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Module 3 Extended Assignment

Teaching Exam Classes


Robert William McCaul
Centre Name: The Distance Delta Centre Number: 0036 Candidate Number: 33! December !0"3 Word count: #$#%# &ords

Contents:
Contents:'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''! (ibliogra)h*'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''" Background Reading..............................................................................................................17 Course Materials....................................................................................................................18 Online Materials.....................................................................................................................19 A))endices'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''!0 !!endix 1: Course "lan.......................................................................................................#$ !!endix #: %eeds nal&sis and 'iagnostic Test: Collated Results.................................(8 !!endix ): 'iagnostic Test*+ummar& o, results...............................................................99 !!endix (: ssessment +chedule -+!eaking./riting.....................................................117 !!endix 0: %eeds nal&sis Blank 1uestionnaire ......................................................) !!endix 2: Com!leted diagnostic tests 3 4riting sam!les..............................................17 !!endix 7: Course materials5 4orksheets 1*8................................................................... 09 !!endix 8: 6ormati7e E7aluation Tools............................................................................8# !!endix 9: +ummati7e E7aluation Tools........................................................................ 1$) !!endix 1$: +!eaking 3 /riting ssessment Criteria..................................................11(

Teaching Exam Classes

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1. Teaching Exam Classes.


/h& did 8 choose this s!ecialism9
+ ,elt that + could bene,it ,rom this s)ecialism ,or the ,ollo&ing reasons: +$ along &ith other teachers$ ma-e u) the +E.T/ )re)aration de)artment at Eastern +nternational 0ni1ersit* in 2ietnam' + 3oined the team 6 months ago and + a))eared to be one o, the least ex)erienced o, the grou) &ith this )articular exam' To remed* this$ + ha1e recentl* ta-en it on m*sel, to go ,or training and 4uali,* as an +E.T/ s)ea-ing and &riting examiner' Moreo1er$ in s)ite o, the ,act that m* initial )re5ser1ice 4uali,ication$ the CE.TA$ didn6t include an exam class element$ + &as 4uic-l* gi1en exam classes at m* ,irst teaching 3obs' While + en3o* doing these classes$ + ha1e ne1er ,elt that + ha1e been teaching them to the best o, m* abilit*'

Exam 7ersus general classes


Exam classes are those &here the teacher is re4uired to get students to a )articular le1el in order to be assessed b* an o,,icial test 7(urgess 8 9ead$ !00:;' These classes can be distinguished ,rom <eneral English classes in a number o, &a*s' The )rimar* o, &hich is the ,ixed goal nature o, exam classes' The students in a t*)ical exam class share a common )ur)ose and this can ma-e the inter)ersonal relationshi)s bet&een the students run more smoothl*' This is certainl* true at E+0 &here ha1ing to get a band 6 at +E.T/ )ro1ides a rite o, )assage that students go through as a grou) in order to )rogress into the later stages o, the their degrees'

Moti7ational challenges
Exams can be high sta-es' The a1erage &age ,or man* o, the )arents o, our lo&er5income students is less than 0/=:00 )er month and the exam ,ees$ co1ered b* the students6 )arents$ &ould usuall* use u) a large )ro)ortion o, that monthl* &age' Moreo1er$ the cultural en1ironment o, this countr* means that not ma-ing the grade &ould result in a not insigni,icant loss o, ,ace' This gi1es 1er* strong extrinsic moti1ation to achie1ing a band 6' <edic-e 7!000; )oints out that highl* extrinsicall* moti1ated students such as these$ o&ing to this greatl* increased )ressure$ can end u) being less ins)ired$ not more' Whate1er the case ma* be$ according to (urgess 8 9ead 7">>:;$ moti1ation$ &hether it be extrinsic or intrinsic$ usuall* ,alls to&ards the middle o, the course$ &here learners need to ma-e more o, a conscious e,,ort to stud*'

Teaching Exam Classes

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Metacognition in exam classes


The learner6s o&n -no&ledge o, their abilities$ abilit* to )lan their o&n learning strategies and to monitor tas- )rogression and e1aluate the success o, tas- achie1ement are crucial ,actors$ &hich 9edge 7!000; describes as being ,eatures o, metacogniti1e strateg*' These strategies are o, the utmost im)ortance in exam classes as the content is usuall* dominated b* the ,our s-ills' This can im)act on the students in both )ositi1e and negati1e &a*s' ?rom one )oint o, 1ie&$ learners become much more a&are o, rubric$ ade)t at highlighting -e* &ords in )rom)ts and de1elo) the abilit* to rule out unli-el* ans&ers' 9o&e1er$ students do learn s-ills &hich are li-el* to be use,ul in later li,e$ such as the abilit* to &rite in di,,erent registers'

The teacher:s role


Negotiating and 3usti,*ing the s*llabus to the students$ ha1ing established their strengths$ &ea-nesses and to)ic a&areness$ are some o, the most im)ortant roles o, the exam teacher 7@rodromou ">>:;' The teacher must be intimatel* ,amiliar &ith the exam structure in order to )lan a scheme o, &or- )er,ectl* tailored to each )articular grou)6s )articular needs' This in1ol1es such minutia as being able to tell the di,,erence bet&een a band 6 and a in a criterion5re,erenced test such as tas- " o, the +E.T/ academic &riting' /tudents also re4uire a teacher &hose ex)ertise the* can trust$ be it in ,eedbac- a,ter a moc- s)ea-ing test$ teaching reading strategies and hel)ing them to mo1e their listening ,rom a band : to 6 7(urgess 8 9ead !00:;'

Back4ash
A1erem)hasis on the exam$ to the exclusion o, the essentials o, good teaching )ractice$ &as described b* @rodromou 7">>::"#; as Bnegati1e bac-&ash6' 9ughes 7!003; agrees$ suggesting that test )re)aration can end u) dominating the classroom' An the other hand$ in m* ex)erience &ith CAE learners in /)ain$ students ma* be intolerant o, acti1ities &hich the* do not see as being directl* rele1ant to the exam' What is needed then is balance$ the content o, the course should be )rimaril* ,ocused on )re)aring candidates ,or the exam$ &hile em)lo*ing humanistic and communicati1e methodologies &here a))ro)riate'

Balancing teaching and testing


Exam classes do need to contain some s*stems training' The s*llabus should be dictated b* the results the diagnostic test as &ell as the ,ormati1e testing done throughout the course' Constant ,ocus on exam tas-s$ &ith no attention being )aid to learner )rogression in terms o, their s*stems -no&ledge$ &ould lea1e little room ,or the learners to im)ro1e their scores' Ade4uate time needs to be gi1en o1er to the assimilation o, ,eedbac- and s*stems instruction' This is o, )articular im)ortance &hen students do not ha1e the re4uired le1el u)on entr* onto the course' This ma* mean that learners become demoti1ated b* being gi1en tas-s &hich the* sim)l* do not ha1e the abilit* to do' 7Ma* ">>6;' Teaching Exam Classes Robert William McCaul Page 4

Course Content
/tudents should alread* ha1e a su,,icient le1el be,ore entering an exam class' ?or instance$ be,ore entering the "05&ee- +E.T/ )re)aration course designed to get a band 6$ E+0 students should ha1e alread* achie1ed a )ass at u))er5intermediate le1el to ensure that the* ha1e thorough grounding 7Ma* ">>6::;' Time is o,ten in short su))l* in exam classes and the teacher must gi1e most em)hasis to ,amiliarising learners &ith exam ,ormat and strategies 7(urgess 8 9ead !00:;' (urgess 8 9ead also argue that &hile learners need to be gi1en )ractice &ith the exam ,ormat$ the* should be moti1ated b* the teacher to loo- at &h* the* made the errors the* made$ rather than ,ocusing on sim)l* &hether the* managed to achie1e their target band score'

'e7elo!ment o, learner autonom&


The strengths and &ea-nesses identi,ied in the DACNA$ as &ell as in the ,ormati1e testing$ should )ro1ide a starting )oint u)on &hich the learners base their inde)endent stud*' While the onus is on the learner to action this )ri1ate stud*$ (urgess and 9ead 7!00:; maintain that some o, the class time should be s)ent on de1elo)ing good stud* habits'

#. %eeds nal&sis and Commentar&

Class !ro,ile
The learners are all 2ietnamese$ ">C!0 *ears old and are ta-ing +E.T/ in order to get into the 3rd *ear o, their business degrees' Their o1erall le1els ho1er around the ("C(! crosso1er threshold i'e' +E.T/ (and #':C:C:':' The* ha1e been stud*ing in E+0 ,or bet&een " and ! *ears and most ha1e them ha1e s)ent t&o semesters in the (usiness Administration de)artment &here$ in s)ite o, not ha1ing language tuition$ the* &ere able to im)ro1e their reading and listening le1els due to the ,act that the lectures and readings are gi1en in English' The learners6 moti1ation ,or the exam seems$ as )er <ardener and Mac+nt*re6s 7">>"; dichotom*$ to be mostl* instrumentall* moti1ated'

%eeds nal&sis Methodolog&


There a))ears to be a consensus &ith regard to the ,act that a course can onl* be &ritten a,ter a needs anal*sis has been conducted 7Munb*$ "> %;' This allo&s the course designer to build a s*llabus &hich is both rele1ant and suitable to the learner6s needs' Teaching Exam Classes Robert William McCaul Page 5

With this in mind$ + de1elo)ed a needs anal*sis &hereb* + attem)ted to ascertain the learners6 necessities under three )rinci)le as)ects identi,ied b* 9utchinson and Walters 7">% :::5:%;: a; Necessities: D&hat the learner has to -no& in order to ,unction e,,ecti1el*E i'e' &hat needs to be -no&n in order to )ass the exam' b; .ac-s: The s*stems -no&ledge &hich the learner has de,iciencies in' c; Wants: What the learner belie1es they need in order to )ass' ?ollo&ing this$ + de1elo)ed a 4uestionnaire using google dri1e5 htt)s:CCdocs'google'comC,ormsCdC"0>99F!so:m+Guer<96"x1)CNh49A/<oi2N0M.!Hn/ 0C1ie&,orm 7A))endix :;' + suggested students ta-e time to com)lete the ans&ers in as much detail as )ossible and + )ointed out that this &ould allo& me to create a s*llabus &hich &ould be better ada)ted to their s)eci,ic language needs' The 4uestionnaire collected 4ualitati1e as &ell as 4uantitati1e in,ormation on$ amongst other things$ their -no&ledge o, the +E.T/ exam$ learner )re,erences and the students6 o&n )ercei1ed strengths and &ea-nesses' + ,ollo&ed u) on the ,indings o, the NA &ith an in5class discussion to ,urther clari,* the results' This &as thought necessar* in order to ma-e u) ,or an* shortcomings in the design o, the 4uestionnaire and to allo& the learners to elaborate on -e* in,ormation identi,ied in the NA' +t &as recorded in order to let other teachers o,,er their o)inions and consult at a later date i, needs be'

;e& Results o, %eeds nal&sis 1uestionnaire


The s)o-en inter1ie&s com)lemented the 4uestionnaires e,,ecti1el*' These together allo&ed me to con,irm man* o, m* sus)icions about the grou)$ i'e' that the* are strongl* extrinsicall* moti1ated' Moreo1er$ + &as able to narro& do&n man* o, the needs and &ants to ,ocus on &hen designing the course' According to the results o, the needs anal*sis: "0 o, the learners &ant to get a 6$ 3 o, them a 6':$ another a and the remaining student doesn6t care' .earners suggest that the* re4uire the most hel) in the )roducti1e s-ills$ es)eciall* s)ea-ing' +n ,act$ #"I o, them sa* that s)ea-ing is their &ea-est s-ill' Most learners ha1e alread* used the Cambridge )ractice )a)ers boo-s5 these cannot be used ,or the DT' The learners don6t a))ear to be ,amiliar &ith the mar-ing criteria ,or both the s)ea-ing and &riting )a)ers' "I o, the learners ,eel that the* are lac-ing in the a))lication o, their grammar and lexis in &riting'

7A ,ull summar* o, results can be ,ound in a))endix !;

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'iagnostic Test and "riorities


The NA )ro1ided me &ith a great deal o, in,ormation on the learners6 sub3ecti1e &ants' +t &as im)ortant$ ho&e1er$ to 1eri,* these data using more ob3ecti1e means in order to disco1er &hat the learners lac- and to identi,* what further teaching is necessary 79ughes ">%>:"3;' + too- into account these &ants as )er the NA &hen selecting the material ,or the diagnostic test' + decided to use a )ractice test that + ,elt that the learners &ouldn6t ha1e seen be,ore as not onl* &ould this be a more accurate re,lection o, the test the* &ould ta-e in December but also &ould reduce the chances o, an* o, the learners ha1ing s-e&ed scores' + also ,elt that &hile the learners had described s)ea-ing as their &ea-est s-ill$ + thought it &ould be )rudent to gi1e them a DT on all ,our s-ills to see &hether the ob3ecti1e data agreed &ith these ,indings' ?urthermore$ + chose a test that included as man* exam)les as )ossible o, the 1arious tas- t*)es &hich can be as-ed' + used the listening and reading ,rom IELTS for Academic Purposes' A colleague had used these be,ore and ,elt that it had gi1en them reliable results' + too- &riting T" ,rom +E.T/ Trainer and T! ,rom htt):CCielts5simon'comCielts5hel)5and5english5)rC!0"!C0%Cielts5&riting5 tas-5!5ad1antages5and5disad1antages'html' + chose these as the* had gi1en reliable results in the )ast' + also -ne& that the* &ouldn6t ha1e seen either o, them be,ore ,rom the results o, the NA' /atis,*ingl*$ the results o, the DT mostl* concurred &ith most o, the students6 &ants' The DT suggested that the students6 &ea-est s-ills &ere s)ea-ing and &riting 7A))endix 3;' All o, the students hit their target band in both the listening and reading )a)ers$ exce)t ,or Du* Ngu*en &ho &ants to get a band ' 9a1ing seen the high error rate in both lexis and grammar in both tas-s o, the &riting )a)er$ + decided to tr* to disco1er &hether errors &ere being made b* learners due to s*stems6 de,iciencies or as a conse4uence o, not ha1ing an error5correction stage in their &riting )rocesses i'e' being careless' To this end$ + de1elo)ed an error5correction diagnostic test 7A))endix 6; based on a cor)us + had )ut together on )re1ious +E.T/ students errors' The table belo& describes the main ,indings o, the DTCNA:

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 7

"ro<lems 4hich lost students the most marks /riting: =/'T1*7> /'T 1: 9igh error count 5students didn6t @roo,5read 8 error5correct e,,ecti1el* 7T"CT!; /'T#: /ome errors caused di,,icult* ,or the reader 7T"CT!; /'T): .o& &ord count 7T"CT!; /'T(: Not addressing all )arts o, the )rom)t 7TR$T!; /'T0: Demonstrating grammatical range 7<RA$T"; /'T2: @resenting an o1er1ie& &ith in,ormation a))ro)riatel* selected 7TA$ T"; /'T7: .i,ting too much language ,rom the )rom)t 7T"CT!; +!eaking =+'T1*8> +'T1: <i1ing short$ minimal ans&ers in @art " 7i'e' struggling to maintain a ,lo& o, s)eech; +'T#: @oor note5ta-ing in @t! 7?8C; +'T): /tudents didn6t manage to s)ea- ,or ! minutes in @t!7?8C; +'T(: /tudents s)o-e &ith man* noticeable )auses &hen dealing &ith the abstract to)ics in @t3 +'T0: /tudents had trouble re4uesting clari,ication 7?8C; +'T 2: students didn6t deal &ell &ith brea-do&ns in communication 7?8C; +'T7: Accurac* o, s*llable ,inal consonants$ &ord stress in multis*llabic &ords$ ." inter,erence in intonation and chun-ing 7@; +'T8: +naccurate regular )ast tense )ronunciation 7@; 7A ,ull summar* can be ,ound in a))endix 3;

). Course "ro!osal
The course is the ,irst !05hour )hase o, a longer )rogramme designed to im)ro1e students6 scores in s)ea-ing and &riting b* one &hole band score' +n this )hase$ + am aiming to im)ro1e learners6 scores b* hal, a band' The lessons ta-e )lace Monda* to ?rida* > to ""am each morning and ")m53)m each a,ternoon' Teaching Exam Classes Robert William McCaul Page 8

O7erall Course aim:


To improve the students scores by half a band in the writing and speaking papers of the IELTS e am! Although + need to im)ro1e learners score b* a ,ull band in order that the* meet their targets$ + ,eel that 0': o, a band is more achie1able in a !0 hour course' 7Richards !00":"!0;

?oals and O<@ecti7es


To accom)lish the course aim$ + ha1e di1ided it into goals and ob"ectives# &hich Richards$ !00"$ describe as being both )recise and ,easible$ in,orming the selection o, course content and lending themsel1es to&ard the measurement o, the success o, a course 7<ra1es ">>6:! ;' +t is )ossible to set the goals and ob"ectives o, the course ha1ing ,irst com)leted the DTCNA' 9edge 7!000:3##; describes the ,ormer as being more general and the latter more specific' More ex)licitl*$ goals are the )ur)ose o, the )rogramme &hich can be attained b* com)leting )articular ob3ecti1es 7<ra1es ">>6:" ;$ &hich constitute Blearnable$ teachable6 units 7<ra1es !000: 6;' <oals can be ,urther sub5categorised into cogniti1e$ a,,ecti1e$ learning and communicati1e ones 7Nunan ">>%; and should be reached b* executing ob3ecti1es &hich are both measurable and obser1able as &ell as being limited to a )articular time scale 7el ?adil ">%::"00;' + ha1e alread* discussed the nature o, exam classes and outlined the data collected during the DTCNA$ &here + described the class6s needs$ lac-s and &ants and moti1ation as being both extrinsic and instrumental$ all o, &hich ha1e directed me to&ards establishing )er,ormance orientated goals 7Ames and Archer ">>%;' A summar* o, the course goals and ob3ecti1es can be seen in the table belo&:

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page

?oal 1: To im!ro7e learners: score in the s!eaking !a!er <& hal, a <and.

Aink to 'T.% ,indings /DT" NA"C! /DT!83 NA"C! /DT:86 NA"C! /DT# NA"C! /DT NA"C! /DT% NA"C! Aink to 'T.% ,indings WDT# NA"C3 WDT"8! NA"C3 WDT: NA"C3 WDT6 NA"C3 WDT NA"C3 WDT3 NA"C3

Ab3ecti1e ":

To be better able to maintain a ,lo& o, s)eech and gi1e more extensi1e ans&ers in @art "

Ab3ecti1e !:

Ab3ecti1e 3: Ab3ecti1e #: Ab3ecti1e :: Ab3ecti1e 6:

To be able to )lan more e,,ecti1el* ,or the long turn 7)art !; and to be able to use the one minute )lanning time to brainstorm non5common lexis 8 grammar and base their s)eech on these To be better able to use re)air 8 clari,ication strategies To be better to use strategies ,or dealing &ith hesitation To )roduce s*llable5,inal consonants$ &ord stress in multis*llabic &ords$ stress5timed intonation and chun-ing more accuratel* To )roduce regular )ast tenses more accuratel*

?oal #: ?oal #: To im!ro7e the learners: scores in the 8EAT+ 4riting !a!er <& a hal, a <and Ab3ecti1e : Ab3ecti1e %: Ab3ecti1e >: Ab3ecti1e "0: To be better able to res)ond to the )rom)t To be better able to use chec-lists and the error correction code as a &a* to notice errors and u)grade their o&n &riting' To be better able to use a 1ariet* o, com)lex sentences To be better able to )resent an o1er1ie& &hich highlights main trendsC -e* ,eatures

Ab3ecti1e "": Ab3ecti1e "!:

To be able to )ara)hrase the )rom)t more e,,ecti1el* in tas- "C! To increase the students6 &ord count in T" 8 T!

