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Unit 1: Distance

Our first unit involves the concept of distance. Over the last years you have calculated distances in many ways; however in this unit you will use the coordinates on a Cartesian plane to calculate distances Our objective in this lesson is: to

solve problems using the concept of distances.

Lets Review: Plane

Cartesian

We represent ordered pairs of relations in a pictorial setting Cartesian Plane One of the most important tools the mathematicians use Place graphs on this plane Allows us humans to use our sense of sight to visualize how a relation or function works

Ordered Pair (x,y): We define an ordered pair as the two values in round brackets with the x-value (independent variable) first followed by the y-variable (dependent variable)

Ren Descartes

Invention of a significant mathematician Rene Descartes Full name: Ren Descartes Birth: March 31,1596, France Death: Feb 11, 1650 (age 53) Sweden interests: Metaphysics, Epistemology, Science, Mathematics Notable ideas: Cogito ergo sum, method of doubt, Cartesian coordinate system, and

Goal of the Cartesian Plane


To represent both the x-value and the yvalue pictorially 1st x-value is represented by vertical lines with a horizontal line called the x-axis as a measuring stick x equal lines run up and down 2nd y-values are represented by horizontal lines with a vertical line called the y-axis as a measuring stick y equal lines run side to side

We say that any ordered pair can be represented as a point on this Cartesian Plane The point (a,b) is the point at the intersection of lines x=a y=b

Changes in coordinates
Very important notion that is the basis of may of the concepts we are working up to i.e. distance between two points, midpoint, division point of a line segment How can we calculate changes in the coordinates?

Examples: - Count the number of square - Consider the direction we are moving in: positive? Negative? - Consider the order in which the points are taken

Important conventions
I When we make generalizations we often use notations that have numbers with a suffix P1 represents the first point P2 represents the second point II The notation x is read delta x x is the change in the x coordinates before it is delta x

Change in coordinates Formula


For a point A (x1,y1) and a point B (x2,y2) The change in x values from A to B is x = x2 x1 The change in y values from A to B is

y = y2 y1

Class work
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Photocopied hand-out Hand written hand-out