft. of S = Eq. 12-7
NPSHA above NPSHR is adequate. Cavitation causes noise, NPSHR bep3/4
impeller damage, and impaired pump performance. Consid-
eration must also be given to any dissolved gases which may Pumps with high suction speed tend to be susceptible to vi-
affect vapor pressure. For a given pump, NPSHR increases bration (which may cause seal and bearing problems) when
with increasing flow rate. they are operated at other than design flow rates. As a result,
some users restrict suction specific speed, and a widely ac-
2.31 • (Pi − Pvp) v2i cepted maximum is 11,000. For more details on the signifi-
NPSHA = + zi + cance of suction specific speed, consult pump vendors or
sp gr 2•g
references listed in the References section.
2.31 • (Psv − Pvp)
= + zsv − hfsv Eq 12-6 Submergence — The suction system inlet or the pump
sp gr
suction bell should have sufficient height of liquid to avoid
Datum — The pump datum elevation is a very important vortex formation, which may entrain air or vapor into the sys-
factor to consider and should be verified with the manufac- tem and cause loss of capacity and efficiency as well as other
turer. Some common references are shown in Fig. 12-4. Some problems such as vibration, noise, and air or vapor pockets.
manufacturers provide two NPSHR curves for vertical can Inadequate reservoir geometry can also cause vortex forma-
pumps, one for the first stage impeller suction eye and the tion, primarily in vertical submerged pumps. Refer to the Hy-
other for the suction nozzle. draulic Institute Standards5 for more information.

NPSH Correction Factors —NPSHR is determined from

tests by the pump manufacturer using water near room tem-
perature and is expressed in height of water. When hydrocar-
bons or high-temperature water are pumped, less NPSH is DIFFERENTIAL HEAD
required than when cold water is pumped. Hydraulic Institute
correction factors for various liquids are reproduced in Fig. 12-8. The following procedure is recommended to calculate the
Some users prefer not to use correction factors to assure a greater head of most pump services encountered in the gas processing
design margin of safety. industry. See Example 12-1.

FIG. 12-6c FIG. 12-6d

Horizontal Multi-Stage Pump Vertical Can Pump

FIG. 12-6e FIG. 12-7
Vertical, High Pressure, Double Case, Multi-Stage Pump Pump Selection Guide — Centrifugal Pumps





SHAFT 1000

Total Head in Feet



STG 10
STG 11


STG 4 10
10 100 1000 6000


Single Stage – Std. rpm (Single/Double Suction
STG 1 Vertical Multistage – Barrel Type
Single Stage – High rpm
Pump Type: Vertical, double case, high pressure, SUCTION Horizontal Multistage – Barrel Type
multi-stage barrel type Single Stage – Axial Flow
Range: 50-1000 USGPM; 500-8000 feet TH; 3600 rpm Single Stage – Mixed Flow
Typical Application: High pressure injection, ethane product,
Horizontal Multistage – Single Case
miscible flood, boiler feed Vertical Multistage – Barrel Type

Courtesy of Bingham – Willamette Ltd. Courtesy of Bingham – Willamette Ltd.

1. Prepare a sketch of the system in which the pump is to 6. Add the discharge vessel pressure, the frictional head
be installed, including the upstream and downstream losses in the discharge piping system, and the discharge
vessels (or some other point at which the pressure will static head. This gives the total pressure (or head) of liq-
not be affected by the operation of the pump). Include all uid at the pump discharge. In order to provide good con-
components which might create frictional head loss (both trol, a discharge control valve should be designed to ab-
suction and discharge) such as valves, orifices, filters, sorb at least 30% of the frictional head loss of the
and heat exchangers. system, at the design flow rate.
2. Show on the sketch: 7. Calculate the required pump total head by subtracting
— The datum position (zero elevation line) according the calculated pump suction total pressure from the cal-
to the proper standard. See Fig. 12-4. culated pump discharge total pressure and converting to
— The pump nozzles sizes and elevations.
8. It is prudent to add a safety factor to the calculated pump
— The minimum elevation (referred to the datum) of head to allow for inaccuracies in the estimates of heads and
liquid expected in the suction vessel. pressure losses, and pump design. Frequently a safety fac-
— The maximum elevation (referred to the datum) to tor of 10% is used, but the size of the factor used for each
which the liquid is to be pumped. pump should be chosen with consideration of:

— The head loss expected to result from each compo- • The accuracy of the data used to calculate the re-
nent which creates a frictional pressure drop at de- quired head
sign capacity. • The cost of the safety factor
3. Use appropriate equations (Eq 12-1 to Eq 12-4). • The problems which might be caused by installing
4. Convert all the pressures, frictional head losses, and static a pump with inadequate head.
heads to consistent units (usually pounds per square inch Example 12-1 — Liquid propane, at its bubble point, is to be
or feet of head). In 5 and 6 below, any elevation head is pumped from a reflux drum to a depropanizer. The maximum
negative if the liquid level is below the datum. Also, the ves- flow rate is expected to be 360 gpm. The pressures in the ves-
sel pressures are the pressures acting on the liquid sur- sels are 200 and 220 psia respectively. The specific gravity of
faces. This is very important for tall towers. propane at the pumping temperature (100°F) is 0.485. The
5. Add the static head to the suction vessel pressure, then elevations and estimated frictional pressure losses are shown
subtract the frictional head losses in the suction piping. on Fig.12-9. The pump curves are shown in Fig. 12-5. The
This gives the total pressure (or head) of liquid at the pump nozzles elevations are zero and the velocity head at noz-
pump suction flange. zles is negligible.

