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1 0 0

0 1 0
M m

1
0 0 2

2 1 0
K k 1 2 1

0 1 1

K M 3 k m

K M

m
2

0
p

p 0 sin( t)

9 k m
2

2 k

solve
k 3 2

simplify

m
k 3 2

11 2 k k 3 2 k 21
11

2 k k 3 2 k k
11
K

3 21 21

k 3 2
1
k 21
k

11

3 21
11.1 K M 21 solve 11
3
3

1 1

11

11.2 K M 21 solve 11 3 21 1
3

1 2
3
21 11.1 11.2 solve 21
2
21 0.866

11

1
11 K M 21 solve 11 0.5
3
2

1 1
11 0.5

1 21 0.866

1
1

12 k 22

k k 12

1 22

1 k 22

12

22 K M 22 solve 22 0
1

1 1

12

12 K M 22 solve 12 1
1

1 2

12 1

2 22 0

1
1

13 k 3 2 2 k k 23
13

k k 3 2 2 k k
23
13

2 23

k 3 2
1
k 23
k

13

3 23
23.1 K M 23 solve 13
2
3

1 1

13

23.2 K M 23 solve 13 3 23 1
2

1 2
3
23 23.1 23.2 solve 23
2
23 0.866


13

1
13 K M 23 solve 13 0.5
2
2

1 1
13 0.5

3 23 0.866

1
1
11 12 13 0.5 1 0.5

21 22 23 0.866 0 0.866


1
1
1
1 1
1

12.7. The figure below shows a shear frame (i.e., rigid beams) and its floor weights and story
stiffness. This structure is subjected to harmonic force p(t)=p0 *sin(t) at the top floor.
(a). Determine the steady-state displacements as functions of by two methods: (i) direct solution of
coupled equations, and (ii) modal analysis.
(b). Show the both methods give the same results.
(c). PLot on the same graph the three displacement amplitudes as a function of the excitation
frequency range 0 to 51 . Use appropriate normalizations of the displacements and frequency
scales.

(a). Determine the steady-state displacements as functions of by two methods: (i) direct solution
of coupled equations, and (ii) modal analysis
(1) DIRECT SOLUTION

2 1 0
K k 1 2 1

0 1 1
2

1 =

k 2
m

1 0 0
0 1 0
M m

1
0 0 2
2 k
2
2 =
m

3 =

0
p

p 0 sin( t)

k 2
m

The equations of motion are

1 0 0
m 0 1 0

0 0 0.5

2
2

u1

2 1 0 1 0
2
k 1 2 1 u = 0 sin( t)
d
u
2 2

2
dt
0 1 1 u 3 p0

2
d
u3
2
dt

dt

( 1)

The steady-state response is assumed as (for undamped system)

u 1( t) u1o


u 2( t) = u2o sin( t)
u ( t) u
3 3o

( 2)

Substituting Equation (2) to Equation (1) yield

u 1o

2
u 2o = K M
u
3o

0
0
p0

u 1o
adj K 2 M
u 2o =
u det K 2 M
3o

00

p0

Note:

Adj[A]=[A]-1*det[A]*I

Finding the determinant of "k-2 m"

2
4 2
2
2
m 2k m2 4 km k

det K M =

By factoring polynomials, we will arrive on the following equation


2
2
2
* m 2k m 2 2 3k m 2

3 k

We need to express the following equation in terms of the square of natural


frequencies above.

2 m 2 k 2 m 2 3 k 2 m 2 3 k
m
m

m
m
m

Rearranging in proper order

3 k 2 2 k 2 2 3 k


m
m
m

Substituting the natural frequencies above will yield to the following equation
m 1

2 2

2 2
2
2 3

2
2
2 2
2
2
1 2 2 2 3

m 1
2
3

2
1
2
3

2
3

2
2 2
2 2

1 2
1 3
1
2

m 1
3

2
3 k 2

*
*

2
2 k 2
k 2 3 2

1
m
2
m 2

2
2
2

1
1
1
2
2
2

1
2
3

k
3

det K M = k 1
2

2
2

1 1
2
2
2
1
2
3

We will now solve the adjoint of matrix "k-2 m"

adj K M = K M

det K M I

2
4 m2
k m
2
2
2
2

2 k m k
k
k
2
2

2
2
adj K M =
2
2
k m
m 2 k
2
2
2
k
2 k k m

2
2

2
2
2
2
2
2 k k m k m m 3 k
k

u 1o
adj K 2 M
u 2o =
u det K 2 M
3o

u 1o

u 2o
u
3o

u 1( t)

