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Evaluation of Process Systems for Floating LNG Production Units

Presented by Inga Bettina Waldmann Kanfa Aragon AS

Tekna Conference 18-19th June 2008 Floating Production in Challenging Environment

Presentation overview
Who we are Why Floating LNG (FLNG) FLNG Concepts FLNG Process selection

Aragon
Kanfa Aragon AS is a limited company in the Sevan Marine Group. Located in Bergen, Norway. Kanfa Group topside references:
Process packages 5 FPSO topsides 2 FPSO topsides this year

Developed FLNG technology and involved in a number of FLNG studies for FPSO ship owners and LNG shipping companies

What is LNG
Liquefied Natural Gas, LNG = natural gas in its liquid form
Cooled to typically -155 to -165 deg Celsius

The specific power consumption (kWh/kg LNG) is a common way to specify the efficiency of the liquefaction system

NATURAL GAS 1,000,000 Sm3 LNG 1,000,000 Sm3 12 x 12 x 12 m

100 x 100 x 100 m

Why FLNG?
Exploration of stranded gas fields can meet the worlds energy demand Recovery of oil-associated gas The energy demand and gas prices are increasing

Source: Poten and Partners

Source: Ingvar Tjostheim

Stranded gas fields - a large potential for FLNG

Note: 0.25 TCF = 250 BFC = 5.2 million ton LNG Corresponds to 8 years production with LNG given production capacity of 1 million ton LNG p.a and a normal production profile

Oil-associated gas
Annually a tremendous amount of oil-associated gas is flared or vented due to the distance from the fields to the markets
Annual gas flaring exceeding 150 Billion m3 pr year More than 350 million tonnes CO2 emissions per year West Africa, South America and Asia topping oil-associated gas flaring statistics

Political trends and increased energy demand will change the existing flaring philosophy Oil-associated gas liquefied to LNG clearly can represent a new energy supply source

Solutions for FLNG production


With well stream reception and separation system, or Gas from new or existing oil FPSO (separate hull) Converted ship, new hull or barge Mid-size, 0.3 3.6 mtpa LNG For small and medium stranded gas fields For associated gas fields LNG storage & offloading Up to 14 Mill Sm3/day 1 4 LNG trains

Gas processing sequence and requirements

CO2, H2S

WATER

SOLVENT REGENEN. FEED GAS

DRYER REGENEN.

SEPARATION/ FEED TREATM.

ACID GAS REMOVAL

WATER REMOVAL

Hg REMOVAL

LNG LIQUEFACTION

50 ppm CO2

>1 ppm H2O

>0.01 g/Nm3 Hg

HHC

Offshore liquefaction technology selection criteria Compact and low weight Simple operation and start-up High inherent process safety Robust to vessel motions/ marine enviroment Robust to changes in process conditions High availability High efficiency

Cascade Cycle
Chosen technology for the first LNG base load plant 1 mtpa of LNG production

Cascade Cycle
Separate refrigerant cycles with propane, ethylene and methane High efficiency (~0.3 kWh/kg LNG) Optimised technologies are evolved and proposed Large equipment count Requires large plot area for refrigerant storage and management Increased risk due to flammable liquid inventory Not recommended for offshore environments
Source: Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology part II

Mixed Refrigerant (MR) Cycle


Dominant baseload plant technology

Source: Foster Wheeler Energy Limited

Mixed Refrigerant (MR) Cycle


Uses a single multi-component refrigerant comprising typically nitrogen, methane, ethylene, propane and butane The MR evaporates over a wide range of temperatures and thereby follows the natural gas condensing curve closely High efficiency (~0.3 kWh/kg LNG) Up to 50% less equipment items than the cascade process Several modifications are developed and proposed Sensitive to change in feed composition Requires extensive plot space for refrigeration generation, storage and management Flammable refrigerants

Source: Cryoplants Ltd.

Expander Cycle
Based on the classic Reverse Brayton / Claude Cycle Several options:
Single expander cycle Double expander cycle Open expander loop (methane as refrigerant) Closed expander loop (nitrogen as refrigerant)

Efficiencies down to 0.4 kWh/kg LNG A pure refrigerant (typically nitrogen) is deep-cooled by expansion to condense the natural gas to LNG in the cold box
PRETREATED FEED GAS LNG

HEAT EXCHANGER BOOSTER COMPRESSOR TURBO EXPANDER

CYCLE COMPRESSOR

Proposed FLNG Processes


Multifluid Cascade Process (MFCP) by Linde Standard single and dual nitrogen expander cycle NicheLNGSM by CB&I Lummus LNG SmartR Liquefaction Technologies (open and closed loops) by Mustang Engineering Optimised Expander Cycle by Kanfa Aragon

Start-up
Expander cycles are superior to MR cycles related to start up
Typically a nitrogen expander cycle need 24 to 36 hours from warm to maximum production. MR Cycles requires 1 to 2 weeks to reach the same level

Operation
The Expander cycle is easier to operate than the MR Cycle
No sophisticated level control, phase or composition exchange in the refrigerant loops are giving operation upsets No complex control system coupled to the process gas composition High turndown

The N2 Expander Cycle has additional advantages


The expander refrigerant loop contains nitrogen which gives the highest availability for rotating equipment Seal leakages are non hazardous and easily compensated by nitrogen from the refrigerant loop. Turndown down to approx. 25% for one single train is obtained by reducing the nitrogen containment in the loop. Rotating equipment is maintained at fixed speed during turndown.

