1 INTRODUCTION
The most Iundamental vibration associated with wave motion
is the simple harmonic motion; in Sec. 7.2 we will discuss
simple harmonic motion, and in Sec. 7.3 we will discuss the
eIIects (on the vibratory motion) due to damping. II a peri
odic Iorce acts on a vibrating system, the system undergoes
what are known as Iorced vibrations; in Sec. 7.4 we will study
such vibrations which will allow us to understand the origin
oI reIractive index (see Sec. 7.5) and even Rayleigh scatter
ing (see Sec. 7.6), which is responsible Ior the red color oI the
setting (or rising) Sun and blue color oI the sky (see Fig. 3.21
and the color photograph in the insert at the end oI the book).
7.2 SIMPLE HARMONIC
MOTION
A periodic motion is a motion which repeats itselI aIter regu
lar intervals oI time, and the simplest kind oI periodic motion
is a simple harmonic motion in which the displacement varies
sinusoidally with time. To understand simple harmonic mo
tion, we consider a point P rotating on the circumIerence oI
a circle oI radius a with an angular velocity u (see Fig. 7.1).
The eorreei µieiure of an aiom, whieh is gi·en hy ihe iheory of wa·e meehanies, says ihai, so
for os µroIIoms iuroIriug Iighi oro coucoruoJ, ihe eIeeirons heha·e as ihough ihey were heId
hy sµrings. So we shaII suµµose ihai ihe eIeeirons ha·e a Iinear resioring foree whieh, iogeiher
wiih iheir mass m, makes ihem heha·e Iike IiiiIe oseiIIaiors, wiih a resonani frequeney
0
. . . . The eIeeirie fieId of ihe Iighi wa·e µoIarizes ihe moIeeuIes of ihe gas, µrodueing oseiI
Iaiing diµoIe momenis. The aeeeIeraiion of ihe oseiIIaiing eharges radiaies new wa·es of ihe fieId.
This new fieId, inierfering wiih ihe oId fieId, µroduees a ehanged fieId whieh is equi·aIeni io a
µhase shifi of ihe originaI wa·e. Beeause ihis µhase shifi is µroµoriionaI io ihe ihiekness of ihe
maieriaI, ihe effeei is equi·aIeni io ha·ing a differeni µhase ·eIoeiiy in ihe maieriaI.
Biehard Ieynman, oyumou Lociuros ou Physics, \oI. I
SlMPLE HARMONlC MOTlON,
ORCED VlBRATlONS, AND
ORlGlN O RERACTlVE lNDEX
We choose the center oI the circle as our origin, and we as
sume that at t ÷ 0 the point P lies on the x axis (i.e., at point
P
0
). At an arbitrary time t the point will be at position P where
ZPOP
0
÷ ut.
P
0
P
2
B
O
a
A
x
P
1
P
3
y
P
t
Fig. 7.1 Tho ¡oinl P is roluling in lho counlorcIocIwiso
diroclion on lho circunforonco of u circIo of rudius
a, wilh uniforn unguIur voIocily u. Tho fool of lho
¡or¡ondicuIur on uny ono of lho diunolors
oxoculos sin¡Io hurnonic nolion. Ioinl P is lho
¡osilion of lho ¡oinl ul I = O.
OpIics 96
Let A be the Ioot oI the perpendicular Irom the point P on
the x axis. Clearly, the distance
OA ÷ a cos ut (1)
and as point P rotates on the circumIerence oI the circle,
point A moves to and Iro about the origin on the diameter.
When point P is at P
1
, then the Ioot oI the perpendicular is at
O. This can also be seen Irom Eq. (1) because when P coin
cides with P
1
, ut ÷ r/2 and hence a cos ut ÷ a cos r/2 ÷ 0. As
the point still moves Iarther, the Ioot oI the perpendicular will
lie on the other side oI the origin and thus OA will be nega
tive, as is also evident Irom Eq. (1) because ut then greater
than r/2. When P coincides with P
2
, then OA ÷ OP
2
÷ a.
When point P moves Irom P
2
to P
3
, OA starts decreasing and
it Iinally goes to zero when P coincides with P
2
. AIter P
crosses P
3
, OA starts increasing again and Iinally acquires
the value a when P coincides with P
0
. AIter crossing the
point P
0
, the motion repeats itselI.
A motion in which the displacement varies sinusoidally with
time as in Eq. (1) is known as a simple harmonic motion.
Thus, when a point rotates on the circumference of a circle
with a uniform angular velocitv, the foot of the perpenaicular
on anv one of its aiameters will execute simple harmonic
motion. The quantity a is called the amplitude oI the motion,
and the period oI the motion T will be the time required to
complete one revolution. Since the angular velocity is u, the
time taken Ior one complete revolution will be 2r/u. Thus,
T ÷
2
(2)
The inverse oI the time period is known as the Irequency:
v ÷
1
T
÷
2
or u ÷ 2rv (3)
We could as well have studied the motion oI the point B,
which is the Ioot oI the perpendicular Irom point P on the v
axis. The distance OB is given by (see Fig. 7.1)
OB ÷ v ÷ a sin ut (4)
We had conveniently chosen t ÷ 0 as the time when P was
on the x axis. The choice oI the time t ÷ 0 is arbitrary, and we
could have chosen time t ÷ 0 to be the instant when P was at
P´ (see Fig. 7.2). II the angle ZP´OX ÷ u, then the projection
on the x axis at any time t is given by
OA ÷ x ÷ a cos (ut ¹ u) (5)
The quantity ut ¹ u is known as the phase oI the motion,
and u represents the initial phase. It is obvious Irom the
above discussion that the value oI u is quite arbitrary and
depends on the instant Irom which we start measuring time.
We next consider two points P and Q rotating on the
circle with the same angular velocity, and we let P´ and Q´ be
their respective positions at t ÷ 0. Let the angles ZP´OX and
ZQ´OX be u and ¢, respectively (see Fig. 7.3). Clearly at an
arbitrary time t, the distance oI the Ioot oI the perpendiculars
Irom the origin would be
x
P
÷ a cos (ut ¹ u) (6a)
x
Q
÷ a cos (ut ¹ ¢) (6b)
The quantity
(ut ¹ u) (ut ¹ ¢) ÷ u ¢ (7)
represents the phase diIIerence between the two simple har
monic motions; and iI u ¢ ÷ 0 (or an even multiple oI r), the
O
A
x
y
P
P
t
Fig. 7.2 Al I = O, ¡oinl P is ul P´, und lhoroforo lho iniliuI
¡huso is u.
O
B A
x
y
P
Q
Q
P
Fig. 7.3 Ioinls A und 3 oxoculo sin¡Io hurnonic nolions
wilh lho suno froquoncy u. Tho iniliuI ¡husos of A
und 3 uro u und o, ros¡oclivoIy.
Simpc Harmcnic McIicn, crccd VibraIicns, and Origin cf RcfracIitc ndcx 97
motions are said to be in phase, and iI u ¢ ÷ r (or an odd
multiple oI r), the motions are said to be out oI phase. II we
choose a diIIerent origin oI time, the quantities u and ¢ will
change by the same additive constant; consequently, the
phase diIIerence u ¢ is independent oI the choice oI the
instant t ÷ 0.