FIG. 12-8 Required differential head is determined as follows:
NPSHR Reduction for Centrifugal Pumps Handling Hydro- Absolute Total Pressure at Pump Suction
carbon Liquids and High Temperature Water
Reflux drum 200.0 psia
Elevation 20 ft. • 0.485/2.31 = +4.2 psi
Friction piping –0.5 psi
valves –0.2 psi
203.5 psia
= 188.8 psig
Absolute Total Pressure at Pump Discharge
Tower 220.0 psia
Elevation 74 ft • 0.485/2.31 = +15.5 psi
Friction piping +3.0 psi
valves +2.0 psi
orifice +1.2 psi
filter +13.0 psi
check valve +1.0 psi
control valve +9.0 psi
264.7 psia
= 250.0 psig
Differential pressure = 250.0 – 188.8 = 61.2 psi
(61.2) (2.31)
Differential head = H = = 292 ft
10% safety factor 30 ft
Required differential head (H) 322 ft
Calculation of NPSHA
Reflux drum pressure 200.0 psia
Elevation 20 ft • 0.485/2.31 = +4.2 psi
Friction valves = –0.2 psi
FIG. 12-9 piping = –0.5 psi
Example 12-1 Depropanizer Fluid vapor pressure –200.0 psia
3.5 psi
NPSHA 3.5 • 2.31 = 16.7 ft

FIG. 12-10
Example Centrifugal Pump Head Curves

This NPSHA result is adequate when compared to the 9 ft. frequently lower than equivalent horizontal pumps because
of NPSHR in the curve shown in Fig. 12-5. they require smaller foundations and simpler piping systems.
Calculation of Hydraulic Power Vertical can pumps are often used for liquids at their bub-
ble-point temperature because the first stage impeller is lo-
Q •H • sp gr
hyd hp = (from Fig. 12-2) cated below ground level and therefore requires less net
3960 positive suction head at the suction flange. The vertical dis-
tance from the suction flange down to the inlet of the first
(360) (322) (0.485)
hyd hp = = 14.2 hp stage impeller provides additional NPSHA.
Centrifugal Pump Theory
Calculation of Actual Horsepower Centrifugal pumps increase the pressure of the pumped
fluid by action of centrifugal force on the fluid. Since the total
hyd hp head produced by a centrifugal pump is independent of the
bhp = (from Fig. 12-2)
e density of the pumped fluid, it is customary to express the
pressure increase produced by centrifugal pumps in feet of
Fig. 12-5 is the performance curve of the selected pump. The
head of fluid pumped.
efficiency at rated capacity and required head is 62%, with a
brake horsepower calculated as follows: Operating characteristics of centrifugal pumps are ex-
pressed in a pump curve similar to Fig. 12-5. Depending on
14.2 hp
bhp = = 22.9 bhp impeller design, pump curves may be "drooping," "flat," or
0.62 "steep." Fig. 12-10 shows these curves graphically. Pumps
with drooping curves tend to have the highest efficiency but
Motor Sizing — The maximum flow is 500 gpm with a may be undesirable because it is possible for them to operate
head of 240 feet for this particular pump impeller size, which at either of two flow rates at the same head. The influence of
results in a brake horsepower requirement of 26.2 bhp at run- impeller design on pump curves is discussed in detail in Hy-
out (i.e., end of head curve). Therefore a 30 hp motor is se- draulic Institute Standards.5
lected for the pump driver to provide "full curve" protection.
Affinity Laws for Centrifugal Pumps — The rela-
tionships between rotational speeds, impeller diameter, capac-
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS ity, head, power, and NPSHR for any particular pump are
defined by the affinity laws (See Fig. 12-2 for affinity laws).
Figs. 12-6a/b, 12c/d and 12-6e are cross-sectional drawings These equations are to predict new curves for changes in im-
showing typical configurations for five types of centrifugal peller diameter and speed.
pumps. A guide to selecting centrifugal pumps is shown in
Fig. 12-7. Horizontal centrifugal pumps are more common; The capacity of a centrifugal pump is directly proportional
however, vertical pumps are often used because they are more to its speed of rotation and its impeller diameter. The total
compact and, in cold climates, may need less winterizing than pump head developed is proportional to the square of its speed
horizontal pumps. The total installed cost of vertical pumps is and its impeller diameter. The power consumed is propor-
tional to the cube of its speed and its impeller diameter. The
FIG. 12-11 NPSHR is proportional to the square of its speed.
Example Combined Pump-System Curves These equations apply in any consistent set of units but only
apply exactly if there is no change of efficiency when the rota-
tional speed is changed. This is usually a good approximation
if the change in rotational speed is small.
A different impeller may be installed or the existing modi-
The operating point of the pump
AD-C is determined graphically by the fied. The modified impeller may not be geometrically similar
Y intersection of the pump head-
capacity and the system head-capacity
to the original. An approximation may be found if it is as-
curve. sumed that the change in diameter changes the discharge pe-
ripheral velocity without affecting the efficiency. Therefore, at
equal efficiencies and rotational speed, for small variations in
HA impeller diameter, changes may be calculated using the affin-
ity laws.
ITY SYSTEM FRICTION HEAD These equations do not apply to geometrically similar but
TOTAL SY different size pumps. In that case dimensional analysis should
be applied.


