from Caesar: Selections from his Commentarii De Bello Gallico
Th is Appendix is a revision of the one that bears the same title in Arthur Tappan Walker’s Caesar’s Gallic War with Introduction, Notes, Vocabulary, and Grammatical Appendix (Chicago and New York: Scott Foresman and Company, 1907), pp. 424–528. Examples derive primarily from Caesar’s Commentariī, but a few derive from Cicero. References to Caesar provide book, chapter, and verse: 1.1.1 would, for example, refer to the fi rst sentence of Caesar’s Dē bellō Gallicō. Examples from Caesar’s other works include the title and, if from Cicero, name and title.
Quantity of Vowels
1. A vowel is usually short: a. Before another vowel or before h; as ineō, nihil. b. Before nd and nt; as in laudandus, laudant. c. In words with more than one syllable, before any fi nal consonant other than s; as in laudem, laudat. (But compare laudās.) 2. A vowel is long: a. Before nf, ns, nx, and nct; as in īnferō, cōnsul, iūnxī, iūnctum. b. When it results from contraction; as in īsset, from iisset. 3. A vowel is usually long: a. In one syllable words (monosyllables) not ending in b, d, l, m, or t; as in mē, hīc (but compare ab and ad where the vowels are short).
Pronunciation of Vowels
4. In classical Latin pronunciation, long vowels, whether they were accented or not, were supposed to receive twice the time given to the pronunciation of short vowels. In English, we generally give more time only to the vowels in accented syllables. Observing this rule matters more when we read Latin poetry than it does when we read Latin prose, but attention to vowels in Latin prose will help you when you turn to poetry and it will increase your sensitivity to the language generally. a = a in tuba e = e in net i = i in pin o = o in for (not as in hot) u = oo in book y = French u or German ü; but this sound rarely occurs. ā = a in father ē = e in they ī = i in machine ō = o in pony ū = oo in boot
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Sounds of Diphthongs
5. Diphthongs are the sounds produced by two vowels when the fi rst slides into the second so quickly that it seems as if both are pronounced simultaneously. A diphthong thus produces only one, not two, syllables. The following diphthongs are those that appear in classical Latin: ae = ai in aisle oe = oi in oil au = ow in how eu has no English equivalent. Run together in one syllable the sounds eh´–oo. ui has no English equivalent. Run together in one syllable the sounds oo´–ee. Th is diphthong appears in cui, huic, cuius, and huius. a. When the consonant i (= j in older classical editions) appears between two vowels, as in maior, eius, Troia, and cuius, although i was written only once, it was pronounced twice, as if the spelling were maiior, eiius, Troiia, and cuiius. The second i is the consonant, pronounced like y in yet. The fi rst i is a vowel, which makes a diphthong with the vowel that precedes it. In such cases, ai = ai in aisle ei = ey in they oi = oi in oil ui as indicated above.
Sounds of Consonants
6. The consonants are generally pronounced as they are in English, but the following points should be noted: c and g are always hard, as in can and go i (the consonant, which is sometimes printed j) = y in yet n before c, g , q , and x = ng in sing r should always be pronounced s should always be pronounced as in this, never as in these t as in tin, never as in nation v=w x = ks z = dz ch, ph, th = c, p, t bs, bt = ps, pt qu = qu in quart ngu = ngu in anguish su = sw as in suādeō, suāvis, suēscō, and their compounds. a. When consonants are doubled, as in mittō and annus, both consonants should be pronounced, as they are in out-take and pen-knife. We pronounce only one consonant in kitt y and penny. 7. We generally consider i a consonant when it occurs between vowels, and when it appears at the beginning of a word in front of another vowel. In compounds of iaciō (throw), we fi nd the form iciō. We believe that in these words the consonant i was pronounced, even though it was not written, before the vowel i. If we adopt this rule, dēiciō is pronounced as if it were spelled dēiiciō and abiciō as if it were spelled abiiciō.
8. Every Latin word has as many syllables as it has vowels or diphthongs. a. When a single consonant appears between two vowels, it is pronounced with the vowel that follows it; as in fe-rō, a-gō, mo-nē. b. Some consonants can be pronounced indefi nitely. They “flow,” and are thus called “liquids.” Other consonants fall silent immediately after they are pronounced. Such consonants are called “mutes.” When “liquids” (l or r) follow “mutes” (b, c, d, g , p, t, ch, ph, or th), the resulting combination is often pronounced like a single consonant together with the following vowel; as in pa-tris and a-grī. (In poetry, however, such combinations are often divided; as in pat-ris and ag-rī.) c. Any other combination of two or more consonants is divided before the last consonant, or before the “mute-liquid” combination described above (§8, b), as we fi nd in mit-tō, dic-tus, magis-ter, and magis-trī.
Quantity of Syllables
9. A syllable is long: a. If it contains a long vowel or a diphthong; as in both syllables of lau-dās, and the fi rst syllable of ēius (§5, a). b. If its vowel is followed by any two consonants, except the combination of a mute and a liquid (see §8, c) or by one of the double consonants x (= ks) and z (= dz). The quantity of a short vowel is not changed by its position: est is pronounced est, not ēst. The syllable, not the vowel, becomes long. The time taken to pronounce a consonant at the end of a syllable before the consonant at the beginning of the next syllable (§8, c) lengthens that syllable. You will perceive this if you pronounce each of the consonants that are supposed to be pronounced distinctly in mit-tō (see §6, a), an-nus, dic-tus, par-tōs, and nos-ter. c. Often in poetry when a short vowel is followed by the combination of a mute and a liquid (see §8, c). In poetry, this combination produces pat-ris and ag-rī (§8, c), thus making the fi rst syllable long. In prose, however, such a syllable is always considered short because the combination produces pa-tris and a-grī. (See §8, c to review details.)
10. 11. Words with two syllables are accented on the fi rst syllable; as in om´nis. Words with more than two syllables are accented on the second to last syllable or penult, if that syllable is long, as in dīvī´sa and appel´lō. If the penult is short, the syllable third from the end or antepenult receives the accent; as in per´tinent. When an enclitic (a word that attaches to the end of another word) is joined to another word, the accent falls on the syllable immediately preceding the enclitic; as in Gallia´que.
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13. The General Rules of Gender Latin nouns are classified as masculine, feminine, or neuter. For most nouns, gender is grammatical rather than biological. Often the gender of nouns can be determined from the nominative ending. In other instances, it must be learned for individual words. The following rules should prove helpful. a. The names of male beings (human, animal, divine) as well as rivers, winds, and months are masculine. b. The names of female beings (human, animal, divine) as well as countries, towns, islands, plants, trees, and most abstract qualities are feminine. c. Indeclinable nouns and infi nitives, phrases, and clauses used as nouns are neuter. Declensions There are five declensions of Latin nouns. They are distinguished from one another by the fi nal letter of the stem, and the ending of the genitive singular. DECLENSION I. First II. Second III. Th ird IV. Fourth V. Fift h FINAL LETTER of STEM ā o consonant or i u ē ENDING OF GEN. SING. –ae –ī –is –ūs –ēī or –eī
a. In a linguistically precise world, we are supposed to form cases by adding case endings to the stem. But when the stem ends in a vowel, that vowel is often modified in some way, or is combined with the true case ending in some way with the result that we can see neither the stem-vowel nor the true case ending. Therefore it is more convenient to apply the name case ending to the combined stem-vowel and true case ending, and to say that the cases are formed by adding case endings to the “base” (which many—incorrectly actually—refer to as the “stem”). In common practice (because it works), we fi nd the base of a noun by dropping the ending of the genitive singular. First Declension The stem ends in –ā; the nominative in –a; (and the base ends in whatever remains after removing the genitive singular; see §14, c). The gender is usually feminine. lingua, F., tongue, language
Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative Vocative lingua linguae linguae linguam linguā lingua a language (as subject) of a language, language’s to or for a language a language (as object) by, from, in, or with a language O language!