Thus the displacement oI a particle, which executes simple
harmonic motion, can be written as
x ÷ a sin (ut ¹ u) (8)
ThereIore, the velocity and the acceleration oI the particle are
given by the Iollowing equations:
v ÷
ax
at
÷ au cos (ut ¹ u) (9)
and
f ÷
a x
at
2
2
÷ au
2
sin(ut ¹ u)
or,
f ÷
a x
at
2
2
÷ u
2
x (10)
Equation (10) shows that the acceleration oI the particle
is proportional to the displacement, and the negative sign
indicates that the acceleration is always directed toward
the origin. Equation (10) can be used to deIine the simple
harmonic motion as the motion oI a particle in a straight
line in which the acceleration is proportional to the dis
placement Irom a Iixed point (on the straight line) and
always directed toward the Iixed point. (Here the point
x ÷ 0 is the Iixed point and is usually reIerred to as the
equilibrium position.) II we multiply Eq. (10) by the mass
oI the particle, then we obtain the Iollowing expression
Ior the Iorce acting on the particle:
F ÷ mf ÷ mu
2
x
or F ÷ kx (11)
where k (÷ mu
2
) is known as the force constant. We could
have equally well started Irom Eq. (11) and obtained simple
harmonic motion. This can be easily seen by noting that
since the Iorce is acting in the x direction, the equation oI
motion will be
m
a x
at
2
2
÷ F ÷ kx
or
a x
at
2
2
¹
k
m
x ÷ 0
or
a x
at
2
2
¹ u
2
x ÷ 0 (12)
where u
2
÷ k/m. The general solution oI Eq. (12) can be writ
ten in the Iorm
x ÷ A sin ut ¹ B cos ut (13)
which can be rewritten in either oI the Iollowing Iorms:
x ÷ a sin (ut ¹ u) (14)
or
x ÷ a cos (ut ¹ u) (15)
which describes a simple harmonic motion.
7.2.1 Examp!cs nf SImp!c
HarmnnIc MntInn
In this section we discuss three simple examples oI simple
harmonic motion.
(a) The simp!e pendu!um The simplest example oI
simple harmonic motion is the motion oI the bob oI a simple
pendulum in the gravitational Iield. II the bob oI the pendu
lum is displaced slightly Irom the equilibrium position (see
Fig. 7.4), then the Iorces acting on the bob are the gravita
tional Iorce mg acting vertically downward and the tension T, in
the direction B´A. In the equilibrium position (AB) the tension is
equal and opposite to the gravitational Iorce. However, in
the displaced position the tension T is not in the direction oI
the gravitational Iorce; and iI we resolve the gravitational
Iorce along the direction oI the string and perpendicular
to it, we see that the component mg cos u balances the ten
sion in the string and the component mg sin u is the restoring
A
B
B
h
B
B
mg
F
s
x
l
l
A
T
(a) (b)
Fig. 7.4 (u) Tho forcos on lho lol of lho ¡onduIun whon il
is dis¡Iucod fron ils oquiIilriun ¡osilion. Tho
rosloring forco is  which is oquuI lo mg sin u. (l) If
lho ungIo u is snuII, lho nolion of lho lol cun lo
u¡¡roxinuloIy ussunod lo lo in u slruighl Iino.
OpIics 98
Iorce. The motion oI the bob is along the arc oI a circle but iI
the length oI the pendulum is large and the angle u is small,
the motion can be assumed to be approximately in a straight
line see Fig. 7.4(b). Under such an approximation we may
assume that this Iorce is always directed toward point B and
the magnitude oI this Iorce will be
1
mg sin u = mg
x
l
(16)
Thus the equation oI motion will be
F ÷ m
a x
at
2
2
÷ mg
x
l
(17)
or
a x
at
2
2
¹ u
2
x ÷ 0 (18)
where u
2
÷ g/l. Equation (18) is oI the same Iorm as
Eq. (12); thus the motion oI the bob is simple harmonic with
its time period given by
T ÷
2
÷ 2r
l
g
(19)
The expression Ior the time period is Iairly accurate
(i.e., the motion is approximately simple harmonic) as long
as u
~
4°.
We next consider the motion oI two identical simple
pendulums vibrating with the same amplitude a (see Fig. 7.5).
Let, at t ÷ 0, the bob oI one oI the pendulums be at its ex
treme right position, moving toward the right Fig. 7.5(b). II
we measure the displacement Irom the equilibrium positions
oI the pendulums, then the displacements are given by
x
1
÷ a cos ut
x
2
÷ a sin ut ÷ a cos
2
t (20)
Thus the two bobs execute simple harmonic motion with a
phase diIIerence oI r/2, and in Iact the Iirst pendulum is
ahead in phase by r/2. In Fig. 7.5(b), iI the bob were moving
toward the leIt, then the equation oI motion would have been
x
2
÷ a sin ut ÷ a cos
2
t
n ¸ _
u +
'
¸ ,
and then the second pendulum would have been ahead oI
phase by r/2. Since, in general, the displacement oI the bob
oI the pendulum can be written as
x ÷ a cos (ut ¹ ¢) (21)
the velocity oI the particle is given by
ax
at
÷ au sin (ut ¹ ¢) (22)
Thus the kinetic energy oI the mass is
T ÷
1
2
2
m
ax
at
÷
1
2
ma
2
u
2
sin
2
(ut ¹ ¢) (23)
Comparing Eqs. (21) and (23), we see that when the par
ticle is at its extreme positions, the kinetic energy is zero; and
when the particle passes through the equilibrium position,
the kinetic energy is maximum. At the extreme positions, the
kinetic energy gets transIormed to potential energy. From
Fig. 7.4(a) it can immediately be seen that
Potential energy J ÷ mgh ÷ mgl (1 cos u)
2
÷ 2sin
2
mgl
= 2 mgl
2
2
(u measured in radians)
=
1
2
mgl
x
l
2
÷
1
2
g
m
l
x
2
÷
1
2
mu
2
x
2
(24)
or
J ÷
1
2
m u
2
a
2
cos
2
(ut ¹ ¢) (25)
where we have used the Iact that u
2
÷ g/l. The expression Ior
potential energy could have been directly written down by
noting that iI the potential energies at x and at x ¹ ax are J
and J ¹ aJ, then
aJ ÷ F ax ÷ ¹kx ax (26)
(a) (b)
Fig. 7.5 (u) und (l) show lho nolion of lwo idonlicuI ¡on
duIuns which uro vilruling wilh lho suno
un¡Iiludo lul huving u ¡huso difforonco of r/2.
Tho snuII circIos donolo lho ¡osilion of lho lols
ul I = O.
1
We will be assuming that u is small so that sin u  u, where u is in radians. The above approximation is valid Ior u
~
0.07 rad ( 4°).
Simpc Harmcnic McIicn, crccd VibraIicns, and Origin cf RcfracIitc ndcx 99
Thus
J ÷ kx ax
x
0
÷
1
2
kx
2
(27)
where we have assumed the zero oI the potential energy to
be at x ÷ 0. Thus the total energy E is given by
E ÷ T ¹ J ÷
1
2
mu
2
a
2
(28)
which, as expected, is independent oI time. We can also see
Irom Eq. (26) that the energy associated with the simple har
monic motion is proportional to the square oI the amplitude
and the square oI the Irequency.
(b) Vibratinns nf a mass he!d by twn stretched springs
Another simple example is the motion oI a mass m, held by
two stretched springs on a smooth table, as shown in Fig. 7.6.