The affinity equations apply to pumps with radial flow im-
pellers, that is, in the centrifugal range of specific speeds, be-
low 4200. For axial or mixed flow pumps, consult the
manufacturer. See Fig. 12-2 for specific speed equation.
Most liquids pumped in gas processing plants have viscosi-
ties in the same range as water. Thus they are considered
"nonviscous" and no viscosity corrections are required. Occa-

FIG. 12-12
Series Pumps Selection

FIG. 12-13
Parallel Pumps Selection

sionally fluids with viscosities higher than 5 centistokes are  e1   hs (Q2/Q1) + hf1 (Q2/Q1)3 
encountered (e.g. triethylene glycol, 40 cs at 70°F) and correc- bhp2 = bhp1     Eq 12-8
 e2   hs + hf1 
tions to head, capacity, and power consumption may be re-
quired. subscript 1 refers to initial flow rate
Viscosity correction charts and the procedures for using subscript 2 refers to the changed flow rate
them are included in Hydraulic Institute Standards.5
hs (static) is equivalent to the zero flow system total head
Matching the Pump to the System
On-Off Control — Pump capacity can be controlled by
Requirements starting and stopping the pump manually or by an automatic
A pump curve depicts the relationship between the head control such as pressure, level or temperature switches.
and capacity of a pump. A system curve shows the relationship
between the total head difference across the system and the Temperature Rise Due to Pumping
flow rate through it. The total head difference consists of three When a liquid is pumped, its temperature increases because
components: static (gravity) head, pressure head, and head- the energy resulting from the inefficiency of the pump appears
loss due to friction. Static and pressure heads do not change as heat.
with flow. However, frictional losses usually increase approxi-
mately as the square of the flow rate through the system. If 1 
H  − 1
the system curve is plotted with the same units as the pump  e 
curve, it can be superimposed as shown in Fig. 12-11. tr = Eq 12-9
778 Cp
For pump selection, the shape and slope of the pump curve
shall be considered in its position with respect to the system Usually when the pump is running normally, the tempera-
curve. When the curves are approximately perpendicular to ture rise is negligible. However, if the pump discharge is shut
each other, the change in the operating point position due to off, all energy is converted to heat and since there is no fluid
deviations in the curves will be minimum. In addition, the flow through the pump to carry the heat away, the liquid in
shape and slope shall be considered when several pumps are the pump will heat rapidly and eventually vaporize. This can
used in series and/or parallel operation to produce the desired produce catastrophic failures, particularly in large multistage
range of flow and/or operating pressure. Refer to Fig. 12-12 pumps.
and Fig. 12-13 for series and parallel operation. Pump vendors should be requested to provide data on mini-
Throttling Control — If a centrifugal pump and a sys- mum flow.
tem were matched as shown in Fig. 12-11, the flow rate Expensive pumps, such as large multistage units, can be
through the system will be "A" unless some kind of flow con- protected by installing minimum flow recirculation which will
trol is provided. Control usually is provided by throttling a ensure an adequate flow through the pump.
valve in the discharge piping of the pump, which creates extra
frictional losses so that pump capacity is reduced to that re- Series and Parallel Operation
quired. In Fig. 12-11, the required flow rate is represented by Often pumps are installed in series or in parallel with other
"B." Required amount of extra frictional losses to achieve a pumps. In parallel, the capacities at any given head are
flow rate of "B" is represented on Fig. 12-11 by the difference added; in series, the heads at any given capacity are added. A
between "HB-PUMP" and "HB-SYSTEM." Frequently the throt- multi-stage pump is in effect a series of single stage units.
tling valve is an automatic control valve which holds some Figs. 12-12 and 12-13 show series and parallel pumps curves,
plant condition constant (such as liquid level, flow rate, or a system curve, and the effect of operating one, two or three
fluid temperature). This control method consumes energy pumps in a system. In both figures, the operating points for
since it artificially increases the system resistance to flow. both pumps "A" and "B" are the same only when one pump is
Recirculation Control — Pump capacity can also be operating. For 2 or 3 pumps operating, the points are not the
controlled by recirculating a portion of the pumped fluid back same because of the pump curve shapes. Hence, due consider-
to the suction. This control method is used more frequently for tion should be given to the pump curve shape when selecting
positive displacement pumps than for centrifugal pumps, pumps for series or parallel operation.
since the discharge of most positive displacement pumps Parallel operation is most effective with identical pumps;
should not be throttled. This control method should be used however, they do not have to be identical, nor have the same
with caution for centrifugal pumps, since a wide-open recircu- shut-off head or capacity to be paralleled. When pumps are op-
lation may result in a head so low that the pumped fluid will erating in parallel it is imperative that their performance
be circulated back to the suction at an extremely high rate, curves rise steadily to shut-off. A drooping curve gives two pos-
causing high power consumption, increase in fluid tempera- sible points of operation, and the pump load may oscillate be-
ture, and possibly cavitation, as well as possibly overloading tween the two causing surging.
the driver.
Speed Control — Another way of regulating centrifugal
pump capacity is to adjust the rotational speed of the pump. Most pumps used in gas processing service are driven by
This is frequently not easily done because most pumps are electric motors, usually fixed speed induction motors.
driven by fixed-speed motors. However, pumps controlled by API Standard 610, Section 3.1.4. (Drivers), states:
adjusting the rotational speed often consume substantially
less energy than those controlled in other ways. The changed "Motors shall have power ratings, including the service fac-
power consumption can be calculated by Eq. 12-8, which as- tor (if any), at least equal to the percentages of power at
sumes that the frictional head is proportional to the square of pump rated conditions given in. . ." the next table. "How-
the flow rate. ever, the power at rated conditions shall not exceed the mo-

FIG. 12-14
Check List for Centrifugal Pump Troubles and Causes

Trouble: Possible Causes: Trouble: Possible Causes:

1. Failure to deliver liquid a. Wrong direction of rotation 5. Pump overloads driver a. Speed too high
b. Pump not primed b. Total head lower than rated
c. Suction line not filled with head
liquid c. Excessive recirculation
d. Air or vapor pocket in suction d. Either or both the specific
line gravity and viscosity of liquid
e. Inlet to suction pipe not different from that for which
sufficiently submerged pump is rated
f. Available NPSH not sufficient e. Mechanical defects:
g. Pump not up to rated speed (1) Misalignment
h. Total head required greater (2) Shaft bent
than head which pump is (3) Rotating element dragging
capable of delivering (4) Packing too tight
2. Pump does not deliver rated a. Wrong direction of rotation 6. Vibration a. Starved suction
capacity b. Suction line not filled with (1) Gas or vapor in liquid
(2) Available NPSH not
c. Air or vapor pocket in suction sufficient
(3) Inlet to suction line not
d. Air leaks in suction line or sufficiently submerged
stuffing boxes
(4) Gas or vapor pockets in
e. Inlet to suction pipe not suffi- suction line
ciently submerged.
b. Misalignment
f. Available NPSH not sufficient
c. Worn or loose bearings
g. Pump not up to rated speed
d. Rotor out of balance
h. Total head greater than head
(1) Impeller plugged
for which pump designed
(2) Impeller damaged
j. Foot valve too small
e. Shaft bent
k. Foot valve clogged with trash
f. Improper location of control
m. Viscosity of liquid greater than
valve in discharge line
that for which pump designed
g. Foundation not rigid
n. Mechanical defects:
7. Stuffing boxes overheat a. Packing too tight
(1) Wearing rings worn
b. Packing not lubricated
(2) Impeller damaged
c. Wrong grade of packing
(3) Internal leakage resulting
from defective gaskets d. Insufficient cooling water to
o. Discharge valve not fully
opened e. Box improperly packed.
3. Pump does not develop rated a. Gas or vapor in liquid 8. Bearings overheat a. Oil level too low
discharge pressure b. Pump not up to rated speed b. Improper or poor grade of oil
c. Discharge pressure greater c. Dirt in bearings
than pressure for which pump d. Dirt in oil
designed e. Moisture in oil
d. Viscosity of liquid greater than f. Oil cooler clogged or scaled
that for which pump designed
g. Failure of oiling system
e. Wrong rotation
h. Insufficient cooling water
f. Mechanical defects: circulation
(1) Wearing rings worn i. Insufficient cooling air
(2) Impeller damaged k. Bearings too tight
(3) Internal leakage resulting m. Oil seals too close fit on shaft
from defective gaskets
n. Misalignment
4. Pump loses liquid after a. Suction line not filled with
starting liquid 9. Bearings wear rapidly a. Misalignment
b. Air leaks in suction line or b. Shaft bent
stuffing boxes c. Vibration
c. Gas or vapor in liquid d. Excessive thrust resulting from
d. Air or vapor pockets in suction mechanical failure inside the
line pump
e. Inlet to suction pipe not e. Lack of lubrication
sufficiently submerged f. Bearings improperly installed
f. Available NPSH not sufficient g. Dirt in bearings
g. Liquid seal piping to lantern h. Moisture in oil
ring plugged j. Excessive cooling of bearings
h. Lantern ring not properly
located in stuffing box

tor nameplate rating. Where it appears that this procedure pump or the driver when the seal (or other component) re-
will lead to unnecessary oversizing of the motor, an alter- quires maintenance.
nate proposal shall be submitted for the purchaser’s ap-
proval." Piping
Pump requirements, nozzle size, type of fluid, temperature,
Motor Nameplate Rating Percentage of pressure and economics determine materials and size of pip-
kW hp Rated ing.
Pump Power
Suction lines should be designed to keep friction losses to a
<22 <30 125 minimum. This is accomplished by using an adequate line
22-55 30-75 115 size, long radius elbows, full bore valves, etc. Pockets where
>55 >75 110 air or vapor can accumulate should be avoided. Suction lines
should be sloped, where possible, toward the pump when it is
below the source, and toward the source when it is below the
Alternatives to electric motor drivers are:
pump. Vertical downward suction pipes require special care to
• internal combustion engines avoid pulsation and vibrations that can be caused by air or va-
• gas turbines por entrainment. Elbows entering double suction pumps
• steam turbines should be installed in a position parallel to the impeller. Suffi-
cient liquid height above the suction piping inlet, or a vortex
• hydraulic power-recovery turbines breaker, should be provided to avoid vortex formation which
Usually the speed of rotation of these drivers can be varied may result in vapors entering the pump.
to provide control.
For discharge piping, sizing is determined by the available
Variable Speed Drives — Fig. 12-15 lists various types head and economic considerations. Velocities range from 3 to
of adjustable speed drives, their characteristics and their ap- 15 ft/sec. A check valve should be installed between the dis-
plication. charge nozzle and the block valve to prevent backflow.

Materials of Construction Auxiliary piping (cooling, seal flushing and lubrication) is a

small but extremely important item. API Standard 610, “Cen-
Pumps manufactured with cast-steel cases and cast-iron in- trifugal Pumps for General Refinery Service,” or applicable
ternals are most common in the gas processing industry. API national standard should be followed. Provisions for piping of
Std 610 is a good reference for material selection. The mate- stuffing box leakage and other drainage away from the pump
rial selections in this document can be over-ridden as required should be provided.
to reflect experience.
Pump Protection
Experience is the best guide to selection of materials for
pumps. Process pump manufacturers can usually provide sug- The following protection may be considered:
gestions for materials, based on their experience and knowl- • low suction pressure
edge of pumps. • high discharge pressure
Shaft Seals • low suction vessel (or tank) level
Mechanical seals are the most common sealing devices for • high discharge vessel (or tank) level
centrifugal pumps in process service. The purpose of the seal • low flow
is to retain the pumped liquid inside the pump at the point • flow reversal
where the drive shaft penetrates the pump body. Mechanical
• high temperature of bearings, case, etc.
seals consist of a stationary and a rotating face, and the actual
sealing takes place across these very smooth, precision faces. • vibrations
Seal faces may require cooling and lubrication. API Std 610 • lack of lubrication
describes seal flush systems used to cool the seal faces and re- • overspeed
move foreign material. Seal manufacturers can provide appli-
Protection may be considered for the pump driver and may
cation and design information.
be combined with pump protections.
Alignment, Supports, and Couplings Installation, Operation, Maintenance
The alignment of the pump and driver should be checked
Installation, operation, and maintenance manuals should be
and adjusted in accordance with the manufacturer’s recom-
provided by the pump manufacturer and are usually applica-
mendations before the pump is started. If the operating tem-
tion specific. See Fig. 12-14 for a checklist of pump troubles
perature is greatly different from the temperature at which
and causes.
the alignment was performed, the alignment should be
checked, and adjusted if necessary, at the operating tempera- Driver rotation and alignment should be checked before the
ture. pump is operated.
Pump and piping supports should be designed and installed A typical starting sequence for a centrifugal pump is:
so that forces exerted on the pump by the piping will not cause • Ensure that all valves in auxiliary sealing, cooling, and
pump misalignment when operating temperature changes or flushing system piping are open, and that these systems
other conditions occur. are functioning properly.
The shaft coupling should be selected to match the power • Close discharge valve.
transmitted and the type of pump and driver. A spacer type • Open suction valve.
coupling should be used if it is inconvenient to move either the • Vent gas from the pump and associated piping.