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page !"

Aink to % .'T
The course is based u)on learners6 main &ea-nesses as identi,ied b* the NA 7#"I identi,ied their main &ea-ness as s)ea-ing and "%I as &riting;' These ,indings &ere con,irmed in the DT5 none o, them met their target in either o, the )roducti1e s-ills' Ab3ecti1es "5"" all emerged to address &ea-nesses brought u) u)on close statistical anal*sis o, the DT' There,ore$ all ob3ecti1es &ill a))ear 3usti,ied to them 7A))endix !'"C!'!;' ?our learners suggested that reading &as their &ea-est s-ill' 9o&e1er$ the DT did not bear this out' +n order to minimiHe the e,,ects o, bac-&ash$ the main thrust o, the s*llabus is centred u)on &hat the students need to do in order to reach their target band scores as 9ughes recommends 7!003;'

+&lla<us T&!e
The design o, a s*llabus incor)orates the s)eci,ication and ordering o, content 7White ">%%;' The designer must decide ho& best to ensure the maximum trans,er o, learning in addressing the learners6 lac-s 7Nunan ">>3:!3;' The s*llabus is$ there,ore$ both )roduct and )rocess orientated' Moreo1er$ it is$ to some large degree$ negotiated# as + ha1e let the ,indings$ i'e' the needs$ &ants and lac-s$ o, the NACDT dictate the s*llabus' Skills$ The course is s-ills5based 7Richards ">>0;' +t endea1ours to im)ro1e the learners6 score in the &ea-est areas identi,ied b* the DACNA$ namel* the &riting and s)ea-ing )a)ers' The s-ills are subdi1ided into sub5s-ills 7m* course ob3ecti1es; and su))l* a ,rame&oraround &hich the course &ill be based' Product$ ?ocuses on results' Endea1ours to im)ro1e the learners6 ,inal )roduct b* ,ocusing on the outcome o, the course 7Nunan: ">>%; Process$ ?ocuses on ho& the learners &ill attain the abilities to achie1e the )roduct' Targets the ac4uisition mechanism and can be lin-ed to the o)erations in1ol1ed in language learning outlined b* ?aerch and Jas)er 7">%3;' Synthetic$ The course &ill ,ollo&$ in )art$ Wil-ins 7"> 6; theor* o, )resenting language as discrete items &hich the learners are ex)ected to s*nthesiHe into a meaning,ul &hole' The s*llabus is )rimaril* negotiated as it is based u)on learners6 needs and &ants as identi,ied in the NACDT 7Clar-e:">>";'

!!roaches

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page !!

The course &ill also be in line &ith the )rocess genre a))roach as outlined b* (adger and White 7!000; as this )uts the utmost im)ortance on )roduction &hich satis,ies its )articular )ur)ose and ,acilitates the )rocess that com)etent &ritersCs)ea-ers ,ollo&' As (urgess and 9ead 7!00:; )oint out$ &hen &riting ,or exams$ )lanning and )roo,ing$ as &ell as the consideration o, the con1entions o, genre$ are essential' To this end$ both )roduct ,ocused lessons &here &e examine the genre ,eatures o, model texts 7C@: .esson >; and )rocess in,ormed sessions &here attention &ill be )aid to idea generation and )aragra)hing 7C@: .esson 6;' Timed )ractice at both T"8T! and moc- s)ea-ing tests &ill ta-e )lace throughout the course' +ndi1idual ,eedbac-$ based u)on students6 )er,ormances on these$ &ill be gi1en based on the )ublic band descri)tors 7+E.T/'org;' This ,eedbac- &ill be gi1en through both in5class tutorials and electronicall* using screen and 1oice ca)ture so,t&are such as 3ing'com ?eedbac- &ill not onl* be based sim)l* on structural issues and error correction$ reformulation$ the basis o, Willberg6s 7">% ; theor* o, auditing$ &ill also be used' The teacher &ill ,ocus on ga)s in the learners6 -no&ledge and encourage learner autonom* b* getting the learner to notice the ga) 7i'e' dra& the attention o, the learner to ,ocus on the de,icienc*;$ recall it in later )roduction and audit or re)roduce it' This ma* in1ol1e the teacher re,ormulating student scri)ts$ a time consuming 3ob$ but in m* ex)erience$ &ell &orth it'

Course content and Materials


+ ha1e selected materials based on the ob3ecti1es o, the course and the a))roaches outlined' A combination o, both )ublished resources and authentic materials &ill be used' The ,ormer used to )ro1ide in)ut ,rom both trusted and reliable sources$ and the latter to ,ill the ga)s &hich arose &here no )ublished resource could be ,ound' E1er*thing in the course has been lin-ed to s)eci,ic tas-s ,rom the listening and s)ea-ing )a)ers' + also ha1e attem)ted$ &here )ossible$ to lin- the ob3ecti1es to s)eci,ic language ,rom the )ublic +E.T/ band descri)tors' This should result in the students being able to see their im)ro1ement lin-ed to their )er,ormance in tas- t*)es and the* &ill$ as a result$ be 1er* moti1ated b* the course content'

(. ssessment
Assessment has the ,unction of monitoring and keeping record of the students progression through a course 79edge !000;' +t can be either ,ormati1e or summati1e'

6ormati7e assessment
?ormati1e assessment can be used in order to in,orm the content o, ,uture classes and to see &hether the s*llabus u) until no& has had a desirable e,,ect on the students6 learning 7<ra1es ">>6; i'e' it is used to see what is effective and to change what isnt in order to meet emerging student needs 7<ra1es !000;' +n this res)ect it is a c*cle 7,ig' ";' +t allo&s the Teaching Exam Classes Robert William McCaul Page !2

teacher to gi1e ,eedbac- to learners as the* mo1e to&ards the accom)lishment o, the course ob3ecti1es and it can ser1e as a measure o, ho& &ell students are ,orming their com)etences and s-ills 7(ro&n !003:6;' +n this res)ect$ the course content &ill be negotiated i'e' + &ill ta-e into account emerging learner needs 7identi,ied during the ,ormati1e assessment schedule; &hen de1elo)ing ,uture course content' This ma* mean ada)ting lesson )lansCmaterials or not using them at all i, the emerging needs contradict the ,indings o, the NACDT' 7?ull details o, the assessment schedule is gi1en in a))endix #;

?ig ": The Course De1elo)ment C*cle5 7c;%esigning Language &ourses 7<ra1es !000; 79einle89einle;

Back4ash
@ositi1e bac-&ash is essential in ,ormati1e assessment 7(ro&n !003;' These tutorials can ser1e as a use,ul &a* in &hich in,ormation can be &ashed bac- to learners as the* )rogress to&ards achie1ement o, the course ob3ecti1es' The* can also )ro1ide a 1aluable insight into learners6 o&n )ercei1ed )rogression and le1els o, moti1ation' Tutorials ta-e )lace a,ter lessons 3$ 6 and >'

Re,ormulation
Re,ormulation and auditing can )ro1ide a means ,or ,ormati1e assessment as the learners mo1e closer to the achie1ement o, the ob3ecti1es' ?uture course content can be continuousl* u)dated and tailored as ne& needs and &ants emerge 7Willberg ">% ;' /tudents can notice areas in &hich ,eatures o, s)o-en )roduction$ such as using chun-ing$ s*llable ,inal consonants$ ha1e been u)graded in the teacher6s re,ormulated 1ersion o, their ans&ers 7.esson #8:;' This &ill also be done in the &ritten )art o, the course' 9ere are some sam)le ,eedbac- 1ideos &here students6 &ritten &or- has been )artl* re,ormulated b* the teacher: !#htt$#%%screencast&com%t%e7'()*al+ 2#htt$#%%screencast&com%t%u5,hx6"('

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page !3

+ummati7e assessment
/ummati1e assessment characteristicall* ta-es )lace at the end o, the course' +ts 3ob is to e1aluate &hether the course ob3ecti1es ha1e been met 7<ra1es ">>6;' +t &ill consist o, a com)lete &riting and s)ea-ing )a)er carried out under exam conditions 7A))endix >;' The tests &ill be mar-ed using the )ublicall* a1ailable band descri)tors b* current +E.T/ examiners' The tests &ill be criterion5re,erenced$ &hich @lat and Weber 7">>0; de,ine as a test which measures a students performance according to a particular standard or criterion which has been agreed upon'the student must reach this level of performance to pass the test ' Conse4uentl*$ students &ill -no& exactl* &hat the* are ex)ected to )roduce and &ill be$ conse4uentl*$ more li-el* to succeed 79ughes !00::::;'

Content 7alidit& and relia<ilit&


Reliabilit* has to do &ith ho& much &e can trust test results 7Weir ">>0;' The +E.T/ exam is &ell res)ected ,or its reliabilit* due to the extent o, the standardisation )rocedures that + am ,amiliar &ith as an +E.T/ &riting and s)ea-ing examiner' The learners &ill be assessed using tas-s &hich re,lect the course ob3ecti1es' /ome o, the assessment tas-s &ill be ta-en ,rom )ublished +E.T/ )a)ers to increase ,ace 1alidit*' 9o&e1er$ + am o, the o)inion that 3ust because an exam 4uestion has been )ublished b* an examination board$ it doesn6t necessaril* mean that it is content 1alid' The sam)le s)ea-ing exams in )ractice tests )ublished b* 0C.E/ as are a case in )oint' + belie1e that the* are lac-ing in ,ace 1alidit*5 e'g' the* don6t contain the examiner ,rames' To this end$ + decided to create m* o&n s)ea-ing exams$ based on m* ex)erience o, the real thing' These can be ,ound in a))endix >' (eing direct tests$ the scoring o, both the s)ea-ing and &riting )a)ers is no easy task according to (ro&n 7!003:!"%;' The )rom)ts gi1en ha1e no single correct ans&er &hich means that the scoring is susce)tible to sub3ecti1it*' +n order to minimiHe this$ standardisation is em)lo*ed' (ro&n 7!003:6 ; de,ines this as a method o, e1aluating a candidates sam)le based u)on Bcriteria &hich are held constant6' This is true in the case o, the +E.T/ s)ea-ing and &riting tests$ both o, &hich are criterion5re,erence tests' Moreo1er$ the tests &ill be timed and mar-ed b* trained +E.T/ examiners 7m* colleagues and me; using the )ublic 1ersions o, the +E.T/ assessment criteria 7A))endix "0;' The* &ill be doubled mar-ed$ as in the actual +E.T/ test$ to ensure sub3ecti1it* is -e)t to a minimum' These measures &ill increase both their content 1alidit* and reliabilit* 7(ro&n !003;'

Constraints o, testing
The ,ormati1e testing that + &ill use &ill be in,ormal' This &ill be done to minimiHe the e,,ect o, negati1e bac-&ash' This in,ormal testing &ill be used to gi1e indi1idual tutorials 7(ro&n !003;' There ma* be a con,lict bet&een this and the students6 ex)ectations as (urgess and 9ead 7!00:; )oint out that the students on exam )re)aration courses ex)ect to ha1e regular Teaching Exam Classes Robert William McCaul Page !4

,ormal tests' +t &ill there,ore be necessar* to stress to the students &hen the in,ormal testing is occurring and highlight the ,act that this is being done to )ro1ide an o))ortunit* ,or the teacher to o,,er ,eedbac- to the learners on their )rogress'

E7aluation
As the course )rogresses$ class time &ill be gi1en o1er to indi1idual tutorials &hich &ill )resent both the teacher and the students &ith the o))ortunit* ,or re,lection and e1aluation' These tutorials &ill also include discussions &ith the learners &hich &ill allo& both )arties to change the course content as it )rogresses to cater to emerging student lac-s' Together &ith this$ the ,ollo&ings methods o, e1aluation can be used: Richards 7">>0; suggests that the teacher ta-e ,ield notes during the course as a &a* to )ro1ide the o))ortunit* ,or re,lection' These could )ro1ide insights into e'g' learner moti1ation and e,,ecti1eness o, materials' 9a1e a )ost5course inter1ie& &ith each o, the learners to ascertain &hether the course has been a success or not and &h* and to ,ind out their ,eelings about the success o, the course'

0. Conclusion
Exams are high sta-es$ &hich )laces a huge amount o, stress on both students and teachers' This can$ in turn$ lead to a )ronounced bac-&ash e,,ect$ creating an extremel* negati1e atmos)here in class' Moreo1er$ i, the students are ta-ing the exam ,or extrinsic reasons$ their moti1ation can su,,er ,urther as a result' The needs anal*sis suggested that these concerns &ere true ,or this )articular grou) o, students' +$ there,ore$ attem)ted to design a course that &ould both address the course ob3ecti1es and at the same time ta-e ad1antage o, this bac-&ash e,,ect b* using it to engage the learners &ith course content that the* &ould see as immediatel* rele1ant to the ,inal test' This &ould go some &a* to&ards reducing an* )ossible negati1e e,,ects o, bac-&ash' (* ta-ing into account the issues o, choosing a )articular t*)e o, s*llabus$ organising it and a))l*ing teaching a))roaches$ + endea1oured to )ut into )ractice the ,ollo&ing )rinci)les: ?ormati1e and /ummati1e tests &ill be used to ascertain &here learners &ere managing to ta-e on board the course ob3ecti1es' Authentic and )ublished course boo- sources &ill be combined &ith exam )ractice materials in order to increase both moti1ation and )ositi1e bac-&ash' /*stems6 de,iciencies in the areas o, )ronunciation and grammar &ill be addressed together &ith essential exam )ractice

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page !5

The students &ill bene,it ,rom the course as it &ill address their &ea-nesses in the -e* areas o, s-ills and s*stems6 -no&ledge and gi1e them the best chance )ossible o, achie1ing their target band 6 in the +E.T/ exam' Not&ithstanding$ the course is onl* t&ent* hours long and as a conse4uence cannot co1er all o, the students &ea-nesses' There,ore$ + used the needs anal*sis and testing to get a )icture o, their -e* &ea-nesses and )rioritise those ones &hich + ,elt &ould ha1e the biggest im)act on their ,inal result' Another dra&bac- is that the course is solel* ,ocusing on achie1ing exam success and$ as a result$ does not include language &ith a high surrender 1alue' (urgess and 9ead 7!00::"; maintain that teaching exam classes is a s)ecial res)onsibilit* and can a challenge ,or both students and teachers' + belie1e$ ho&e1er$ that the s-ills that + learned on this course$ ,rom designing the needs anal*sis test and &riting the course )ro)osal and assessment schedule$ &ill ser1e me &ell as + continue to hel) students get the result the* &ant in o,,icial exams in the ,uture'

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page !6

Bi<liogra!h&
Background Reading
Ames$ C'$ and K' Archer' ">%%' chie7ement goals in the classroom: +tudents: learning strategies and moti7ation !rocesses$ Kournal o, Educational @s*cholog* %0 73;$ !605!6 ' (adger$ R and White <' !003' Ax,ord 0ni1ersit* @ress' (ro&n$ 9' D' !003 Aanguage Ne& For!rocess genre a!!roach to 4riting ! ELT "ournal! :#C!' ssessment: "rinci!les and Classroom "ractices .ongman:

(urgess$ /' and 9ead$ J' !00: Bo4 to Teach ,or Exams @earson .ongman: 9arlo&
Clar-e$ D'?' ">>" The %egotiated +&lla<us: /hat is it and Bo4 is it Aikel& to /ork9 A))lied .inguistics$ Ax,ord Kournals: Ax,ord'

Cohen$ A' ">>#' ssessing language a<ilit& in the classroom 7!nd ed';' Massachusetts: 9einle 8 9einle @ublishers' El ?adil$ 9' ">%:' 'e,ining learning o<@ecti7es ,or EAT. English .anguage Teaching Kournal' 3>C! ?aerch$ C' and Jas)er$ <' ">%3' Communication strategies in interlanguage !roduction. .ondon: .ongman <ardner$ R and Mac+nt*re$ @' ">>:' n instrumental moti7ation stud&: /ho sa&s it isn:t e,,ecti7e9 +n 9' (ro&n 8 /' <onHo 7Eds';$ (eadings on second language ac4uisition' Engle&ood Cli,,s$ NK: @rentice 9all' <edic-e$ M' !000' ction "lans English Teaching @ro,essional "#. 11. <ra1es$ J' 7ed'; ">>6 Teachers as Course 'e7elo!ers Cambridge 0ni1ersit* @ress: Cambridge <ra1es$ J' !000 'esigning Aanguage Courses: (oston ?uide ,or Teachers 9einle 8 9einle:

9arris$ M' and McCann$ @' ">># ssessment Macmillan: Ax,ord 9edge$ T' !000 Teaching and Aearning in the Aanguage Classroom Ax,ord 0ni1ersit* @ress: Ax,ord 9ughes$ A' !003 Testing ,or Aanguage Teachers5 #nd edition Cambridge 0ni1ersit* @ress: Cambridge 9ughes$ A' ">%> Testing ,or Aanguage Teachers Cambridge: C0@' +E.T/'org$ undated B+E.T/ L Researchers M (and descri)tors$ re)orting and inter)retation6 htt):CC&&&'ielts'orgCresearchersCscoreN)rocessingNandNre)orting'as)x$ accessed !3 Actober !0"3 Teaching Exam Classes Robert William McCaul Page !7

9utchinson$ T' 8 Waters$ A' ">% English ,or +!eci,ic "ur!oses Cambridge: C0@ Ma*$ @' ">>6 Exam Classes Ax,ord 0ni1ersit* @ress: Ax,ord Munb*$ K' "> %! Communicati7e s&lla<us design Cambridge: Cambridge 0ni1ersit* @ress Nation$ K'/'@ and Macalister$ K' !0"0 Aanguage Curriculum 'esign Routledge Nunan$ D' ">%% +&lla<us 'esign Ax,ord: A0@ @latt$ K' 8 Weber$ 9' Aongman 'ictionar& o, !!lied Ainguistics. ">>0 .ondon: .ongman' @rodromou$ .' ">>: BThe bac-&ash e,,ect: ,rom testing to teaching6O in EAT Cournal5 2olume #>C" Kanuar* ">>:$ Ax,ord 0ni1ersit* @ress: Ax,ord @uchta$ 9' No1ember !00: BMa-ing the most o, multi)le intelligences6O in English Teaching "ro,essional5 +ssue #" No1ember !00: Richards$ K' ">>0' The Aanguage Teaching Matrix C0@' Richards$ K' !00" Curriculum 'e7elo!ment in Aanguage Teaching Cambridge 0ni1ersit* @ress: Cambridge Weir$ C' ">>0' Communicati7e Aanguage Testing 9emel 9em)stead: @rentice 9all +nternational .td White$ R' ">%%' The EAT Curriculum: 'esign5 8nno7ation and Management Ax,ord: (lac-&ell Willberg$ @' ">% ' One to One: Teacher:s Band<ook' 9o1e: .T@' Wil-ins$ D' "> 6' %otional +&lla<uses Ax,ord: A0@

Course Materials
9ashemi$ .' 8 Thomas$ (' 8EAT+ Trainer !0"" Cambridge 0ni1ersit* @ress: Cambridge 9aines $ /' 8 Ma* @' !00% 8EAT+ Masterclass Ax,ord 0ni1ersit* @ress: Ax,ord Mann$ M' 8 Ta*lore5Jno&les /' 8EAT+ ,or cademic "ur!oses !00> Mc<ra& 9ill: Ne& For-' McCarter$ /' !0"0 Read& ,or 8EAT+ Macmillan: Ax,ord McCarter$ /' and Whitb*$ N' !00 /riting +kills 7,rom the Improve your IELTS series; Macmillan: Ax,ord A6Connell$ /' !0"0 6ocus on 8EAT+ =ne4 edition; @earson .ongman: 9arlo& @arrott$ M' !0"0 ?rammar ,or English Aanguage Teachers Cambridge 0ni1ersit* @ress: Cambridge Terr*$ M' and Wilson$ K' !0"0 6ocus on 9arlo& cademic +kills ,or 8EAT+ @earson .ongman:

0C.E/ 70ni1ersit* o, Cambridge .ocal Examinations /*ndicate; !00 5!0"3 Cam<ridge 8EAT+ 2.7.8.9 +tudent:s Book 4ith ns4ers: Examination "a!ers =8EAT+ "ractice Tests> Cambridge 0ni1ersit* @ress: Cambridge Teaching Exam Classes Robert William McCaul Page !8

Online Materials
htt)s:CC&&&'teachers'cambridgeesol'orgCtsCteachingresources htt):CCta-eielts'britishcouncil'orgCteach5ieltsCielts5teaching5resources htt):CCielts5simon'comCielts5hel)5and5english5)rC!0"!C0%Cielts5&riting5tas-5!5ad1antages5and5 disad1antages'html

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page !