The two springs are oI natural length l
0
Fig. 7.6(a), and cor
responding to the equilibrium position oI the mass, the
lengths oI the stretched springs are l. II the mass is displaced
slightly Irom the equilibrium position, then the resultant Iorce
acting on the mass will be
F ÷ k(l x) l
0
 k(l ¹ x) l
0

÷ 2kx (29)
where k represents the Iorce constant oI the spring. Once
again we get a Iorce which is proportional to the displace
ment and directed toward the equilibrium position, and
consequently, the motion oI the mass on the Irictionless table
will be simple harmonic.
(c) Vibratinns nf a stretched string When a stretched
string (as in a sonometer) is made to vibrate in its Iundamen
tal mode (see Fig. 7.7), then each point on the string executes
simple harmonic motion with diIIerent amplitudes but having
the same initial phase. The displacement can be written in the
Iorm
v ÷ asin x
L
cos ut (30)
The amplitude is thereIore zero at x ÷ 0 and at x ÷ L and is
maximum at x ÷ L/2. On the other hand, iI the string is
vibrating in its Iirst harmonic, then each point on the Iirst
halI oI the string vibrates out oI phase with each point on
the other halI.
7.3 DAMPED SIMPLE
HARMONIC MOTION
In Sec. 7.2, we showed that Ior a particle executing simple
harmonic motion (SHM), the equation oI motion will be oI
the Iorm
a x
at
2
2
¹ u
0
2
x(t) ÷ 0 (31)
the solution oI which is given by
x(t) ÷ A cos (u
0
t ¹ u) (32)
where A represents amplitude and u
0
the angular Irequency
oI motion. Equation (32) tells us that the motion will con
tinue Iorever. However, we know that in actual practice the
amplitude oI any vibrating system (like that oI a tuning Iork)
keeps on decreasing, and eventually the system stops vibrat
ing. Similarly, the bob oI a pendulum comes to rest aIter a
certain time. This phenomenon is due to the presence oI
damping Iorces which come into play when the particle is in
motion. For a vibrating pendulum, the damping Iorces are
primarily due to the viscosity oI the surrounding medium.
Consequently, the damping Iorces will be much larger in
liquids than in gases. In general, the exact dependence oI
(a)
(c)
(b)
l
0
l
l
0
l
x
Fig. 7.6 Two s¡rings of nuluruI Ionglh soo (u)j uro
slrolchod lo u Ionglh soo (l)j lo hoId lho nuss. If
lho nuss is dis¡Iucod ly u snuII dislunco x fron
ils oquiIilriun ¡osilion soo (c)j, lho nuss wiII ox
oculo sin¡Io hurnonic nolion.
L
Fig. 7.7 Whon u slring cIun¡od ul lolh lho onds is nudo
lo vilrulo in ils fundunonluI nodo, uII ¡urlicIos
oxoculo sin¡Io hurnonic nolions wilh lho suno
froquoncy und suno iniliuI ¡huso lul huving dif
foronl un¡Iiludos.
OpIics 100
the damping Iorce on the velocity oI the particle is quite
complicated; however, as a Iirst approximation we may
assume it to be proportional to the velocity oI the par
ticle. This is also consistent with the Iact that there are
no damping Iorces acting on the particle when it is at rest.
In this model, the equation oI motion will be given by
m
2
2
a x
at
÷ I
ax
at
k
0
x (33)
where the constant I determines the strength oI the damping
Iorce; the Iorce constant is now denoted by k
0
to avoid con
Iusion with the wave vector k. Equation (33) can be rewritten
in the Iorm
2
2
a x
at
¹ 2K
ax
at
¹ u
0
2
x(t) ÷ 0 (34)
where
2K ÷
m
and u
0
÷
k
m
0
(35)
To solve Eq. (34), we introduce a new variable ç(t) which
is deIined by the
x(t) ÷ ç(t)e
Kt
(36)
Thus,
ax
at
÷ ( )
Kt
a
K t e
at
and
a x
at
2
2
÷
2
2
2
2 ( )
Kt
a a
K K t e
at at
On substitution in Eq. (34) we get
2
2
a
at
¹ (u
0
2
K
2
) ç(t) ÷ 0 (37)
Equation (37) is similar to Eq. (31); however, depending on
the strength oI the damping Iorce, the quantity u
0
2
K
2
can
be positive, negative, or zero. Consequently, we must con
sider three cases.
Case 1: u
0
2
~ K
2
II the damping is small, u
0
2
is greater than K
2
, and the solu
tion oI Eq. (37) is oI the Iorm
ç(t) ÷ A cos
2 2
0
K t (38)
or x(t) ÷ Ae
Kt
cos
2 2
0
K t (39)
where A and u are constants which are determined Irom the
amplitude and phase oI the motion at t ÷ 0. Equation (39) rep
resents a damped simple harmonic motion (see Fig. 7.8).
Notice that the amplitude decreases exponentially with time
and the time period oI vibration
2 2
0
2 K is greater
than in the absence oI damping.
Case 2: K
2
~ u
0
2
II the damping is too large, K
2
is greater than u
0
2
, and
Eq. (37) should be written in the Iorm
2
2
a
at
(K
2
u
0
2
)ç(t) ÷ 0 (40)
the solution oI which is given by
ç(t) ÷ A exp
2 2
0
K t ¹ B exp
2 2
0
K t (41)
Thus,
x(t) ÷ A exp
2 2
0
K K t
¹ B exp
2 2
0
K K t (42)
and we can have two kinds oI motion; one in which the dis
placement decreases uniIormly to zero or the other in which
the displacement Iirst increases, reaches a maximum, and
then decreases to zero (see Fig. 7.9). In either case there are
no oscillations, and the motion is said to be overaampea or
aeaa beat. A typical example is the motion oI a simple pen
dulum in a highly viscous liquid (such as glycerine) where
the pendulum can hardly complete a Iraction oI the vibration
beIore coming to rest.
Case 3: K
2
÷ u
0
2
When K
2
÷ u
0
2
, Eq. (37) becomes
2
2
a
at
÷ 0 (43)
6 5 4 3 2 1
÷0.5
0.5
1
0
÷1
t s ( )
Fig. 7.8 Tho ox¡ononliuI docrouso of un¡Iiludo in u
dun¡od sin¡Io hurnonic nolion. Tho figuro cor
ros¡onds lo
= 1 s und K = O.5 s .
Simpc Harmcnic McIicn, crccd VibraIicns, and Origin cf RcfracIitc ndcx 101
the solution oI which is given by
ç ÷ At ¹ B (44)
Thus
x(t) ÷ (At ¹ B)e
Kt
(45)
The motion is again nonoscillatory and is said to corre
spond to critical aamping.