• Energize the driver. and can pump high viscosity liquids which are difficult to han-
• Open discharge valve slowly so that the flow increases dle with normal centrifugal or higher speed plunger pumps.
• Note that, on larger multistage pumps, it is very impor- Pump Calculations
tant that flow through the pump is established in a mat-
Power requirement bhp: see equation in Fig. 12-2.
ter of seconds. This is frequently accomplished by the
previously mentioned minimum flow recirculation. Displacement for single-acting pump
A • m • Ls • n
D = Eq 12-10

The most common reciprocating pump in gas plants is the Displacement for double-acting pump
single-acting plunger pump which is generally employed in (2A − a) m •Ls • n
services with moderate capacity and high differential pres- D = Eq 12-11
sure. These pumps fill on the backstroke and exhaust on the
forward stroke. They are available with single (simplex) or Notes:
multi-plungers (duplex, triplex, etc.), operating either horizon- 1. Actual capacity (Q) delivered by pump is calculated by
tally or vertically. Examples of plunger pump service in gas multiplying displacement by the volumetric efficiency.
plants are: high pressure chemical or water injection, glycol
2. The combination of mechanical and volumetric efficiency
circulation, and low capacity, high pressure amine circulation,
for reciprocating pumps is normally 90% or higher for
and pipeline product pumps.
noncompressible fluids.
Double-acting piston pumps which fill and exhaust on the 3. In double-acting pumps with guided piston (rod in both
same stroke have the advantage of operating at low speeds sides), change “a” to “2a” in Eq 12-11.

FIG. 12-15
Adjustable Speed Drives3 and Power Transmissions

Type Characteristics Applications

Electric Drivers
Solid State AC drives • high efficiency • 50 to 2500+ bhp
• good speed regulation • larger pumps where good speed regulation
• low maintenance over not too wide a range is required
• complex controls • hazardous areas
• high cost
• can be explosion proof
• can retrofit
Solid State DC drives • similar to AC except speed regulation good • 50 to 500+ bhp
over a wider range • non-hazardous areas
Eddy Current Clutch • efficient, proportional to slip • 5 to 500+ bhp
• poor speed regulation • smaller centrifugal pumps where speed is
• require cooling usually near design
• non-hazardous areas
Wound-Rotor Motor • poor speed regulation • 50 to 500+ bhp
• reasonable efficiency • larger pumps non-hazardous areas
Rubber Belt • wide range of speed regulation possible • fractional to 100 bhp
• small centrifugal and positive displacement
Metal Chain • low to medium efficiency • chemical feed pumps
• non-hazardous areas
Hydraulic • medium efficiency • available hydraulic head
Power Recovery • continuously variable speed
Turbines • reversible use as pump

Example 12-2 — Calculate the power required for a simplex The discharge volumetric efficiency due to density change is:
plunger pump delivering 10 gpm of liquid of any specific grav-
ity at 3000 psi differential pressure and mechanical efficiency  ρi 
VEd ρ = 1 − r 1 −  Eq 12-15
of 90%.  ρo 
(10) (3000)
bhp = = 19.4 hp When the change in fluid density is linear with the change
(1714) (0.90) in pressure and is smaller than 10%, and the temperature
Volumetric Efficiency, Compressible Fluids — change is negligible, Equation 12-16 may be used to calculate
Unlike water, lighter hydrocarbon liquids (e.g. ethane, pro- hydraluic power. Hc comes from Eq 12-5. Additionally, approxi-
pane, butane) are sufficiently compressible to affect the mately 2 to 5% of power may be required for the work done
performance of reciprocating pumps. during the piston cycle, in compressing and in decompressing
the fluid that is held in the pump chamber without flowing
The theoretical flow capacity is never achieved in practice through the pump.
because of leakage through piston packing, stuffing boxes, or
valves and because of changes in fluid density when pumping Qd • sp gro • Hc
compressible fluids such as light hydrocarbons. hyd hp = Eq 12-16
The ratio of real flow rate to theoretical flow rate (pump dis- When the differential pressure is sufficiently high to cause
placement) is the volumetric efficiency. The volumetric effi- a density change of more than 10%, or when the pressure
ciency depends on the size, seals, valves and internal is near the fluid’s critical pressure, or when temperature
configuration of each pump, the fluid characteristics and oper- change is not negligible, this equation may not be
ating conditions. accurate. In such cases the pump manufacturer should be
When pumping compressible liquids, the volumetric effi- consulted. See Equipment and System Equations, last
ciency should be stated with reference to the flow rate meas- paragraph.
ured in a specific side of the pump (suction or discharge side).
Data on density change with pressure and temperature can
The relationship of overall suction and discharge volumetric be found in Section 23, "Physical Properties."
efficiency, displacement, and suction and discharge flow rate
of a reciprocating pump is defined in Eq 12-12. When the leak- Example 12-3 — For a 3" diameter and a 5 inch stroke triplex
age is not considered, the overall efficiencies may be substi- plunger pump pumping propane with a suction density 31.4
tuted by the density change efficiencies. lb/cu ft and a discharge density 32.65 lb/cu ft and given that r
= 4.6 and s = 0.03, find the overall discharge volumetric effi-
Qs Qd ciency.
D = = Eq 12-12
VEsov VEdov
Discharge volumetric efficiency due to density change:
The following equations are based on the discharge flow
 31.4 
rate. Similar equations may be written for the suction side, VEd ρ = 1 − 4.6 1 −  = 0.824
and conversions may be made by multiplying them by the dis-  32.65
charge to suction densities ratio.
Vo lumetric effic ienc y due to leakage
The overall discharge volumetric efficiency is a combination
of volumetric efficiency due to leakage and discharge volumet- VEl = 1 − 0.03 = 0.97
ric efficiency due to fluid density change.
Overall discharge volumetric efficiency:
VEdov = VEl • VEd ρ Eq 12-13
VEdo v = (0.824) • (0.97) = 0.799
The volumetric efficiency due to leakage is related to slip as
follows: Suction System Considerations
VEl = 1 − s Eq 12-14 The suction piping is a critical part of any reciprocating
pump installation. The suction line should be as short as pos-
The effect of the difference in the leakage flow rate meas- sible and sized to provide not more than three feet per second
ured at suction pressure vs discharge pressure is neglected fluid velocity, with a minimum of bends and fittings. A cen-
here, assuming that all leakages are internal. trifugal booster pump is often used ahead of a reciprocating