ENDINGS –a –ae –ae –am –ā –a
Exceptions in gender are revealed by the meanings of the words (see §13). field vir. G. mind N. boy puer puer ī puerō puer um puerō puer ager. at Agedincum. Vulgus. the Belgae (because groups of people are considered masculine). b.. fīl ī D. d ī deōrum deīs. son SING. D. is usually neuter.. d īs deōs deīs. fīliō V.
ager agr ī agrō agr um agrō ager
N. d ī
a. Gaius Bōī. N. fīlius G.. D. fīl ī
NOUNS ENDING IN –ius Gāius.. M. Matrona. The locative singular ends in –ī. place. G... The locative singular ends in –ae. Abl. and the base will be found by removing the genitive singular ending (see §14. fīliō Acc. d īs di ī. crowd. fīlium Abl.. as in Samarobrīvae. Exceptions in gender are generally revealed by tbe meanings of words (see §13). languages’ to or for languages languages (as object) by. a). M. Locus. M. Acc.Grammatical Appendix
Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative Vocative linguae linguārum lingu īs linguās lingu īs linguae languages (as subject) of languages. V. N. b. deus deī deō deum deō deus
PLURA L deī. the (river) Marne (because rivers are masculine). god SING.... M. such as Agedincī.. the Boi SING. Second Declension The stem ends in –o. M. M. M. the nominative masculine in –us. animus anim ī animō animum animō anime puer. man vir vir ī virō vir um virō vir bellum..
. places. war bellum bell ī bellō bellum bellō bellum
16. M. V. Acc. or –ir. M. anim ī animōrum anim īs animōs anim īs anim ī puer ī puerōrum puer īs puerōs puer īs puer ī agr ī agrōrum agr īs agrōs agr īs agr ī vir ī virōrum vir īs virōs vir īs vir ī bella bellōrum bell īs bella bell īs bella
fīlius. has the plural loca.. as in Belgae. M. N. M. animus. –er. at Samarobriva. the nominative neuter in –um. PLURA L Gāius Bōī Gā ī Bōiōrum Gāiō Bōīs Gāium Bōiōs Gāiō Bōīs Ga ī Bōī
deus. from. in. Abl. or with languages O languages!
ENDINGS –ae –ārum –īs –ās –īs –ae
The words are accented as if the longer form were used.. none. PLURA L mīles mīlitēs mīlitis mīlit um mīlit ī mīlitibus mīlitem mīlitēs mīlite mīlitibus mīles mīlitēs caput. Proper names ending in –āius. d. D. G. head Stem capit– SING. These consonants are formed with the teeth. Third Declension Th ird declension stems end in a consonant or in –i.” The nominative ending is –s. ini´tī. Nouns ending in –ius regularly form the genitive and vocative singular with –ī. Acc. and nouns ending in –ium form the genitive with –ī. chief Stem prīncipN. Stems ending in b or p (“labial mutes”). praise Stem laud– SING. laus. and –ōius are declined like Gāius and Bōī.” The nominative ending for masculines and feminines is –s. F.
17. M. The nominative case ending for masculines and feminines is an –s or none. they are also called “mutes. V. PLURA L laus laudēs laud is laudum laud ī laud ibus laudem laudēs laude laud ibus laus laudēs mīles.
. instead of with –ii and –ie.. they are also called “mutes. prīnceps. A few words have –um instead of –ōrum in the genitive plural. a). Acc. and the fi nal d or t of the stem is dropped before the nominative ending.” Because they fall silent immediately after being pronounced. for neuters. 19.. e. of a plan.6
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c. of the allies. –ēius. Abl. Abl. D. consi´lī. such as socium (or sociōrum). and are thus called “dentals. N. G. soldier Stem mīlit– SING. and are thus called “labials. of a beginning. These consonants are formed with the lips.. The base may be found by removing the genitive ending (see §14.” Because they fall silent immediately after being pronounced. M. V. PLURA L caput capita capitis capit um capit ī capitibus caput capita capite capitibus caput capita
N. prīnceps prīncipis prīncipī prīncipem prīncipe prīnceps
prīncipēs prīncipum prīncipibus prīncipēs prīncipibus prīncipēs
Stems ending in d or t (“dental mutes”). SING. CONSONANT STEMS 18.
G. they are called “nasals... they seem to “flow like liquids.
Stems ending in g or c (“gutt ural mutes”).
Stems ending in m or n (“nasals”). PLURA L cōnsul cōnsulēs cōnsul is cōnsulum cōnsul ī cōnsul ibus cōnsulem cōnsulēs cōnsule cōnsul ibus cōnsul cōnsulēs māter. Abl. Because these consonants resonate through the nose when pronounced. PLURA L flūmen flūmina flūminis flūminum flūmin ī flūminibus flūmen flūmina flūmine flūminibus flūmen flūmina
N. G. M. 21.
Stems ending in l or r (“liquids”). leader Stem ducSING. Because we can continue to pronounce these consonants indefi nitely. PLURA L māter mātrēs mātr is mātr um mātr ī mātr ibus mātrem mātrēs mātre mātr ibus māter mātrēs aequor. homō. These consonants are formed in the throat (Latin: gutt ur=throat). F. D. lēx. 22. PLURA L aequor aequora aequor is aequor um aequor ī aequor ibus aequor aequora aequore aequor ibus aequor aequora
N. The nominative of masculines and feminines usually drops the fi nal n and changes the preceding vowel to ō.. reason Stem hominStem ratiōnSING. sea Stem aequorSING. PLURA L lē x lēgēs lēg is lēg um lēg ī lēg ibus lēgem lēgēs lēge lēg ibus lē x lēgēs dux. D. Acc. which combines with the fi nal g or c of the stem to form x .” The nominative ending is –s. F.. V. law Stem lēgSING. F. V.. mother Stem mātrSING.. consul Stem cōnsulSING. N.Grammatical Appendix
20. M. PLURA L du x ducēs ducis ducum ducī ducibus ducem ducēs duce ducibus du x ducēs
N. D.. except for the word hiems. Abl. Acc. PLURA L SING.” Because they fall silent immediately after being pronounced. M. N. which is the only word with a stem ending in –m. they are also called “mutes.
. V.” There is no nominative case ending.. F.. and are thus called “gutt urals. G. There is no nominative case ending. human being ratiō.” hence their name. Abl. PLURA L homō hominēs ratiō ratiōnēs hominis hominum ratiōnis ratiōnum homin ī hominibus ratiōn ī ratiōnibus hominem hominēs ratiōnem ratiōnēs homine hominibus ratiōne ratiōnibus homō hominēs ratiō ratiōnēs flūmen. river Stem flūminSING. cōnsul. Acc.
. M.. PLURA L honor honōrēs honōr is honōr um honōr ī honōr ibus honōrem honōrēs honōre honōr ibus honor honōrēs tempus. time (Stem tempos-) Base temporSING. F. –al. Acc. G. the i does not appear consistently.
turrēs turr ium turr ibus turrēs or –īs turr ibus turrēs
caedēs caed ium caed ibus caedēs or –īs caed ibus caedēs
. PLURA L tempus tempora tempor is tempor um tempor ī tempor ibus tempus tempora tempore tempor ibus tempus tempora
N. M. F. Abl. but usually ends in s and sometimes in r. PLURA L mōs mōrēs mōr is mōr um mōr ī mōr ibus mōrem mōrēs mōre mōr ibus mōs mōrēs honor. slaughter (Stem caedi-) Base caedcaedēs caed is caed ī caedem caede caedēs
N... Abl. 25. Because this declension became confused with that of consonant stems. M.. V. and no absolute rule can be given for the endings. if (1) they are masculine and feminine nouns ending in –is or –ēs and they have the same number of syllables in the genitive as in the nominative or if (2) they are neuter nouns that end in –e. D. N. because s changes to r between two vowels). Th ird declension nouns are i-stems. i-STEMS 24. Abl. or –ar. D. honor (Stem honōs-) Base honōrSING.
Stems ending in s (although the s makes its appearance as an r.. V. G. Acc. turris. G. D. and accusative plurals either in –ēs or –īs.
turr is turr is turr ī turrem turr ī or e turr is
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23. ablative –e. Masculine and feminine nouns usually have accusative –em. Neuters have ablative –ī.
