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LNG Plant Overview

Seminar with Supplier Association Murmanshelf Murmansk, 15 May 2012 Jostein Pettersen

Table of Content
Part 1 : LNG plant overview (Jostein) Part 2 : Main equipment units (Jostein) Part 3 : LNG plant construction principles (Jens Roar) Part 4 : Arctic LNG plant construction (Jens Roar)

Classification: Internal

2012-03-02

Outline
Introduction Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Block diagram of LNG plant Main process stages Liquefaction process technologies Examples from Hammerfest LNG Plant Examples from other LNG plants

Why produce Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)?


LNG is mainly produced for transportation purposes
Gas market is far from the source of the natural gas: More economical to transport the gas as LNG instead of in a natural gas pipeline. LNG also offers greater flexibility than pipeline gas

Cost per unit gas transported

Ca 4000 km Ca 1500 km

Transport distance

What is LNG ?
LNG is a cryogenic liquid
A cryogenic liquid liquefies at a temperature below 73 C (-100 F) at atmospheric pressure. Common cryogenic liquids are; Nitrogen, Oxygen, Helium, Hydrogen and LNG
LNG is natural gas that has been cooled and condensed to a liquid At atmospheric pressure LNG has a temperature of about 162C LNG contains about 85-95 % methane LNG is colorless, odorless, non-corrosive and non-toxic Evaporated LNG can displace oxygen and cause human suffocation Flammability range, 5-15 vol % concentration in air Autoignition temperature, 540C
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LNG Density
1 m3 LNG corresponds to ca 600 Sm3 natural gas
S = Standard state, 15C, 1 atm

Natural gas

At temperatures above -110 C LNG vapour is lighter than air

LNG

LNG is lighter than water LNG Density: 450 kg/m3 Water density: 1000 kg/m3

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Natural gas liquefaction plants


Source: IHS Cera Status January 2011

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LNG Value Chain


Power Generation Electricity Transmission End User

Gas Production

Pipeline

LNG Plant

LNG Shipping

LNG Receiving Terminal

Gas Distribution

Gas Marketing

End User

15-20 %

30-45 %

10-30 % 15-25 %

Typical cost Distribution in the LNG value Chain (numbers are confirmed by different sources)

LNG plant block diagram


Fuel gas CH4/N2

End flash

HHC Extraction

Power and Heat

Gas conditioning (pre-treatment)


Acid Gas (CO2 and H2S) removal
Acid gas causes corrosion, reduces heating value, and may freeze and create solids in cryogenic process Typical requirements for LNG: Max 50 ppmv CO2, Max 4 ppmv H2S

(ppmv - parts per million by volume)

Dehydration (water removal)


Water will freeze in cryogenic process Typical requirement: Max 1 ppmw (weight) H2O

Mercury removal
Mercury can cause corrosion problems, especially in aluminium heat exchangers Requirement: Max 0.01 g/Nm3

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MDEA (Amine) process for acid gas removal

Typical amine sour gas removal process


P=2 bara T=44 oC

Amine wash

P=1.5 bara T=20 oC

P=65 bara T=45 oC

P=1.5 bara T=115 oC 5.0 % CO2 MEG wash

Source : DOW chemicals

Water removal by adsorption

Source: UOP

Cascade Liquefaction Process


(Licensor: ConocoPhillips)

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Propane-precooled Mixed Refrigerant Process (C3MR)


(Licensor: Air Products and Chemicals Inc.)
Propane condenser Centrifugal compressor

Expander

Compressor suction drum Kettle heat exchanger

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(Sakhalin)

Mixed Fluid Cascade Process (Linde)


(Hammerfest LNG plant)
NG SW SW

Pre-cooling
Column

SW Liquefaction SW

HHC fraction

SW Sub -cooling

LNG

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LPG extraction
(Example based on C3MR process, Source: Air Products)
Upstream Integrated

Why LPG extraction?:i) LNG heating value adjustment, ii) remove components that may freeze out in liquefaction process, iii) generate valuable LPG product, iv) produce refrigerant make-up (C1, C2, C3) Upstream LPG extraction usually based on expander process. Can provide deep extraction of C3 and C2. Feedgas need to be recompressed before liquefaction. Liquefaction pressure can be high. Integrated process usually based on scrub column i.e. feed gas pressure need to be sub critical. Scrub column reflux temperature determines degree of extraction. Pressure restricted by pcrit

Above-ground full-containment LNG tank design


Pre-stressed concrete outer walls constructed by slipforming, sheathed internally with a gastight layer of nickel-alloyed steel. Inner tank in nickel-alloyed steel, separated from the outer walls by a layer of perlite - a variety of volcanic obsidian highly suitable for insulation Extra layer of steel and insulation at the transition between outer wall and tank bottom to protect it against strong local stresses should the inner tank begin to leak. Heating cables under the tanks will ensure that the ground remains above 0C in order to prevent frost heaving.

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Loading of LNG Carrier

Spherical tank cargo containment systems (Moss Rosenberg )

LNGC Membrane cargo containment system (GT No. 96, MK I and MK III, and CS1)

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Mark III (Technigaz) Membrane system

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Inside membrane tank

Hammerfest LNG Plant Melkya

Slug catcher

Inlet facilities

Pretreatment

SNHVIT LNG
Simplified overview
Carbon dioxide

MEG recovery Snhvit

LNG production Precooling cycle

Liquefaction cycle

Subcooling cycle

Production wells Fractionation

Production wells

Plem
Condensate production CO2 Injection well LPG production CDU Storage and loading: LNG, LPG, condensate

Production wells

Albatross

Seabed CO2 Injection well Production well Reservoir

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Hammerfest LNG onshore plant

LAYOUT - HAMMERFEST LNG PLANT


Area 1 Area 2 Area 3 HP flare Grid substation Subsea road tunnel Administration building / control room Sea water outlet /sea water inlet Holding basin / waste water treatment Utility substation MDEA storage / fuel gas Compressed air and inert gas facilities Landfall Offshore utility substation MEG process area MEG substation MEG storage tank area Hot oil and chemical storage tanks Pig receiver Condensate storage tank LNG storage tanks Product jetty LPG storage tank Storage & loading substation N2 cold box NG Cold box Process substation Electrical power generation Compression area, barge Process area, barge LP flare

Camp area

Construction jetty Slug catcher

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HAMMERFEST LNG Process barge


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Natural gas Cold Box

Nitrogen Removal Cold Box

Process substation

Process area

Compressor area

Electric power generation

Jetty

Atlantic LNG - Trinidad


Jetty

Compressors

Air cooled condensers Source: www.comenco.it


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Cold boxes (Heat exchangers)

Darwin LNG (Australia)

Source: www.lngfacts.org

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Yemen LNG
Sources: www.yemenlng.com www.yemenfox.net www.nationalyemen.com

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Oman LNG

Source: www.ebaraintl.com

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Sakhalin LNG

Source: www.gazprom-sh.nl
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LNG Plant Overview Jostein Pettersen Advisor LNG Technology jospet@statoil.com Tel: +4790952718 www.statoil.com

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