7.4 FORCED VIBRATIONS
We consider the eIIect oI a periodic sinusoidal Iorce (see
also Sec. 8.3) on the motion oI a vibrating system. II the Ire
quency oI the external Iorce is u, then the equation oI motion
is cI. Eq. (33):
m
a x
at
2
2
÷ F cos ut I
ax
at
k
0
x (46)
where the Iirst term on the RHS represents the external Iorce;
the other terms are the same as in Eq. (33). Equation (46) is
rewritten in the Iorm
2
a x
at
2
2
¹ 2K
ax
at
¹ u
0
2
x(t) ÷ G cos ut (47)
where G ÷ F/m and the other symbols were deIined in
Sec. 7.3. For the particular solution oI Eq. (47) we try
x(t) ÷ a cos (ut ¢) (48)
Thus,
ax
at
÷ au sin (ut ¢)
and
a x
at
2
2
÷ au
2
cos (ut ¢)
Substituting the above Iorms Ior x(t), ax/at, and a
2
x/at
2
in
Eq. (47), we obtain
au
2
cos (ut ¢) 2Kau sin (ut ¢) ¹ au
0
2
cos (ut ¢)
÷ G cos (ut ¢) ¹ ¢ (49)
where we have written G cos ut as G cos (ut ¢) ¹ ¢.
Thus,
a (u
0
2
u
2
) cos (ut ¢) 2Kau sin (ut ¢)
÷ G cos (ut ¢) cos ¢ G sin (ut ¢) sin ¢ (50)
For Eq. (50) to be valid Ior all values oI time, we must have
a (u
0
2
u
2
) ÷ G cos ¢ (51)
2Kau ÷ G sin ¢ (52)
II we square and add, we get
a ÷
1/ 2
2 2 2 2 2
0
( ) 4
G
K
(53)
Further
tan ¢ ÷
2 2
0
2K
(54)
Since K, u, and a are positive, ¢ is uniquely determined by
noting that sin ¢ should be positive; i.e., ¢ must be in either
the Iirst or the second quadrant.
To the solution given by Eq. (48), we must add the solu
tion oI the homogeneous equation, Eq. (34). Thus, assuming
u
0
2
to be greater than K
2
(i.e., weak damping), the general
solution oI Eq. (47) will be oI the Iorm
x(t) ÷ Ae
Kt
2 2
0
cos K t ¹ a cos (ut ¢) (55)
The Iirst term on the RHS represents the transient solu
tion corresponding to the natural vibrations oI the system
which eventually die out. The second term represents the
steadystate solution which corresponds to the Iorced vibra
tions imposed by the external Iorce. Notice that the
Irequency oI the Iorced vibrations is the same as that oI the
external Iorce.
2
Notice that the RHS oI Eq. (47) is independent oI x; such an equation is said to be an inhomogeneous equation. An equation oI the
type given by Eq. (34) is said to be homogeneous.
2 0
0
0.5
1
4
t s ( )
Fig. 7.9 Tho vuriulion of dis¡Iucononl wilh lino in un
ovordun¡od nolion. Tho soIid und lho dushod
curvos corros¡ond lo 3 = O und 3 = A/2, ro
s¡oclivoIy soo Eq. (42)j. In currying oul lho
cuIcuIulions wo huvo ussunod K = 2 s und
= 1 s .
OpIics 102
7.4.1 Rcsnnancc
The amplitude oI the Iorced vibration
a ÷
1/ 2
2 2 2 2 2
0
( ) 4
G
K
(56)
depends on the Irequency oI the driving Iorce and is a maxi
mum when (u
0
2
u
2
)
2
¹ 4K
2
u
2
is a minimum, i.e., when
a
a
(u
0
2
u
2
)
2
¹ 4K
2
u
2
 ÷ 0
or 2(u
0
2
u
2
) (2u) ¹ 8K
2
u ÷ 0
or u ÷ u
0
1/ 2
2
2
0
2
1
K
(57)
Thus the amplitude is maximum
3
when u is given by
Eq. (57). This is known as amplituae resonance. When damp
ing is extremely small, the resonance occurs at a Irequency
very close to the natural Irequency oI the system. The varia
tion oI the amplitude with u is shown in Fig. 7.10. Notice that
as the damping decreases, the maximum becomes very sharp
and the amplitude Ialls oII rapidly as we go away Irom the
resonance. The maximum value oI a is given by
max
1/ 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
0 0
(2 ) 4 1 2
G
a
K K K
1/ 2
2 2
0
2
G
K K
2 2 1/ 2
2
G
K K
(58)
Thus, with increase in damping, the maximum occurs at
lower values oI u and the resonance becomes less sharp.
To discuss the phase oI the Iorced vibrations, we reIer to
Eq. (54) Irom where we Iind that Ior small damping the phase
angle is small unless it is near resonance. For u ÷ u
0
, tan ¢ ÷
· and ¢ is r/2; i.e., the phase oI Iorced vibrations is r/2
aheaa oI the phase oI the driving Iorce. As the Irequency oI
the driving Iorce is increased beyond u
0
, the phase also in
creases and approaches r (see Fig. 7.11).
All the salient Ieatures oI Iorced vibrations can be easily
demonstrated by means oI an arrangement shown in
Fig. 7.12. In the Iigure, AC is a metal rod with a movable bob
B, and LM is a simple pendulum with a bob at M. The metal
rod and the simple pendulum are suspended Irom a string
PQ, as shown in Fig. 7.12. With B at the bottom, when the
rod AC is set in motion, the pendulum LM also vibrates. As
the bob B is moved upward, the time period decreases, the
Irequency oI the rod becomes closer to the natural Irequency
3
There is no resonance condition when K
2 1
2
u
0
2
.
4
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
5 6 7
K = 0
K = 0.2
K = 0.5
K = 1
K = 2
0
÷1
= 5.0 s
(s )
÷1
Fig. 7.10 Tho vuriulion of un¡Iiludo wilh lho froquoncy of
lho oxlornuI driving forco for vurious vuIuos of K.
Tho cuIcuIulions corros¡ond lo u = 5 s , und lho
vuIuos of K uro in s . Nolico lhul wilh un incrouso
in dun¡ing lho rosonunco occurs ul u snuIIor
vuIuo of u.
2
0
0.0 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0
0
÷1
= 5.0 s
3 s
÷1
2 s
÷1
K = 1 s
÷1
(s )
÷1
Fig. 7.11 Tho do¡ondonco of lho ¡huso of lho forcod vilru
lion on lho froquoncy of lho driving forco.
Simpc Harmcnic McIicn, crccd VibraIicns, and Origin cf RcfracIitc ndcx 103
oI the simple pendulum, and eventually the resonance condi
tion is satisIied. At resonance, the amplitude oI vibration oI
the simple pendulum is maximum, and the phase diIIerence
between the vibrations is nearly r/2; i.e., when the metal rod
is at its lowest position and moving toward the right, the
simple pendulum is at the extreme leIt position. II the bob B
is Iurther moved upward, the Irequency increases and the
amplitude oI the Iorced vibrations decreases.