!!endices
!!endix 1: Course "lan
O7erall Course aim: To improve the students band score in the writing and speaking papers of the IELTS e am by half a band score!
?oal 1: To im!ro7e learners: scores in the s!eaking !a!er <& hal, a <and. Ab3ecti1e ": Ab3ecti1e !: Ab3ecti1e 3: Ab3ecti1e #: Ab3ecti1e :: Ab3ecti1e 6: To be better able to maintain a ,lo& o, s)eech and gi1e more extensi1e ans&ers in @art " To be able to )lan more e,,ecti1el* ,or the long turn 7)art !; and to be able to use the one minute )lanning time to brainstorm non5common lexis 8 grammar and base their s)eech on these To be better able to use re)air 8 clari,ication strategies To be better to use strategies ,or dealing &ith hesitation To )roduce s*llable5,inal consonants$ &ord stress in multis*llabic &ords$ stress5timed intonation and chun-ing more accuratel* To )roduce regular )ast tenses more accuratel*

?oal #: To im!ro7e the learners: scores in the 8EAT+ 4riting !a!er <& a hal, a <and Ab3ecti1e : Ab3ecti1e %: Ab3ecti1e >: Ab3ecti1e "0: Ab3ecti1e "": Ab3ecti1e "!: To be better able to res)ond to the )rom)t To be better able to use chec-lists and the error correction code as a &a* to notice errors and u)grade their o&n &riting' To be better able to use a 1ariet* o, com)lex sentences To be better able to )resent an o1er1ie& &hich highlights main trendsC -e* ,eatures To be able to )ara)hrase the )rom)t more e,,ecti1el* in tas- "C! To increase students6 &ord count

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 2"

Aesson 3 ims
Aesson 1 =# hours> PTo re1ie& the criteria ,rom the )ublic 1ersions o, the +E.T/ /)ea-ing band descri)tors and ha1e )ractice a))l*ing them' PTo be better able to maintain a ,lo& o, s)eech and gi1e extensi1e ans&ers in )art " o, the s)ea-ing test

Aink
=This column links <ack to ,indings in the % .'T =a!!. )> 3 to goals 3 o<@ecti7es identi,ied in the C".

Content
P+ntroduce the lesson b* telling ta-ing time to re1ie& the criteria ,rom the )ublic 1ersions o, the +E.T/ band descri)tors' Tell the students that the* &ill be )la*ing the role o, the examiner throughout the course so it is essential that the* -no& ho& to use the band descri)tors' P/ho& the ,ollo&ing recentl* )ublished 1ideos b* the (ritish Council htt):CC&&&'*outube'comCuserCbcteachertrainer &hich outline each one$ namel* ,luenc* and coherence$ grammatical range and accurac*$ lexical resource and )ronunciation' 9a1e a short discussion o, each a,ter&ards' PThen$ gi1e the students some )ractice a))l*ing the band descri)tors to candidates in the ,ollo&ing 1ideos o, ,ull +E.T/ s)ea-ing exams : /a&son htt):CC&&&'*outube'comC&atchQ1RH%0And" "xE$ (rahim htt):CC&&&'*outube'comC&atchQ1R2o3K4td@bN+ and RaHi*e htt):CC&&&'*outube'comC&atchQ1RNW:-hrah1JA' 9and out the @D?s in a))endix "#$ &hich ,urther ex)lain the criteria' The* should re1ie& these regularl* as the course )rogresses' PTell the students that &e are going to be loo-ing at ho& to gi1e more extensi1e ans&ers in )art " o, the /)ea-ing Test' PElicit the ,ollo&ing ,rom students "'9o& long it lasts5#5:minutes !' 9o& man* to)ics the* ha1e to tal- about'5 There is one com)ulsor* ,rame and t&o ,urther o)tional ,rames' 3' What to)ics are co1eredQ5 e1er*da* to)ics such as hobbies$ holida*s$ the ,uture 8 *our countr*' P/tudents &rite do&n : 4uestions that the* might be as-ed in )art "' <o around monitoring and o,,ering assistance &here needed' <et some o, the

Material
Wor-sheet " 7A))endix ;

Bome4ork
/tudents should go to the 4uiHlet lin- ,rom the lesson )lan and record their ans&ers to the 4uestions ,rom : di,,erent to)ics each e1ening' /tudents &atch a 1ideo o, a ne&s item on the ((C World /er1ice and re)ort bac- to the teacher on it'

?1 O1 +'T 1 % 15#575 758511

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 2!

students to )ut one o, the 4uestions the*61e &ritten on the board' PChoose one o, the 4uestions on the board and get a student to as- *ou' E'g' )hats your favourite book* <i1e a short ans&er e!g! )ar and Peace! As- the students i, the examiner &ould be im)ressed &ith this ans&er and &h* not M no# because it is too short' PDictate the ,ollo&ing ans&ers to the students: a; M* ,a1ourite boo- is War and @eace' + thin- + en3o*ed it because + li-e histor*' b; M* ,a1ourite boo- has to be War and @eace' + belie1e that + reall* en3o*ed this boo- because o, m* interest in all things historical' ?or instance$ + reall* li-e no1els set in the Na)oleonic era' +t &as a )eriod &hen the ,uture o, the &orld hung in the balance' c; M* ,a1ourite boo- is War and @eace' + reall* li-e &ar no1els and historical no1els' P/tudents discuss &hich ans&ers are going to im)ress the examiner and &h*' Elicit that A is a minimal ans&er' C is ade4uate and ( is excellent' ( is excellent as it de1elo)s the to)ic ,ull*$ gi1es reasons &h* and o,,ers exam)les' @ut the ,ollo&ing table on the board: Explanations and reasons Words/phrases to introduce or add more information Words/phrases to give examples

P/tds co)* the table into their noteboo-s and then dictate the ,ollo&ing )hrases: This is because +, The reason for this is +, I believe this is because +, I say this because + , -And. another thing is +, As well as this +, /irstly0 Secondly# etc +, A good0perfect e ample of this is +, /or instance +, 1ne time this happened was +

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 22

P/tudents listen and )ut the )hrases into the corres)onding box' /tds' chc- &ith a )artner' <et 1olunteers to &rite the )hrases onto the board' 9el) &ith an* meaningCuse and inaccuracies in s)ellingCgrammar at this stage' Demonstrate )ronunciation gra)hicall* and orall*' Drill chorall* and indi1iduall*' P As- students random )art " 4uestions ,rom htt):CC4uiHlet'comC! ##0 : Cielts5 s)ea-ing5)art5"5to)ics5,lash5cardsC' <et them to use at least one )hrase ,rom each section and s)ea- ,or at least 30 seconds' Do this &ith a ,e& other students to ,urther demonstrate the idea'

Test: @ut the students in )airs' 9and out the to)ic cards ,rom the abo1e lin-' The* ta-e it in turns to be examiner and candidate' Examiners should tell students the to)ic then as- the series on 4uestions belo&' /uggest that the examiner use the sto)&atch on his mobile )hone to ensure that the candidate s)ea-s ,or at least !:530 seconds' Remind the students to use the )hrases ,rom earlier' Examiners should gi1e ,eedbac- a,ter each 4uestion has been as-ed' <o around monitoring$ hel)ing &here needed and noting good exam)les o, language'

Aesson 3 ims
Aesson # =#hours> P'To be able to )lan more e,,ecti1el* ,or the long turn 7)art !; and to be able to use the one minute )lanning time to brainstorm non5common lexis 8 grammar and base their s)eech on

Aink Content -.tu)ents re$ort bac/ on the 0i)eo o1 a ne's item on the 22C ?1O# +'T#3 Worl) .er0ice that the3 sa'& ) -Put the 1ollo'ing $art 2 4uestion on the boar) % 15#575 11

Material
Wor-sheet ! 7A))endix ;

Bome4ork
5/tds' Record their ans&ers to the tas- ! card ,rom class ,or home&orand email to the teacher' The teacher then sends the student bac- a re,ormulated 1ersion' /tudents record their ans&ers again to be more li-e the teachers6

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 23

these'

re,ormulated 1ersion' /tudents &atch another 1ideo o, a ne&s item on the ((C World /er1ice o, 2AA and re)ort bacon it'

P/tudents )lan their ans&er indi1iduall* ,or one minute$ then ans&er the 4uestion in )airs' Teacher monitors but doesn6t comment on the students6 ans&ers at this stage' PTeacher )lans on the &hiteboard' Model the &hiteboard as the note)a)er' @oint out that @art ! )rom)t cards are designed to be di1ided into # sections and this can aid in the )lanning )rocess' Demonstrate b* di1iding the board into #' Number each o, the )arts o, the )rom)t and note these as sho&n'

P@re5teach 1ocabular* as )er ex' A in Wor-sheet " PTell the learners to ,ocus on -e* non5common lexis 7NC.; Mex)lain this as

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 24

1ocabular* that &ill im)ress the examiner5 and more com)lex grammar in their notes as sho&n in the ,ollo&ing &hiteboard shot' @oint out the im)ortance o, tr*ing to come u) &ith 23 words of 4&LC idiomatic language and collocation'

PTeacher o,,ers a model ans&er based on the notes on the board' 7/ee the model ans&er on &or-sheet "; 5Point out that collocational competence is highly pri6ed by e aminers! /ocus stds! attention on the collocation e ! 7! Tell students that they should attempt to include as many e amples as possible in their speaking! 5In groups# students brainstorm vocabulary to describe their teacher! )rite these on the board! 8odel pron!# students mark stressed syllable! Sts! (epeat chorally# then individually! 5/ocus attention on grammar e ercises &# % and E on )orksheet 2!

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Robert William McCaul Page 25

P/tudents &rite 3 o, their o&n sentences about their teachers using Bin s)ite o,6 and the 3rd conditional on mini5&hiteboards' Monitor and assist' (est sentences to &hiteboard' Teacher models the ans&er$ then class )ractice )ron'$ )a*ing )articular attention to intonation' P ?ocus attention on @ron' (ox and then stds' do exercises ? and <' PNo&$ hand out a ne& )iece o, note)a)er' /tudents ha1e a second go at )lanning the )rom)t about their o&n teacher' Monitor and -ee) the student ,ocused on -e* 1ocab' P/tudents )ractice &ith a )artner$ teacher monitors and o,,ers ,eedbac-$ then record the ans&ers' <i1e cold ,eedbac- indi1iduall*'

Test: 9and out )rom)t !' 7/ee &or-sheet ! ,or details' <i1e students " minute to &rite notes$ then the* )ractice in )airs' Ane )air )la*s the examiner and the other the candidates' 7The students ha1e co)ies o, the )ublic 1ersions o, the band descri)tors and ha1e alread* had )ractice a))l*ing them to dumm* candidates

P?inall* stds' Record their ans&ers ,or home&or-'

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 26

Aesson 3 ims
Aesson ) =# hours> PTo be better able to use re)air 8 clari,ication strategies PTo be better to use strategies ,or dealing &ith hesitation

Aink
?1 O) 3 O( +'T (5 0 32 % 15#525 7511

Content
P(oard the ,ollo&ing 4uestion ,rom )art 3 o, the +E.T/ s)ea-ing )a)er' /tudents discuss the ,ollo&ing 4uestion in )airs: What was the most important moment in the history of the twentieth century? Monitor and chec- ho& the* deal &ith the 4uestion PTell the students that &e6re going listen to someone ans&ering the 4uestion' Assign the ,ollo&ing tas-: What did the* sa* &as the most im)ortant moment o, the !0th Centur*Q Did the* ans&er the 4uestion &ellQ Chec- in )airs' @la* again i, necessar* P9and out the transcri)t o, the model ans&er ,rom stage ( 7Wor-sheet "5a; 0se the transcri)t to introduce the main aim o, the lesson' i'e' To im)ro1e the students6 s)ea-ing s-ills ,or )art 3 b* ,ocusing on hesitation de1ices and re)air' PMa-e grou)s o, 3 8 9and out the )hrases 7Wor-sheet !5b;' Tell them that some are ,rom the listening and some are extra use,ul ones' Do a cou)le o, exam)les together i'e': That6s a di,,icult Suestion and + don6t reall* understand the 4uestion' /tudents categorise the rest o, them' Tell them to use transcri)t to hel) illustrate the meaning' Monitor and see &hich ones the* are ha1ing di,,icult* categorising' ?eedbac-: 9and out Cheat5sheet cards' CCSs &here necessar*' 7Wor-sheet !5c; P@oint out that these are ,ixed ex)ressions that can be used in the exam but that the all im)ortant thing is to )ronounce them in a natural &a*' 9ighlight the ,act that i, the* don6t the* ma* end u) sounding bored$ uninterested or arti,icial' Ex)lain that in @ART 3 students &on6t ha1e the 4uestions &ritten do&n so it6s im)ortant to de1elo) &a*s to react naturall*'

Material
Wor-sheet 3 7A))endix ; Suestions ada)ted ,rom &&&'esldiscuss ions'com

Bome4ork
Assign a @art 3 Tass)ea-ing tason Edmodo' + &ill )ost a series @art 3 4uestions and record themsel1es gi1ing the ans&ers' /tudents record their ans&ers and send them to the teacher' The teacher then sends the student baca re,ormulated 1ersion' /tudents record their ans&ers again to be more li-e the teacher6s re,ormulated 1ersion'

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 27

PCheat sheet to board' /a* a cou)le o, the )hrases naturall* and arti,iciall*' /tudents guess &hich is &hich' <o through )ronunciation in more detail o, a ,e& -e* )hrases on board$ ,ocus on main stressed &ords$ intonation and &ea- ,orms 7sort o, CT1C;' /tudents note stress and intonation on cheat sheets etc' Drill chorall* and indi1iduall*' /tudents do the )ron' o, the rest o, the )hrases on their o&n' Whole class ,eedbac-' Accom)an* &ith 1isuals' Tell students to )ic- t&o )hrases ,rom each categor* and )ractice )ronunciation &ith a )artner' PEx)lain that *ou are going to as- some t*)ical 4uestions ,rom @art 3 o, the /)ea-ing' Remind the students that the* aren6t ex)ected to be ex)erts on <eneral Jno&ledge but highlight that the* should tr* react naturall* using the hesitation de1ices and re)air and that the* should tr* to de1elo) ans&ers and gi1e exam)les' The* can use the cheat sheet' P@ic- a student' As- the student to gi1e *ou a number bet&een " and "0' As- the corres)onding 4uestion ,rom A))endix # in o)en class' 0se res)onse to checnaturall* )ron' Do ,urther drilling i, necessar*' Jee) on as-ing 4uestions as a))ro)riate' Jee) on drilling )ron' 0ntil it sounds natural' ?eed in clari,ication and sel,5correcting i, students ha1e ,orgotten' P9and out a di,,erent to)ic 4uestion card to each student 7A))endix #; /eat the students in a line do&n the middle o, the room ,acing each other' Ex)lain that students as- and ans&er$ using hesitation and re)air de1ices &here needed using the cheat sheet' The* should gi1e their )artner one )oint ,or each time the* use a )hrase' 0se +CSs i, needed' PRemind the students to discuss the 4uestion as i, it &ere in an exam de1elo)ing ans&ers together and gi1ing exam)les &here necessar*' Monitor' Note errors' <i1e hot ,eedbac- &here needed' ! mins' Change @airs using casino &heel' E1er*one mo1es cloc-&ise around the des- and each time the* someone ne& to s)ea- &ith' P

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 28

Test: /tudents turn o1er the cheat5sheet cards' Continue C*cle &ithout using the cheat sheets' Monitor' Note errors' <i1e hot ,eedbac- &here needed' Ma-e dictionaries a1ailable ,or an* meaning issues &ith the 4uestions' Tell students that onl* the student as-ing the 4uestion can use the dictionar*' The ans&erer must im)ro1ise' A,ter the* ha1e ,inished s)ea-ing$ students should ta-e turns gi1ing each other ,eedbac- using the )ublic 1ersion o, the s)ea-ing band descri)tors ,or ,luenc* and coherence'

PErrors )lus good language to the board$ /tudents correct in )airs' ?eed in an* use,ul language' Tutorial session "

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 2

Aesson 3 ims
Aesson ( =# hours> PTo )roduce s*llable5,inal consonants$ &ord stress in multis*llabic &ords$ stress5 timed intonation and chun-ing more accuratel*'

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Content
@ut a )art ! o, the s)ea-ing exam 4uestion on the board 7?ocus on +E.T/ @' ":!$ Ex' "; /tudents write their ans&ers in their noteboo-s' The teacher should go around hel)ing &ith grammar and lexis and re,ormulating &here necessar*' Teacher )ic-s out some good sentences and gets the students to )ut them on the board' /tudents co)* the sentences into their noteboo-s' 7Alternati1el*$ on o, the students6 home&or- recordings can be used ,or this )ur)ose' Teacher carries out the ,ollo&ing: "' Di1ides the text into chun-s 7tone units; !' 9ighlights the main stressed s*llable o, each chun- 7 3' @oints out s*llable5,inal consonants that the stds ma* mi out on' 70se CC to demonstrate )auses bet&een the chun-s$ a small dot to highlight the main stressed s*llable and underline the s*llable ,inal consonants' CCS each conce)t i'e how do you find the main stressed syllable in a chunk* )hat kinds of words carry the main stressQ; Teacher sa*s the sentences &hile demonstrating natural chun-ing$ stress and s*llable ,inal consonants' Drill chorall* and indi1iduall* as needed' /tudents a))l* chun-ing$ stress and highlight the s*llable ,inal consonants to their scri)ts gra)hicall* a demonstrated' Teacher monitors and hel)s &here necessar*' /tudents read out their scri)ts )a*ing close attention to the ,eatures o, )ron' Teacher again monitors and hel)s' Call u)on a ,e& indi1iduals in o)en class' <et them to sa* their sentences' Correct and im)ro1e &here necessar*' +ndi1idual and choral drilling' 9and out another )art ! 4uestion 7Read* ,or +E.T/ @'>> Ex'";' <i1e the students " minute )lanning time' Encourage them to &rite

Material
/tudent generatedC Read* +E.T/ Ex'";

Bome4ork

/tudents record their ans&ers to )art ! 4uestion 7Read* ,or +E.T/ @'>> ,or Ex'";$ monitor the @'>> recording to see i, the* are )roducing the target ,eatures o, )ronunciation accuratel*' Again the students send to the teacher and the teacher send them bac- a re,ormulated 1ersion' /tudents ha1e another go'

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 3"

"0 &ords o, non5common lexis on the note)a)er' Remind stds that these &ords &ill carr* the main stress in the their res)ecti1e chun-s'

Test: /tudents )resent their ans&er to a )artner &ho &ill )la* the role o, the examiner' Time it strictl*5 ! mins each' The )artner o,,ers ,eedbac- on their )ron' Re1erse the roles'

/tudents record their ans&ers ,or home&or-' /end a co)* o, the recording to the teacher' Teacher o,,ers the stds ,urther ,eedbac-'

Aesson 3 ims

Aink

Content

Material

Bome4ork

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 3!