B. The nominative has no case ending. V. mōs. enemy (Stem hosti-) Base hostSINGULAR hostis hostis host ī hostem hoste hostis PLURA L hostēs hostium hostibus hostēs or –īs hostibus hostēs caedēs. tower Stem turrhostis. custom (Stem mōs-) Base mōrSING. Acc.
Most nouns ending in –is are declined like hostis. F. cliēns. Acc. MIXED STEMS 26. dependent Stem clientSING. we fi nd most one syllable words ending in –s and –x that are preceded by a consonant as well as most nouns ending in –ns and –rs. G. D. fire. often have the ablative –ī. city Stem urbSING. M. D. Arar (for Araris). Abl. couch vectīgal... G. D. is declined like cubīle... are declined in the singular like turris. M... F. Some third declension nouns with consonant stems have borrowed the genitive plural ending –ium and the accusative plural ending –īs from the i-stems. M. V. sea. V. C. –tātis. N. and Liger (for Ligeris).. tax (Stem cubīli-) (Stem vectīgāli-) Base cubīlBase vectīgālSINGULAR cubīle vectīgal cubīl is vectīgāl is cubīl ī vectīgāl ī cubīle vectīgal cubīl ī vectīgāl ī cubīle vectīgal PLURA L
N. ship.. In this category. M.
cubīl ia cubīl ium cubīl ibus cubīl ia cubīl ibus cubīl ia
vectīgāl ia vectīgāl ium vectīgāl ibus vectīgāl ia vectīgāl ibus vectīgāl ia
a. V. the (river) Saone.
. N. Acc. Ignis.Grammatical Appendix
N. N. Mare. and nāvis. PLURA L cliēns clientēs clientis clientium client ī clientibus clientem clientēs or –īs cliente clientibus cliēns clientēs urbs. Abl.. and a few nouns ending in –tās. Acc. Abl. PLURA L urbs urbēs urbis urbium urbī urbibus urbem urbēs or –īs urbe urbibus urbs urbēs
N. the (river) Loire.
cubīle. but appears in the plural generally only in the nominative and accusative cases. G.
–e. nouns that end in –a. F. Abl. Abl. –ās. or –x.. namely. The dative and ablative plural of a few nouns sometimes end in –ubus. N. manus. Feminine: nouns that end in –dō. 28. house. or –es.. G. V. –ī. Neuter: all other nouns. The following rules may help for determining the gender of third declension nouns.) b. PLURA L cornū cornua cornūs cornuum cornū cornibus cornū cornua cornū cornibus cornū cornua
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D. senex senis sen ī senem sene senex os. M. –c. when preceded by a consonant. Masculine: nouns that end in –ō. force SINGULAR vīs vīs vī vim vī vīs PLURA L vīrēs vīr ium vīr ibus vīrēs vīr ibus vīrēs bōs. F. –n. pace SING.. V. Fourth Declension The stem of fourth declension nouns ends in –u. –ys. d.. –ur. house. G. Ides. (Exceptions to this rule include nouns that end in –dō. cow bōs bov is bov ī bovem bove bōs Iuppiter. Domus. PLURA L passus passūs passūs passuum passuī passibus passum passūs passū passibus passus passūs cornū. bone os ossis ossī os osse os vīs. The forms in general use are:
. –is. and.. old man N. c. the nominative neuter in –ū. –ēs. G. D. M.
N. has some second declension forms. –ōs. V. passus.
a. –ūs. The dative singular of nouns in –us sometimes ends in –ū. a. M. D. –ar. M. c. –l. Domus. or –iō. Acc. –y. F. D. –or.. the nominative masculine ends in –us. –gō. –gō. Abl. –iō. see next section. –ur. but you should keep in mind that there are many exceptions to them. –t. are feminine. The following nouns are irregular: senex. Acc... Acc. The base may be found by removing the genitive singular ending. nouns that in –s.. –er. hand.
senēs senum senibus senēs senibus senēs
ossa ossium ossibus ossa ossibus ossa
bovēs bov um or boum bōbus or būbus bovēs bōbus or būbus bovēs
The gender of many third declension nouns is revealed by the meaning of the word (see §13). IRREGULAR NOUNS 27. horn SING. Jupiter Iuppiter Iov is Iov ī Iovem Iove Iuppiter
N. b. and Īdus. and –us.
a. Abl. spēs. V. F. Sometimes the ending –ē is used instead of either. Acc.
.. day SING. The ending of the genitive and dative singular of fi ft h declension nouns is –ēī after a vowel.. Locative
SING. They are usually feminine. magnus magn ī magnō magnum magnō magne SINGULAR Fem. G. V. G. Its compounds are also masculine. thing SING. Acc. In the singular. rēs. large Masc.. b. magn ī magnōrum magn īs magnōs magn īs magn ī PLURA L Fem. Aciēs. F. diēs is either masculine or feminine (the feminine is usually used in the sense of an appointed day or for a long space of time). diēs is masculine. Abl. PLURA L diēs diēs diēī diēr um diēī diēbus diem diēs diē diēbus diēs diēs
N. M. G. in the plural. magnus.
First and Second Declension Adjectives 31. PLURA L rēs rēs reī rēr um reī rēbus rem rēs rē rēbus rēs rēs diēs. magna magnae magnae magnam magnā magna Neuter magnum magn ī magnō magnum magnō magnum Masc. –eī after a consonant. D. domus domūs domuī or domō domum domō or domū domus dom ī (at home)
PLURA L domūs domuum dom ibus domōs dom ibus domūs dom ibus
30. D. Abl. Diēs and rēs are the only nouns of this declension that are declined throughout the plural. D.Grammatical Appendix
N. Acc. V. c. magnae magnārum magn īs magnās magn īs magnae Neuter magna magnōrum magn īs magna magn īs magna
N. and a few others have plural forms only in the nominative and accusative.
Fifth Declension Fift h declension nouns have a stem that ends in –ē and a nominative in –ēs.
nostra nostrae nostrae nostram nostrā nostra
Neuter nostr um nostr ī nostrō nostr um nostrō nostr um
Masc. V. ali ī aliōrum ali īs aliōs ali īs Neuter tōt um tōt īus tōt ī tōt um tōtō PLURA L Fem. ūnus. D. ūna ūn īus ūn ī ūnam ūnā
SINGULAR Fem. nostrae nostrārum nostr īs nostrās nostr īs nostrae
Neuter nostra nostrōrum nostr īs nostra nostr īs nostra
32. These nine adjectives are alius. Nine adjectives of the fi rst and second declensions have a genitive singular that ends in –īus (the genitive of alter is usually –ius) and a dative singular that ends in –ī in all genders. G. Note also the ending –ud in the neuter of alius. V. free Masc. tōta tōt īus tōt ī tōtam tōtā
SINGULAR Masc. Fem. Abl. Acc. G. alia ali īus ali ī aliam aliā Neuter ūnum ūn īus ūn ī ūnum ūnō Neuter aliud ali īus ali ī aliud aliō Masc. any. noster nostr ī nostrō nostr um nostrō noster
SINGULAR Fem. Acc. aliae aliārum ali īs aliās ali īs Neuter alia aliōrum ali īs alia ali īs
N. no. nūllus. which (of two). the other. only. G. tōt us tōt īus tōt ī tōt um tōtō Masc. nostr ī nostrōrum nostr īs nostrōs nostr īs nostr ī
PLURA L Fem. līber ī līberōrum līber īs līberōs līber īs līber ī PLURA L Fem. lībera līberae līberae līberam līberā lībera Neuter līber um līber ī līberō līber um līberō līber um Masc. Masc. Neuter alter us altera alter um alter ius alter ius alter ius alter ī alter ī alter ī alter um alteram alter um alterō alterā alterō
. ūnus ūn īus ūn ī ūnum ūnō SINGULAR Fem. G. our
N. alter. alius ali īus ali ī alium aliō Masc. līberae līberārum līber īs līberās līber īs līberae Neuter lībera līberōrum līber īs lībera līber īs lībera
N. Acc. Abl. and neuter. D. sōlus. tōtus. neither.
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līber. Abl. D. the case endings of these adjectives are exactly the same as they are for magnus. D.