7.5 ORIGIN OF REFRACTIVE
INDEX
In this section we study the origin oI the reIractive index. We
know that an atom consists oI a heavy positively charged
nucleus surrounded by electrons. In the simplest model oI the
atom, the electrons are assumed to be bound elastically to
their rest positions; thus, when these electrons are displaced
by an electric Iield, a restoring Iorce (proportional to the dis
placement) will act on the electrons that will tend to return
the electrons to their rest positions. In this model, the equa
tion oI motion Ior the electron, in the presence oI an external
electric Iield E, would be
m
a
at
2
2
x
¹ k
0
x ÷ qE (59)
or
a
at
2
2
x
¹ u
0
2
x ÷
q
m
E (60)
where x represents the position oI the electron, m and q
represent the mass and charge, respectively, oI the
electron (q = ¹1.6 × 10
19
C), k
0
is the Iorce constant, and
u
0
k m
0
/
represents the Irequency oI the oscillator. We
assume
E ÷ x E
0
cos (k: ut) (61)
i.e., the Iield is in the x direction having an amplitude E
0
and
propagating in the ¹: direction; x represents the unit vector
in the x direction; and k ÷ 2r/i, with i representing the wave
length. Thus
a x
at
2
2
¹ u
0
2
x ÷
qE
m
0
cos (k: ut) (62)
where we have replaced the vectors by the corresponding
scalar quantities because the displacement and the electric
Iield are in the same direction. Except Ior the damping term,
Eq. (62) is similar to Eq. (46), and thereIore the solution cor
responding to the Iorced vibrations will be given by
4
x ÷
0
2 2
0
( )
qE
m
cos (k: ut) (63)
In the simplest model oI the atom, the center oI the nega
tive charge (due to the electrons) is assumed to be at the
center oI the nucleus. In the presence oI an electric Iield,
the center oI the negative charge gets displaced Irom the
nucleus which results in a Iinite value oI the dipole moment
oI the atom. In particular, iI we have a positive charge ¹q at
the origin and a negative charge q at a distance x, then the
dipole moment is qx; thus, iI there are N dispersion elec
trons
5
per unit volume, then the polarization (i.e., dipole
moment per unit volume) is given by
P ÷ Nqx ÷
2
2 2
0
( )
Nq
m
E
÷ ¿E (64)
where ¿ ÷
2
2 2
0
( )
Nq
m
(65)
is known as the electric susceptibility oI the material. The
dielectric permittivity is thereIore given by (see Sec. 23.9)
r ÷ r
0
¹ ¿ (66)
or
2
2 2
0 0 0
1
( )
Nq
m
r
+
r r u ÷ u
(67)
Now, r/r
0
is the dielectric constant, which is equal to the
square oI the reIractive index (see Chap. 23). Thus
n
2
÷ 1 ¹
1
2 2
2 2
0 0 0
1
Nq
m
¸ _
u
'
r u u ¸ ,
(68)
B M
A
C
P
L
Q
Fig. 7.12 An urrungononl for dononslrulion of forcod
vilrulions.
4
Notice that in the absence oI damping (i.e., when I ÷ 0), o ÷ 0; see Eq. (54).
5
The number oI dispersion electrons in a molecule oI an ideal gas is the valence number oI the molecules. This number is 2 Ior
H
2
, 6 Ior N
2
, etc.
OpIics 104
showing that the reIractive index depends on the Irequency;
this is known as dispersion. Assuming that the characteristic
Irequency u
0
lies in the Iar ultraviolet see Eq. (74),
6
the
quantity
1
2 2
0
1
÷u u
is positive in the entire visible re
gion. Further, as u increases, n
2
also increases, i.e., the
reIractive index increases with Irequency; this is known as
normal dispersion. II we Iurther assume u/u
0
·· 1, then
1
2 2
2 2
0 0
1 1
¸ _
u u
= +
'
u u ¸ ,
and
n
2
= 1 ¹
2 2
2 2
0 0 0
1
Nq
m
¸ _
u
+
'
r u u ¸ ,
= 1 ¹
2 2 2 2
2 4 2
0 0 0 0 0
4 1 Nq c Nq
m m
n
+
r u r u i
(69)
where i
0
÷ 2r c/u is the Iree space wavelength. Equation (69)
can be written in the Iorm
n
2
÷ A ¹
2
0
B
(70)
which is the wellknown Cauchv relation. For hydrogen,
the experimental variation oI n
2
with i
0
is approximately
given by
n
2
÷ 1 ¹ 2.721 × 10
4
¹
18
2
0
2.11 10
×
i
(71)
where the wavelength is measured in meters; the above
numbers correspond to 0°C and 76 cm Hg (see ReI. 9).
Thus,
2
2
0 0
Nq
m
÷ 2.721 × 10
4
(72)
and
2 2 2
4
0 0
4 c Nq
m
÷ 2.11 × 10
18
m
2
(73)
II we divide Eq. (73) by Eq. (72), we would get
2 2
2
0
4 c
÷
211 10
2 721 10
18
4
.
.
or v
0
÷
0
2
= 3 × 10
15
s
1
(74)
which is indeed in the ultraviolet region. We can eliminate u
0
Irom Eqs. (72) and (73) to obtain
2
2 2
0
4
Nq
c m
= 3 × 10
10
m
2
(75)
Now at NTP, 22,400 cm
3
oI H
2
contains 6 × 10
23
molecules;
thus,
N ÷ 2 ×
23
5
6 10
22, 400 10
×
×
m
3
= 5 × 10
25
m
3
where the Iactor 2 arises Irom the Iact that a hydrogen
molecule consists oI two electrons. Hence,
2
2 2
0
4
Nq
c m
=
25 19 2
2 16 12 31
5 10 (1.6 10 )
4 9 10 8.85 10 9.1 10
= 4 × 10
10
m
2
which qualitatively agrees with Eq. (75).
We note that Ior a gas oI Iree electrons (as we have in the
upper atmosphere), there is no restoring Iorce and we must
set u
0
÷ 0. Thus the expression Ior the reIractive index be
comes see Eq. (67)
n
2
÷ 1
2
2
0
Nq
m
(76)
where N represents the density oI Iree electrons. Equation (75)
shows that the reIractive index is less than unity; however, this
does not imply that one can send signals Iaster than the speed
oI light in Iree space (see Chap. 10). To quote Feynman:
For Iree electrons, u
0
÷ 0 (there is no elastic
restoring Iorce). Setting u
0
÷ 0 in our dispersion
equation yields the correct Iormula Ior the index oI
reIraction Ior radiowaves in the stratosphere, where
N is now to represent the density oI Iree electrons
(number per unit volume) in the stratosphere. But
let us look again at the equation, iI we beam
Xrays on the matter, or radiowaves (or any electric
waves) on Iree electrons, the term (u
0
2
u
2
) become
negative, and we obtain the result that n is less than
one. That means that the eIIective speed oI the
waves in the substance is Iaster than c! Can that be
correct? It is correct. In spite oI the Iact that it is
6
This also Iollows Irom the Iact that according to classical electrodynamics, an oscillating dipole vibrating with Irequency u
0
will
radiate electromagnetic waves with Irequency u
0
; and as an example, iI we consider hydrogen, then u
0
 13.6 eV Irom which we
obtain u
0
 2 × 10
16
s
1
. This Irequency corresponds to the Iar ultraviolet.
Simpc Harmcnic McIicn, crccd VibraIicns, and Origin cf RcfracIitc ndcx 105
said that you cannot send signals any Iaster than
the speed oI light, it is nevertheless true that the
index oI reIraction oI materials at a particular Ire
quency can be either greater or less than 1.
Equation (76) is usually written in the Iorm
n
2
÷ 1
2
p
u ¸ _
'
u ¸ ,
(77)
where u
p
÷
1/ 2
2
0
Nq
m
(78)
is known as the plasma Irequency. For u · u
p
, the reIractive
index is purely imaginary which gives rise to attenuation, and
Ior u ~ u
p
, the reIractive index is real. Indeed in 1933, Wood
discovered that alkali metals are transparent to ultraviolet
light. For example, Ior sodium iI we assume that the reIractive
index is primarily due to the Iree electrons and that there is
one Iree electron per atom, then
N ÷
6 10 0 9712
22 99
23
.