Aesson 0 =# hours> PTo )roduce regular )ast tenses more accuratel*

?1 O2 +'T9 % 15#5 758511

Tell the students that &e &ill be re1ie&ing the )lanning o, )art ! o, the s)ea-ing )a)er as co1ered in lesson ! abo1e' As- them to go to )'"#> o, Read* ,or +E.T/' ?ocus on the exam 4uestion in ex' " M%escribe your favourite work of art and then get them to match the 9 sections of the model answer with the 9 parts of the topic card -e !:.! Tell the students to ignore an* un-no&n 1ocabular* at this stage' No&$ hand out a blan- )iece o, note )a)er to the students and get them to &rite &hat the students thin- the candidates notes &ere' Deal &ith some o, the di,,icult 1ocabular* at this stage' The* should come u) &ith something li-e thisU /hat9 ;reat craftsmanship# 8ost beautiful ob"ect# sculptor /hen9 <ated art galleries# 1ld'fashioned# overawed

/tudent generatedC

/tudents record their ans&ers to the 3 other @art ! 4uestions to)ic ! cards ,or ta-en ,rom )' " % Read* ,or +E.T/ and " > o, Read* )'" %5" >' When ,or +E.T/ the* listen bac- to the recording the* should chec- &hether the )ronunciation o, the sim)le )ast is correct' +, not$ the* should record it again'

Aooks like9 Made o, marble$ .oo-ing o,, into distance$

/h& like9 Changed V &a* the loo-ed at VU 7e very fond of +

<et the students to ,ocus on ex' : on )'"#>' /tudents read the ad1ice' Asthe students i, the* can recall &hat +E.T/ examiners call this as)ect o, )ronunciation i'e' chunking! Students go through the model answer identifying where the natural pauses are! The teacher models the )ronunciation o, the model ans&er ,or the students$ )ausing in the natural )laces' As- an indi1idual student to read out the model &ith )auses' Correct &here needed' Next$ he students$ in

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 32

)airs$ )ractice sa*ing the model ans&er &ith their )artners' <o around monitoring Tell then students that &e are going to be loo-ing at regular )ast tense )ronunciation' As- them to ,ocus on the ,ollo&ing &ords: hated$ overawed and looked Dra& the ,ollo&ing table on the board di1ided into the ,ollo&ing categories according to their )ronunciation' Model the sounds i, re4uired: CdC CtC C+dC Extra s*llable added

Elict that hated has an C+dC sound and an extra s*llable$ loo-ed a CtC added to the end &ith no extra s*llable and o1era&ed a CdC sound added to the end &ith no extra s*llables' Model the sounds ,or the students' Drill chorall* and indi1iduall*' Also$ get to notice ho& the ,inal consonant sound in these )ast sim)le )ronunciations can be lin-ed onto the next s*llable i, that begins &ith a 1o&el' i'e'' Cheit+'dWrtC Again$ model and drill' Elicit rules and the di,,erences bet&een 1oiced and 1oiceless sounds$ as sa* that this is the -e* to understanding )ast tense )ronunciation 9and out the ,ollo&ing list on cards &ith blu5tac on the bac-'
sto) R sto))ed learn R learned decide R decided loo- R loo-ed listen R listened &ant R &anted &ash R &ashed )la* R )la*ed start R started &atch R &atched en3o* R en3o*ed &ait R &aited li-e R li-ed li1e R li1ed 1isit R 1isited &al- R &al-ed sta* R sta*ed in1ite R in1ited hel) R hel)ed o)en R o)ened &or- R &or-ed lo1e R lo1ed change R changed learn R learned miss R missed call R called relax R relaxed arri1e R arri1ed smile R smiled clean R cleaned

/tudents in )airs should stud* the cards and decide on the )ronunciation b* stic-ing it into the corres)onding categor*' When the students ha1e ,inished model and drill the )ronunciation'

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 33

9and out the to)ic cards ,rom )' " % and " > o, Read* ,or +E.T/' 7Don6t let them see the 1ocab lists;' Each student should ha1e t&o or 3 each' <i1e them " minute to )lan their ans&er' Then$ get the students to &rite their ans&ers in their co)* boo-s' <o around monitoring and hel)ing &here re4uired' When the* ha1e ,inished tell them to underline an* 1erbs that are in the sim)le )ast' Thin- about &hat the )ronunciation should be and also i, there is an* linking to the next s*llable' Then$ students )ractice sa*ing their ans&ers to their )artners$ being 1er* care,ul about )ast tense )ronunciation'

Test: <et the students to &rite notes to their next to)ic card' This time instead o, &riting their ans&ers$ the* should s)ea- ,or the allotted ! minutes as in the real +E.T/ exam' The* should ta-e turn )la*ing the role o, candidate and examiner' Remind the student that accurate )roduction o, indi1idual sounds and &ords stress are some o, the ,eatures o, )ronunciation monitored closel* b* examiners' <o around and ensure the* ,ollo& the rules o, regular )ast tense )ronunciation'

P9a1e a !0 minutes re1ie& o, each o, the ob3ecti1es o, the s)ea-ing section o, the course' Then ha1e an o)en class discussion on ho& success,ul each o, them &as in achie1ing those ob3ecti1es' Did &e manage to achie1e our ob3ecti1esQ

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 34

/ummati1e Test: Timed s)ea-ing /ee assessment schedule 7a))endix 3; and a co)* o, the test materials in a))endix 6 ,or ,urther details

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 35

Aesson 3 ims
Aesson 2 =# hours> PTo re1ie& the &riting band descri)tors and gi1e the students )ractice a))l*ing them PTo be better able to res)ond to all )arts o, the )rom)t' PTo increase students6 &ord count

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Content
+ntroduce the lesson b* telling ta-ing time to re1ie& the criteria ,rom the )ublic 1ersions o, the +E.T/ &riting band descri)tors' Tell the students that the* &ill be )la*ing the role o, the examiner throughout the course so it is essential that the* -no& ho& to use the band descri)tors' 9and out the )ublic 1ersion o, the &riting band descri)tors ,rom +E.T/'org'

Material
Wor-sheet 3 7A))endix ;

Bome4ork
Assign the students the tas- ! 4uestion on )age >> o, Read* ,or +E.T/: D+n the modern &orld there has been a mo1ement a&a* ,rom &ritten exams to more )ractical assessment' Discuss the ad1antages and disad1antages o, this trend'E The tas- is due ,or lesson >' /tudents also com)lete exercises "56 on )age "3 o, +E.T/ Masterclass in )re)aration ,or the next lesson'

/ho& the ,ollo&ing recentl* )ublished 1ideos b* the (ritish Council htt):CC&&&'*outube'comCuserCbcteachertrainer &hich outline each one o, the &riting criteria$ namel* Task achievement# grammatical range and accuracy# le ical resource and coherence and cohesion' 9a1e a short discussion o, each a,ter&ards' Then$ gi1e the students some )ractice a))l*ing the band descri)tors to )ast candidates6 &riting sam)les' 79and out the exam 4uestions in each case and ha1e a short discussion about &hat + re4uired ,or a band 6 ans&er'; 9and out the @D?s in a))endix "#$ &hich ,urther ex)lain the criteria' The* should re1ie& these regularl* as the course )rogresses'

Tell the students that the* are going to ha1e a loo- at anal*sing tas! )rom)ts Write the ,ollo&ing on the board: When ans&ering tas- ! )rom)ts *ou should al&a*s ,ollo& the ,ollo&ing )rocedure: "; Read the 4uestion care,ull* underling -e* &ords in the )rom)t' !; Ma-e sure that the ideas that come to mind are directl* rele1ant to the )rom)t' 3; Res)ond to all )arts o, the )rom)t' #; Re5read the )rom)t regularl* to ensure that *ou are res)onding to all )arts o, the tas-' Tell the students that the* are going to )ractice identi,*ing &hich ideas ,or s)eci,ic tas- ! )rom)ts are rele1ant and &hich are not' 9and out &or-sheet 3' +n )airs students decide &hich ideas are

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 36

rele1ant to the )rom)t and &hich are not' Do the ,irst one in o)en class as an exam)le' /tds do the other ! in )airs' ?eedbac-' -Answers$ A$ relevant 2#: => irrelevant ?=9, 7$ relevant 2#:=> irrelevant ?=9, &$ relevant 2#:#?=> irrelevant 9. 9and out &or-sheet #' Again students &or- in )airs' Monitor to ensure that the ideas &hich the stds are )ro)osing to be rele1ant are rele1ant' Change the )airs' /tudents read out their ideas$ their )artner has to tell them &hich ideas are rele1ant and &h*' i'e' What )art o, the )rom)t do the* res)ond to' Monitor and board the best o, the rele1ant ideas' @ut these on the board and use them to )lan the essa* in o)en class'

Test: <i1e stds 30 minutes to &rite their ans&er to the essa*' @oint out that the* ha1e "0 minutes less than in the actual exam as the )lanning should usuall* ta-e them about "0 minutes'

Collect the students6 scri)ts' <i1e indi1idual ,eedbac- to each o, the students using the 1oice and screen ca)ture so,t&are 3ing' Tutorial session !

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 37

Aesson 3 ims
Aesson 7 =# hours> To be better able to use chec-lists and the error correction code as a &a* to notice errors and u)grade their o&n &riting'

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Content
@ut the ,ollo&ing tas- ! &riting )rocess on the board 7ta-en ,rom a )re1ious class: Step 2'@nderstand the Auestion Step :'7rainstorm Step ?'Select Ideas for %evelopment Step 9'Plan Structure Step >')rite Introduction Step B')rite 7ody Paragraphs Step C')rite &onclusion (emind the students that for a 93 minute timed writing# steps 2'9 should take about >'23 minutes! A good plan is essential for writing a good task : essay! Tell the students that the ,inal ste) is missing' As- them &hat it might beQ Merror correction and review! Chec- the home&or- ,rom )' "3 o, +E.T/ Masterclass' As- the students &hat are the most common t*)es o, errors &hich come u) in their &riting' /tudents &or- in )airs to come u) &ith a list M spelling# word order# pluralisation# articles# punctuation and singular0plural agreement! 9and out the correction code' /ee &or-sheet : belo&' /tudents com)are their list &ith this' Are there an* di,,erencesQ Tell the students that the* should use this code &hen the* are doing )eer correction and also tell them that the teacher &ill be using it in their &riting ,eedbac-' ' Direct students6 attention to ex' "$ ! and 3 on )age "3% o, +E.T/ Masterclass' /tudents com)lete indi1iduall*' <o around monitoring and hel)ing &here needed' 9o&e1er$ do not correct the errors ,or them' +t is im)ortant that the gain the abilit* to sel,5 correct on their o&n' ?ull class ,eedbac-'

Material

Bome4ork

ex' "$ ! and 3 on ?or home&or)age "3% o, students &rite +E.T/ their res)onse to Masterclass the tas- ! )rom)t on )'"0" o, Read* )age >> o, Read* ,or +E.T/' ,or +E.T/ Remind the students to use the chec-list ,rom @' !0> o, Read* Read* @'!0>' ,or +E.T/ 7A))endix ;

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 38

As- the students &hat the* do to minimiHe the number o, errors in their &ritingQ Do the* gi1e themsel1es some time 7: mins; to correct errors at the end o, the hour allotted ,or the &riting )a)erQ M+, not$ strongl* encourage them to do so' Tell them that the last : minutes is much better s)ent reducing the error count than increasing their &ord count' i'e' man* more mar-s can be lost on .R and <RA' Do the* use a chec-listQ +, the* don6t then hand out the chec-list ,rom @' !0> o, Read* ,or +E.T/' Encourage the students to use this chec-list to guide their sel,5correction during the last : mins o, e1er* &riting )a)er' As- the students to ta-e out their tas- ! &riting scri)t o, the home&or- ex' ,rom )age >> o, Read* ,or +E.T/: D+n the modern &orld there has been a mo1ement a&a* ,rom &ritten exams to more )ractical assessment' Discuss the ad1antages and disad1antages o, this trend'E The* then exchange these &ith their )artners' 0sing the )ublic &riting band descri)tors ,or tas- ! 7&hich the* ha1e been introduced to earlier in the course;$ the chec-list ,or tas! ,rom Read* ,or +E.T/ and the correction code students correct each other )a)ers' As- the students to call u)on *ou i, the* ha1e an* doubts' <o around monitoring and hel)ing &here needed' /tudents should s)end "0 minutes correcting and : minutes gi1ing ,eedbac-' ?inall* hand out the model ans&er ,rom Read* ,or +E.T/ @' "00 to the home&or- tas-' /tudents com)are the di,,erence bet&een their 1ersions and the model' 9o& can the* im)ro1e their ans&ersQ M+deas to the board' ?inall*$ /tudents re&rite their tas- ! ans&ers ,rom )'>> o, Read* ,or +E.T/'

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 3

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 4"

Aesson 3 ims
Aesson 8 =# hours> To be better able to use a 1ariet* o, com)lex sentences' To increase students6 &ord count

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Content
@ut the ,ollo&ing gra)h and excer)t on the board'

Material
/ee screenshots " belo&' +dea ta-en ,rom htt):CCta-eielts'brit ishcouncil'orgCsite sCde,aultC,ilesCWri tingI!0TasI!0"I!05 I!0/entence I!0trans,ormatio ns')d, 7A))endix ; @'"0" Cambridge +E.T/ )ractice tests %'

Bome4ork
Teacher gi1es the students ,eedbacusing 3ing' This &ill include re,ormulations o, students6 &ritten &or-' /ee exam)les here: htt):CCscreencast'c omCtCxKgGta.)aJ a htt):CCscreencast'c omCtCdXTbo3iE

DThe weather station recorded temperatures of 2D degrees in 2EE9! /rom 2EE9 to 2EEB the temperature increased rapidly from :C degrees! <owever# from 2EEB the temperature declined gradually to around :: degrees in 2EED! /rom 2EEE to :33> it fluctuated slightly and from :33B it rose dramatically again! The temperature peaked at :9 degrees in :33D E' /tds in )airs discuss the strengths and &ea-nesses o, the extract' Elicit the ,ollo&ing ,rom the students: +trenghts: accurate s)elling$ )luralisation and &ord ,ormation throughout$ std &ide lexical resource 7(and ;$ -e* ,eatures highlighted accuratel*$ data included &ith good control' <rammar dis)la*s a high degree o, accurac*' /eaknesses: .imited range o, grammatical structures used5 these tend to al&a*s be )ast sim)le V ad1erb: increased ra)idl*$ declined graduall*' Tell the stds that the*6re going to be ,ocusing on ho& to sho& a greater range o, grammatical structures b* ,ocusing on -e* &ord trans,ormations'

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 4!

