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0 1 0

M m

1

0 0 2

2 1 0

K k 1 2 1

0 1 1

K M 3 k m

K M

m

2

0

p

p 0 sin( t)

9 k m

2

2 k

solve

k 3 2

simplify

m

k 3 2

11 2 k k 3 2 k 21

11

2 k k 3 2 k k

11

K

3 21 21

k 3 2

1

k 21

k

11

3 21

11.1 K M 21 solve 11

3

3

1 1

11

11.2 K M 21 solve 11 3 21 1

3

1 2

3

21 11.1 11.2 solve 21

2

21 0.866

11

1

11 K M 21 solve 11 0.5

3

2

1 1

11 0.5

1 21 0.866

1

1

12 k 22

k k 12

1 22

1 k 22

12

22 K M 22 solve 22 0

1

1 1

12

12 K M 22 solve 12 1

1

1 2

12 1

2 22 0

1

1

13 k 3 2 2 k k 23

13

k k 3 2 2 k k

23

13

2 23

k 3 2

1

k 23

k

13

3 23

23.1 K M 23 solve 13

2

3

1 1

13

23.2 K M 23 solve 13 3 23 1

2

1 2

3

23 23.1 23.2 solve 23

2

23 0.866

13

1

13 K M 23 solve 13 0.5

2

2

1 1

13 0.5

3 23 0.866

1

1

11 12 13 0.5 1 0.5

21 22 23 0.866 0 0.866

1

1

1

1 1

1

12.7. The figure below shows a shear frame (i.e., rigid beams) and its floor weights and story

stiffness. This structure is subjected to harmonic force p(t)=p0 *sin(t) at the top floor.

(a). Determine the steady-state displacements as functions of by two methods: (i) direct solution of

coupled equations, and (ii) modal analysis.

(b). Show the both methods give the same results.

(c). PLot on the same graph the three displacement amplitudes as a function of the excitation

frequency range 0 to 51 . Use appropriate normalizations of the displacements and frequency

scales.

(a). Determine the steady-state displacements as functions of by two methods: (i) direct solution

of coupled equations, and (ii) modal analysis

(1) DIRECT SOLUTION

2 1 0

K k 1 2 1

0 1 1

2

1 =

k 2

m

1 0 0

0 1 0

M m

1

0 0 2

2 k

2

2 =

m

3 =

0

p

p 0 sin( t)

k 2

m

1 0 0

m 0 1 0

0 0 0.5

2

2

u1

2 1 0 1 0

2

k 1 2 1 u = 0 sin( t)

d

u

2 2

2

dt

0 1 1 u 3 p0

2

d

u3

2

dt

dt

( 1)

u 1( t) u1o

u 2( t) = u2o sin( t)

u ( t) u

3 3o

( 2)

u 1o

2

u 2o = K M

u

3o

0

0

p0

u 1o

adj K 2 M

u 2o =

u det K 2 M

3o

00

p0

Note:

Adj[A]=[A]-1*det[A]*I

2

4 2

2

2

m 2k m2 4 km k

det K M =

2

2

2

* m 2k m 2 2 3k m 2

3 k

frequencies above.

2 m 2 k 2 m 2 3 k 2 m 2 3 k

m

m

m

m

m

3 k 2 2 k 2 2 3 k

m

m

m

Substituting the natural frequencies above will yield to the following equation

m 1

2 2

2 2

2

2 3

2

2

2 2

2

2

1 2 2 2 3

m 1

2

3

2

1

2

3

2

3

2

2 2

2 2

1 2

1 3

1

2

m 1

3

2

3 k 2

*

*

2

2 k 2

k 2 3 2

1

m

2

m 2

2

2

2

1

1

1

2

2

2

1

2

3

k

3

det K M = k 1

2

2

2

1 1

2

2

2

1

2

3

adj K M = K M

det K M I

2

4 m2

k m

2

2

2

2

2 k m k

k

k

2

2

2

2

adj K M =

2

2

k m

m 2 k

2

2

2

k

2 k k m

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2 k k m k m m 3 k

k

u 1o

adj K 2 M

u 2o =

u det K 2 M

3o

u 1o

u 2o

u

3o

u 1( t)

u 2( t)

u ( t)