Masc. another. Acc. whole. one. Abl.
Adjectives with Genitive In –īus. līber līber ī līberō līber um līberō līber SINGULAR Fem. ūllus. noster. In the plural.
Abl. Neuter fortiōrēs fortiōra fortiōr um fortiōr um fortiōr ibus fortiōr ibus fortiōrēs fortiōra fortiōr ibus fortiōr ibus fortiōrēs fortiōra
N. not –ī in the ablative). Abl. fortior. more. The adjective prīnceps. Th ird declension adjectives with one ending have the same form in the nominative singular for all three genders. Neuter veterēs vetera veter um veter um veter ibus veter ibus veterēs vetera veter ibus veter ibus veterēs vetera
a. all third declension adjectives with two or three endings always have –ī in the ablative singular.
Third Declension Adjectives Adjectives of the third declension include both consonant stems and i-stems. G. & Fem. Th ird declension adjectives with two endings have one form in the nominative singular for the masculine and feminine and another for the neuter. D.
SINGULAR Masc. it is used only as a noun. Acc. old
One Ending (hence –e. V. & Fem. Neuter fortior fortius fortiōr is fortiōr is fortiōr ī fortiōr ī fortiōrem fortius fortiōre fortiōre fortior fortius PLURA L Masc. Acc. Neuter plūrēs plūra plūr ium plūr ium plūr ibus plūr ibus plūrēs or –īs plūra plūr ibus plūr ibus
N. Abl. but has dītia for the nominative. not –ī in the ablative) SINGULAR Masc.
A. Acc. In the singular. Two Endings. and vocative neuter plural. Except comparatives.Grammatical Appendix
33. Dīves. G. but plūs. & Fem. G. Neuter vetus vetus veter is veter is veter ī veter ī veterem vetus vetere vetere vetus vetus
PLURA L Masc. rich. also belongs here. 35.
a.e. All comparatives follow this pattern. is irregular and defective (i.
. & Fem. & Fem.
N. follows this pattern. Th ird declension adjectives with three endings have a different form in the nominative singular for each gender. D.. hence –e. accusative. vetus. SINGULAR Neuter plūs plūr is --plūs plūre PLURA L Masc. CONSONANT STEMS 34. it does not appear in all theoretically possible forms). chief. braver (a comparative. V. D.
Neuter audācēs audācia audācium audācium audācibus audācibus audācēs or –īs audācia audācibus audācibus audācēs audācia
N. equester. One Ending. ācrēs ācr ium ācr ibus ācrēs or –īs ācr ibus ācrēs
ācr ia ācr ium ācr ibus ācr ia ācr ibus ācr ia
a. Other adjectives that follow this pattern include celeber. Th ree Endings. i-STEMS 36. ācer ācr is ācr ī ācrem ācr ī ācer SINGULAR Fem. & Fem. and a few others. audāx. 37. sharp Masc. Abl. Acc. famous. names of months that end in –ber. all SINGULAR Masc. G. V. omnis. D. bold SINGULAR Masc. All third declension adjectives ending in –is. V. Neuter omnis omne omnis omnis omn ī omn ī omnem omne omn ī omn ī omnis omne PLURA L Masc. & Fem. D. Neuter omnēs omnia omnium omnium omnibus omnibus omnēs or –īs omnia omnibus omnibus omnēs omnia
N. Acc. equestrian. & Fem. 38. D. Neuter audā x audā x audācis audācis audācī audācī audācem audā x audācī audācī audā x audā x PLURA L Masc. ācrēs ācr ium ācr ibus ācrēs or –īs ācr ibus ācrēs
PLURA L Fem. & Fem. V.
. Abl. Acc. pedester. G. Two Endings. pedestrian. ācer. Abl. ācr is ācr is ācr ī ācrem ācr ī ācr is
ācre ācr is ācr ī ācre ācr ī ācre
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B. –e follow this pattern.
intimus. melior. bigger. prep. higher. before) prior. similis. –um. facilior. –a. Irregular Comparison of Adjectives bonus. less. former. braver. gracilis.. Comparison of Adjectives The regular comparative endings are the third declension adjective endings –ior (M. inmost.
40. Participles usually have an ablative singular that ends in –ī only when they are used as adjectives. brave.). closer. Example: facilis.). dissimilis. and in –e when they are used as participles or nouns. & Fem. optimus. on this side) citerior. altissimus. Most third declension adjectives with one ending follow this pattern as well as all participles in –āns and – ēns. facillimus. prep. down) dēterior. –um. dexterior. easy. maior. minor. highest. big. fortior.
a. G. form the superlative by adding –limus to the base of the positive. beyond) ulterior. ācrior. worse. (intrā. humilis..
43. bravest. plūs. unlike. Most adjectives in –ilis form the comparative and superlative regularly. –ius (N. Abl. Neuter orientēs orientia orientium orientium orientibus orientibus orientēs or –īs orientia orientibus orientibus orientēs orientia
N. multus. (prope. rising SINGULAR Masc. fortis. D. nearer. Examples: altus. & F. sharp (base. worst. dexter. (prae. small. maximus. however. Defective Comparison of Adjectives The following comparatives and superlatives lack an adjective in the positive because they are formed from stems not used as adjectives: (citrā. low. best. difficilis. worse. farther. –a. adv. –ius. –issimus.
39. adv.Grammatical Appendix
oriēns. These six are facilis. more. worst. within) interior. better. malus. ācr-). They are added to the base of the positive form of the adjective (which is found by removing the case ending from the genitive singular). peior. first. least. farthest. ācerrimus. ultimus. 41. bad. Adjectives in –er form the comparative regularly.. although they form the comparative regularly. next. Example: ācer. magnus. on the right.. near) propior. altior. adv. parvus. & Fem. fortissimus. proximus. citimus. minimus. much. pessimus. –a. in. uses fi rst and second declension adjective endings. difficult. slender. (ultrā. high. V. (dē. inner. dēterrimus.. The superlative. Six adjectives. –um. Neuter oriēns oriēns orientis orientis orient ī orient ī orientem oriēns oriente or –ī oriente or –ī oriēns oriēns PLURA L Masc. prīmus. biggest. good. dextimus. closest. most.
42.. prep. plūrimus. like. Acc. favorable (because good omens appeared on the right). but form the superlative by adding –rimus to the nominative of the positive.
more widely. audācissimē. more. most widely. prudent. most prudently. īnfi mus (īmus).
The following adjectives rarely use the positive forms. Comparison of Adverbs Most adverbs are formed from adjectives in all the degrees of comparison. prūdenter. outmost. Example: idōneus. much. The superlative form of the adverb is formed by adding –e to the base of the superlative form of the adjective. plūrimum. The comparative form of the adverb is identical with accusative singular neuter of the comparative form of the adjective. such as lātissimē. boldly. audācius. or. fortissimē. which instead add only –er. suitable. audacter. more bravely. b. The positive form of the adverb is formed from adjectives of the fi rst and second declensions by adding –ē to the base. is its accusative singular neuter. bravely. (posterus) posterior. lātē. easily. postrēmus (postumus). most easily. prūdēns. fortis. prudently. last. such as lātus.
. bold. The neuter accusative singular of adjectives of all declensions may also be used adverbially. brave.16
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44. fortiter. more. maximē idōneus. latter. magis idōneus. most bravely. audācis. such as lātius. (īnferus) īnferior. a. most. (superus) superior. lowest. prūdentius. Many other adjectives employ this method as well. facile. except when they are used as nouns (and then generally in the plural): (exterus) exterior. prūdentissimē. such as multum. extrēmus (extimus). more boldly. facilius. widely. highest.