@ut the ,ollo&ing on the board:

?rom ">>> to !00: the tem)erature increased ra)idl*' -verb F adverb. There &as a NNNNN NNNNNNN NN tem)erature ,rom ">>> to !00:' -ad"! F noun. The &eather station recorded tem)eratures o, 5! degrees in !006' -active. Tem)eratures o, 5! degrees NNNNNN NNNNNNN in !006' -passive. Elicit the correct ans&ers in o)en class i'e' rapid increase in and were recorded! @oint out that &hen &e use the ad3' noun ,ormat &e re4uire the )re)osition in to describe the in,ormation on the *5axis ' in temperature' 9and out &or-sheet' /tudents com)lete in grou)s o, ,our' <i1e the correct ans&ers to board' Monitor and o,,er hel) &here re4uired' Correct ans&ers on the board' 9and out the diagnostic tas- " student scri)ts' /tds go through their scri)t highlighting 1erb V ad1erb combinations and ad3ecti1e nouns combinations and )assi1e errors' /tudents re&rite their scri)ts gi1ing s)ecial attention to accurac* demonstrating as much range as )ossible' Monitor and o,,er hel) &here needed'

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 42

Test: Timed &riting &ith su))ort' 9and out tas- " 7Test #; ,rom @'"0" Cambridge +E.T/ )ractice tests %' Tell the students the* are going to do a timed &riting &ith su))ort ,rom the teacher' +nsist that the students tr* to demonstrate as much grammatical range as )ossible &hen ans&ering the 4uestions' A,,er hel) and su))ort as the students com)lete the tas-'
Collect scri)ts' /can and send each student indi1idual ,eedbacusing 3ing'

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 43

Aesson 3 ims
Aesson 9 =# hours> To be better able to )resent an o1er1ie& &hich highlights main trendsC -e* ,eatures'

Aink ?# O1$ /'T2 % 15)5 05257595 11

Content
@ut gra)hs "5: on the screen' 7/ee screen shots belo&; and &or-sheet :' Elicit ,rom the students &hat the gra)h sho&s5 7)ercentage o, the )o)ulation o, # Euro)ean countries &ho &ent to a ,oreign countr* on holida*s bet&een !00!5!0"!' /tudents match the gra)hs to the notes about general trends in ex' " on the &or-sheet' @ut the ,ollo&ing on the board GThere was an overall increase in the number of foreign vacations from :33:! <owever# trips abroad decreased slightly after :323! ;enerally# in each year# a similar percentage of people from each country took overseas holidays# e cept for in :33B when there was a big difference between /rance and the @H!I Elicit what this is from stds! -An overview of graph 2.! As- the ,ollo&ing 4uestions to stds' The* discuss ans&ers in )airs' This is ,ollo&ed b* ,ull class ,eedbac- in each case' "' )hat language is used to describe the general trends* 7A1erall$ generall*; !' )hat other e pressions can be used for this* 7generall* s)ea-ing$ ,rom an o1erall )ers)ecti1e; 3' %oes the overview contain data from the graph* 7No$ in,ormation should be general in the o1er1ie&' Candidates should sa1e s)eci,ic data ,or the main bod*' #' <ow does the author of the graph avoid repeating the noun phrase the percentage of the population who travelled abroad* M(* )ara)hrasing &ith language such as tri) abroad$ tra1elled abroad$ tri) abroad etc'; Collect the notes on each gra)h' +ndi1iduall* students &rite an o1er1ie& ,or gra)h !' <o around hel)ing stds$ ma-ing sure the* ,ollo& the ad1ice abo1e' Call students indi1iduall* to )ut their o1er1ie&s on the board' Error correct andCor re,ormulate ans&ers as needs be' Then$ hand out the model o1er1ie&s ,or each gra)h' Encourage students to notice the di,,erence bet&een their attem)t and the models' Re)eat )rocess abo1e ,or the remaining gra)hs'

Material
+dea ta-en ,rom htt):CCta-eielts'bri tishcouncil'orgCsit esCde,aultC,ilesCW ritingI!0TasI!0"I!05 I!0Which I!0gra)h')d, 7A))endix ;

Bome4ork
/tudents loo- at the tas- "s in +E.T/ on )'30$ % and "0"' +denti,* the main trends o, each and then &rite an o1er1ie& ,or each one' A,ter com)leting this tas-$ the* again com)are their ans&ers &ith the modelsCsam)les in the bac- o, the boo-'

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 44

Test: 9and out Cambridge +E.T/ ' <et the students to @':3' +n )airs stds' identi,* the main details' i'e! the consumption of chicken increased during the period The amount of beef consumed showed a dramatic reduction etc' ' +ndi1iduall*$ gi1e students : mins' to &rite an o1er1ie& ,or the tas-' Then$ students should com)are their o1er1ie&s &ith the model ans&er on on @' "6#
Tutorial session 3

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 45

Aesson 3 ims
Aesson 1$ =# hours> To be better able to )ara)hrase the )rom)t language in tas- " 8 ! o, the +E.T/ &riting )a)er To re1ie& the ob3ecti1es o, the course

Aink
?# O11 /'T7 % 15)5 05257595 11

Content
Re1ie& the macro structure ,or tas- ! i'e' elicit 2! Introductory statement :! 1verview ?! 8ain 7ody As- students &h* it6s im)ortant not to use too much language ,rom the )rom)t in both &hen &riting the introductor* statement ,or tas- " o, the +E.T/ &riting )a)er' Mi'e' because this language is com)letel* ignored b* the examiner and ta-en o,, *our &ord count' 9o& can the students a1oid doing thisQ (* )ara)hrasing the language ,rom the )rom)t' 9and out the &or-sheet ' ?ocus attention on ex' ": DThe chart sho&s the incidence o, lo& birth &eight in a number o, regions o, the &orldE +n )airs students tr* to )ara)hrase an introductor* sentence' /uggest that the* thin- o, s*non*ms ,or the &ords in the )rom)t and tr* to change the &ord order andCor &ord ,ormation' As- a 1olunteer to )ut their ans&er on the board' Ma-e an* corrections necessar*' /uggest alternati1e &a*s o, )ara)hrasing' 9and out the suggested ans&er 7/ee &or-sheet;

Material
Wor-sheet C% 7A))endix ;

Bome4ork
/tudents go to Cambridge +E.T/ boo-s :$ 6 and in the uni1ersit* librar*' The* &rite introductions to each o, the tas- " and tas- ! )rom)ts and tr* to )ara)hrase the )rom)t in each case' A,ter com)leting each one$ the* should checthe modelCsam)le ans&ers'

Test: /tudents com)lete the other exercises indi1iduall*' <o around monitoring and hel)ing &here needed' 9and out the suggested )ara)hrase a,ter students ha1e com)leted each one'

Teaching Exam Classes

No& mo1e on to )ara)hrasing tas- ! )rom)ts' /ee &or-sheet %' ?ollo& the same )rocedure as abo1e' 9a1e a ,inal re1ie& o, the course content' @ut the ob3ecti1es u) on the board' +n )airs$ students discuss ho& success,ul the* &ere in achie1ing

Robert William McCaul Page 46

these ob3ecti1es and &h* the* &ere or &ere not success,ul' 9a1e a ,ull class discussion5 did &e realise the goalsQ What can be done bet&een no& and the exam date to ma-e u) ,or an* short,allsQ

/ummati1e Test: Timed Writing: Cambridge E/A. > @' "0" /ee a))endix 6 and the assessment schedule A))endix 3 ,or details '

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 47

!!endix #: %eeds nal&sis and 'iagnostic Test: Collated Results

#.1: %eeds nal&sis - collocated results:

/hat le7el did &ou <egin &our English studies at E8D at9
(eginner Elementar* @re5intermediate +ntermediate 0))er5 intermediate # "!I 8# I 7 #"I $ 0I $ 0I

/h& are &ou choosing to take the 8EAT+ exam no49


9ang M* nameYs 9Zng [\o Du* 9]ng To get into the ?33 level classes in the business department I want to get IELTS B!3 to study well in the business department! To study higher classes reJuied IELTS al least B!3 IELTS is a reJuirement in order to get into the ?33 level classes in the business department and Ngu*en Minh Du* also a key point to develop my career Duong Ngu*en 9ai I need improve English level to continue business! /urther# I want to use English better Ngu*en Thi M* 9uong .e Thi M* Du*en @han Thi 9ue to get into the ?33 level classes in the business department! <iang Ta to get into the ?33 level clases in the classes in the business department 9ieu to get into the ?33 level classes in the business department 9o Thi @hung 9oang to get into the ?33 level classes in the business department .e Anh Du* Kup# I need this to continue with the degrees#as well as my "ob in the future! <iang @han to get B!3 IELTS and to get into the ne t business department 9ai @ham 9oang To get the higher level in the business department <iang because I can study the ?33 level business classes after taking the IELTS B!3

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 48

Aistening E/hat grades do &ou ho!e to get9F


: :': 6 6': ': % +t doesnYt matter $ 0I $ 0I 8# I 2 3:I 1 6I $ 0I 1 6I 1 6I

Reading E/hat grades do &ou ho!e to get9F

: :': 6

$ 0I 1 6I 7 #"I

$ 0I ': % # "!I $ 0I

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 4

+t doesnYt matter

1 6I

/riting E/hat grades do &ou ho!e to get9F


: :': 6 6': ': % +t doesnYt matter $ $ 1 1 ) 1 $ 1 1 0I 0I 6:I "%I 6I 0I 6I 6I

+!eaking E/hat grades do &ou ho!e to get9F


: :': 6 6': ': % +t doesnYt matter $ # 9 1 # $ # 1 0I "!I :3I 6I "!I 0I "!I 6I

O7erall E/hat grades do &ou ho!e to get9F

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 5"

: :': 6 6': ': % +t doesnYt matter

$ $ 1 $ ) 1 $ # 1

0I 0I :>I "%I 6I 0I "!I 6I

/hich skill are &ou 4eakest at9


.istening Reading Writing /)ea-ing ) ( ) 7 "%I !#I "%I #"I

Ba7e &ou e7er taken the 8EAT+ test <e,ore9 8, so5 4hen and 4hat score did &ou get9
9ang M* nameYs 9Zng [\o Du* 9]ng Ngu*en Minh Du* Duong Ngu*en 9ai Ngu*en Thi M* 9uong .e Thi M* Du*en @han Thi 9ue <iang Ta 9ieu 9o Thi @hung 9oang .e Anh Du* <iang @han 9ai @ham 9oang <iang 4o# I havenLt ever taken the IELTS test before no# I havenLt 4o# I havenLt Kes# I overcame IELTS band > of EI@ university 2 year ago 4o# I havenLt 4o# I havenLt 4o# havenLt 4o 4o# i havenLt 4o# I havenLt 4o 4one! no# i havenLt 4o# I have not no ever

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 5!

Ba7e &ou studied 8EAT+ or an& o, the Cam<ridge exams e.g. 6CE <e,ore9 8, so5 4here5 4hen and ,or ho4 long9
9ang M* nameYs 9Zng [\o Du* 9]ng Ngu*en Minh Du* Duong Ngu*en 9ai Ngu*en Thi M* 9uong .e Thi M* Du*en @han Thi 9ue <iang Ta 9ieu 9o Thi @hung 9oang .e Anh Du* <iang @han 9ai @ham 9oang 4o# I havenLt studied IELTS or any of the &ambridge e ams before no# i havenLt 4o# I havenLt Kes# 7ritish &ouncil at EI@ university 4o but i have used Prepare for IELTS of Penny &ameron 4o# I havenLt 4o# havenLt 4o I have studied IELTS at EI@ for a year 4o# I havenLt 4o 4one! no# i havenLt 4o# I have not

/hat materials.resources do &ou use during &our o4n inde!endent stud& o, English9

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 52

Watching ?ilms Watching 1ideos on *outube Reading online ne&s)a)ersCmagaHines /)ea-ing &ith nati1e s)ea-ers /)ea-ing &ith non5nati1es .istening to English .anguage radio e'g' 2AAC((C Reading graded readers Reading no1els Writing a diar* Writing emails Reading an English language ne&s)a)er 7)ublished in 2ietnam; Ather

1 !!I ) 1 ">I 1 0 >I # 3I 0 >I ) :I # 3I ( ( I I 1 !I # 3I 2 "0I

Bo4 man& hours do &ou s!end each 4eek on inde!endent stud&9


9ang M* nameYs 9Zng [\o Du* 9]ng Ngu*en Minh Du* Duong Ngu*en 9ai Ngu*en Thi M* 9uong 29 hours 2: : hr C'23 :3 hours :2 hours

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 53

.e Thi M* Du*en @han Thi 9ue <iang Ta 9ieu 9o Thi @hung 9oang .e Anh Du* <iang @han 9ai @ham 9oang

: hours 23 hours C hours 9'> hours about 23 hours 2> hours E hours

'o &ou ha7e access to the internet 4here &ou li7e9


Fes No 1 0 # %%I "!I

Bo4 do &ou log on to the internet9

using m* la)to) +)ad +)hone on the uni1ersit*Ys com)uters at an internet ca,e More than one o, the abo1e Ather

1 1 1 1 $ $ ) 1

6:I 6I 6I 0I 0I "%I 6I

Ba7e &ou used 444.edmodo.com <e,ore9 Bo4 long has it <een since &ou used it last9
9ang M* nameYs 9Zng [\o Du* 9]ng Ngu*en Minh Du* Duong Ngu*en 9ai Ngu*en Thi M* 9uong .e Thi M* Du*en Kes# I have yes! I have to used www!edmodo!com before! Kes# )hen I started study Pre'Intermediate class! I stoped use it 2 years ago! 1nce Kes# I have used : years ago but I rarely spend time for it 4o# I havenLt 4o# havenLt

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 54

@han Thi 9ue <iang Ta 9ieu 9o Thi @hung 9oang .e Anh Du* <iang @han 9ai @ham 9oang <iang

Kes! 2 year yes# i have! It was a year yes# i have! 2!> years 2 year ago 2 year ago yes# i have about 23 months Kes# I have! 7ut I have stoped using Edmodo for one year! yes# I used to it# but I havenLt use it for more one year

Bo4 much ,ree time do &ou ha7e in the e7ening ,or English home4ork9
9ang M* nameYs 9Zng [\o Du* 9]ng Ngu*en Minh Du* Duong Ngu*en 9ai Ngu*en Thi M* 9uong .e Thi M* Du*en @han Thi 9ue <iang Ta 9ieu 9o Thi @hung 9oang .e Anh Du* <iang @han 9ai @ham 9oang <iang 2 and a half I have free time at night at least 9 hours! > hours ? hour about ? hours ? hours : hours 2 hour ?3 minutes ? hours 2h or :h 9 ? hours : hours

/hich 8EAT+ related <ooks do &ou ha7e9


9ang M* nameYs 9Zng [\o Du* 9]ng Ngu*en Minh Du* Duong Ngu*en 9ai Ngu*en Thi M* 9uong .e Thi M* Du*en @han Thi 9ue <iang Ta 9ieu 9o Thi @hung 9oang .e Anh Du* <iang @han 9ai @ham 9oang <iang Preparation and practice (eady for IELTS! (eady for IELTS -hard copy.# &ambridge IELTS :'E -ebook.#!!! Prepare for IELTS of Penny &ameron Ielts 2#:#?#9#>#B#C#E, ready for ielts book F workbook, @niversity of cambridge ES1L e aminations, &ambridge Ielts 4o# i haven got 4o IELTS &ambridge 2'E IELTS task 9! &ambridge IELTS -pdf file. 7asic IELTS writting

/hat date are &ou going to take the 8EAT+ exam9


9ang M* nameYs 9Zng [\o Du* 9]ng At the beginning of %ecember when i finish level > 4ot know yet!

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 55

Ngu*en Minh Du* Duong Ngu*en 9ai Ngu*en Thi M* 9uong .e Thi M* Du*en @han Thi 9ue <iang Ta 9ieu 9o Thi @hung 9oang .e Anh Du* <iang @han 9ai @ham 9oang <iang

In 4ovember or September I donLt sure! 8aybe it will be in december or ne t years

ne t 23 weeks may be in Manuary %ecember# :32? ?3 4ovember :32? ::':?0:32: I am not sure! 8ay be more than ? months later the ne t ten weeks

Aistening: /hich one o, the ,ollo4ing is most like &ou9

+Ym com)letel* un,amiliar &ith the listening )a)er' + -no& a little bit about the listening )a)er' +Ym 1er* ,amiliar &ith the listening )a)er'

" 6I " ! "I

# !#I

Bo4 good are &ou at 8EAT+ listening9

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 56

" ! 3 # : 6 % > " 0

0 0I " 6I 3 "%I # !#I # !#I ! "!I 3 "%I 0 0I 0 0I 0 0I

Dnderstanding to!ic and context E8EAT+ Aistening su<skillsF


+Ym terrible at this' /ometimes + can do this +Ym 1er* good at this +Ym not sure &hat this means' ! "!I > :3I 6 3:I 0 0I

Aistening ,or s!eci,ic in,ormation =targeted listening> e.g. identi,&ing num<ers E8EAT+ Aistening su<skillsF
+Ym terrible at this' /ometimes + can do this +Ym 1er* good at this +Ym not sure &hat this means' 0 0I " :>I 0 #"I 0 0I

RecogniGing and distinguishing 4ord <oundaries E8EAT+ Aistening su<skillsF


+Ym terrible at this' /ometimes + can do this +Ym 1er* good at this +Ym not sure &hat this means' : !>I #"I ! "!I 3 "%I

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 57

RecogniGing indi7idual sounds =,inal H+I ,or exam!le> E8EAT+ Aistening su<skillsF
+Ym terrible at this' /ometimes + can do this +Ym 1er* good at this +Ym not sure &hat this means' %# I %# I " 6I 0 0I

Dsing 4ord and sentence stress to identi,& 4ord ,orms E8EAT+ Aistening su<skillsF
+Ym terrible at this' /ometimes + can do this +Ym 1er* good at this +Ym not sure &hat this means' 6 3:I %# I " 6I ! "!I

"redicting the t&!e o, in,ormation reJuired to ans4er the Juestion E8EAT+ Aistening su<skillsF
+Ym terrible at this' /ometimes + can do this +Ym 1er* good at this +Ym not sure &hat this means' 3 "%I " 6:I " 3 "%I 0 0I

Reading 3 understanding Juestions Juickl& E8EAT+ Aistening su<skillsF


+Ym terrible at this' /ometimes + can do this +Ym 1er* good at this +Ym not sure &hat this means' 3 "%I > :3I : !>I 0 0I

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 58

8denti,&ing distractors E8EAT+ Aistening su<skillsF


+Ym terrible at this' /ometimes + can do this +Ym 1er* good at this +Ym not sure &hat this means' ##I : 3"I 0 0I # !:I

8denti,&ing 4ords 8 kno4 in connected s!eech E8EAT+ Aistening su<skillsF


+Ym terrible at this' /ometimes + can do this +Ym 1er* good at this +Ym not sure &hat this means' ! "!I " ! "I

! "!I " 6I

Bo4 do &ou !ractise listening outside o, class9


9ang M* nameYs 9Zng [\o Du* 9]ng Ngu*en Minh Du* Duong Ngu*en 9ai Ngu*en Thi M* 9uong .e Thi M* Du*en @han Thi 9ue <iang Ta 9ieu 9o Thi @hung 9oang .e Anh Du* <iang @han 9ai @ham 9oang Listening to Potcasts I watch movies like N/riends# <ow I met your mother*N and listening to English music! ThatLs my hobbies too! chatting with foreign people# listen to music# watching video# !!! Practice with the tests in the IELTS books I can practise listening skill on the laptop in my bedroom listen to music and video on youtube )atch movie! Listening music! I listen to the music with lyric# using &ambridge IELTS I listening music and some test in ielts book yes# i have i practice listening english by watching tv Listen to music# watch some videos# !!! Practice Ielts listening tests# and effortless English by AM <oge English by AM <oge English by AM <oge Seldom listening music# playing games that use english watching films# listening news on TO and listening music

Reading

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 5

/hich one o, the ,ollo4ing is most like &ou.

+Ym com)letel* un,amiliar &ith the reading )a)er' + -no& a little bit about the reading )a)er' +Ym 1er* ,amiliar &ith the listening )a)er'

! "!I " 3 6I

! "!I

Matching Beadings to !aragra!hs EBo4 do &ou ,eel a<out the ,ollo4ing t&!e 8EAT+ reading Juestions9F
+Ym terrible at this' +Ym sometimes success,ul at this' +Ym usuall* 1er* good at this' + donYt -no& this term' 3 ">I " 6>I " ! "3I 0 0I

Matching rgument to Ex!erts EBo4 do &ou ,eel a<out the ,ollo4ing t&!e 8EAT+ reading Juestions9F
+Ym terrible at this' +Ym sometimes success,ul at this' +Ym usuall* 1er* good at this' + donYt -no& this term' : 3"I > :6I ! "3I 0 0I

True.6alse5 Kes.%o5 %ot gi7en EBo4 do &ou ,eel a<out the ,ollo4ing t&!e 8EAT+ reading Juestions9F
+Ym terrible at this' +Ym sometimes success,ul at this' +Ym usuall* 1er* good at this' + donYt -no& this term' 3 ">I " 63I 0 3 ">I 0 0I

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 6"

?a! 6ill EBo4 do &ou ,eel a<out the ,ollo4ing t&!e 8EAT+ reading Juestions9F
+Ym terrible at this' +Ym sometimes success,ul at this' +Ym usuall* 1er* good at this' + donYt -no& this term' # !:I > :6I ! "3I " 6I

6lo4chart Com!letion EBo4 do &ou ,eel a<out the ,ollo4ing t&!e 8EAT+ reading Juestions9F
+Ym terrible at this' +Ym sometimes success,ul at this' +Ym usuall* 1er* good at this' + donYt -no& this term' 3 ">I % :0I ! "3I 3 ">I

'iagram Com!letion EBo4 do &ou ,eel a<out the ,ollo4ing t&!e 8EAT+ reading Juestions9F
+Ym terrible at this' +Ym sometimes success,ul at this' +Ym usuall* 1er* good at this' + donYt -no& this term' 3 ">I % :0I " 6I # !:I

Multi!le Choice EBo4 do &ou ,eel a<out the ,ollo4ing t&!e 8EAT+ reading Juestions9F
+Ym terrible at this' +Ym sometimes success,ul at this' +Ym usuall* 1er* good at this' + donYt -no& this term' " 6I " ! :I

3 ">I 0 0I

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 6!

