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CHAPTER 2: ESTABLISHING PEACE

France: Harsh treaty to punish Germans and make sure they wont be a threat to France. Also cause WW1 fought on French soil. 1.5 million men died. Germany was also still viewed as a threat cause their land and industry were not destroyed by war.

Britain: USA: Wanted peace, not harsh treaty (Germans might start war to avenge terms in treaty) Wilson 14s Points basically about 1. Disarmament- reduce size of armies etc, chances of war again lesser 2. Self-determination- people can choose who rules them 3. LON- needed an international organization to settle disputes peacefully w/o war PM wanted a moderately harsh treaty: Not too harsh, Germany might start war again to avenge terms of treaty At the same time, he wanted to weaken Germanys navy to make sure Brits were strongest naval power in Europe Public wanted harsh treaty, had to respect that

TERMS OF TOV Territorial-losing territories- families broken 1. Saar (area rich in coal) will be controlled by France for 15 years, after which people living there will decide in plebiscite who to rule them. 2. Germany was forbidden from ANSCHLUSS (political union) with Austria, which shared a history with Germany 3. Germany will lose all their overseas colonies Military- reduce military strength, Germany too weak to start war 1. German Army restricted to 100,000 professional soldiers 2. Conscription was banned 3. Germany Army could not have air force/submarines/tanks. Navy only allowed to have 6 battleships and a few smaller ships to defend themselves 4. Rhineland (area b/w Germany+France) would be demilitarized (cannot station troops there). Allied troops would station their troops there. 5. German wartime weapons were destroyed -> weak etc

War Guilt Clause In which Germany had to take full responsibility for war. Thus they were obliged to pay reparations (6.6 billion pounds) to Allied countries. Germany HAD to sign treaty, if not Allied Powers will continue naval blockade, blocking ships carring necessary food/raw materials to Germany and people will suffer German reaction Germans were unhappy and felt that they should have been involved in negotiations for TOV as they did not surrender, but called for a ceasefire. They felt that they should have been represented at Versailles. Allied: Gcalled for ceasefire cause they could not continue fighting Places vital to economic recovery e.g. Saar taken away (new democratic government/Germany) should not be punished and suffer for the decisions of the government under Kaiser Wilhelm. Self-determination did not apply to Germans living in territories which were to be given to other countries Germans felt they should not be totally responsible for war because other countries played a part in outbreak of war too. Accepting War Guilt Clause would mean they have to pay reparations (could not afford to)

Allied reaction Felt it was justified and reasonable. Germany would have imposed harsher treaty on them if they had won the war Treaty Of Brest-Litvosk b/w Germany and Russia when they called for a ceasefire. The terms then were waaay harsher e.g more land/money taken away from Russia

TOV: fair/unfair? Fair 1. They started it (attacked France first) 2. Terms of TOV not as harsh as TOBL 3. War took place on French soil -> repayment 4. Make Germany weak to prevent another war from happening 5. Germany abused her powers Not fair 1. Others also involved in war 2. Germany also suffered, taking away chances of economic recovery 3. France also abused the war by forcing Germany to sign TOV 4. Should not be responsible for Kaiser Wilhelms government 5. Self-determination didnt apply to them

League of Nations Aims: To provide international platform to solve disputes peacefully through: Negotiation (failed) Disarmament

& improve SOL for people (success)