45. Adjectives of the third declension add –ter or –iter to the base. prūdentis. fortius. c. and maxime. most. higher. except third declension adjectives whose base ends in nt. more suitable. most suitable. more easily. more prudently. outer. facillime. Comparison of Adjectives with Adverbs When an adjective ends in a –us that is preceded by a vowel. most boldly. suprēmus (summus). plūs. some examples include audāx. wide. lower. less often. it generally forms the comparative and superlative by using the adverbs magis.
The ending – ēnsimus is often used for – ēsimus. XVII. D. XC. XII. ordinals. VIII. etc. etc. XXI. tria quatt uor quīnque sex septem octō novem decem ūndecim duodecim tredecim quatt uordecim quīndecim sēdecim septendecim duodēvīgintī ūndēvīgintī vīgintī ūnus et vīgintī (vīgintī ūnus) duodētrīgintā ūndētrīgintā trīgintā quadrāgintā quīnquāgintā sexāgintā septuāgintā octōgintā nōnāgintā centum centum (et) ūnus ducentī. XV. two at a time (or two to each). -ae. XX. -a trēs. IV. LXX.
. -um duo. CCC. -a trecentī quadringentī quīngentī sescentī septingentī octingentī nōngentī mīlle duo mīlia
prīmus. XIII. CC. IX. DCCCC. which answer the question in what order? such as.. first.
ūnus. -a. LXXX. -um secundus or alter tertius quārtus quīntus sextus septimus octāvus nōnus decimus ūndecimus duodecimus tertius decimus quārtus decimus quīntus decimus sextus decimus septimus decimus duodēvīcēsimus ūndēvīcēsimus vīcēsimus vīcēsimus prīmus duodētrīcēsimus ūndētrīcēsimus trīcēsimus quadrāgēsimus quīnquāgēsimus sexāgēsimus septuāgēsimus octōgēsimus nōnāgēsimus centēsimus centēsimus (et) prīmus ducentēsimus trecentēsimus quadringentēsimus quīngentēsimus sescentēsimus septingentēsimus octingentēsimus nōngentēsimus mīllēsimus bis mīllēsimus
singulī. XVI. third. VII. III. three three at a time (or three to each). XL. XI. X.
Numerals Numeral adjectives belong to three categories: cardinals. VI.. and distributives. DCCC.-a. DC. second. -a bīnī ternī or trīnī quaternī quīnī sēnī septēnī octōnī novēnī dēnī ūndēnī duodēnī ternī dēnī quaternī dēnī quīnī dēnī sēnī dēnī septēnī dēnī duodēvīcēnī ūndēvīcēnī vīcēnī vīcēnī singulī duodētrīcēnī ūndētrīcēnī trīcēnī quadrāgēnī quīnquāgēnī sexāgēnī septuāgēnī octōgēnī nōnāgēnī centēni centēnī (et) singulī ducēnī trecēnī quadringēnī quīngēnī sescēnī septingēnī octingēnī nōngēnī singula mīlia bīna mīlia
a. DCC. Roman Numerals
I. C. M. CCCC. V. II. two. CI. which answer the question how many at a time or how many to each? such as.Grammatical Appendix
47. three. -ae. one at a time (or one to each). XXVIII XXIX XXX. XVIII. etc. XIX. -ae. XIV. which answer the question how many? such as one. MM. L LX.
The preposition cum is enclitic with personal pronouns (i. tū. Abl. three M. one camp. For the declension of ūnus. is indeclinable. the higher number precedes the lower number. such as. c.
51.. Duo and trēs are declined as follows: Masc. and trēs are declined. 50. id. as in ducentī (et) vīgintī. nostrī and vestrī are the forms used as objective genitives (§98). two thousand. etc. D. Personal Pronouns First person. the ones may precede the tens. duo duōrum duōbus duo duōbus trēs. trēs tr ia tr ium tr ium tr ibus tr ibus trēs. In combinations of three or more numbers.. Its plural usually means only or alone. A demonstrative pronoun generally serves in its place. it. two Fem.
a. although other demonstrative pronouns may be used as well. six hundred twenty-six. followed by et. it is declined like the plural of cubīle (§25) and generally spelled mīlia. with us. Acc. In other combinations of two numbers. duae duārum duābus duās duābus Neut.18
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48. distributives like the plural of magnus. mīlle. cardinals from ducentī to nōnāgentī are declined like the plural of magnus (§31). with or without et. ego. three and forty = forty-three. I SING. Abl. him. & F. D. G. you First person. he. G.e. when used as an adjective. When. ea. without et.
N. as in duo mīlia sescentī vīgintī sex. she. I / Second person. but. Neut. as in trēs et quadrāgintā. duo duōrum duōbus duōs. but without an et. cardinals from quatt uor to centum are indeclinable. ego. There is no personal pronoun for the third person. see §32 .
. but it is used in the sense of one with nouns that are used only in the plural.
The cardinal numbers ūnus. refer to the subject (§163). it attaches to the personal pronoun). reflexive pronouns are used for the third person. §57. fortythree. tr īs tr ia tr ibus tr ibus
49. duo duōbus duo. her. ūna castra. as in nōbīscum. them. often is. when used as a substantive. PLURA L ego nōs meī nostrum or nostrī mihi nōbīs mē nōs mē nōbīs Second person. b. the order is as in English. tū. as in quadrāgintā trēs.
The numbers that would fall between the numbers provided in the table in §47 may be produced as follows: In a combination of tens and ones. Acc. you SING. Nostrum and vestrum are the forms used as partitive genitives (§101). however. or the tens may precede the ones. duo. PLURA L tū vōs tuī vestrum or vestrī tibi vōbīs tē vōs tē vōbīs
N. Ordinal numbers are declined like magnus. two hundred (and) twenty.
The preposition cum is enclitic with reflexive pronouns (i. PLURA L suī suī sibi sē sē sibi sē sē
G. it attaches to the reflexive pronoun). there is a special pronoun.Grammatical Appendix
52.. 1st person 2nd person 3rd person 3rd person reflexive SINGULAR meus. eārum. eōrum (gen. Abl. however.e. haec huius huic hanc hāc Neut. First person. For the fi rst and second persons. hī hōrum hīs hōs hīs PLURA L Fem. meī. PLURA L tuī vestrum or vestrī tibi vōbīs tē vōs tē vōbīs Th ird person. its (when referring to the subject) PLURA L noster. -um. G. hīc. your eius (gen. For the third person. hīc huius huic hunc hōc SINGULAR Fem. that (near the person spoken to) Masc. istī istōrum istīs istōs istīs PLURA L Fem. and they cannot agree with the subject of fi nite verbs. sing. D. -tra. haec hōrum hīs haec hīs
N. this (near the speaker) Masc. Acc. PLURA L meī nostrum or nostrī mihi nōbīs mē nōs mē nōbīs Second person. -a. -a. -trum. my tuus. -a. of himself. G. -um. istud istīus istī istud istō Masc. their (when referring to the subject)
Demonstrative Pronouns 54. suī. Acc. of myself SING. -a. Possessive Adjectives & Pronouns 53. his. Acc. of herself. D. of itself SING. istae istārum istīs istās istīs Neut. her. of is) his. -um. the personal pronouns are also used as reflexives. our vester. of is) their (when not referring to the subject) suus. Abl. her. iste istīus istī istum istō SINGULAR Fem. ista istōrum istīs ista istīs
N. as in sēcum. ista istīus istī istam istā Neut. haec hārum hīs hās hīs Neut. tuī. with himself. sing. of yourself SING. -trum. D. -tra. 55.
Reflexive Pronouns There is no nominative form of reflexive pronouns because they cannot be the subjects of fi nite verbs (infi nitives have accusative subjects).
a. hoc huius huic hoc hōc Masc. -um. its (when not referring to the subject). your eōrum. Abl. suus.
illud illīus illī illud illō Masc.
. Acc. Acc. iīs ea eīs. eae eārum eīs. Abl.