Bo4 good at reading do &ou think &ou are9


" ! 3 # : 6 % > " 0 0 0I 0 0I ! "!I : !>I 6 3:I 3 "%I 0 0I " 6I 0 0I 0 0I

/h& do &ou ,eel this 4a& a<out reading9


9ang M* nameYs 9Zng )hen I read an article or some paragraphs! Actually# I "ust know a little bit information in the article! 8y skills such as skim and scan# finding the keys is terrible! 7esides that# I have problem with new words and my vocabulary is very poor! I do not how to remember and these [\o Du* 9]ng words effectively Actually# spending almost a year on studying business course at EI@ was a great e perience! I have to read english materials all the time and hopefully may improve reading skill! <owever# I reali6e a big problem! The reading in IELTS e am is more tricky because of various tasks and reJuiring a wide'range knowledge while I "ust read Ngu*en Minh Du* and focus on business section! Those are my opinion! Duong Ngu*en 9ai I do not know my ability on reading 7ecause I do not have more new words I donLt have a lot of vocabulary# and academic words! spend to long reading and trying to understand perfectly I waste too much time Ngu*en Thi M* 9uong for reading and I remember too bad .e Thi M* Du*en 7ecause in the reading# it has many new words and I donLt really understand the meaning! ILm also not good at guessing what does it means! new vocabulary#low speed of @han Thi 9ue reading# dont understand the Juestions# dont know e actly where are key words <iang Ta 9ieu because sometimes it has many new vocabularies in the paragraph so i couldnLt understand because my hobby is reading and understanding I can understand about 9o Thi @hung 9oang more than C3P of the reading part# with some guest words or meaning! .e Anh Du* <iang @han 7ut the Juestion sometimes have some difficult words that I canLt understand! 8atching 9ai @ham 9oang heading to paragraphs are very confused!

Bo4 do &ou !ractise reading outside o, class9 Teaching Exam Classes Robert William McCaul Page 62

9ang M* nameYs 9Zng [\o Du* 9]ng Ngu*en Minh Du* Duong Ngu*en 9ai Ngu*en Thi M* 9uong .e Thi M* Du*en @han Thi 9ue <iang Ta 9ieu 9o Thi @hung 9oang .e Anh Du* <iang @han 9ai @ham 9oang

I read some English story and practise by doing homework! 7esides that# I study many vocabularies I had not practise enough# but I will try to read English newspaper to improve it! 1ne more benefit is e tra my knowledge! I read the news on internet reading newspapers or books reading newspaper I read some comic# somtimes search wiki about a new information and read it in English (eading all the reading task in Ielts!

Sometime sometimes# I read newspaper on the internet and find some interesting story reading academic materials# news# english subtitles!

I think i read some books Practice the tests reading materials!!! practise more reading test at home reading novel

/riting: /hich one o, the ,ollo4ing is most like &ou9

+Ym com)letel* un,amiliar &ith the &riting )a)er' + -no& a little bit about the &riting )a)er' +Ym 1er* ,amiliar &ith the &riting )a)er'

0 0I " %"I 3 3 ">I

Bo4 good do &ou think &ou are at 4riting in English9

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 63

" ! 3 # : 6 % > " 0

0 0I 0 0I 3 "%I # !#I #"I ! "!I 0 0I 0 0I " 6I 0 0I

Ba7ing enough general kno4ledge a<out the to!ics. E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le 4riting9F
+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term # !#I " 6:I " ! "!I 0 0I

Ba7ing enough ideas E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le 4riting9F


+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term # !#I > :3I # !#I 0 0I

Ba7ing enough con,idence in m& o4n ideas E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le 4riting9
+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term # !#I > :3I # !#I 0 0I

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 64

dhering to the time limit E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le 4riting9F
+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term 6 3%I : 3"I : 3"I 0 0I

/riting introductions to essa&s. E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le 4riting9F


+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term " 6I " %"I 3 ! "3I 0 0I

/riting to!ic sentences E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le 4riting9F


+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term : !>I " 6:I " " 6I 0 0I

+u!!orting &our arguments 4ith exam!les E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le 4riting9F
+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term 3 "%I " :>I 0 # !#I 0 0I

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 65

'e7elo!ing arguments E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le 4riting9F


+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term : !>I %# I ! "!I ! "!I

Making it eas& to understand. E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le 4riting9F


+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term : !>I %# I # !#I 0 0I

/riting the introductor& sentences in task 1 E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le 4riting9F
+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term 3 "%I " ! "I

! "!I 0 0I

/riting the o7er7ie4 statement in task 1 E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le 4riting9F
+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term 3 "%I " ! "I

! "!I 0 0I

/riting the main <od& in task 1 E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le 4riting9F

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 66

+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term

3 "%I " %!I # 0 0I 0 0I

/riting conclusions in task # E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le 4riting9F


+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term 3 ">I " 6>I " ! "3I 0 0I

Ba7ing su,,icient lexical resource E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le 4riting9F
+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term " 3 6I

! "!I ! "!I 0 0I

Ba7ing su,,icient grammatical range 3 accurac& E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le 4riting9F
+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term %# I > :3I 0 0I 0 0I

Res!onding to the task E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le 4riting9F

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 67

+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term

3 "%I " ! "I

! "!I 0 0I

Being cohesi7e and coherent E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le 4riting9F
+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term 6 3:I " 6:I " 0 0I 0 0I

Bo4 do &ou !ractise 4riting outside o, class9


9ang M* nameYs 9Zng [\o Du* 9]ng Ngu*en Minh Du* Duong Ngu*en 9ai Ngu*en Thi M* 9uong .e Thi M* Du*en @han Thi 9ue <iang Ta 9ieu 9o Thi @hung 9oang .e Anh Du* <iang @han 9ai @ham 9oang %onQt practise it write diary or some report at university writing email %oing assignment and pro"ect when I "oined business courses but IELTS e am is still a big challenge )riting an email writing email I write email and chat on facebook by English rarely writing an email# letter (eading model writings I will practise ielts writing tests writing tests in &ambridge IELTS %onLt have much! practice it by using IETLS book

+!eaking: /hich one o, the ,ollo4ing is most like &ou9

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 68

+Ym com)letel* un,amiliar &ith the s)ea-ing )a)er' + -no& a little bit about the s)ea-ing )a)er' +Ym 1er* ,amiliar &ith the s)ea-ing )a)er'

! "!I " 6:I " # !#I

Bo4 good do &ou think &ou are at s!eaking in English9


" ! 3 # : 6 % > " 0 0 0I ! "!I " 6I : !>I # !#I ! "!I ! "!I 0 0I " 6I 0 0I

Ba7ing enough general kno4ledge a<out the to!ics. E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le s!eaking tests9F

+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term

3 "%I " 3 6I

" 6I 0 0I

Ba7ing enough ideas E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le s!eaking tests9F

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 6

+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term

: !>I > :3I 3 "%I 0 0I

Ba7ing enough con,idence in m& o4n ideas E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le s!eaking tests9F

+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term

# !#I " :>I 0 3 "%I 0 0I

+u,,icient !lanning in !art # =the long turn>. E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le s!eaking tests9F

+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term

#"I > :3I 0 0I " 6I

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 7"

+u!!orting &our arguments 4ith exam!les E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le s!eaking tests9F

+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term

# !#I " 6:I " ! "!I 0 0I

'e7elo!ing arguments E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le s!eaking tests9F

+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term

: !>I %# I ! "!I ! "!I

%ot hesitating too much. not ha7ing lots o, silences E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le s!eaking tests9F

+ am terrible at this

#"I

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 7!

+ am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term

#"I ! "!I " 6I

"ara!hrasing E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le s!eaking tests9F

+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term

%# I > :3I 0 0I 0 0I

%ot re!eating 4ords E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le s!eaking tests9F

+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term

" 6:I " 6 3:I 0 0I 0 0I

%ot o7er*rel&ing on items o, 7oca<ular& E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le s!eaking tests9F

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 72

+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term

% :0I : 3"I " 6I ! "3I

Making grammatical errors E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le s!eaking tests9F
+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term : !>I " 6:I " 0 0I " 6I

%ot using onl& sim!le grammatical ,orms E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le s!eaking tests9F
+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term 6 3:I " :>I 0 " 6I 0 0I

"ronouncing indi7idual sounds correctl& E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le s!eaking tests9F
+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term 6 3%I % :0I ! "3I 0 0I

"lacing 4ord stress E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le s!eaking tests9F

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 73

+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term

6 3%I : 3"I ! "3I 3 ">I

+tressing the im!ortant 4ords E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le s!eaking tests9F
+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term # !:I % :0I ! "3I ! "3I

Dsing natural intonation E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le s!eaking tests9F
+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term #"I : !>I 3 "%I ! "!I

Dsing chunking. !ausing in natural !laces E/hat is di,,icult a<out 8EAT+ st&le s!eaking tests9F
+ am terrible at this + am sometimes good at this' + am 1er* good at this + do not understand this term 6 3%I : 3"I ! "3I 3 ">I

Bo4 do &ou !ractice s!eaking outside o, class9 Teaching Exam Classes Robert William McCaul Page 74

9ang M* nameYs 9Zng [\o Du* 9]ng Ngu*en Minh Du* Duong Ngu*en 9ai Ngu*en Thi M* 9uong .e Thi M* Du*en @han Thi 9ue <iang Ta 9ieu 9o Thi @hung 9oang .e Anh Du* <iang @han 9ai @ham 9oang

chatting with my friend but rarely (eading tape'scripts I chit and chat with my friends by English I do not know (eading aloud I have some native friends# and I like to chat talk with my friends in English talking with my friends by English I practiced with my friends and sometimes I have to practice alone speaking with friends take part in club english or talk with teacher chatting with my friends# foreigner# !!!

?rammar Bo4 good is &our kno4ledge o, English grammar on a scale o, 1*1$9


" ! 3 # : 6 % > " 0 0 0I 0 0I ! "!I 3 "%I 6 3:I : !>I " 6I 0 0I 0 0I 0 0I

Bo4 good at &ou at the a!!lication o, grammar in &our s!eaking and 4riting9

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 75

" ! 3 # : 6 % > " 0

0 0I 0 0I : !>I ! "!I 6 3:I # !#I 0 0I 0 0I 0 0I 0 0I

?enerall& s!eaking5 do &ou !roo,read &our 4riting <e,ore &ou gi7e it to &our teacher to <e corrected9
Fes No " 3 6I

# !#I

/hat is the most di,,icult !art o, English grammar9


9ang M* nameYs 9Zng [\o Du* 9]ng Ngu*en Minh Du* Duong Ngu*en 9ai Ngu*en Thi M* 9uong .e Thi M* Du*en @han Thi 9ue <iang Ta 9ieu 9o Thi @hung 9oang tense# spelling structure Try to remember to use it! tenses synonyms gramatical range I use wrong words formation like$ when we need to use noun I use ad"ective! Sometimes I forget put the NsN after the verb! ILm confuse about when we need to use that or this tences! Present perfect# past perfect and present perfect continuous prepositions# adverbs

@sing appropriate tenses and combine them to say or write something you want!

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 76

.e Anh Du* <iang @han 9ai @ham 9oang

Presenting my ideas be comple sentences

/hat do &ou do 4hen &ou get a !iece o, 4riting <ack and it has a lot o, grammatical errors9
remember the mistakes I will ask my teacher to teach me again and do it again until my grammatical errors repair correctly wrong word formation looking at and fi ing them &heck them I will find out and correct the mistakes# then I rewrite and give it to the Ngu*en Minh Du* teacher again! Duong Ngu*en 9ai I will fi it! Ngu*en Thi M* 9uong Try to remember so I wonLt make those mistakes again .e Thi M* Du*en @han Thi 9ue i will fi it correcting the mistakes on my own and then ask the teacher for help <iang Ta &orrect it! 9ieu practise again and check for mistakes to avoid them a 9o Thi @hung 9oang (eading it to get ideas that the writer wants to write and fi them! After that# checking .e Anh Du* mistakes <iang @han i rewrite it make it correct# if possible I will ask someone e plain why I wrong and help 9ai @ham 9oang me fi the mistakes! 9ang M* nameYs 9Zng [\o Du* 9]ng

/hich areas o, grammar do &ou ha7e di,,icult& a!!l&ing in &our reading and 4riting9
s)elling &ord ,ormation &ord order register e'g' ,ormal 1s' in,ormal )resent )er,ect continuous as)ect modalit* ,uture tenses )ast tenses ad1erbs )unctuation ! 3I % ""I "0I " "#I 0 6 %I > "3I " ":I " ! 3I ! 3I % ""I "0I

Aexical Resource:

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 77

Bo4 good is &our kno4ledge o, English 7oca<ular& on a scale o, 1*1$9


" ! 3 # : 6 % > " 0 0 0I " 6I 3 "%I 3 "%I 6 3:I ! "!I 0 0I ! "!I 0 0I 0 0I

Bo4 good at &ou at the a!!lication o, &our 7oca<ular& in &our s!eaking and 4riting9
" ! 3 # : 6 % > " 0 0 0I 3 "%I " 6I 3 "%I %# I 0 0I " 6I " 6I 0 0I 0 0I

Bo4 good are &ou at s!elling in English9

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 78

" ! 3 # : 6 % > " 0

0 0I 3 "%I 0 0I # !#I #"I ! "!I 0 0I 0 0I " 6I 0 0I

Bo4 do &ou remem<er ne4 7oca<ular&9


9ang M* nameYs 9Zng [\o Du* 9]ng Must when it in a song or in a movies# otherwise I will forget it very soon! learning by heart and trying to apply it into daily life look at them every have free times Learning a list of words or a phrase writing it many time and then wput it in complete Ngu*en Minh Du* setences Duong Ngu*en 9ai )riting new vocabularies on the note Ngu*en Thi M* 9uong .e Thi M* Du*en I take note and read them many time! In my opinion# remembering vocabulary means remembering meaning# pronoun and spelling @han Thi 9ue of it <iang Ta read it# search the meaning of the word! 9ieu )ritten them few times take notes# translate# remember# read and repeat many times! 9o Thi @hung i write new words on a paper and paste it on the wall to see it any time 9oang .e Anh Du* )riting it on the notebook and look it as much as possible <iang @han use new vocabulary to make sentence 9ai @ham 9oang (emember it!

To!ics: Ai,est&le ECan &ou s!eak.4rite a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 7

Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term'

0 0I #"I #"I " 6I ! "!I 0 0I

6amil& ECan &ou s!eak.4rite a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F


Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' 0 0I ! "!I %# I # !#I 3 "%I 0 0I

Technolog& ECan &ou s!eak.4rite a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F


Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' : !>I " :>I 0 " 6I " 6I 0 0I 0 0I

Dr<anisation ECan &ou s!eak.4rite a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F Teaching Exam Classes Robert William McCaul Page 8"

Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term'

6 3:I 6 3:I ! "!I " 6I 0 0I ! "!I

The En7ironment ECan &ou s!eak.4rite a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F
Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' 0 0I 6 3:I 6 3:I 3 "%I ! "!I 0 0I

Bealth ECan &ou s!eak.4rite a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F


Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' " 6I #"I #"I ! "!I 0 0I 0 0I

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 8!

Education ECan &ou s!eak.4rite a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F


Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' " 6I 6 3:I : !>I 3 "%I ! "!I 0 0I

?lo<alisation ECan &ou s!eak.4rite a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F


Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' ! "!I #"I # !#I 3 "%I 0 0I " 6I

Consumerism ECan &ou s!eak.4rite a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F


Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' : !>I # !#I : !>I 0 0I 0 0I 3 "%I

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 82

rt ECan &ou s!eak.4rite a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F


Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' #"I > :3I 0 0I 0 0I " 6I 0 0I

Crime ECan &ou s!eak.4rite a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F


Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' : !>I " :>I 0 " 6I " 6I 0 0I 0 0I

"s&cholog& ECan &ou s!eak.4rite a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 83

Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term'

%# I #"I ! "!I 0 0I 0 0I 0 0I

/ork ECan &ou s!eak.4rite a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F


Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' " 6I #"I # !#I ! "!I 3 "%I 0 0I

+cience ECan &ou s!eak.4rite a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F


Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' > :3I : !>I 3 "%I 0 0I 0 0I 0 0I

Ai,est&le ECan &ou understand listening com!rehensions a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F Teaching Exam Classes Robert William McCaul Page 84

Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term'

0 0I > :3I 3 "%I " 6I # !#I 0 0I

6amil& ECan &ou understand listening com!rehensions a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F
Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' 0 0I : !>I : !>I 3 "%I # !#I 0 0I

Technolog& ECan &ou understand listening com!rehensions a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F
Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' # !#I %# I ! "!I 3 "%I 0 0I 0 0I

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 85

Dr<anisation ECan &ou understand listening com!rehensions a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F
Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' %# I ! "!I : !>I 0 0I 0 0I ! "!I

The En7ironment ECan &ou understand listening com!rehensions a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F
Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' " 6I #"I # !#I # !#I " 6I 0 0I

Bealth ECan &ou understand listening com!rehensions a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F
Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' ! "!I #"I : !>I ! "!I " 6I 0 0I

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 86

Education ECan &ou understand listening com!rehensions a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F
Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' 0 0I #"I #"I ! "!I " 6I 0 0I

?lo<alisation ECan &ou understand listening com!rehensions a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F
Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' # !#I : !>I 6 3:I ! "!I 0 0I 0 0I

Consumerism ECan &ou understand listening com!rehensions a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F
Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' 6 3:I 6 3:I " 6I " 6I 0 0I 3 "%I

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 87

rt ECan &ou understand listening com!rehensions a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F
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Crime ECan &ou understand listening com!rehensions a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F
Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' : !>I %# I ! "!I ! "!I 0 0I 0 0I

"s&cholog& ECan &ou understand listening com!rehensions a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F
Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' : 3"I % :0I ! "3I " 6I 0 0I 0 0I

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 88

/ork ECan &ou understand listening com!rehensions a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F
Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' 0 0I %# I : !>I ! "!I ! "!I 0 0I

+cience ECan &ou understand listening com!rehensions a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F
Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' #"I : !>I 3 "%I ! "!I 0 0I 0 0I

Ai,est&le ECan &ou read and understand articles a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F
Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' 0 0I 6 3:I # !#I 3 "%I # !#I 0 0I

6amil& ECan &ou read and understand articles a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 8

Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term'

0 0I # !#I # !#I : !>I # !#I 0 0I

Technolog& ECan &ou read and understand articles a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F
Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' ! "!I > :3I ! "!I 3 "%I " 6I 0 0I

Dr<anisation ECan &ou read and understand articles a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F
Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' 3 "%I #"I 3 "%I ! "!I 0 0I ! "!I

The En7ironment ECan &ou read and understand articles a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F Teaching Exam Classes Robert William McCaul Page "

Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term'

0 0I #"I # !#I : !>I " 6I 0 0I

Bealth ECan &ou read and understand articles a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F
Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' 3 "%I : !>I # !#I # !#I " 6I 0 0I

Education ECan &ou read and understand articles a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F
Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' 0 0I #"I 3 "%I 6 3:I " 6I 0 0I

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page !