.
= 2.535 × 10
22
cm
3
where we have assumed that the atomic weight oI Na is 22.99
and its density is 0.9712 g/cm
3
. Substituting the values oI
m = 9.109 × 10
31
kg, q = 1.602 × 10
19
C, and r
0
= 8.854 ×
10
12
C/ N
1
/ m
2
, we get
i
p
2
÷
p
c
= 2098 A
Thus Ior i · 2098 A, the reIractive index oI Na becomes
real and the metal would become transparent; the corre
sponding experimental value is 2100 A. The theoretical and
experimental values oI i
p
Ior Li, K, and Rb are discussed in
Prob. 7.7.
As mentioned above, Eq. (76) gives the correct depen
dence oI the reIractive index oI the stratosphere Ior radio
waves; in Sec. 3.4.3 we used Eq. (76) to study the reIlection oI
electromagnetic waves by the ionosphere.
Returning to Eq. (68), we note that as u ÷ u
0
, the reIrac
tive index tends to ·. This is so because we have neglected
the presence oI damping Iorces in our treatment. II we do
take into account the damping Iorces, Eq. (62) becomes see
Eq. (46)
m
a x
at
2
2
¹ I
ax
at
¹ k
0
x ÷ qE
0
cos (k: ut) (79)
To derive an expression Ior the reIractive index, it is more
convenient to rewrite the above equation in the Iorm
a x
at
2
2
¹ 2K
ax
at
¹ u
0
2
x ÷
qE
m
0
e
i(k: t)
(80)
where the solution oI Eq. (79) will be the real part oI the
solution oI Eq. (80). The solution oI the homogeneous
equation will give the transient behavior which will die out
as t ÷ · (see Sec. 7.4); the steadystate solution will corre
spond to Irequency u. Thus, iI we substitute a solution oI
the type
x(t) ÷ Ae
i(k: t)
(81)
in Eq. (80), we obtain
(u
2
2iKu ¹ u
0
2
) A ÷
0
qE
m
or
7
A ÷
0
2 2
0
( 2 )
qE
m iK
(82)
Thus we get
P ÷
2
2 2
0
 2 
Nq
m iK
E (83)
The electric susceptibility is thereIore given by
¿ ÷
2
2 2
0
( 2 )
Nq
m iK
Thus n
2
÷
0
÷ 1 ¹
0
÷ 1 ¹
2
2 2
0 0
( 2 )
Nq
m iK
(84)
Notice that the reIractive index is complex, which implies
absorption oI the propagating electromagnetic wave. Indeed,
iI we write
n ÷ q ¹ ix (85)
where q and x are real numbers, then the wave number k,
which equals nu/c, is given by
k ÷ (q ¹ ix)
c
(86)
7
Notice that A is complex; however, iI we substitute the expression Ior A Irom Eq. (82) in Eq. (81) and take the real part, we get the
same expression Ior x(t) as we obtained in Sec. 7.4.
OpIics 106
II we consider a plane electromagnetic wave propagating
in the ¹: direction, then its : and t dependence will be oI the
Iorm exp i(k: ut); consequently
E ÷ E
0
e
i(k: t)
÷ E
0
exp ( ) i i : t
c
¹ ¹ u
q + x u
÷ E
0
exp
:
i t :
c c
q xu ¸ _
u
'
¸ ,
(87)
which shows an exponential attenuation oI the amplitude.
This should not be unexpected because damping causes a
loss oI energy.
To obtain expressions Ior q and x, we substitute the ex
pression Ior n Irom Eq. (85) into Eq. (84) to obtain
2 2 2
2 0
2 2 2 2
0 0 0
( 2 )
( ¹ ) ÷ 1 ¹
( 2 ) ( 2 )
Nq iK
i
m i K i K
or
q
2
x
2
÷ 1 ¹
2 2 2
0
2 2 2 2 2
0 0
( )
( ) 4 
Nq
m K
(88)
and 2qx ÷
2
0
Nq
m
2 2 2 2 2
0
2
( ) 4
K
K
(89)
The above equations can be rewritten in the Iorm
q
2
x
2
÷ 1
2 2
( 1)
(90)
and 2qx ÷
2 2
1
( 1)
(91)
where we have introduced the Iollowing dimensionless
parameters:
o ÷
2
2
0 0
Nq
m
; O ÷
2 2
0
2
0
and þ ÷
0
2K
The qualitative variations oI q
2
x
2
and 2qx with O are
shown in Fig. 7.13. It can be easily shown that at O ÷ þ and
at O ÷ ¹þ, the Iunction q
2
x
2
attains its maximum and mini
mum values, respectively.
In general, an atom can execute oscillations corresponding
to diIIerent resonant Irequencies, and we have to take into
account the various contributions. II u
0
, u
1
, . . . represent the
resonant Irequencies and iI f
f
represents the Iractional num
ber oI electrons per unit volume whose resonant Irequency
is u
f
, Eq. (84) is modiIied to:
8
n
2
÷ 1 ¹
2
2 2
0
2
f
f f f
f
Nq
m
iK
(92)
where K
f
represents the damping constant corresponding
to the resonant Irequency u
f
. Indeed, Eq. (92) describes
correctly the variation oI reIractive index Ior most gases.
Figure 7.14 shows the dependence oI the reIractive index oI
sodium vapor around i
0
÷ 5800 A. Since D
1
and D
2
lines
occur at 5890 and 5896 A, respectively one should expect
8
Quantum mechanics also gives a similar result (see, Ior example, ReI. 6).
0 2.0 ÷2.0
2 2
÷ 2
2
0
2
0
2
Fig. 7.13 QuuIilulivo vuriulion of (q  x ) und 2qx wilh O.
÷10
÷5
5
10
15
20
25
÷15
÷20
÷25
( ÷ 1) 10 n
5
.10
12
509.5 509.0 508.5
D
1
D
2
Fig. 7.14 Tho nousurod vuriulion of rofruclivo indox of so
diun wilh froquoncy uround lho D und D Iinos.
Tho nousurononls uro of RoschdoslwonsIy, lho
figuro hus loon udu¡lod fron Rof. 1.
Simpc Harmcnic McIicn, crccd VibraIicns, and Origin cf RcfracIitc ndcx 107
resonant oscillations around these Irequencies. This is in
deed borne out by the data shown in Fig. 7.14. The variation
oI the reIractive index can be accurately Iitted with the
Iormula
n
2
÷ 1 ¹
2 2 2 2
1 2
A B
(93)
where we have neglected the presence oI damping Iorces, which
is justiIied except when one is very close to the resonance.
In a liquid, the molecules are very close to one another,
and the dipoles interact between themselves. II we take this
interaction into account, we get
9
n
n
2
2
1
2
÷
2
2 2
0
3
f
f f
f
Nq
m
(94)
where we have neglected the presence oI damping. For liq
uids, whose molecules do not have a permanent dipole
moment (e.g., H
2
, O
2
, etc.), Eq. (94) gives a Iairly accurate
description. However, Ior liquids whose moleculess possess
permanent dipole moments (e.g., H
2
O) one has to carry out a
diIIerent analysis.