u 2( t)
u ( t)
3

00

p0

2
2
2

p 0 1 2 3

2
2 2
2 2
2
k 1 2 3

2
2
2
2
p 0 1 2 3 m 2 k

=
k 2 2 1 2 2 22 2 3 2

p 2 2 2 k 2 m 2 m 3 k
0 1 2 3
k 3 2 2 2 2 2 2
1
2
3

2
2
2

p 0 1 2 3

2
2 2
2 2
2
k 1 2 3

2
2
2
2
p 0 1 2 3 m 2 k

=
k2 2 12 2 2 2 2 32

p 2 2 2 k 2 m 2 m 3 k
0 1 2 3
k3 2 2 2 2 2 2
1
2
3

p0

2
2



1
1
k 1
2
2

1
2


2 p0 1

2
2

= k 1 1 1

2
2
1
2

p 0 4 1
2

2
2



1
1
k 1
2
2

1
2

2
3

2
sin( t)
2
3

2
3

(2) MODAL ANALYSIS

Using Eq. (12.3.4), the generalized modal mass, stiffness, and force are
T

M 1 1 M 1 1.5 m
T

M 2 2 M 2 1.5 m
T

M 3 3 M 3 1.5 m
T

K1 1 K 1
K1 1.5 2

0.5
1 0.866

1
2 0

1

0.5
3 0.866

3 k

P1 1 p
T

P2 2 p
T

K2 2 K 2

P3 3 p

K2 3 k

(3)

K3 3 K 3
K3 1.5 2

3k

The modal equations and their steady-state solution are

(4)
(5)
1

C1
1

C2
1

C3
1

Substituting Equation (5) to Equation (4) yield to


p0
q 1 ( t)
C sin( t)
K1 1
q 1 ( t)

q 2 ( t)

p0
K2

q 2 ( t)
q 3 ( t)

p0
K3

q 3 ( t)

p0 2 2

k
3

C1 sin( t)

C2 sin( t)
p0 1
C sin( t)
k 3 2
C3 sin( t)
p0 2 2

k
3

C3 sin( t)

Using Eq. (12.3.2), we can determine the modal responses


U1 ( t) 1 q 1 ( t)
U2 ( t) 2 q 2 ( t)
U3 ( t) 3 q 3 ( t)
Combining the modal responses to get the displacement of the coresponding floors.

U ( t)
u 1( t) 1 1

u 2( t) = U1 ( t) 2
u ( t)
U1 ( t)
3
3

U2 ( t) U3 ( t)
1
1

U2 ( t) U3 ( t)
2
2

U2 ( t) U3 ( t)
3
3

p0

2
2


1
k
1

2
2

1
2

0
2

2
2

= k 1 1 1

2
2
1
2

p 0 4 1
1
2

2
2



1
1
k 1
2
2

1
2

Which will show that both method will have the same results!

2
3

2
sin( t)
2
3

2
3

(c). Plot on the same graph the three displacement amplitudes as a function of the excitation
frequency range 0 to 51 . Use appropriate normalizations of the displacements and frequency
scales.

= 1

u 1o

u 2o
u
3o
p0
k

1
2


1
1
2
2
1
2


2 1
2

2
2


1
1
2
2
1
2

1
4 1
2

2
2


1
1
2
2
1
2


2
3

2
3

2

2
3

We need to express 2 2 in terms of 1 2 and 3 2 in terms of 1 2 .

1 =

2
1

3
1

k 2

2 k
2
2 =
m

2 k

=
2

k 2 3

3 =

k 2
m

2 = 2 3 4 1

3 = 4 3 7 1

(7)

k 2 3

=
2

k 2 3
m

(8)

Substituting Eq. (7) & Eq. (8) to Eq. (6)....

u 1o

u 2o
u
3o
p0
k

= 1

1
2

1
1

1

1
2
2 3 4 2 4 3
1
1

1

2 1

2 3 4 2
1

2
2


1
1
1

1
2
2

2 3 4
4 3
1
1

2
1

4 1
2

2
3

2
2


1
1
1

1
2
2 3 4 2 4 3
1
1

7 2
1

7 2
1

7 2
1
2

u1o

u2o
y1( x)

u3o

Assume x=
& y 2 ( x ) =
p0
1
y ( x)
3
k

y1( x)

y2( x)
y ( x)
3

1
1
2
2
2
x 1
x
1 x 1

2 3 4
4 3 7

1
2

2 1
x

2
3

1
1
2
2
= 1 x 2 1

2 3 4
4 3 7

1
2

4 1
x 1

2 3 4

1
1
2
2
1 x 2 1
x 1
x

2 3 4 4 3 7

10

6
y1( x)
y2( x)
y3( x)
4

4
x

Plot of displacement amplitudes as a function of the excitation frequency.....

K M
2

0
0
p0

2 k p0

6 m3 6 4 k m2 9 2 k2 m

2 k p0

4 2
2
2
m 4 k m k

4 2
2
2 k p0 m 4 k m 3 k

2
2
4 2
2
2 k k m m 4 k m

3
1
2

(6)

x 0 0.1 6

y 1 ( x )

1 x21

3 4

2 1
y 2 ( x )

1 x21

y 3 ( x )

3 4

x 1
2

3 4

x 1
2

3 7

3 7

1
2
4 1
x 1
2 3 4

1
1
2
2
2
1 x 1
x 1
x
2 3 4 4 3 7

3
2 k

2
k

2
mk