?lo<alisation ECan &ou read and understand articles a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F
Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' " 6I > :3I # !#I 3 "%I 0 0I 0 0I

Consumerism ECan &ou read and understand articles a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F
Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' # !#I #"I " 6I ! "!I 0 0I 3 "%I

rt ECan &ou read and understand articles a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F
Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' : !>I #"I # !#I 0 0I " 6I 0 0I

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 2

Crime ECan &ou read and understand articles a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F
Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' # !#I %# I 3 "%I " 6I " 6I 0 0I

"s&cholog& ECan &ou read and understand articles a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F
Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' #"I # !#I # !#I 0 0I 0 0I ! "!I

/ork ECan &ou read and understand articles a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F
Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' " 6I #"I : !>I " 6I 3 "%I 0 0I

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 3

+cience ECan &ou read and understand articles a<out the ,ollo4ing to!ic areas9F
Not at all A little bit The ma3orit* o, the time Almost all the time Al&a*s + donYt recognise this term' 3 "%I %# I # !#I " 6I " 6I 0 0I

Aearning +t&les 8 do lots o, s!orts. E"lease choose the o!tion most like &ou.F
Ne1er /ometime s Al&a*s # !:I > :6I 3 ">I

8 like to think a<out things logicall&. E"lease choose the o!tion most like &ou.F
Ne1er /ometime s Al&a*s " 6I " 6:I " : !>I

8 !la& a musical instrument. E"lease choose the o!tion most like &ou.F
Ne1er /ometime s Al&a*s " %!I # ! "!I " 6I

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 4

8 usuall& !ut on some music 4hen 8Lm stud&ing. E"lease choose the o!tion most like &ou.F
Ne1er /ometime s Al&a*s # !#I " ! "I

" 6I

"ictures hel! me remem<er things. E"lease choose the o!tion most like &ou.F
Ne1er /ometime s Al&a*s 0 0I %# I > :3I

8Lm reall& good at mathematics. E"lease choose the o!tion most like &ou.F
Ne1er /ometime s Al&a*s ! "!I " ! "I

3 "%I

8 canLt sit still ,or more than 0 minutes. E"lease choose the o!tion most like &ou.F
Ne1er /ometime s Al&a*s " :>I 0 # !#I 3 "%I

8 lo7e languages. E"lease choose the o!tion most like &ou.F

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 5

Ne1er /ometime s Al&a*s

0 0I > :3I %# I

8 !re,er to 4ork alone. E/orking alone.together in class.F


Ne1er /ometime s Al&a*s " 6I " %%I : " 6I

8 4ork <est 4ith the same !artner. E/orking alone.together in class.F


Ne1er /ometime s Al&a*s 0 0I > :3I %# I

8 en@o& 4orking 4ith di,,erent !artners. E/orking alone.together in class.F


Ne1er /ometime s Al&a*s 0 0I " 6:I " 6 3:I

8 like to 4ork in small grou!s. E/orking alone.together in class.F


Ne1er /ometime s Al&a*s " 6I " 6:I " : !>I

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 6

8 en@o& 4hen the 4hole class 4orks together. E/orking alone.together in class.F
Ne1er /ometime s Al&a*s " 6I " %%I : " 6I

#.#: +ummar& o, the results: The s)o-en inter1ie&s com)lemented the 4uestionnaires e,,ecti1el*' These too- )lace in class a,ter the electronic needs anal*sis ,orms had been com)leted and allo&ed me to ,urther re,ine the ,indings' This allo&ed me to con,irm man* o, m* sus)icions about the grou)$ i'e' that the* are strongl* extrinsicall* moti1ated' Moreo1er$ + &as able to narro& do&n man* o, the needs and &ants to ,ocus on &hen designing the course'
Needs anal*sis ?indings "5"! 7NA: "5"!;: "' "0 o, the learners &ant to get a band 6$ 3 o, them a 6':$ another a doesn6t care' !' .earners suggest that the* re4uire the most hel) in the )roducti1e s-ills$ es)eciall* s)ea-ing' +n ,act$ #"I o, them sa* that s)ea-ing is their &ea-est s-ill' 3' "%I o, them identi,ied &riting as their &ea-est s-ill' #' Most learners ha1e alread* used the Cambridge )ast )a)ers boo-s5 so$ these cannot be used ,or the DT' :' "I o, the learners ,eel that the* are lac-ing in the a))lication o, their grammar and lexis in &riting' 6' The ma3orit* o, the learners are 4uite ,amiliar &ith the ,ormat o, the exam' 9o&e1er$ the* sa* the* are lac-ing in con,idence in certain )arts o, the exam e'g' the matching headings to )aragra)hs exercise in the reading test and the note com)letion exercise in the listening test' ' The learners don6t a))ear to be ,amiliar &ith the mar-ing criteria ,or both the s)ea-ing and &riting )a)ers' %' While a ma3orit* o, the students ,eel that the* ha1e a su,,icient gras) o, s*stems -no&ledge to be able to do the exam$ some do not ,eel so com,ortable &ith )ronunciation e'g' not being able to use chun-ing and natural intonation' >' The* are least con,ident &hen s)ea-ing and &riting about more academic to)ics such as consumerism and ad1ertising' "0' All o, the students$ sa1e one$ ha1e access to the internet in their )lace o, residence' ""' The learners a))ear to be intra)ersonal and 1erbal5linguistic 7@uchta !00:;' and the remaining student

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 7

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page 8

!!endix ): 'iagnostic Test*+ummar& o, results


).1: Reading: ).1.1: Breakdo4n o, reading results:
.ast name Ngu*^n 9_i Ngu*^n Minh .b Anh .b Thc Md Te Thc 2f Ngu*^n Tr`gng @han Thih (iich @hem 9o\ng Trjn Thc Jim Trjn 9ulnh Trung 9Z Thc @hnng @hem Thc @han Thc [\o Du* Ngu*^n Thc Md ?irst name D`ang Du* Du* Du*bn <iang <iang <iang 9_i 9kng 9imu 9o\ng 9Zng 9uo 9]ng 9`gng /ection " > "0 > > % % % > % % % "0 "" /ection ! "0 > "" "0 > % % % 6 % 6 % % % /ection 3 Total !6 ! !6 !# !: !: !3 !: !# !: !3 !3 !: !# ! (and /core 6 6': 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6':

% 6 : % > > "0 > > % "0 %

).1.#: Breakdo4n !er section gra!h:

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page

8 7 6 5 .ection ! 4 3 2 ! " .ection 2 .ection 3 .ection 4

).1.): Reading *Breakdo4n !er Juestion t&!e:


Classi,ication A1erage /core
7to nearest &hole number;

: >

Diagram Com)letio n 3 #

Multi)le Choice :

/ASs # %

TC?CN < #

?lo& Chart Com)letion 3 :

Total @ossible

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page !""

).#: Aistening*+ummar& o, results: ).#.1: Aistening*<reakdo4n o, results:


.ast Name Ngu*^n 9_i Ngu*^n Minh .b Anh .b Thc Md Te Thc 2f Ngu*^n Tr`gng @han Thih (iich @hem 9o\ng Trjn Thc Jim Trjn 9ulnh Trung 9Z Thc @hnng @hem Thc @han Thc [\o Du* Ngu*^n Thc Md ?irst Name D`ang Du* Du* Du*bn <iang <iang <iang 9_i 9kng 9imu 9o\ng 9Zng 9uo 9]ng 9`gng /ect' " /ect' ! /ect' 3 6 % 6 6 6 % 6 : % : % : 6 : : : : : : 6 6 6 6 6 6 # # 6 : : 6 # /ect' # A1erall
7mean !#':;

6 6 6 6 6 %

: % : # 6

! !% !# !# !# !: !3 !6 !# !3 ! !# !3 !3 !3

(and /core 6': 6': 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6': 6 6 6 6

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page !"!

).#.#: Aistening: Break*do4n !er section:

).#.): Aistening: Breakdo4n !er Juestion t&!e:


Note Com)letio n : % Mulit)le Choice : > Matchin g # /entence Com)letion ! 3 /A Ss 3 # Classi,icatio n 3 6 /ummar* Com)letion ! 3

A1erag e /core Total @ossibl e

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page !"2

).): +!eaking 'iagnostic Results*

).).1: +ummar& o, results:


Main reasons ,or learners not meeting their targets in the 4riting !a!er: Almost all the grou) ,ell belo& their target o, band 6' The results seem to indicate that students are most lac-ing in the areas o, ,luenc* 8 coherence 7class a1erage: :'"3; and )ronunciation 7class a1erage: :'06;' Those &ho scored a # or a : in these criteria mostl* did so ,or the ,ollo&ing reasons:

/)ea-ing Diagnostic Test ,indings "5% =+'T1*8>: +'T1: % o, the grou) onl* managed to gi1e 1er* minimal ans&ers in )art "' The* &ere unable to de1elo) their ans&ers su,,icientl*' %E$ G%o people use devices such as washing machines to help with the housework in Oietnam*I 9ang: GKes# people use washing machines to help with housework in OietnamI! +'T#: Note5ta-ing &as )oor'3 o, the learners didn6t &rite an* notes at all' While o, the remainder managed less than : items o, mostl* sim)le 1ocabular* that didn6t a))ear to hel) them5 i'e' the* seemed to ignore them during the long turn' +'T): > out o, ": &ere unable to -ee) s)ea-ing ,or the &hole ! minutes in the long turn' +'T(: +n )art 3$ &here learners &ere dealing &ith more abstract to)ics$ almost t&o thirds o, the grou) 7> out o, "0; had noticeable )auses a,ter the 4uestion had been as-ed' Where the* &ere able to res)ond in a reasonable amount o, time$ the* onl* managed to maintain the ,lo& o, s)eech b* rel*ing on slo& s)eech and hesitation' DE: G4ow# lets consider eating habits! <ow do you think eating habits and eating traditions have changed during the last few years*I 9ung: +long pause -> sec. +! GIn the last few years# many people dont eat+ -pause. eat less ? meals per day# they also forget about the breakfast at the morning because they are too busy and they "ust eat : meals per day

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page !"3

-pause. and its not good for their -pause. health! The reason is that our work+is+mmmm+!!they have lots of work to do its kind of+!-pause. they love to eat something fast+!and that very unhealthy for their health!I +'T0: More than t&o out o, three o, the learners 7""; had a least one instance &here the* didn6t understand one o, the 4uestions' The* seemed to )anic at this )oint and a))eared to not -no& &hat to do next' /ome said Grepeat# pleaseI or GI dont understand!E onl* a,ter an extended )ause' Athers$ ho&e1er$ attem)ted to gi1e an ans&er an*&a* &ith limited success i'e' their ans&ers &ere 1er* o,,5 to)ic' +'T2: 33I o, the learners ,ailed to ade4uatel* re)air &hen there &ere brea-do&ns in communication e'g' i, the* encountered grammatical andCor lexis related )roblems$ the* dealt &ith this b* either ha1ing long )auses$ re)eating the last ,e& &ords or sto))ing altogether' +'T7: /*stems di,,iculties in the area o, )ronunciation meant that the 1ast man* o, learners 7"! out o, ":; scored belo& their target in this criterion' More s)eci,icall*$ la)ses in control &ere in the areas o, accurac* o, the )roduction o, s*llable ,inal consonants$ &ord stress in multis*llabic &ords and ." inter,erence in intonation 7stressing e1er* s*llable as in 2ietnamese; and chun-ing' E!g! <ung$ GKes# I think some of people very love to read print newspaper# its kind of+their eyes cannot deal with the screen of the computer!I C635s$ Bai Bp6q- BsTm BT1 B)i)'6Tl B15riC )ause CBlT1 Btu Bri#dC 7)ause; CB)r6ntC )ause CBnuOH'6)e)'6T$ B6tsC 7)ause; CB-aind BT1C 7)ause; YreT Ba3H B-Wnat Bdil C 7)ause; CB& 6p BrT Bs-ri:n BT1 BrT B-Tm6)3u6tTC' +'T8: 6 out o, ": o, the learners had at least one occasion &here the* had di,,iculties in the area o, regular )ast sim)le )roduction e'g' 9ang D m* teacher advised me to &atch the bbc'I CWd1a3HC 9ieu: D and then + sto))edE Cst7)C'

).).#: +!eaking Band scores o, the entire grou!:


Name D`ang Du* Ng*uen Du* Du*bn <iang T <iang 2 <iang @ 9_i 9kng 9imu 9o\ng 9Zng 9uo 9]ng 9`gng ?luenc* 8 Coherence 6 6 : : : : # : : 6 : : : : : .exical Resource 6 6 6 6 6 6 : 6 6 6 : 6 6 : : <rammatical Rang and accurac* 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 : 6 : @ronunciation # 6 : : : : : : 6 : : : : : :

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page !"4

).).): ?ra!hic re!resentation o, s!eaking <and scores:

).).(: 7erage score o, the grou!: Teaching Exam Classes Robert William McCaul Page !"5

A1erage score

?luenc* and coherence :'"3

.exical resource :' 6

<rammatical range and accurac* :'%

@ronunciation :'06

).).0: nal&sis o, +am!le +!eaking diagnostic* Bung:

As 9ung had the mean band score and he also shared man* o, the t*)ical )roblems o, the grou)$ + ha1e concentrated m* anal*sis o, the s)ea-ing diagnostic on his )er,ormance' 9ere + gi1e the ,ull transcri)t o, his s)ea-ing diagnostic &ith comments'

9ung: ?ull transcri)t &ith comments: Diagnostic Examiner: 4ow# in this first part of the test we would like to know something about you! So first of all do you live in a house or an apartmentQ 9ung: Fes$ + li1e in a house' Mmm %E$ &an you describe your house please* 9: A-a*$ it is a smallUsmall house$ in 2ietnam it6s 3ust a normal house$ -ind o, the standard house$ but m* house ha1e a garden$ usuall* some o, 2ietnamese )eo)le reall* li-e their house to ha1e a garden so the* canU'' <ro& some trees in there or some animal such as chic-ens$ )igs$ that6s )art o, our traditional' %E$ )ould you ever like to move house* 9: +, + can$ + &ould li-e to mo1e m* house into the center o, our )ro1ince' +n the next !0 *ears$ + thin- that + &ould li-e to choose (inh Duong ne& cit* is the )lace that + &ill mo1e m* house to' %E$ )hy 7inh %uong 4ew &ity* Teaching Exam Classes Robert William McCaul Page !"6

9: Fou -no&$ because (D ne& cit* is a big cit*$ but no& it6s not com)lete *et' (ut in the ,uture it &ill gro& 1er* ,astUand +t ha1e all o, ,acilities that &e need li-e a big uni1ersit*$ big hos)ital and a great deal o, center all &e need in there' %E$ Lets talk about the news now! <ow do you usually find out about the news* 9: 0suall* + read the ne&s in the internet$ and + )re,er to choose 2Nex)ress$ a ne&s)a)er &ebsite o, 2ietnam' Aur teacher ad1ised that &e need to choose ((C or CNN to read the ne&s' %E$ %o you think people will continue to read print newspapers in the future* 9: Fes$ + thin- some o, )eo)le 1er* 7)ause; lo1e to read 7)ause; )rint 7)ause; ne&s)a)er$ it6s -ind o,Utheir e*es cannot deal 7)ause; &ith the screen o, the com)uter$ %E$ 4ow# In this part Im going to give you a topic and Id like you to talk about it for one to two minutes! 7efore you talk# you will have one minute to think about what you are going to say and you can make some notes if you wish! %o you understand* 9: Fes' %E$ <ere is some paper and a pencil# and here is your topic! ILd like you to describe a traditional meal in Oietnam*
Describe a traditional meal in your Country. You should mention: What the meal is How it is prepared When it is usually eaten What, if any, is the significance or importance of the meal. And say if you enjoy this food.

7" minute )re) time;

%E$ Alright* (emember you have one to two minutes for this# so donLt worry if I stop you! &an you start speaking now please* 9: Fes$ Ane o, our traditional meal is Chung ca-e$ it is a traditional ca-e o, 2ietnamese it6s ha1e a 1er* 1er* long histor*$ our mmmU ancient 7di,,icult to inter)ret;U''mmm ancient ancestors ga1e it to us the reci)e Cri'6si:tC and &e usuall* ma-e Chung ca-e in Tet holida* the Chung ca-e is made b* rice$ bean and Dong lea,$ Dong lea, is a -ind o, lea, that onl* ha1e in 2ietnam es)eciall* it use to &ra) C&rWC the ca-e and 2ietnamese )eo)le eat Chung ca-e at house &hen the* ha1e )art* &ith their ,amil* and their -inshi)s in Tet holida*' The )rocess o, the ca-e is &hen *ou )ut a number o, rice and that *ou )ut the bean in the center and then *ou use the ro)e or some trees to -ee) it together and then *ou boil it at least "! hours to ma-e the ca-e good' Then *ou can en3o* it$ it is the traditional ca-e o, 2ietnam because it Teaching Exam Classes Robert William McCaul Page !"7

re)resent ,or theU' +t ha1e a s4uare sha)e so itU re)resent ,or the earth &here &e li1e and it also ha1e a green color' (ecause o, the Dong lea, is green so &hen boil it the green o, the lea, &illUUgo into the rice so it ha1e green color$ and it re)resent ,or natural and Chung ca-e is also a s)ecial ,ood that 2ietnam )eo)le usuall* use but no&$ i, *ou &ant to bu* it *ou can go to the su)ermar-et or some center to bu* it' %E$ 1k# thank you very much! In the ne t part of the e am I am going to ask you some more general Juestions related to the topic you were "ust talking about R a traditional cake in Oietnam! /irst of all lets consider different types of food! )hich types of food do you think are good for you* 9:+ thin- that mmm eggs$ ,ish$ and meat are usuall* good ,or our health es)eciall* meat$ because &e don6t li-e the 1egetarian so &e need to eat meat to ha1e )rotein and energ* to &or- and U %E$ )hat kinds of things do people eat that are bad for them* 9: 7.ong )ause; .et me thin- about thatU 7.ong )ause; @eo)le drin- too much alcohol is bad ,or our health$ i, *ou eat something too much it &ill damage *our bod* *ou need balance *our meal e1er*da* so *ou &ill ha1e aU''7long )ause; health* bod*'

%E$ 4ow# lets consider eating habits! <ow do you think eating habits and eating traditions have changed during the last few years* 9: +n the last ,e& *ears$ man* )eo)le don6t eatU 7)ause; eat less 3 meals )er da*$ the* also ,orget about the brea-,ast at the morning because the* are too bus* and the* 3ust eat ! meals )er da* and it6s not good ,or their health' The reason is that our &or-UisUmmmmU''the* ha1e lots o, &or- to do it6s -ind o,U'7)ause; the* lo1e to eat something ,astU'and that 1er* unhealth* ,or their health'

3'3'6: @roblems &hich lost students the most mar-s in the s)ea-ing diagnostic: /truggling to maintain a ,lo& o, s)eech in )art " 7?8C; /)ea-ing at length &ithout too man* noticeable )auses 7?8C; Dealing &ith brea-do&ns in communication and re4uesting clari,ication 7?8C; /)ea-ing ,or the re4uired time in @art ! 7?8C; Demonstrating a &ide enough 1ocabular* in @art ! 7.R; Accurac* o, s*llable ,inal consonants$ &ord stress in multis*llabic &ords$ ." inter,erence in intonation and chun-ing 7@; +naccurate regular )ast tense )ronunciation 7missing out on the ,inal consonant sound; 7@;

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page !"8

).(: /riting 'iagnostic Results:

).(.1: Task 1 3 # O7er7ie4:

All ": o, the learners ,ell belo& their target o, band 6 in both tas- " and tas- !' An the )ositi1e side$ &ith regard to coherence and cohesion in both tas-s$ students scored &ell' The* tended to be able to arrange in,ormation and ideas coherentl* and had clear o1erall )rogression throughout: Duong T!: D/irstly# there is some disadvantage for young people+I .earners &ere also success,ul in the area o, lexical resource &here % out o, ": &ere a&arded a band 6' E'g' 9ung in T! sho&s good a&areness o, collocation : Gdeep fear of lonelinessI 9o&e1er$ errors in &ord ,orm and s)elling )redominate the learners6 res)onses 9oang T!: GThey reduce the depend on their parentsI!

