This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
except those possessing special knowledge, usually referred to as a key. The result of the process is encrypted information (in cryptography, referred to as ciphertext). The reverse process, i.e. to make the encrypted information readable again is referred to as decryption, (i.e. to make it unencrypted). In many contexts, the word encryption may also implicitly refer to the reverse process, decryption e.g. “software for encryption” can typically also perform decryption . Encryption has long been used by militaries and governments to facilitate secret communication. It is now commonly used in protecting information within many kinds of civilian systems. For example, the Computer Security Institute reported that in 2007, 71% of companies surveyed utilized encryption for some of their data in transit, and 53% utilized encryption for some of their data in storage. Encryption can be used to protect data "at rest", such as files on computers and storage devices (e.g. USB flash drives). In recent years there have been numerous reports of confidential data such as customers' personal records being exposed through loss or theft of laptops or backup drives. Encrypting such files at rest helps protect them should physical security measures fail. Digital rights management systems which prevent unauthorized use or reproduction of copyrighted material and protect software against reverse engineering (see also copy protection) are another somewhat different example of using encryption on data at rest. Encryption is also used to protect data in transit, for example data being transferred via networks (e.g. the Internet, e-commerce), mobile telephones, wireless microphones, wireless intercom systems, Bluetooth devices and bank automatic teller machines. There have been numerous reports of data in transit being intercepted in recent years. Encrypting data in transit also helps to secure it as it is often difficult to physically secure all access to networks. Encryption, by itself, can protect the confidentiality of messages, but other techniques are still needed to protect the integrity and authenticity of a message; for example, verification of a message authentication code (MAC) or a digital signature. Standards and cryptographic software and hardware to perform encryption are widely available, but successfully using encryption to ensure security may be a challenging problem. A single slip-up in system design or execution can allow successful attacks. Sometimes an adversary can obtain unencrypted information without directly undoing the encryption. See, e.g., traffic analysis, TEMPEST, or Trojan horse. One of the earliest public key encryption applications was called Pretty Good Privacy (PGP). It was written in 1991 by Phil Zimmermann and was purchased by Symantec in 2010. Digital signature and encryption must be applied at message creation time (i.e. on the same device it has been composed) to avoid tampering. Otherwise any node between the sender and the encryption agent couIn cryptography, a key is a piece of information (a parameter) that determines the functional output of a cryptographic algorithm or cipher. Without a key, the algorithm would produce no useful result. In encryption, a key specifies the particular transformation of plaintext into ciphertext, or vice versa during
See the key size article for a fuller discussion. such as digital signature schemes and message authentication codes. even if the corresponding public key is known. The history of cryptography provides evidence that it can be difficult to keep the details of a widely-used algorithm secret (see security through obscurity). messages can be much longer than the key. it is wise to assume that the details of the cryptographic algorithm are already available to the attacker. Need for secrecy In designing security systems. be long enough so that an attacker cannot try all possible combinations. These asymmetric key algorithms allow one key to be made public while retaining the private key in only one location. public keys used in the RSA system are the product of two prime numbers. "the enemy knows the system". Encryption algorithms which use the same key for both encryption and decryption are known as symmetric key algorithms. or. see key management. In encryption systems that use a cipher algorithm. Key sizes Main article: Key size For the one-time pad system the key must be at least as long as the message. for example.decryption. and easier to change if compromised. while keeping their private key secret. one to encrypt and one to decrypt.ld potentially tamper it. Keys are also used in other cryptographic algorithms. An attacker who obtains the key (by. reformulated as Shannon's maxim. 128-bit keys are commonly used and considered very strong. Thus. A user of public key technology can publish their public key. allowing anyone to send them an encrypted message. Keeping keys secret is one of the most difficult problems in practical cryptography. 3072 bits is the suggested key length for systems based on factoring and integer discrete logarithms which aim to have security . Thus public key systems require longer key lengths than symmetric systems for an equivalent level of security. The keys used in public key cryptography have some mathematical structure. dumpster diving or social engineering) can recover the original message from the encrypted data. however. A key is often easier to protect (it's typically a small piece of information) than an encryption algorithm. The key must. For example. extortion. the security of an encryption system in most cases relies on some key being kept secret. A newer class of "public key" cryptographic algorithms was invented in the 1970s which uses a pair of keys. This principle is known as Kerckhoffs' principle — "only secrecy of the key provides security". theft. They are designed so that finding out the private key is extremely difficult. A key length of 80 bits is generally considered the minimum for strong security with symmetric encryption algorithms.