7.6 RAYLEIGH SCATTERING
We end this chapter by giving a brieI account oI Rayleigh
scattering. Throughout our analysis we assume that each
scattering center behaves independentlyan assumption
which will be valid Ior a gas where the average interatomic
spacing is greater than the wavelength.
As discussed in Sec. 7.5, the incident electric Iield E pro
duces a dipole moment given by see Eqs. (64) and (65)
p ÷
2
2 2
0
( )
q
m
E (95)
where u
0
represents the natural Irequency oI the atom. To
keep the analysis simple, we are neglecting the eIIect oI
damping although it can be taken into account without much
diIIiculty. Now, an oscillating dipole given by
p ÷ p
0
e
i t
(96)
radiates energy at a rate (see Sec. 23.4.1)
P ÷
4 2
0
3
0
12
p
c
(97)
or P ÷
4 4
2
0
3 2 2 2 2
0 0
12 ( )
q
E
c m
(98)
Thus iI N represents the number oI atoms per unit volume,
then the total energy radiated away (per unit volume) is be NP .
We assume the electromagnetic wave to be propagating
along the x direction. The intensity oI the wave is given by
see Eq. (78) oI Chap. 23
I ÷
1
2
r
0
cE
0
2
(99)
Thus the change in the intensity oI the electromagnetic wave
as it propagates through a distance ax is given by
aI ÷ NPax
or
aI
I
÷ yax (100)
where y ÷
4 4
2 4 2 2 2 2
0 0
6 ( )
N q
c m
(101)
The integration oI Eq. (100) is simply
I ÷ I
0
e
x
(102)
implying that y represents the attenuation coeIIicient. For
most atoms u
0
lies in the ultraviolet region; Ior example, Ior
the hydrogen atom u
0
= Iew electronvolts. Thus iI we as
sume u ·· u
0
, then y becomes proportional to u
4
, or
y =
4
1
(103)
which represents the Iamous 1/i
4
Rayleigh scattering law and is
responsible Ior the blue color oI the sky (because it is the blue
component which is predominantly scattered). Similarly, the blue
component oI the light coming Irom the setting Sun is predomi
nantly scattered out, resulting in the red color oI the setting
Sun. Indeed, iI the color oI the setting (or rising) Sun is deep
red, one can inIer that the pollution level is high. Now, Ior a gas,
n
2
1 ÷
2
2 2
0 0
( )
Nq
m
(104)
see Eq. (68). For air, since the reIractive index is very close
to unity, we may write
n 1 =
2
2 2
0 0
2 ( )
Nq
m
(105)
By using Eq. (105), Eq. (101) can be written in the convenient Iorm
y ÷
4
2
3 N c
(n 1)
2
÷
4
2
3
k
N
(n 1)
2
k ÷
c
(106)
9
See, Ior example, ReI. 1. Notice that when n is very close to unity (i.e., Ior a dilute Iluid), Eq. (94) reduces to Eq. (92).
OpIics 108
For air at NTP, the quantity n 1 = 2.78 × 10
4
in the entire
region oI the visible spectrum. With N= 2.7 × 10
19
molecules/
cm
3
we obtain
L ÷
1
÷ 27, 128, and 188 km
Ior i ÷ 4000 A (violet), 5900 A (yellow), and 6500 A (red),
respectively. The quantity L represents the distance in which
the intensity decreases by a Iactor oI e.
Rayleigh scattering discussed above is caused by par
ticles whose dimensions are small compared to wavelength
(like oxygen and nitrogen molecules in the atmosphere); this
is why the sky is blue. Scattering oI light by larger size par
ticles (whose size are large compared to the wavelength like
in a colloidal suspension) is known as Tyndall scattering and
all wavelengths are scattered equally. This is the reason why
the clouds (which contain water droplets) appear white
against the background oI the blue sky.
We conclude this chapter by mentioning that in the 1929
edition oI Encvclopaeaia Britannica, Lord Rayleigh wrote in
an article on SKY:
SKY: The apparent covering oI the atmosphere,
the overarching heaven. . . It is a matter oI common
observation that the blue oI the sky is highly vari
able, even on days that are Iree Irom clouds. The
color usually deepens toward the zenith and also
with the elevation oI the observer. . . Closely associ
ated with the color is the polarization oI light Irom
the sky. This takes place in a plane passing through
the Sun, and attains a maximum about 90º thereIrom.
Summary
The most Iundamental vibration associated with wave mo
tion is the simple harmonic motion.
When a point rotates on the circumIerence oI a circle with a
uniIorm angular velocity, the Ioot oI the perpendicular on any
one oI its diameters will execute simple harmonic motion.
When an external sinusoidal Iorce is applied to a vibrating
system, we have Iorced vibrations. In steady state, the Ire
quency oI the Iorced vibrations is the same as that oI the
external Iorce.
When a light wave interacts with an atom, we may assume
the electrons to behave as oscillators with resonant Ire
quency u
0
. The electric Iield oI the light wave polarizes the
molecules oI the gas, producing oscillating dipole moments
Irom which we can make a Iirst principle calculation oI the
reIractive index to obtain
n
2
(u)  1 ¹
2
2 2
0 0
( 2 )
Nq
m iK
where m is the mass oI the electron, q the magnitude oI the
charge oI the electron, N is the number oI electrons per unit
volume, and K is the damping constant. Because oI the Iact
that an oscillating dipole radiates energy, the light wave gets
attenuated; this leads to the Iamous
4
1
Rayleigh scatter
ing law which is responsible Ior the red color oI the rising
Sun and blue color oI the sky.
Problems
7.1 The displacement in a string is given by
v(x, t) ÷ a cos
2
2 x t
where a, i, and v represent the amplitude, wavelength, and
the Irequency, respectively, oI the wave. Assume a ÷ 0.1 cm,
i ÷ 4 cm, and v ÷ 1 s
1
. Plot the time dependence oI the
displacement at x ÷ 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 cm. Inter
pret the plots physically.
Ans: v(x ÷ 3.0, t) ÷ v(x ÷ 1.0, t) because the two
points are
2
apart; etc.
7.2 The displacement associated with a standing wave on a
sonometer is given by
v(x, t) ÷ 2a sin
2
x cos 2rvt
II the length oI the string is L, then the allowed values oI i
are 2L, 2L/2, 2L/3, . . . (see Sec. 13.2). Consider the case
when i ÷ 2L/5; study the time variation oI displacement in
each loop, and show that alternate loops vibrate in phase
(with diIIerent points in a loop having diIIerent ampli
tudes) and adjacent loops vibrate out oI phase.
7.3 A tunnel is dug through the Earth as shown in Fig. 7.15. A
mass is dropped at point A along the tunnel. Show that it
will execute simple harmonic motion. What will the time
period be?
The time period will be ÷ 2 .
R
T
g
Ans. :
A B
R
O
x
Fig. 7.15 For Irol. 7.3.
Simpc Harmcnic McIicn, crccd VibraIicns, and Origin cf RcfracIitc ndcx 109
7.4 A 1 g mass is suspended Irom a vertical spring. It executes
simple harmonic motion with period 0.1 s. By how much dis
tance had the spring stretched when the mass was attached?
Ans: Ax  0.25 cm
7.5 A stretched string is given simultaneous displacement in the
x and v directions such that
x(:, t) ÷ a cos
2
2 : t
and v(:, t) ÷ a cos
2
2 : t
Show that the string will vibrate along a direction making
an angle r/4 with the x and v axes.