The Intensive Pronoun 59. illa illōrum illīs illa illīs
N. G. D. Acc.
is. iīs PLURA L Fem. quae quārum quibus quās quibus Neut. iīs eās eīs. iīs
Ille. that. D. ea eōrum eīs. D. quī. G. eadem eōrundem iīsdem or eīsdem eadem iīsdem or eīsdem
N. 58. G. īdem or eīdem eōrundem iīsdem or eīsdem eōsdem iīsdem or eīsdem PLURA L Fem. Abl. Abl. ipse. Neut. ipsum ipsīus ipsī ipsum ipsō Masc. he. quod cuius cui quod quō Masc. illae illārum illīs illās illīs Neut. that (something more remote). G. id eius eī id eō Masc. she. iīs Neut. it (unemphatic) Masc. Masc. illī illōrum illīs illōs illīs PLURA L Fem. Acc. eadem idem eiusdem eiusdem eīdem eīdem eandem idem eādem eōdem Masc. quī quōrum quibus quōs quibus PLURA L Fem. D. ea eius eī eam eā Neut. ille illīus illī illum illō SINGULAR Fem. iīs eōs eīs. who. 57. which Masc. quae cuius cui quam quā Neut.20
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56. is eius eī eum eō SINGULAR Fem. ipsae ipsārum ipsīs ipsās ipsīs Neut.
īdem. quae quōrum quibus quae quibus
N. the same Masc. ipsa ipsōrum ipsīs ipsa ipsīs
N. Abl. G. īdem eiusdem eīdem eundem eōdem SINGULAR Fem. ipsa ipsīus ipsī ipsam ipsā Neut. illa illīus illī illam illā Neut. eaedem eārundem iīsdem or eīsdem eāsdem iīsdem or eīsdem Neut. D. this.
The Relative Pronoun 60. quī cuius cui quem quō SINGULAR Fem. eī. self Masc. Acc. iī eōrum eīs. ipsī ipsōrum ipsīs ipsōs ipsīs PLURA L Fem. ipse ipsīus ipsī ipsum ipsō SINGULAR Fem. Abl.
with whom. -a. quaeque. aliquod. quidlibet. decline quī and add cumque). what? is used in the singular. any you like quīdam. are generalizing relatives. In the declension of quīdam. b. any one (you like) quīdam. m becomes n before d. it attaches to) the interrogative pronoun. The quī of quīcumque is declined regularly (i. a certain quisque. quodvīs or quīlibet. quiddam. D. quaevīs. aliquae (qua). For quī and aliquī. The enclitic –nam is sometimes added to an interrogative to strengthen it. quod. forms of ūllus.
N. any aliquī. & Fem. b. with whom? Indefinite Pronouns & Adjectives The indefi nite pronouns are quis. G. quisnam. -um are used)
62. quae (qua). quis cuius cui quem quō Neut. each ADJECTIVE quī. Quīcumque and quisquis.. PRONOUN quis. quid cuius cui quid quō
61. quaelibet. who. as in quōcum. quid. aliquid. quaedam. quidpiam. The interrogative pronoun quis. as in quibuscum. some (forms of ūllus. quoddam. quaevīs. quodpiam. quidque. quī as their base.e. who? what? SING. who (in the world)? b. quodlibet. quaelibet. Quis and quī in this sense are generally declined like the interrogatives. a certain one quisque. The preposition cum is usually enclitic with (i. quidvīs or quīlibet. each
quīvīs. any one (in the ablative singular and for all plurals. Abl. quī. quicquid (quidquid).. Quisquis. (Compare §58. whoever. Cum is usually enclitic with (i. quodque. quaepiam. Interrogative Pronouns & Adjectives The interrogative adjective quī. -a..)
.e. and compounds formed with quis. quod. quicquam (quidquam). it attaches to) the relative pronoun. Masc. -um are used) quīvīs. some one quispiam. what? is declined like the relative pronoun (§60). the nominative and accusative plural neuter are qua (or quae) and aliqua. quid. some quispiam. quaedam. quis. some one quisquam. as in quendam.e. any one aliquis.Grammatical Appendix
a. and quōquō are the only common forms of quisquis.
and future perfect indicative. u) ī PRESENT INFINITIVE ENDING –āre –ēre –ere –īre
All verb forms can be produced on the basis of one of three stems. one fi nds the supine by removing a us rather than a um. Verb forms based on the present stem (derived from the fi rst and second principal parts) include in both the active and passive: the present. a. laudāre (present stem. (1) the fi rst person singular present indicative (as the fi rst prinicipal part). some textbooks supply the perfect passive participle as fourth principal part. (4) the supine (to give the supine stem). the supine is commonly used for the sake of convenience. and future perfect indicative. and the supine stem (from the fourth principal part). CONJUGATION I.
. For most Latin verbs. but in some irregular verbs they are formed on distinct roots. II. and. and the perfect participle. There are four conjugations of Latin verbs. (3) the fi rst person singular perfect indicative (to give the perfect stem). and. IV. III. no supine exists. 64. (2) the present infi nitive (to indicate the conjugation and give the present stem). Other forms are then supplied. pluperfect. laudā-) laudavī (perfect stem. in the passive only: the perfect. In such cases. because there is no one form that can be supplied for all verbs. the present and imperfect subjunctive.22
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63. laudāv-) laudātum (supine stem. laudātus rather than laudātum. and the present infi nitive. the perfect and pluperfect subjunctive. For example. and the perfect infi nitive. Verb forms based on the perfect stem (found in the third principal part) include in the active voice only: the perfect.
65. the principal parts of laudō are: laudō. the perfect infi nitive. b. in the passive only: the gerundive. the perfect and pluperfect subjunctive. At all events. the imperative. imperfect. laudāt-). c. pluperfect. These parts are. Verb forms based on the supine stem (found in the fourth principal part) include in both the active and passive: the future infi nitive. in the active only: the future participle and supine. in the active. Additional verb forms include in the active only: the present participle and gerund. Rather than the supine. and future indicative. which we derive from a verb’s “principal parts” (see §65): the present stem (which we derive from the fi rst and second principal parts). which we can see most clearly in the present infi nitive.
The “principal parts” of a verb are those forms commonly listed by grammars and dictionaries to reveal a verb’s conjugation as well as its various stems. They are distinguished from one another by the fi nal vowel of the stem. For example. FINAL VOWEL OF STEM ā ē e (i. In regular verbs. the perfect and supine stems are based on the present stem. the perfect stem (from the third principal part).
.estō estōte 3rd pers. futūrum. esse Perf. es este Present 2nd pers. fut ūrus esse or fore Perfect fuerīmus fuerītis fuerint Pluperfect fuissēmus fuissētis fuissent SING. esse. Because there is no supine. fuī.Grammatical Appendix
66. sum es est INDICATIVE PLURA L Present sumus estis sunt Imperfect erāmus erātis erant Future er imus er itis er unt Perfect fu īmus fuistis fuerunt (or fuēre) Pluperfect fuerāmus fuerātis fuerant Future Perfect fuerimus fueritis fuerint PARTICIPLE Fut. SING. fut ūrus INFINITIVE Pres. fuisse Fut. sim sīs sit SUBJUNCTIVE PLURA L Present sīmus sītis sint
eram erās erat
Imperfect essem (or forem) essēmus (or forēmus) essētis (or forētis) essētis (or forētis) esset (or foret) essent (or forent)
erō er is er it
fu ī fuistī fuit
fuerim fuerīs fuerit
fueram fuerās fuerat
fuissem fuissēs fuisset
fuerō fueris fuerit
IMPERATIVE Present 2nd pers.
Conjugation of Sum (irregular verb) Principal parts: sum. we use the future active participle as the fourth principle part for forms based on the supine stem. be a.
laudābam laudābās laudābat laudābāmus laudābātis laudābant
First Conjugation Active principal parts: laudō.24
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67. be praised ACTIVE VOICE INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE Present laudō laudem laudās laudēs laudat laudet laudāmus laudēmus laudātis laudētis laudant laudent Imperfect laudārem laudārēs laudāret laudārēmus laudārētis laudārent Future Sing.