There is a RFC on generating randomness (RFC 1750. A cryptographic protocol usually incorporates at least some of these aspects: Key agreement or establishment Entity authentication Symmetric encryption and message authentication material construction Secured application-level data transport Non-repudiation methods .equivalent to a 128 bit symmetric cipher. A security protocol (cryptographic protocol or encryption protocol) is an abstract or concrete protocol that performs a security-related function and applies cryptographic methods. so a theoretical breakthrough could make everything one has encrypted an open book. This is another reason to err on the side of choosing longer keys. and has been addressed in many ways by various cryptographic systems. The problem of how to safely generate truly random keys is difficult. Some operating systems include tools for "collecting" entropy from the timing of unpredictable operations such as disk drive head movements. Except for the random one-time pad. but these algorithms have only been known for a relatively short time and current estimates of the difficulty of searching for their keys may not survive. The current rule of thumb is to use an ECC key twice as long as the symmetric key security level desired. A sufficiently detailed protocol includes details about data structures and representations. Cryptographic protocols are widely used for secure application-level data transport. Key choice To prevent a key from being guessed. ordinary dice provide a good source of high quality randomness. the security of these systems has not (as of 2008) been proven mathematically. well-designed cryptosystems first run it through a key derivation function which adds a salt and compresses or expands it to the key length desired. interoperable versions of a program. a message encrypted using a 109-bit key elliptic curve algorithm had been broken by brute force. A protocol describes how the algorithms should be used. keys need to be generated truly randomly and contain sufficient entropy. at which point it can be used to implement multiple. For the production of small amounts of keying material. for example by compressing a long phrase into a 128-bit value suitable for use in a block cipher. Randomness Recommendations for Security). When a password (or passphrase) is used as an encryption key. Elliptic curve cryptography may allow smaller-size keys for equivalent security. As of 2004.
DiffieHellman may be seen as a complete cryptographic protocol in itself for other applications. Transport Layer Security (TLS) is a cryptographic protocol that is used to secure web (HTTP) connections. so that when the protocol is complete the participants know only their own input and the answer. For instance. Secure digital time-stamping can be used to prove that data (even if confidential) existed at a certain time. and even the term itself has various readings. There are other types of cryptographic protocols as well. which are also sometimes themselves referred to as "cryptographic protocols". where a symmetric encryption key is formed by employing public-key cryptography. TLS employs what is known as the Diffie-Hellman key exchange. and an applicationlevel data transport function. integrity. It has an entity authentication mechanism.509 system.For example. Deniable encryption augments standard encryption by making it impossible for an attacker to mathematically prove the existence of a plaintext message. Cryptographic application protocols often use one or more underlying key agreement methods. Undeniable signatures include interactive protocols that allow the signer to prove a forgery and limit who can verify the signature. Standard TLS does not have non-repudiation support. Secure multiparty computation can be used to compute answers (such as determining the highest bid in an auction) based on confidential data (such as private bids). Digital mixes create hard-to-trace communications. This is frequently done through the Dolev-Yao model Advanced cryptographic protocols A wide variety of cryptographic protocols go beyond the traditional goals of data confidentiality. which although it is only a part of TLS per se. there is a necessity to formalize the environment in which the protocol operate in order to identify treats. These three aspects have important interconnections. based on the X. and authentication to also secure a variety of other desired characteristics of computermediated collaboration. Cryptographic protocols can sometimes be verified formally on an abstract level. Examples Internet Key Exchange IPsec Kerberos Point to Point Protocol Transport Layer Security . When it is done. a key setup phase. Blind signatures can be used for digital cash and digital credentials to prove that a person holds an attribute or right without revealing that person's identity or the identities of parties that person transacted with.