FIG. 12-16
Reciprocating Pump Acceleration Head Factors

C = 0.200 for simplex double-acting k = a factor related to the fluid compressibility

= 0.200 for duplex single-acting hot oil 2.5
= 0.115 for duplex double-acting most hydrocarbons 2.0
= 0.066 for triplex single or double-acting amine, glycol, water 1.5
= 0.040 for quintuplex single or double-acting deaerated water 1.4
= 0.028 for septuplex single or double-acting liquid with small amounts of entrained gas 1.0
= 0.022 for nonuplex single or double-acting
Note: "C" will vary from the listed values for unusual ratios of connecting rod length to crank radius over 6.

pump to provide adequate NPSH which would also allow that the pressure fluctuations are about the same as those
higher suction line velocities. that occur when the suction piping is less than 15′ long.
NPSH required for a reciprocating pump is calculated in the Similar pressure fluctuations occur on the discharge side of
same manner as for a centrifugal pump, except that additional every reciprocating pump. Pulsation dampeners are also effec-
allowance must be made for the requirements of the recipro- tive in absorbing flow variations on the discharge side of the
cating action of the pump. The additional requirement is pump and should be considered if piping vibration caused by
termed acceleration head. This is the head required to acceler- pressure fluctuations appears to be a problem. Pulsation dam-
ate the fluid column on each suction stroke so that this col- pener manufacturers have computer programs to analyze this
umn will, at a minimum, catch up with the receding face of phenomenon and should be consulted for reciprocating pump
the piston during its filling stroke. applications over 50 hp. Discharge pulsation dampeners mini-
mize pressure peaks and contribute to longer pump and pump
Acceleration Head — Acceleration head is the fluctua- valve life. The need for pulsation dampeners is increased if
tion of the suction head above and below the average due to multiple pump installations are involved.
the inertia effect of the fluid mass in the suction line. With the
higher speed of present-day pumps or with relatively long suc- Ensure that bladder type pulsation dampeners contain the
tion lines, this pressure fluctuation or acceleration head must correct amount of gas.
be taken into account if the pump is to fill properly without
forming vapor which will cause pounding or vibration of the Capacity Control — Manual or automatic capacity control
suction line. for one pump or several parallel pumps can be achieved by one
or a combination of the following methods:
With the slider-crank drive of a reciprocating pump, maxi-
mum plunger acceleration occurs at the start and end of each • on-off control
stroke. The head required to accelerate the fluid column (ha) is • recirculation
a function of the length of the suction line and average veloc-
ity in this line, the number of strokes per minute (rpm), the • variable speed driver or transmission
type of pump and the relative elasticity of the fluid and the • variable displacement pump
pipe, and may be calculated as follows:
Drivers — Two types of mechanisms are commonly used
L•v•n•C for driving reciprocating pumps; one in which the power of a
ha = Eq 12-17
k•g motor or engine is transmitted to a shaft and there is a
mechanism to convert its rotative movement to alternating
where C and k are given in Fig. 12-16. linear movement to drive the pumping piston or plunger. In
the other type, there is a power fluid, such as steam, com-
Example 12-4 — Calculate the acceleration head, given a 2" pressed air, or gas acting on a piston, diaphragm or bellow
diameter x 5" stroke triplex pump running at 360 rpm and linked to the pumping piston or plunger.
displacing 73 gpm of water with a suction pipe made up of 4′ Piping — Suction and discharge piping considerations are
of 4" and 20′ of 6" standard wall pipe. similar to those for centrifugal pumps. In addition, accelera-
Average Velocity in 4" Pipe = 1.84 fps tion head must be included for pipe sizing. For piping materi-
als and thickness selection, pressure pulsations amplitude and
Average Velocity in 6" Pipe = 0.81 fps fatigue life should be considered.
Acceleration Head in 4" Pipe
(4) (1.84) (360) (0.066) ROTARY PUMPS
ha4 = = 3.62 ft
(1.5) (32.2)
The rotary pump is a positive displacement type that de-
Acceleration Head in 6" Pipe pends on the close clearance between both rotating and sta-
(20) (0.81) (360) (0.066) tionary surfaces to seal the discharge from the suction. The
ha6 = = 7.97 ft most common types of rotary pumps use gear or screw rotat-
(1.5) (32.2) ing elements. These types of positive displacement pumps are
Total Acceleration Head commonly used for viscous liquids for which centrifugal or re-
ciprocating pumps are not suitable. Low viscosity liquids with
ha = 3.62 + 7.97 = 11.6 ft poor lubricating properties (such as water) are not a proper
application for gear or screw pumps.
Karassik et al9 recommend that the NPSHA exceed the
NPSHR by 3 to 5 psi for reciprocating pumps.
Pulsation — A pulsation dampener (suction stabilizer) is DIAPHRAGM PUMPS
a device installed in the suction piping as close as possible to
the pump to reduce pressure fluctuations at the pump. It con- Diaphragm pumps are reciprocating, positive displacement
sists of a small pressure vessel containing a cushion of gas type pumps, utilizing a valving system similar to a plunger
(sometimes separated from the pumped fluid by a diaphragm). pump. These pumps can deliver a small, precisely controlled
Pulsation dampeners should be considered for the suction side amount of liquid at a moderate to very high discharge pres-
of any reciprocating pump, but they may not be required if the sure. Diaphragm pumps are commonly used as chemical injec-
suction piping is oversized and short, or if the pump operates tion pumps because of their controllable metering capability,
at less than 150 rpm. A properly installed and maintained pul- the wide range of materials in which they can be fabricated,
sation dampener should absorb the cyclical flow variations so and their inherent leakproof design.

