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Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Learning Objectives

1.Explain why organisms reproduce only their own kind and why offspring more closely resemble their parents than unrelated individuals of the same species. Reproduction is an emergent property associated with life. The fact that organisms reproduce their own kind is a consequence of heredity Heredity = Continuity of biological traits from one generation to the next; Which results from the transmission of hereditary units, or genes, from parents to offspring, and because they share similar genes, offspring more closely resemble their parents or close relatives than unrelated individuals of the same species. Variation = Inherited differences among individuals of the same species; though offspring resemble their parents and siblings, they also diverge somewhat as a consequence of inherited differences among them. The development of genetics in this century has increased our understanding about the mechanisms of variation and heredity. Genetics = the scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation. Note: Beginning students often compartmentalize their knowledge, which makes it difficult to transfer and apply information learned in one context to a new situation. Be forewarned that unless you point it out, some students will never make the connection that meiosis, sexual reproduction, and heredity are all aspects of the same process. 2.Explain what makes heredity possible. Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes. DNA = Type of nucleic acid that is a polymer of four different kinds of nucleotides. Genes = Units of hereditary information that are made of DNA and are located on chromosomes which have specific sequences of nucleotides, the monomers of DNA. Most genes program cells to synthesize specific proteins and the action of these proteins produce an organisms inherited traits. Inheritance is possible because: DNA is precisely replicated producing copies of genes that can be passed along from parents to offspring. Sperm and ova carrying each parents genes are combined in the nucleus of the fertilized egg. The actual transmission of genes from parents to offspring depends on the behavior of chromosomes. 3.Distinguish between asexual and sexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction has a single individual as the sole parent who passes all its genes to its offspring. Thus the offspring are genetically identical to the parent or a clone. Rarely, genetic differences occur as a result of mutation, a change in DNA. In Sexual reproduction, two parents give rise to offspring. Each parent passes on half its genes, to its offspring. Offspring thus have a unique combination of genes inherited from both parents. This results in greater genetic variation; offspring vary genetically from their siblings and parents. 4.What is alternation of generations and explain how this could give a plant an advantage.
Pants and some species of algae alternate between multicellular haploid and diploid generations. This type of life cycle is called an alternation of generations. The multicellular diploid stage is called a sporophyte or spore-producing plant. Meiosis in this stage produces haploid cells called spores. Haploid spores divide mitotically to generate a multicellular haploid stage called a gametophyte, or gamete-producing plant. Haploid gametophytes produce gametes by mitosis. Fertilization produces a diploid zygote which develops into the next sporophyte generation. Meiosis differs from mitosis in that this single replication is followed by 2 consecutive cell divisions; meiosis I and meiosis II.

5.Diagram the human life cycle and indicate where in the human body that mitosis and meiosis occur; which cells are the result of meiosis and mitosis; and which cells are haploid.

6. Distinguish among the life cycle patterns of animals, fungi, and plants. 7. List the phases of meiosis I and meiosis II and describe the events characteristic of each phase. Recognize the phases of meiosis from diagrams or micrographs. Meiosis I Prophase Synapsis occurs to form tetrads. Chiasmata appear as evidence that crossing over has occurred. Metaphase Homologous pairs (tetrads) align on the metaphase plate. Anaphase Meiosis I separates pairs of chromosomes. Centromeres do not divide and sister chromatids stay together. Sister Chromatids of each chromosome move to the same pole of the same pole of the cell; only the homologues separate. Mitosis Prophase Neither synapsis nor crossing over occurs. Metaphase Individual chromosomes align on the metaphase plate. Anaphase Mitosis separates sister chromatids of individual chromosomes. Centromeres divide and sister chromatids move to opposite poles of the cell. Meiosis II is virtually identical in mechanism to mitosis, separating sister chromatids. 8. Describe the process of synapsis during prophase I and explain how genetic recombination occurs. During synapsis, the chromosomes in the cell come together to form tetrads. When they are in tetrads, chiasmata occur and during the crossing over, genetic information is swapped between the ends of the chromosomes. When the cells eventually divide into 4 cells, each cell has a new variety of genetic information. 9. Describe the key differences between mitosis and meiosis. Explain how the end result of meiosis differs from that of mitosis. Three events that occur during meiosis I but not during mitosis are synapsis, crossing over, and splitting twice. 10. Explain how independent assortment, crossing over, and random fertilization contribute to genetic variation in sexually reproducing organisms. Independent assortment basically means that the chromosomes can align in any free willed way. There is no set place in the metaphase plate that a specific chromosome must be. Because of this, during crossing over, two chromosomes with two completely different genes on them can swap genes, and now change the genetic info that the new cells will gey. The random fertilization is that any one of the new gametes can fertilize the egg so the chances of it getting different genetic info are high. 11. Explain why inheritable variation was crucial to Darwins theory of evolution.