7.6 In Prob. 7.5, iI
x(:, t) ÷ a cos
2
2 : t
and v(:, t) ÷ a sin
2
2 : t
what will be the resultant displacement?
7.7 As mentioned in Sec. 7.5, alkali metals are transparent to
ultraviolet light. Assuming that the reIractive index is pri
marily due to the Iree electrons and that there is one Iree
electron per atom, calculate i
p
2
p
c Ior Li, K, and
Rb. You may assume that the atomic weights oI Li, K, and
Rb are 6.94, 39.10, and 85.48, respectively, and that the
corresponding densities are 0.534, 0.870, and 1.532 g/cm
3
.
Also, the values oI various physical constants are m ÷
9.109 × 10
31
kg, q ÷ 1.602 × 10
19
C, and r
0
÷ 8.854 ×
10
12
/N
1
/ m
2
.
Ans: 1550, 2890, and 3220 A; the corresponding
experimental values are 1551, 3150, and 3400 A,
respectively.
7.8 (a) In a metal, the electrons can be assumed to be essen
tially Iree. The driIt velocity oI the electron satisIies
the equation
m
a
at
¹ m ÷ F ÷ qE
0
e
i t
where v represents the collision Irequency. Calculate
the steadystate current density (1 ÷ Nqv) and show
that the conductivity is given by
o(u) ÷
2
1 Nq
m i
(b) II r represents the displacement oI the electron, show that
P ÷ Nqr ÷
2
2
( )
Nq
m i
E
which represents the polarization. Using the above
equation, show that
x(u) ÷ 1
2
2
0
( )
Nq
m i
which represents the dielectric constant variation Ior a
Ireeelectron gas.
7.9 Assuming that each atom oI copper contributes one Iree elec
tron and that the lowIrequency conductivity o is about 6 ×
10
7
mho/m, show that v  4 × 10
13
s
1
. Using this value oI v,
show that the conductivity is almost real Ior u · 10
11
s
1
.
For u ÷ 10
8
s
1
calculate the complex dielectric constant,
and compare its value with the one obtained Ior inIrared
Irequencies.
Note that Ior small Irequencies, only one oI the elec
trons oI a copper atom can be considered to be Iree. On the
other hand, Ior Xray Irequencies all the electrons may be
assumed to be Iree (see Probs. 7.10, 7.11, and 7.12). Dis
cuss the validity oI the above argument.
7.10 Show that Ior high Irequencies (u ~~ v) the dielectric con
stant (as derived in Prob. 7.8) is essentially real with
Irequency dependence oI the Iorm
x ÷ 1
2
2
p
where u
p
÷
1/ 2
2
0
Nq m is known as the plasma Ire
quency. The above dielectric constant variation is indeed
valid Ior Xray wavelengths in many metals. Given that at
such Irequencies all the electrons can be assumed to be
Iree, calculate u
p
Ior copper Ior which the atomic number
is 29, mass number is 63, and density is 9 g cm
3
.
Ans: ~9 × 10
16
s
1

7.11 For sodium, at i ÷ 1 A, all the electrons can be assumed to
be Iree; under this assumption show that u
p
 3 × 10
16
s
1
and n
2
 1 and the metal will be completely transparent.
7.12 In an ionic crystal (such as NaCl, and CaF
2
), one has to
take into account inIrared resonance oscillations oI the ions,
and Eq. (68) modiIies to
n
2
÷ 1 ¹
2 2
2 2 2 2
0 1 0 2
( ) ( )
Nq pNq
m M
where M represents the reduced mass oI the two ions and
p represents the valency oI the ion ( p ÷ 1 Ior Na
¹
, Cl
;
p ÷ 2 Ior Ca
2¹
, F
2
2
). Show that the above equation can be
written in the Iorm
10
.
n
2
÷ n
2
¹
1 2
2 2 2 2
1 2
A A
10
Quoted Irom ReI. 9; measurements are oI Paschen.
OpIics 110
where
i
1
÷
1
2 c
i
2
÷
2
2 c
A
1
÷
2
2 2
0
4
Nq
c m
i
1
4
A
2
÷
2
2 2
0
4
pNq
c M
i
2
4
and
2 1 2
2 2
1 2
1
A A
n
7.13 The reIractive index variation Ior CaF
2
(in the visible region
oI the spectrum) can be written in the Iorm
10
n
2
÷ 6.09 ¹
15 9
2 15 2 9
6.12 10 5.10 10
8.88 10 1.26 10
where i is in meters.
(a) Plot the variation oI n
2
with i in the visible region.
(b) From the values oI A
1
and A
2
show that m/M  2.07 ×
10
5
and compare this with the exact value.
(c) Show that using the constants A
1
, A
2
, i
1
, and i
2
, we
obtain n
2
 5.73, which agrees reasonably well with
the experimental value given above.
7.14 (a) The reIractive index oI a plasma (neglecting collisions)
is approximately given by (see Sec. 7.6)
n
2
÷ 1
2
2
p
where
u
p
÷
1/ 2
2
0
Nq
m
 56.414 N
1/2
s
1
is known as the plasma Irequency. In the ionosphere,
the maximum value oI N
0
is  10
10
to 10
12
electrons/
m
3
. Calculate the plasma Irequency. Notice that at high
Irequencies n
2
 1; thus highIrequency waves (such
as the ones used in TV) are not reIlected by the
ionosphere. On the other hand, Ior low Irequencies,
the reIractive index is imaginary (as in a conductor
see Sec. 24.3) and the beam gets reIlected. This Iact
is used in longdistance radio communications (see
Fig. 3.20).
(b) Assume that Ior x  200 km, N ÷ 10
12
electrons/m
3
and
that the electron density increases to 2 × 10
12
electrons/
m
3
at x  300 km. For x · 300 km, the electron density
decreases. Assuming a parabolic variation oI N, plot
the corresponding reIractive index variation.
Ans: For 2 × 10
5
m · x · 4 × 10
5
m,
n
2
(x)  1
15
2
6.4 10
1 5 × 10
11
(x 3 × 10
5
)
2

where u is measured in s
1
and x in m.
1. C. J. F. Bottcher, Theorv of Electric Polari:ation, Elsevier
Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1952.
2. H. J. J. Braddick, Jibrations, Waves ana Diffraction,
McGrawHill Publishing Co., London, 1965.
3. F. S. CrawIord, Waves ana Oscillations. Berkelev Phvsics
Course, Vol. III, McGrawHill Book Co., New York, 1968.
4. R. P. Feynman, R. B. Leighton, and M. Sands, The Fevnman
Lectures on Phvsics, Vol. I, AddisonWesley Publishing Co.,
Reading, Mass., 1965.
5. A. P. French, Jibrations ana Waves, ArnoldHeineman India,
New Delhi, 1973.
REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED READINGS
6. R. Loudon, The Quantum Theorv of Light, Clarendon Press,
OxIord, 1973.
7. H. J. Pain, The Phvsics of Jibrations ana Waves, John Wiley &
Sons, London, 1968.
8. R. Resnick and D. Halliday, Phvsics, Part I, John Wiley &
Sons, New York, 1966.
9. A. SommerIeld, Optics, Academic Press, New York, 1964.
10. J. M. Stone, Raaiation ana Optics, McGrawHill Book Co.,
New York, 1963.