3

00

p0

2

2

2

p 0 1 2 3

2

2 2

2 2

2

k 1 2 3

2

2

2

2

p 0 1 2 3 m 2 k

=

k 2 2 1 2 2 22 2 3 2

p 2 2 2 k 2 m 2 m 3 k

0 1 2 3

k 3 2 2 2 2 2 2

1

2

3

2

2

2

p 0 1 2 3

2

2 2

2 2

2

k 1 2 3

2

2

2

2

p 0 1 2 3 m 2 k

=

k2 2 12 2 2 2 2 32

p 2 2 2 k 2 m 2 m 3 k

0 1 2 3

k3 2 2 2 2 2 2

1

2

3

p0

2

2

1

1

k 1

2

2

1

2

2 p0 1

2

2

= k 1 1 1

2

2

1

2

p 0 4 1

2

2

2

1

1

k 1

2

2

1

2

2

3

2

sin( t)

2

3

2

3

Using Eq. (12.3.4), the generalized modal mass, stiffness, and force are

T

M 1 1 M 1 1.5 m

T

M 2 2 M 2 1.5 m

T

M 3 3 M 3 1.5 m

T

K1 1 K 1

K1 1.5 2

0.5

1 0.866

1

2 0

1

0.5

3 0.866

3 k

P1 1 p

T

P2 2 p

T

K2 2 K 2

P3 3 p

K2 3 k

(3)

K3 3 K 3

K3 1.5 2

3k

(4)

(5)

1

C1

1

C2

1

C3

1

p0

q 1 ( t)

C sin( t)

K1 1

q 1 ( t)

q 2 ( t)

p0

K2

q 2 ( t)

q 3 ( t)

p0

K3

q 3 ( t)

p0 2 2

k

3

C1 sin( t)

C2 sin( t)

p0 1

C sin( t)

k 3 2

C3 sin( t)

p0 2 2

k

3

C3 sin( t)

U1 ( t) 1 q 1 ( t)

U2 ( t) 2 q 2 ( t)

U3 ( t) 3 q 3 ( t)

Combining the modal responses to get the displacement of the coresponding floors.

U ( t)

u 1( t) 1 1

u 2( t) = U1 ( t) 2

u ( t)

U1 ( t)

3

3

U2 ( t) U3 ( t)

1

1

U2 ( t) U3 ( t)

2

2

U2 ( t) U3 ( t)

3

3

p0

2

2

1

k

1

2

2

1

2

0

2

2

2

= k 1 1 1

2

2

1

2

p 0 4 1

1

2

2

2

1

1

k 1

2

2

1

2

Which will show that both method will have the same results!

2

3

2

sin( t)

2

3

2

3

(c). Plot on the same graph the three displacement amplitudes as a function of the excitation

frequency range 0 to 51 . Use appropriate normalizations of the displacements and frequency

scales.

= 1

u 1o

u 2o

u

3o

p0

k

1

2

1

1

2

2

1

2

2 1

2

2

2

1

1

2

2

1

2

1

4 1

2

2

2

1

1

2

2

1

2

2

3

2

3

2

2

3

1 =

2

1

3

1

k 2

2 k

2

2 =

m

2 k

=

2

k 2 3

3 =

k 2

m

2 = 2 3 4 1

3 = 4 3 7 1

(7)

k 2 3

=

2

k 2 3

m

(8)

u 1o

u 2o

u

3o

p0

k

= 1

1

2

1

1

1

1

2

2 3 4 2 4 3

1

1

1

2 1

2 3 4 2

1

2

2

1

1

1

1

2

2

2 3 4

4 3

1

1

2

1

4 1

2

2

3

2

2

1

1

1

1

2

2 3 4 2 4 3

1

1

7 2

1

7 2

1

7 2

1

2

u1o

u2o

y1( x)

u3o

Assume x=

& y 2 ( x ) =

p0

1

y ( x)

3

k

y1( x)

y2( x)

y ( x)

3

1

1

2

2

2

x 1

x

1 x 1

2 3 4

4 3 7

1

2

2 1

x

2

3

1

1

2

2

= 1 x 2 1

2 3 4

4 3 7

1

2

4 1

x 1

2 3 4

1

1

2

2

1 x 2 1

x 1

x

2 3 4 4 3 7

10

6

y1( x)

y2( x)

y3( x)

4

4

x

K M

2

0

0

p0

2 k p0

6 m3 6 4 k m2 9 2 k2 m

2 k p0

4 2

2

2

m 4 k m k

4 2

2

2 k p0 m 4 k m 3 k

2

2

4 2

2

2 k k m m 4 k m

3

1

2

(6)

x 0 0.1 6

y 1 ( x )

1 x21

3 4

2 1

y 2 ( x )

1 x21

y 3 ( x )

3 4

x 1

2

3 4

x 1

2

3 7

3 7

1

2

4 1

x 1

2 3 4

1

1

2

2

2

1 x 1

x 1

x

2 3 4 4 3 7

3

2 k

2

k

2

mk

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