A limited number of disk encryption solutions have support for TPM. However. Disk encryption and Trusted Platform Module Trusted Platform Module (TPM) is a secure cryptoprocessor embedded in the motherboard that can be used to authenticate a hardware device. They are divided into three main categories: software-based. thus tying the hard disk drive (HDD) to a particular device. hardwarebased within the storage device. It can be used to verify that the system seeking the access is the expected system. unencrypted. But they must still leave the master boot record (MBR). and thus part of the disk. The term "full disk encryption" (or whole disk encryption) is often used to signify that everything on a disk is encrypted.Disk encryption is a technology which protects information by converting it into unreadable code that cannot be deciphered easily by unauthorized people. Hardware-based Full Disk Encryption within the storage device are called self-encrypting drives and have no impact on performance whatsoever. unless that user has a separate recovery key. The Trusted Computing Group Opal drive provides industry accepted standardization for self-encrypting drives. they vary greatly in features and security. Recovery is possible with the decryption password or token. and hardware-based elsewhere (such as CPU or host bus adaptor). however. including the MBR. if something happens to the TPM or the motherboard. Furthermore the media-encryption key never leaves the device itself and is therefore not available to any virus in the operating system. These implementations can wrap the decryption key using the TPM. External hardware is considerably faster than the software-based solutions although CPU versions may still have a performance impact. it is capable of performing platform authentication. hardware-based full disk encryption systems that can truly encrypt the entire boot disk. and the media encyption keys are not as well protected. Although this has the advantage that the disk cannot be removed from the device. the decryption process will fail. it might create a single point of failure in the encryption. including the programs that can encrypt bootable operating system partitions. Disk encryption uses disk encryption software or hardware to encrypt every bit of data that goes on a disk or disk volume. Implementations Main article: Comparison of disk encryption software There are multiple tools available in the market that allow for disk encryption. All solutions for the boot drive require a Pre-Boot Authentication component which is available for all types of solutions from a . Disk encryption prevents unauthorized access to data storage. There are. If the HDD is removed from that particular device and placed in another. Since each TPM chip is unique to a particular device. For example. a user would not be able to access the data by connecting the hard drive to another computer.
The attack relies on the data remanence property of computer . whereby encryption keys can be stolen by cold-booting a machine already running an operating system. Password/data recovery mechanism Secure and safe recovery mechanisms are essential to the large-scale deployment of any disk encryption solutions in an enterprise. The solution must provide an easy but secure way to recover passwords (most importantly data) in case the user leaves the company without notice or forgets the password. Does not require a network connection. No information can be sniffed. Challenge/response password recovery mechanism Challenge/Response password recovery mechanism allows the password to be recovered in a secure manner. No information can be sniffed. it works for users that are at a remote location. Emergency Recovery Information (ERI) file password recovery mechanism An Emergency Recovery Information (ERI) file provides an alternative for recovery if a challenge response mechanism is unfeasible due to the cost of helpdesk operatives for small companies or implementation challenges. it works for users that are at a remote location. Some benefits of challenge/response password recovery: No need for the user to carry a disc with recovery encryption key.number of vendors. Some benefits of ERI file recovery: Small companies can use it without implementation difficulties No secret data is exchanged during the recovery process. It is offered by a limited number of disk encryption solutions. No secret data is exchanged during the recovery process. i. then dumping the contents of memory before the data disappears.e. i.e. Security concerns Most full disk encryption schemes are vulnerable to a cold boot attack. It is important in all cases that the authentication credentials are usually a major potential weakness since the symmetric cryptography is usually strong. Does not require a network connection.
(For example. or encrypted vaults. Even a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) is not effective against the attack. as the operating system needs to hold the decryption keys in memory in order to access the disk.) With full disk encryption. purging or physical destruction is advised. This ensures that authentication can take place in a controlled environment without the possibility of a bootkit being used to subvert the pre-boot decryption. the bootstrapping code cannot be encrypted however. However. BitLocker Drive Encryption leaves an unencrypted volume to boot from. whereby data bits can take up to several minutes to degrade after power has been removed. Encrypting these files is important.memory. while the volume containing the operating system is fully encrypted. The boot key problem One issue to address in full disk encryption is that the blocks where the operating system is stored must be decrypted before the OS can boot. Most Full Disk Encryption solutions utilize Pre-Boot Authentication by loading a small. as they can reveal important confidential data. Some implementations such as BitLocker Drive Encryption can make use of hardware such as a Trusted Platform Module to ensure the integrity of the boot environment. if security towards future attacks is a concern. Solutions for storing the external key include: . the decision of which individual files to encrypt is not left up to users' discretion. meaning that the key has to be available before there is a user interface to ask for a password. With a Pre-Boot Authentication environment. This is important for situations in which users might not want or might forget to encrypt sensitive files. and thereby frustrate attacks that target the boot loader by replacing it with a modified version. as simply destroying the cryptography keys renders the contained data useless. highly secure operating system which is strictly locked down and hashed versus system variables to check for the integrity of the Pre-Boot kernel. All software-based encryption systems are vulnerable to various side channel attacks such as acoustic cryptanalysis and hardware keyloggers. The following are some benefits of disk encryption: Nearly everything including the swap space and the temporary files is encrypted. the key used to encrypt the data is not decrypted until an external key is input into the system. With a software implementation. Immediate data destruction. Full disk encryption Benefits Full disk encryption has several benefits compared to regular file or folder encryption.