Main reasons ,or learners not meeting their targets in the &riting )a)er:

The criteria &here the students su,,ered most &ere task achievement$ &here the grou) got an a1erage o, band #$ and grammatical range and accuracy# in &hich the* managed a :'" a1erage in tas- " and ' Mean&hile in tas- "$ tas- achie1ement again &as their &ea-est area 7class a1erage: #'0; as &ell as lexical resource 7:'#6; and grammatical range and accurac* 7:'!;' The reasons ,or these scores &ere as ,ollo&s:

Writing Diagnostic Test ?indings "5 =/'T1*7>: /'T1: The 1ast ma3orit* o, the scri)ts 7"3 o, the ": in tas- " and a similar number ,or tas- !; loo-ed li-e the* hadn6t been )roo,read' This made the basic error count 1er* high in both lexis and grammar' More s)eci,icall*$ these basic errors &ere in the areas o, )luralisation$ article omission and sub3ect5 1erb agreement' Duong T": DIt make a gap between two generationI! 7/ee the grammar and lexis error correction su))lement to the diagnostic test belo&; /'T #: /ome o, the errors cause some di,,icult* ,or the reader M <iang @ T!: Gthen they want to give up their purposesI! GThere are not many family have two generation house sameI! /'T): @enalties &ere gi1en to three students ,or lo& &ord count in tas- " and t&o students in tas- ! e'g' Duong onl* managed "%! &ords in tas- !' /'T(: The tas- ! )rom)t &as res)onded to in a minimal &a* in o1er 0I o, the scri)ts' The* &rote about the causes o, the trend o, *oung )eo)le lea1ing home be,ore the* get married and not about the advantages and disadvantages of the trend as the* had been re4uired to' /'T0: +n s)ite o, their high scores in the grammar and lexis error correction diagnostic test$ the learners had di,,icult* demonstrating a mi of simple and comple sentence ,orms in tas- "' <iang

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page !"

2u: ": D7esides that# the amount they spent on petrol decreases gradually!I :$ GThe percentage of income people in @nited Hingdom spend on petrol rises sharply!I?$ G<ow much people in America spend on petrol falls gradually!I /he neglected to sho& 1ersatilit* in grammatical range b* alternating 1erb V sub3ect &ith there &as )lus ad3ecti1e V noun i'e' There &as a gradual ,all in the amount )eo)le in America s)end on )etrol' /'T2: +n o1er 60I o, the learners tas- " res)onses$ the learners ,ailed to )resent an o1er1ie& &ith in,ormation a))ro)riatel* selected' 9oang G1verall# it is clear that the income from selling petrol in the @nited States is higherI!<iang @: GIn America# the poorest who use petrol is the highest percent!I <iang 2u: G;eneral speaking# the richest people in both areas spend on petrol at 9P of income or lower!I /'T7: +n tas- !$ : o, the learners li,ted language chun-s ,rom the )rom)t' %uyen$ G4owadays# it is true that young single people no longer stay with their parents until they get married! In fact# they leave to study or work somewhere elseI! ;iang Ou$ In many countries nowadays# young single people no longer stay with their parents until they are married because they want to go away to study of work! /imilarl* in tas- "$ /e1en members o, the grou) &ere unable to ade4uatel* )ara)hrase the )rom)t &hen &riting their introductor* sentences' Du* N: GThe diagram shows about how much people in the @nited States and the @nited Hingdom spend on petrol!I

).(.#: Task 1: O7erall <reakdo4n o, results o, the grou!:


Name D`ang Du* N Du* . Du*bn <iang T <iang 2 <iang @ 9_i 9kng 9imu 9o\ng 9Zng 9uo 9]ng 9`gng A1erage TasAchie1ement # # : 3 : # : : : # : # : : : #': Coherence 8 Cohesion 6 6 : : : 6 # 6 : 6 : : 6 : : :'3 .exical <rammatical Resource Range 8 Accurac* : : 6 6 : 6 : 6 6 6 : 6 6 6 : : :'6 : : : 6 6 : 6 6 : : 6 : : : :'3 A1erall : : :': #': :': : : :': : : :': : :': : : :'"

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page !!"

).(.): Task 1 +core <reakdo4n and class a7erage:

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page !!!

).(.(: Task # O7erall:


Name D`ang Du* N Du* . Du*bn <iang T <iang 2 TasRes)onse # : : 3 3 # Coherence 8 Cohesion 6 6 6 # : 6 .exical <rammatical Resource Range 8 Accurac* : : 6 6 6 # : : : : : : A1erall : :': : #': :': :

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page !!2

<iang @ 9_i 9kng 9imu 9o\ng 9Zng 9uo 9]ng 9`gng A1erage

: : # # # # # # 3 #'0

: 6 6 : 6 6 6 6 : :'6

6 6 : : 6 6 6 : : :'#6

: : 6 : : 6 6 : : :'!

: :': : : :': : :': : : :'"

).(.0: Task #: ?ra!hic Breakdo4n

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page !!3

*0erage H "ng =Dng =uC =Bng =oAng =i@u E0erall =?ng =>i ;iang P ;iang < ;iang T +u3:n +u3 9 +u3 8 D !ng " ! 2 3 4 5 6 7 ;rammatical Range F *ccurac3 9exical Resource Coherence F Cohesion Tas/ Res$onse

).(.2: "ro<lems 4hich lost students the most marks in 4riting: Addressing all )arts o, the )rom)t 7TR$ T!; @roo,5reading 8 error correcting e,,ecti1el* 7.R 8 <RA T"CT!; Demonstrating grammatical range 7<RA$ T"; Teaching Exam Classes Robert William McCaul Page !!4

@resenting an o1er1ie& &ith in,ormation a))ro)riatel* selected 7TA$ T"; .i,ting too much language ,rom the )rom)t 7T"CT!;

).0: ?rammar and Aexis diagnostic:

).0.1: Ex!lanation o, reasons ,or and results o, the grammar and lexis error*correction diagnostic: 9a1ing seen the high error rate in both lexis and grammar in both tas-s o, the &riting )a)er section o, the diagnostic$ + decided to tr* to disco1er to de1elo) an error correction test based on a cor)us + had )ut together on )re1ious +E.T/ students errors' This &as de1elo)ed to ,ind out &hether errors &ere being made b* learners due to s*stems6 de,iciencies or as a conse4uence o, not ha1ing an error correction stage in their &riting )rocesses 7being careless;' The results seemed to indicate the latter:

).0.#: Breakdo4n o, ?3A diagnostic:


Name D`ang Du* N Du* . Du*bn <iang T <iang 2 <iang @ 9_i 9kng 9imu 9o\ng 9Zng 9uo 9]ng 9`gng A1erage Total @ossible @lural or /ingular 6 Ten ses 6 % 6 : @as si1 e 3 : : # 3 ! : 6 6 : 3 # # # : # 6 Noun @hrase s 3 3 # : ! : : # 3 : 6 # # : : # 6 Word Arder : 6 # 3 : : : # : # 6 : : 3 6 # 6 Art icle s # : : 3 # : 3 # : : : ! # # 3 : : Word ?orms 6 3 : 6 6 : : 6 : 6 : : 6 Relati1e Clauses # # 3 : : 3 # # # 3 3 : : 3 : : : Missing and Extra Words 6 : 6 6 6 6 : : # : 6 6 6 : : # 6

% > % % % % % > % % % "0

6 % > % % % 6 >

).0.): ?ra!hic <reakdo4n o, grammar and lexis error correction diagnostic

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page !!5

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page !!6

!!endix (: ssessment +chedule -+!eaking./riting


<oal ": To im)ro1e learners6 score in the s)ea-ing )a)er b* hal, a band' <eneral A1er1ie& o, the /)ea-ing Assessment @art o, the course:

The ,ormati1e testing dimension o, the course &as )rimaril* done in,ormall* and directl*' As ,ar as the ,ormati1e tests are concerned$ + ha1e been able to source a more than su,,icient amount in )ublished materials' This &as done in order to achie1e a certain amount o, content 1alidit*' Where an a))ro)riate 7or to)ical; )ublished test material could not be ,ound$ + de1elo)ed m* o&n ones based u)on )ublished )ractice materials' 7These can be seen in a))endix %;'

+ am o, the o)inion that 3ust because an exam 4uestion has been )ublished b* an examination board$ it doesn6t necessaril* mean that it is 1alid' + do &ant to increase the ,ace 1alidit* as much as )ossible ,or the summati1e test and o&ing to the ,act that + &as unable to ,ind su,,icientl* realistic +E.T/ s)ea-ing exams in both course boo-s and )ublished )ractice test materials$ + decided to create m* o&n' 7These can be seen in a))endix >;

+ chose to use criterion5re,erenced scoring in the summati1e test to ma-e it as realistic as )ossible' @lat and Webber 7">>0; de,ines this as a test which measures a students performance according to a particular standard or criterion which has been agreed upon! The student must reach this level of performance to pass the test! To this end$ the )ublic 1ersions o, the +E.T/ s)ea-ing band descri)tors &ere used' These &ere obtained ,rom htt):CC&&&'ielts'orgC)d,C/)ea-ingI!0(and I!0descri)tors')d,' The tests &ere recorded and doubled5mar-ed b* a colleague at E+0$ &ho also ha))ens to be an +E.T/ examiner$ in order to minimiHe sub3ecti1it* and increase reliabilit*$ &hich 9ughes 7">%>:!>; describes as the likelihood of a student achieving the same result on any given occasion'

The students alread* ha1e co)ies o, the )ublic 1ersions o, the band descri)tors and had )ractice a))l*ing them to dumm* candidates' + used this lesson htt)s:CC&&&'teachers'cambridgeesol'orgCtsCteachingresourcesCresourcedetailsQres+dR6"0 ,rom the Cambridge English Teacher /u))ort &ebsite' There,ore$ the* &ill alread* had )ractice a))l*ing the band descri)tors to both themsel1es and other students' This &ill mean that the* &ill be able to gi1e more realistic ,eedbac- to their )artners during the in,ormal ,ormati1e testing'

.esson "

Ab3ecti1e <"A" To be better able to maintain a ,lo& o, s)eech

?ormati1e Assessment and notes This &ill be conducted in,ormall* and directl* in class' 7/ee green test notes boxes in the course )lan ,or detailsCMaterials in a))endix C%;

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page !!7

<oal ": To im)ro1e learners6 score in the s)ea-ing )a)er b* hal, a band' and gi1e more extensi1e ans&ers in @art " ! <"A! To be able to )lan more e,,ecti1el* ,or the long turn 7)art !; and to be able to use the one minute )lanning time to brainstorm non5common lexis 8 grammar and base their s)eech on these 3 <"03 To be better able to use re)air 8 clari,ication strategies # <"A# To be better to use strategies ,or dealing &ith hesitation : <"A: To )roduce s*llable5,inal consonants$ &ord stress in multis*llabic &ords$ stress5timed intonation and chun-ing more accuratel*' 6 <"A6 To )roduce regular )ast tenses more accuratel* This &ill be tested indirectl* and in,ormall* in class through the ans&ering o, a )art ! 4uestion' This &ill be assessed directl* in class 7/ee test notes ,or lesson !; and indirectl* throughout the course as it is ho)ed that the more e,,ecti1e use o, )lanning time b* concentrating on coming u) &ith "0 &ords o, non5common lexis &ill ha1e a )ositi1e e,,ecti1el* on not onl* their ,luenc* and coherence scores but also on the lexical resource mar-'

This &ill not be tested ,ormall* in class' 9o&e1er$ it is ho)ed that an increase in their strategic com)etence &ill ha1e a )ositi1e im)act on their subse4uent ,luenc* and coherence scores' /ame as abo1e <"A3'

This &ill be tested indirectl* and in,ormall* in class through the ans&ering o, a )art ! 4uestion re4uiring a lot o, exam)les o, the regular )ast sim)le'

/ummati1e assessment 7/)ea-ing; and notes: This &ill in1ol1e a ,ull* timed and recorded test using the materials in a))endix 6' As outlined abo1e$ the tests &ill be mar-ed using the )ublic 1ersions o, the assessment criteria and be double mar-ed to maximise reliabilit*' +t &ill ta-e )lace at the end o, the s)ea-ing course as detailed in the course )lan'

<oal !: To im)ro1e the learners6 score in both tas- " and tas- ! o, the +E.T/ &riting )a)er 7Mo1e them u) b* a hal, a band score; <eneral A1er1ie& o, the Writing Assessment @art o, the course:

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page !!8

<oal !: To im)ro1e the learners6 score in both tas- " and tas- ! o, the +E.T/ &riting )a)er 7Mo1e them u) b* a hal, a band score;

All o, the tests$ both ,ormati1e and summati1e$ are either ta-en ,rom )ast )a)ers boo-s$ )ublished +E.T/ teachers6 resources or course boo-s or 1er* closel* based u)on )ublished )ast )a)ers$ &hich &ill mean that the* &ill ha1e a higher content 1alidit* than i, + had created them m*sel,' The tests6 content 1alidit* &ill be ,urther enhanced b* the ,act that &ill re4uire the learners to perform the behaviour that is being measured 7(ro&n !003:!!;'

The tests &ill be criterion5re,erenced as )er the li1e exam and mar-ed using the )ublic 1ersions o, the assessment criteria$ namel* task response0achievement# coherence and cohesion# grammatical range and accuracy and le ical resource$ a1ailable at htt):CC&&&'ielts'orgC@D?CWritingI!0(and I!0descri)torsI!0Tas-I!0"')d, 8 htt):CC&&&'ielts'orgC)d,CWritingI!0(andI!0descri)tors I!0Tas-I!0!')d, and in a))endix "0'

/ub3ecti1it* is ine1itable &hen it comes to mar-ing &riting 79arrisCMcCann ">>#:::;' This &ill be lo&ered as + am a ne&l* trained u) +E.T/ examiner$ ho&e1er$ in order to ensure that sub3ecti1it* is -e)t to a minimum$ + &ill get a sam)le o, each o, the students6 scri)ts doubled mar-ed b* a more ex)erienced examiner in m* de)artment'

+ &ill ha1e to mar- a large 4uantit* o, scri)ts o1er the )eriod o, the course and this ma* im)inge u)on m* abilit* to mar- consistentl* 7(ro&n !003:!";' +n s)ite o, this$ the large number o, sam)les collected ma* )ositi1el* im)act on the o1erall reliabilit* o, the data collected'

The summati1e test$ administered at the end o, the course$ &ill be ta-en ,rom Cambridge +E.T/ )ractice )a)ers boo- > @ "0" 8 "0!' Again$ + do not belie1e that a 4uestion has high 1alidit* 3ust because it a))ears in a boo- )ublished b* an examination board$ ho&e1er as + ha1e little ex)erience o, creating &riting )a)ers$ + ,elt that the* &ould ha1e more 1alidit* i, ta-en ,rom )ublished materials' 7These can be seen in a))endix >';

.esson

Ab3ecti1e <!A To be better able to res)ond to the )rom)t

/)eci,ic Assessment Details and notes This &ill be tested directl*$ consisting o, an in,ormal &riting in class' +t &ill be timed to increase the realism o, the test' 9o&e1er$ the* &ill onl* be gi1en 30 minutes as the )lanning stage &ill ha1e alread* been com)leted' Construct 1alidit* ma* be reduced as + am not onl* testing &hether the* can res)ond to the )rom)t but their &riting abilit* in general' This &ill be tested indirectl* throughout the rest o, the

<!A%

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page !!

<oal !: To im)ro1e the learners6 score in both tas- " and tas- ! o, the +E.T/ &riting )a)er 7Mo1e them u) b* a hal, a band score; To be better able to use chec-lists and the error correction code as a &a* to notice errors and u)grade their o&n &riting' > <!A> To be better able to use a 1ariet* o, com)lex sentences course' The* &ill not be re4uired to )roo,read their scri)ts be,ore the* are handed in' 9o&e1er$ those that do &ill see a )ositi1e im)act in their scores$ es)eciall* in the le ical resource and grammatical range and accuracy criteria' This &ill be assessed b* an in,ormal timed in class &riting o, a tas- ! 4uestion ta-en ,rom @'"0" Cambridge +E.T/ )ractice tests %' The face validity o, the test &ill be im)acted u)on due to the ,act that teacher su))ort &ill be o,,ered throughout' This &ill be tested directl* and in,ormall* in class' ?ace 1alidit* &ill be increased b* using Cambridge +E.T/ )ast )a)ers (oo- '

"0

<!A"0 To be better able to )resent an o1er1ie& &hich highlights main trendsC -e* ,eatures'

""

<!A"" To be able to )ara)hrase the )rom)t more e,,ecti1el* in tas- "C!'

Tested directl* and in,ormall* in class and indirectl* throughout the &hole course'

/ummati1e Assessment 7Writing; and notes: This &ill in1ol1e a ,ull* timed test ta-en ,rom Cambridge +E.T/ )ast )a)ers boo- > )"0"' A co)* o, the test materials is gi1en in a))endix >' As outlined abo1e$ the tests &ill be mar-ed using the )ublic 1ersions o, the &riting assessment criteria and be double mar-ed to maximise reliabilit*' +t &ill ta-e )lace at the end o, the course as detailed in the course )lan'

Teaching Exam Classes

Robert William McCaul Page !2"