Multiphase pumps can pump immiscible liquids such as oil Two types of centrifugal pumps have been developed for
and water with gas. There are screw types and rotodynamic cryogenic applications: the external motor type and the sub-
types. A progressive cavity design is used along the flow path merged motor type.
to accommodate gas volume reduction caused by increased
pressure. A full range of gas/liquid ratios can be handled. This External motor type — These pumps are of conven-
class of pumps is of interest in applications where conven- tional configuration with a coupled driver and can be single or
tional pumps and separate compressors with or without sepa- multi-stage. The pump assembly is usually mounted in a ves-
rate pipelines are not economically feasible. sel from which it pumps.
Submerged motor type — This type of pump is charac-
terized by being directly coupled to its motor, with the com-
plete unit being submerged in the fluid.

Hydraulic Turbines
Many industrial processes involve liquid streams which flow pected to provide between 50% and 60% of the energy re-
from higher to lower pressures. Usually the flow is controlled quired for pumping.
with a throttling valve, hence the hydraulic energy is wasted.
Up to 80% of this energy can be recovered by passing the liq- Usually the high-pressure liquid contains a substantial
uid through a hydraulic power recovery turbine (HPRT). To amount of dissolved gas. The gas comes out of solution as the
justify the installation of an HPRT, an economic analysis of liquid pressure drops. This does not cause damage to the
the power savings versus added equipment and installation HPRT, presumably because the fluid velocity through the
costs should be performed. HPRT is high enough to maintain a froth-flow regime. The
term NPSHR does not apply to HPRTs.
HPRTs may be used to drive any kind of rotating equipment
Two major types of centrifugal hydraulic power recovery (e.g. pumps, compressors, fans, electrical generators). The
turbines are used. main problems are matching the power required by the driven
load to that available from the HPRT and speed control. Both
1. Reaction—Single or multistage Francis-type rotor with the power producer and the speed can be controlled by:
fixed or variable guide vanes.
• throttling the liquid flow, either downstream or up-
2. Impulse—Pelton Wheel, usually specified for relatively stream from the HPRT
high differential pressures.
• allowing a portion of the liquid to bypass the HPRT
HPRTs with Francis-type rotors are similar to centrifugal
• adjusting inlet guide vanes installed in the HPRT
pumps. In fact, a good centrifugal pump can be expected to op-
erate with high efficiency as an HPRT when the direction of Sometimes HPRTs are installed with a "helper" driver. If
flow is reversed. this is an electric motor, the speed will be controlled by the
motor speed.
The Pelton Wheel or impulse runner type HPRT is used in
high head applications. The impulse type turbine has a nozzle Typical gas-processing streams for which HPRTs should be
which directs the high pressure fluid against bowl-shaped considered are:
buckets on the impulse wheel. This type of turbines’ perform- • Rich sweetening solvents (e.g. amines, etc.)
ance is dependent upon back pressure, while the reaction type
• Rich absorption oil
is less dependent upon back pressure.
• High-pressure crude oil.
Power Recovered by HPRTs The lower limit of the power recovery which can be economi-
The theoretical energy which can be extracted from a high cally justified with single-stage HPRTs is about 30 hp and
pressure liquid stream by dropping it to a lower pressure with multistage, about 100 hp. HPRTs usually pay out their
through an HPRT can be calculated using the hydraulic horse- capital cost in from one to three years.
power. See Fig. 12-2 for bhp equation. Since some of the en- Frequently, when an HPRT is to be used to drive a pump,
ergy will be lost because of friction, the hydraulic horsepower both devices are purchased from one manufacturer. This has
must be multiplied by the efficiency of the HPRT. the advantage of ensuring that the responsibility for the en-
The amount of power recovered by an HPRT is directly pro- tire installation is assumed by a single supplier.
portional to the efficiency rather than inversely proportional The available pressure differential across the HPRT is cal-
as is the case when calculating the power required by a pump. culated using a technique similar to that used to calculate the
Thus, if a fluid is pumped to a high pressure and then reduced differential head of centrifugal pumps.
to its original pressure using an HPRT, the proportion of the
pumping energy which can be supplied by the HPRT is equal Example 12-5—Specify an HPRT driven pump for a gas sweet-
to the efficiencies of the pump and turbine multiplied together. ening process.
Typically, good centrifugal pumps and good HPRTs have effi-
ciencies of between 70% and 80%. Thus, the HPRT can be ex-