Safety
The N2 Expander cycle has a significantly higher inherent safety level than MR cycles, Cascade cycle and Open Expander cycle Nitrogen is a non-flammable refrigerant Half of the plant does not contain hydrocarbons and can be regarded as safer than most FPSO topsides. There are minor volumes of LNG in the plant, since the produced LNG are led directly to cargo thanks Proven equipment offshore (compressor, gas turbines, heat exchangers)

Safe area

Change in feed gas composition


The Nitrogen Expander Cycle is by its nature much less sensitive to feed gas changes than MR Cycles
MR Cycles have higher efficiency since the refrigerant evaporation curve are ideally following the LNG condensation, minimizing the exergy loss Change in the feed gas composition requires changes in the refrigerant or acceptance of lower efficiency

At off-spec operation, the nitrogen expander cycles can have higher efficiency than a MR Cycle The Aragon Optimised Expander cycle optimises the split between NGL and LNG products
This increases the efficiency and increases the acceptable window for the feed composition

Offshore enviroment
Floating production units are subject to motion The Expander cycle is robust for the offshore environment as no liquid phase refrigerant is present Avoids high focus on equal distribution of two phase/ liquid flow

MFLEX LNG producer Incl. Kanfa Aragons Optimised expander cycle

Refrigeration generation
For the N2 Expander Cycle the nitrogen can easily be generated on board For Open Cycle Expander Processes, feed gas or LNG can be used
By Kanfa Aragons patent pending system the N2-refrigerant can be easily stored during maintenance or turndown operations.

For MR Cycles the sophisticated refrigerant must either be produced onboard by advanced distillation systems or specially purchased. Feeding of the refrigerant is a thorough operation Warm up during longer shutdown periods often require blowdown of the MR to flare

Complexity and cost


Expander Cycles are superior to Cascade and MR Cycles when it comes to simplicity Can be built compact and light Example for 2.7 mtpa:
Topside weight estimate [ton] Aragon expander cycle MR Cycle 10,000 up to 35,000** Cost estimate pr production capacity [MMUSD/mtpa LNG]* 450 - 700 >1000**

*Including vessel, gas pre-treatment, liquefaction and offloading (excluding field spesific items and cost of financing etc. ) ** Source: SBM Offshore and CB&I Lummus

N2 Expander Cycle 2.7 mtpa

Optimised Dual N2 Expander Cycle


Kanfa Aragon has developed new liquefaction technology (patent filed) Based on the well-proven Dual Nitrogen Expander Cycle and optimised for offshore liquefaction application
Maximised LNG production for given driver Minimal or no condensate bi-production if preferred Integrated LPG / NGL recovery if preferred Very high efficiency

Integrated and optimised power generation LNG specifications adjusted acc. to Client requirements

Aragon liquefaction technology


SUITABLE FOR MEDIUM/ LARGE SCALE FLNG SUITABLE FOR MEDIUM/ LARGE SCALE FLNG SINGLE EXPANDER N2 CYCLE HIGHLY COMPLEX AND LOW INHERENT SAFETY HIGHLY COMPLEX SUITABLE FOR SOME LARGE SCALE FLNG PLANTS ONLY DOUBLE EXPANDER N2 CYCLE

SPECIFIC POWER @ TROPICAL CONDITIONS (kWh/kg LNG)

~ 0.8 kWh / kg

0.55 0.65 kWh / kg


KANFA ARAGON OPTIMISED EXPANDER CYCLE*

PRECOOLED DOUBLE EXPANDER N2 CYCLE

~ 0.45 kWh / kg

SINGLE MIXED REFRIGERANT

0.40 0.55 kWh / kg

~0.40 kWh / kg

CASCADE, PRECOOLED MRC, DUAL / CASCADE MRC

<0.3 0.4 kWh / kg

PLANT COMPLEXITY (QUALITATIVE)

* PATENT PENDING TECHNOLOGY

Lat out design example


Includes all required topsides utilities ans auxilliary systems
PRE-TREATMENT MODULE

LIQUIFACTION MODULE

COMPRESSOR MODULE

Liquefaction capacities
PARALLEL LNG TRAINS 1 LNG TRAIN LNG PRODUCT UP TO 0.9 MTPA FEED GAS UP TO 125 MMSCFD UP TO 3.5 MSm3/d UP TO 250 MMSCFD UP TO 7 MSm3/d UP TO 375 MMSCFD UP TO 10.5 MSm3/d UP TO 500 MMSCFD UP TO 14 MSm3/d

2 LNG TRAINS

UP TO 1.8 MTPA

3 LNG TRAINS

UP TO 2.7 MTPA

4 LNG TRAINS

UP TO 3.6 MTPA

SINGLE PRE-TREATMENT TRAIN FOR ALL SIZES

Expander Cycles for LNG liquefaction

Nitrogen Gas Expander Cycles are better suited for offshore liquefaction than more traditional systems because of their compactness, weight, ease of operation, safety and cost.

THANK YOU!

Tekna Conference 18-19th June 2008 Floating Production in Challenging Environment