Plur. laudātum. laudātus sum.
laudāt us sum laudāt us es laudāt us est laudāt ī sumus laudāt ī estis laudāt ī sunt
Plur. praise Passive prinicipal parts: laudor. laudāvi. laudābō laudābis laudābit laudābimus laudābitis laudābunt Perfect laudāv ī laudāverim laudāv istī laudāverīs laudāv it laudāverit laudāv imus laudāverīmus laudāv istis laudāverītis laudāvērunt or –ēre laudāverint Pluperfect laudāv issem laudāv issēs laudāv isset laudāv issēmus laudāv issētis laudāv issent PASSIVE VOICE INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE Present laudor lauder laudāris or –re laudēris or–re laudātur laudētur laudāmur laudēmur laudāminī laudēminī laudantur laudentur Imperfect laudābar laudārer laudābāris or –re laudārēris or –re laudābātur laudārētur laudābāmur laudārēmur laudābāminī laudārēminī laudābantur laudārentur Future laudābor laudāberis or –re laudābitur laudābimur laudābiminī laudābuntur Perfect laudāt us sīmus laudāt us sītis laudāt us sint laudāt ī sīmus laudāt ī sītis laudāt ī sint
Sing. laudāre. laudārī.
laudāveram laudāverās laudāverat laudāverāmus laudāverātis laudāverant
Pluperfect laudāt us eram laudāt us essem laudāt us erās laudāt us essētis laudāt us erat laudāt us esset laudāt ī erāmus laudāt ī essēmus laudāt ī erātis laudāt ī essētis laudāt ī erant laudāt ī essent
PLURA L Present Present 2nd pers. PLURA L SING.Grammatical Appendix
Plur. laudā laudāte laudāre laudāminī Future 2nd pers.
Future Perfect laudāverō laudāveris laudāverit laudāverimus laudāveritis laudāverint
Future Perfect laudāt us erō laudāt us er is laudāt us er it laudāt ī er imus laudāt ī er itis laudāt ī er unt
IMPERATIVE ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE SING. laudātō laudantō Future laudātor laudātor laudantor
Present Perfect Future
INFINITIVE ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE laudāre laudārī laudāv isse — laudāt ūrus esse laudāt um īrī PARTICIPLE ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE laudāns — — laudāt us laudāt ūrus laudāndus
Present Perfect Future
SUPINE (Active Voice) Accusative laudāt um Ablative laudāt ū GERUND (Active Voice) Genitive laudandī Dative laudandō Accusative laudandum Ablative laudandō
. laudātō laudātōte 3rd pers.
monueram monuerās monuerat monuerāmus monuerātis monuerant
monit us eram monit us erās monit us erat monit ī erāmus monit ī erātis monit ī erant
Sing. monitus sum.
monēbam monēbās monēbat monēbāmus monēbātis monēbant
Second Conjugation Active principal parts: moneō.26
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Plur. warn Passive principal parts: moneor. monēre.
Plur. monuī. be warned ACTIVE VOICE INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE Present moneō moneam monēs moneās monet moneat monēmus moneāmus monētis moneātis monent moneant Imperfect monērem monērēs monēret monērēmus monērētis monērent Future Sing.
Plur. monēbō monēbis monēbit monēbimus monēbitis monēbunt Perfect monu ī monuerim monu istī monuerīs monu it monuerit monu imus monuerīmus monu istis monuerītis monuēruntor–ēre monuerint Pluperfect monu issem monu issēs monu isset monu issēmus monu issētis monu issent monēbor monēberis or –re monēbitur monēbimur monēbiminī monēbuntur Perfect monit us sīmus monit us sītis monit us sint monit ī sīmus monit ī sītis monit ī sint Pluperfect monit us essem monit us essētis monit us esset monit ī essēmus monit ī essētis monit ī essent PASSIVE VOICE INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE Present moneor monear monēris or –re moneāris or–re monētur moneātur monēmur moneāmur monēminī moneāminī monentur moneantur Imperfect monēbar monērer monēbāris or –re monērēris or –re monēbātur monērētur monēbāmur monērēmur monēbāminī monērēminī monēbantur monērentur Future
monit us sum monit us es monit us est monit ī sumus monit ī estis monit ī sunt
Future Perfect monit us erō monit us er is monit us er it monit ī er imus monit ī er itis monit ī er unt
IMPERATIVE ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE SING. monuerō monueris monuerit monuerimus monueritis monuerint
Future Perfect Sing. PLURA L Present Present 2nd pers. PLURA L SING. monē monēte monēre monēminī Future 2nd pers. monētō monētōte 3rd pers. monētō monentō Future monētor monētor monentor
Present Perfect Future
INFINITIVE ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE monēre monērī monu isse — monit ūrus esse monit um īrī PARTICIPLE ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE monēns — — monit us monit ūrus monendus
Present Perfect Future
SUPINE (Active Voice) Accusative monit um Ablative monit ū GERUND (Active Voice) Genitive monendī Dative monendō Accusative monendum Ablative monendō
dūx ī dūx istī dūx it dūx imus dūx istis dūxērunt or –ēre
duct us sum duct us es duct us est duct ī sumus duct ī estis duct ī sunt
Plur. ductus sum. dūxī.
Sing. lead Passive principal parts: dūcor.
dūxeram dūxerās dūxerat dūxerāmus dūxerātis dūxerant
Pluperfect dūx issem dūx issēs dūx isset dūx issēmus dūx issētis dūx issent
duct us eram duct us erās duct us erat duct ī erāmus duct ī erātis duct ī erant
dūcēbam dūcēbās dūcēbat dūcēbāmus dūcēbātis dūcēbant
Plur. dūcam dūcēs dūcet dūcēmus dūcētis dūcent Perfect dūxerim dūxerīs dūxerit dūxerīmus dūxerītis dūxerint dūcar dūcēris or –re dūcētur dūcēmur dūcēminī dūcentur Perfect duct us sīmus duct us sītis duct us sint duct ī sīmus duct ī sītis duct ī sint Pluperfect duct us essem duct us essētis duct us esset duct ī essēmus duct ī essētis duct ī essent PASSIVE VOICE INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE Present dūcor dūcar dūceris or –re dūcāris or–re dūcitur dūcātur dūcimur dūcāmur dūciminī dūcāminī dūcuntur dūcantur Imperfect dūcēbar dūcerer dūcēbāris or –re dūcerēris or –re dūcēbātur dūcerētur dūcēbāmur dūcerēmur dūcēbāminī dūcerēminī dūcēbantur dūcerentur Future
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Third Conjugation Active principal parts: dūcō. be led ACTIVE VOICE INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE Present dūcō dūcam dūcis dūcās dūcit dūcat dūcimus dūcāmus dūcitis dūcātis dūcunt dūcant Imperfect dūcerem dūcerēs dūceret dūcerēmus dūcerētis dūcerent Future Sing.
dūc (irregular for dūce) dūcite Future 2nd pers. dūxerō dūxeris dūxerit dūxerimus dūxeritis dūxerint duct us erō duct us er is duct us er it duct ī er imus duct ī er itis duct ī er unt
Plur. dūcitō 3rd pers.
IMPERATIVE ACTIVE VOICE SING. dūcitō dūcitōte dūcuntō
PASSIVE VOICE SING. PLURA L Present 2nd pers. PLURA L Present dūcere dūciminī Future dūcitor dūcitor dūcuntor
Present Perfect Future
INFINITIVE ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE dūcere dūcī dūx isse — duct ūrus esse duct um īrī PARTICIPLE ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE dūcēns — — duct us duct ūrus dūcendus
Present Perfect Future
SUPINE (Active Voice) Accusative duct um Ablative duct ū GERUND (Active Voice) Genitive dūcendī Dative dūcendō Accusative dūcendum Ablative dūcendō
Future Perfect Sing.
be heard ACTIVE VOICE INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE Present aud iō aud iam aud īs aud iās aud it aud iat aud īmus aud iāmus aud ītis aud iātis aud iunt aud iant Imperfect aud īrem aud īrēs aud īret aud īrēmus aud īrētis aud īrent Future Sing. audītum.
audīveram audīverās audīverat audīverāmus audīverātis audīverant
audīt us eram audīt us erās audīt us erat audīt ī erāmus audīt ī erātis audīt ī erant
aud iēbam aud iēbās aud iēbat aud iēbāmus aud iēbātis aud iēbant
Plur. audīvī. audīre. audīrī.