FIG. 12-17
Rich DEA Pressure Letdown

FIG. 12-18
Lean Amine Charge Pump

Given: Hydraulic Institute—Centrifugal, Reciprocating & Rotary
lean DEA flow 1000 gpm
API Std 674—Positive Displacement Pumps – Reciprocating
lean DEA temperature 110°F API Std 675—Positive Displacement pumps – Controlled Vol-
lean DEA specific gravity 1.00 ume
lean DEA vapor pressure at 120°F 1.7 psia API Std 676—Positive Displacement Pumps – Rotary
rich DEA flow 1000 gpm API Std 682—Shaft Sealing Systems for Centrifugal and
Rotary Pumps.
rich DEA temperature 160°F
ANSI/AWWA E101-88—Vertical Turbine Pumps – Line Shaft
rich DEA specific gravity 1.01
and Submersible Types
pump suction total pressure 75 psig NEMA, EMMAC, UL, CSA—Electric Motor Drivers
pump discharge total pressure 985 psig UL, ULC, NFPA, FM—Fire Water Pumps
HPRT inlet total pressure 960 psig AIChE—American Institute of Chemical Engineers
HPRT outlet total pressure 85 psig API—American Petroleum Institute

Solution: ANSI—American National Standards Institute

AWWA—American Water Works Association
For this example, the suction and discharge pressures have
already been calculated using a technique similar to that sug- CSA—Canadian Standards Association
gested for centrifugal pumps. EMMAC—Electrical Manufacturers Association of Canada
2.31 (75 + 14.7 − 1.7) FM—Factory Mutual
NPSHA for pump = = 203 ft
1.00 NEMA—National Electrical Manufacturers Association
2.31 (985 − 75) NFPA—National Fire Prevention Association
Required head for pump = = 2102 ft
1.00 UL—Underwriters Laboratory
The pump selected is a 5-stage unit. From the pump curve ULC—Underwriters Laboratory of Canada
(Fig. 12-18), the expected efficiency of the pump is 78.5%.
Hence, the required power will be:
(1000) (2102) (1.00)
bhp for pump = = 676 hp
(3960) (0.785) 1. API Standard 610, Eighth Edition, American Petroleum Insti-
tute, New York, 1995.
2.31 (960 − 85)
Available head for HPRT = = 2001 ft 2. Bingham-Willamette Ltd., Sales Manual, Burnaby, B.C., Can-
The HPRT selected is a 3-stage unit. From the performance 3. Doll, T. R., "Making the Proper Choice of Adjustable-speed
curve (Fig. 12-17), the expected efficiency of the HPRT is 76%. Drives." Chem. Eng., v. 89, no. 16, August 9, 1982.
Hence, the available power will be:
4. Evans, F. L., Jr., "Equipment Design Handbook for Refineries and
(1000) (2001) (1.01) (0.76) Chemical Plants." Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas,
bhp from HPRT = = 388 hp 1971, 1979.
5. Hydraulic Institute Standards, Fourteenth Edition, Hydraulic
Another driver, such as an electric motor, would be required Institute, 1983.
for the pump to make up the difference in bhp between the
pump and HPRT. The other driver would have to be capable of 6. Henshaw, T. L., "Reciprocating Pumps." Chem. Engr., v. 88,
providing at least 288 hp. It is good practice to provide an no. 19, Sept. 1981, p. 105-123.
electric motor driver large enough to drive the pump by itself 7. Ingersoll-Rand Company, 1962, "A Pump Handbook for Sales-
to facilitate startups. The pump, HPRT, and electric motor men."
driver (helper or full size) would usually be direct connected. 8. Jennet, E., "Hydraulic Power Recovery System." Chem. Eng.,
In some cases, a clutch is used between the pump and HPRT, v. 75, no. 8, April 1968, p. 159.
so the unit is independent of the HPRT.
9. Karassik, I. J., Krutzch, W. C., Fraser, W. H. and Messina, J. P.,
The pump and HPRT are similar in hydraulic design except "Pump Handbook." McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1976.
that the pump has five stages and the HPRT, three stages. In 10. McClasky, B. M. and Lundquist, J. A., "Can You Justify Hydraulic
this case, the HPRT is a centrifugal pump running backwards. Turbines?" Hyd. Proc., v. 56, no. 10, October 1976, p. 163.
11. Perry, R. H. and Chilton, C. H., Chemical Engineers Handbook,
CODES & ORGANIZATIONS Fifth Edition, 1973, McGraw-Hill, Inc.
12. Purcell, J. M. and Beard, M. W., "Applying Hydraulic Turbines
API Std 610 8th Edition—Centrifugal Pumps for General
to Hydrocracking Operations." Oil Gas J., v. 65, no. 47, Nov. 20,
Refinery Service
1967, p. 202.
ANSI B73.1—Horizontal End-Suction Centrifugal Pumps 13. Stepanoff, A. J., "Centrifugal and Axial Flow Pumps." John Wiley
ANSI B73.2—Vertical Inline Centrifugal Pumps & Sons, Inc., 1948, 1957.

14. Tennessee Gas Transmission Co., "Operators Handbook for Gaso- 17. AIChE Publ. No. E-22, Second Edition, AIChE Equipment Test-
line Plants, Part 6-Rotary Pumps." Pet. Ref. (Now Hyd Proc) Nov. ing Procedure, Centifugal Pumps, (Newtonian Liquids). New
1959, p. 307-308. York. 1983.
15. Westaway, C. R. and Loomis, A. W., Editors, Cameron Hydraulic 18. ANSI/AWWA E101-88, American Water Works Association, Den-
Data, Fifteenth Edition, Ingersoll Rand Company, 1977. ver, 1988.
16. Cody, D. J., Vandell, C. A., and Spratt, D., "Selecting Positive-Dis-
placement Pumps." Chem. Engr., v. 92, no. 15, July 22, 1985,
p. 38-52.