NIST chose Rijndael as its standard. RC6 23 votes and MARS 13 votes. Encryption software is software whose main task is encryption and decryption of data.Username / password Using a smartcard in combination with a PIN Using a biometric authentication method such as a fingerprint Using a dongle to store the key. for instance as part of a PXE boot Using a TPM to store the decryption key. email messages. Software encryption is a fundamental part of all aspects of modern computer communication and file protection and may include features like file shredding. or in the form of packets sent over computer networks. Encryption choices Many encryption algorithms exist. however most are better than an unencrypted disk. The purpose of encryption is to prevent third parties from recovering the original information. Security Encryption software executes an algorithm that is designed to encrypt computer data in such a way that it cannot be recovered without access to the key. Serpent and Rijndael are in fact somewhat similar. Choosing encryption . preventing unauthorized access of the decryption key or subversion of the boot loader. got 86 votes while Serpent got 59 votes. Use a combination of the above All these possibilities have varying degrees of security. Rijndael. Using a boot-time driver that can ask for a password from the user Using a network interchange to recover the key. This is particularly important for sensitive data like credit card numbers. The winner. usually in the form of files on (or sectors of) hard drives and removable media. Twofish 31 votes. the main difference is that Rijndael is faster (having fewer rounds) but Serpent is more secure. The more popular options were submitted to the National Institute of Standards and Technology or NIST for the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) competition. assuming that the user will not allow the dongle to be stolen with the laptop or that the dongle is encrypted as well.
A common mistake made by amateur cryptographers is the assumption that because the method is secret. Ciphers can be categorized into two general types: public key ciphers and symmetric key ciphers.. of each byte of plain text b.g. and are most commonly used to encipher real-time communications. Stream ciphers typically encrypt plaintext a bit or byte at a time. Such systems are used for key exchanges (for subsequent use of symmetric key ciphers). Common categories are: . the key used must remain secret. Provided the problems posed by the system to cryptanalyst are effectively unsolvable. Symmetric key ciphers can be further subdivided into stream ciphers and block ciphers. The purpose of disseminating an encryption method is to allow the community to evaluate it. Applications Encryption can be applied to data in many ways. Thus. This is not usually true. encryption with one member of a key pair is only easily reversed (decrypted) using the other member of the pair. The Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm (AES . If it is indeed secure. Block cipher algorithms encrypt blocks of bytes of plaintext a block at a time.There are several factors that affect the choice of an encryption algorithm including speed and security. such as audio and video information. The simplest method would be an XOR operation. with a constant value k. one member of the pair (the public key) cannot be easily used to determine the other (the private key). The key is used to establish the initial state of a key-stream generator. to produce a cipher value c.derived from the Rijndael cipher algorithm) is a block cipher that processes 16 bytes at a time. Public key systems are based upon algorithms that are at least strongly believed to be "one-way" operations. Symmetric key ciphers (also referred to as secret key ciphers) are called such because the same key is used for both encryption and decryption. then its power lies in the fact that its method has been subjected to scrutiny and found to be sound. nulls). while its predecessor. the Data Encryption Standard algorithm (DES) encrypted blocks of eight bytes. the system is effectively secure. That is. Many "home grown" encryption algorithms reveal the key quite easily when fed a string of identical bytes (e. the cipher is secure. not that it is secret. and the output of that generator is used to encrypt the plaintext. digital signatures and the like. Further. in order for messages encrypted with a symmetric key cipher to remain secure.
Disk encryption software (also known as OTFE software) File/folder encryption Database encryption Communication encryption software Network traffic encryption tools Generic IPSec based Each of these categories define the range and location of the data to be encrypted. . but the process is the same for each.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.