Fourth Conjugation Active principal parts: audiō. hear Passive principal parts: audior.30
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Plur. audītus sum.
audīt us sum audīt us es audīt us est audīt ī sumus audīt ī estis audīt ī sunt
Sing. aud iam aud iēs aud iet aud iēmus aud iētis aud ient Perfect audīv ī audīverim audīv istī audīverīs audīv it audīverit audīv imus audīverīmus audīv istis audīverītis audīvēruntor–ēre audīverint Pluperfect audīv issem audīv issēs audīv isset audīv issēmus audīv issētis audīv issent aud iar aud iēris or –re aud iētur aud iēmur aud iēminī aud ientur Perfect audīt us sīmus audīt us sītis audīt us sint audīt ī sīmus audīt ī sītis audīt ī sint Pluperfect audīt us essem audīt us essētis audīt us esset audīt ī essēmus audīt ī essētis audīt ī essent PASSIVE VOICE INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE Present aud ior aud iar aud īris or –re aud iāris or–re aud ītur aud iātur aud īmur aud iāmur aud īminī aud iāminī aud iuntur aud iantur Imperfect aud iēbar aud īrer aud iēbāris or –re aud īrēris or –re aud iēbātur aud īrētur aud iēbāmur aud īrēmur aud iēbāminī aud īrēminī aud iēbantur aud īrentur Future
PLURA L Present Present 2nd pers. audīverō audīveris audīverit audīverimus audīveritis audīverint
Future Perfect audīt us erō audīt us er is audīt us er it audīt ī er imus audīt ī er itis audīt ī er unt
IMPERATIVE ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE SING. aud ī aud īte aud īre aud īminī Future 2nd pers. aud ītō aud ītōte 3rd pers. aud ītō aud iuntō Future aud ītor aud ītor aud iuntor
Present Perfect Future
INFINITIVE ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE aud īre aud īrī audīv isse — audīt ūrus esse audīt um īrī PARTICIPLE ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE aud iēns — — audīt us audīt ūrus aud iendus
Present Perfect Future
SUPINE (Active Voice) Accusative audīt um Ablative audīt ū GERUND (Active Voice) Genitive aud iendī Dative aud iendō Accusative aud iendum Ablative aud iendō
Future Perfect Sing. PLURA L SING.
cēperam cēperās cēperat cēperāmus cēperātis cēperant
Pluperfect cēpissem cēpissēs cēpisset cēpissēmus cēpissētis cēpissent
capt us eram capt us erās capt us erat capt ī erāmus capt ī erātis capt ī erant
Sing. cēpī. capī.
Third -iō Conjugation Active principal parts: capiō.
Plur. capiam capiēs capiet capiēmus capiētis capient Perfect cēperim cēperīs cēperit cēperīmus cēperītis cēperint capiar capiēris or –re capiētur capiēmur capieminī capientur Perfect capt us sīmus capt us sītis capt us sint capt ī sīmus capt ī sītis capt ī sint Pluperfect capt us essem capt us essētis capt us esset capt ī essēmus capt ī essētis capt ī essent PASSIVE VOICE INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE Present capior capiar caperis or –re capiāris or –re capitur capiātur capimur capiāmur capiminī capiāminī capiuntur capiantur Imperfect capiēbar capierer capiēbāris or –re capierēris or –re capiēbātur capierētur capiēbāmur capierēmur capiēbāminī capierēminī capiēbantur capierentur Future
capiēbam capiēbās capiēbat capiēbāmus capiēbātis capiēbant
Plur. captus sum. be taken ACTIVE VOICE INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE Present capiō capiam capis capiās capit capiat capimus capiāmus capitis capiātis capiunt capiant Imperfect caperem caperēs caperet caperēmus caperētis caperent Future Sing. captum.32
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71. take Passive principal parts: capior.
cēpī cēpistī cēpit cēpimus cēpistis cēpēruntor–ēre
capt us sum capt us es capt us est capt ī sumus capt ī estis capt ī sunt
PLURA L Present Present 2nd pers. capitō capitōte 3rd pers.
IMPERATIVE ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE SING. PLURA L SING.Grammatical Appendix
Future Perfect Sing. cape capite capere capiminī Future 2nd pers. capitō capiuntō Future capitor capitor capiuntor
Present Perfect Future
INFINITIVE ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE capere capī cēpisse — capt ūrus esse capt um īrī PARTICIPLE ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE capiēns — — capt us capt ūrus capiendus
Present Perfect Future
SUPINE (Active Voice) Accusative capt um Ablative capt ū GERUND (Active Voice) Genitive capiendī Dative capiendō Accusative capiendum Ablative capiendō
. cēperō cēperis cēperit cēperimus cēperitis cēperint capt us erō capt us er is capt us er it capt ī er imus capt ī er itis capt ī er unt
adgrediendī. But the future passive participle remains passive in meaning. it usually contracts to īs. –ū
adgressum. In the indicative. hortārī. follow partītus sum. –ū
Contracted Forms When the perfect stem ends in v. SUPINE secut um. Examples: audiī for audīvī. hortor. fear sum. Such forms are sometimes called syncopated. and the imperative. nōrim for nōverim. –ō. the v is sometimes dropped. Deponent Verbs Deponent verbs have passive forms with active meanings. share 2nd (§68) 3rd (§69) 4th (§70) INFINITIVE sequ ī secūt us esse secūt ūrus esse PARTICIPLE sequēns secūt us secūt ūrus sequendus GERUND sequendī. adgressus sum.34
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72. and – ōvī. they have the following active forms: future infi nitive. gerund. present and future participles. a. urge 1st (§67) vereor. partior. etc. vē. and the perfect participle is sometimes passive in meaning.
Present Perfect Future
hortārī hortāt us esse hortāt ūrus esse
verērī verit us esse verit ūrus esse
part īrī partīt us esse partīt ūrus esse
adgred ī adgressus esse adgressūrus esse
Present Perfect Future Future passive
hortāns hortāt us hortāt ūrus hortandus
verēns verit us verit ūrus verendus
partiēns partīt us partīt ūrus partiendus
adgrediēns adgressus adgressūrus adgrediendus
hortandī. –ō etc. When the combination of vowels resulting from this is iis. and usually the two vowels are brought together as a result contract. –ō etc. sum.
verendī. – ēvī. laudāsse for laudāvisse. hortātus sum. sometimes (seem to) drop ve. audisse for audīvisse. On the other hand. verērī. attack 3rd –iō (§71)
73. sequī. –ō etc. the subjunctive. Examples: laudāsti for laudāvistī. delērunt for delēvērunt. –ū adgredior. adgredī. Perfects in –āvī. veritus secūtus partīrī. audieram for audīveram. –ū
. sequor. b. –ō etc. Perfects in –īvī and other tenses based on the same stem sometimes drop v in all forms. or vi before r or s. and other tenses based on the same stem.
partīt um. supine. the following verbs have the same forms that the verbs in their corresponding conjugation outlined above (§§68–71) have in the passive voice.
Imperfect: laudandus eram. I am to be praised. I intend to praise. They are formed by combining the future active participle with the verb sum: Present: laudātūrus sum. trust Periphrastic Constructions Active periphrastic constructions express thoughts about future or intended action. potes.
76. audeō. potestis. prōsum. There is a present participle: absēns. I was about to praise. solēre. in. etc. audēre. For the conjugation of sum. ob. ausus sum. sum is conjugated in the same way. solitus sum. possunt poteram poterō potu ī potueram potuerō INFINITIVE posse potuisse SUBJUNCTIVE possim possem potuerim potuissem
74. which yields āfuī. I intended to praise. prōdesse and prōderam. see §66. prōsunt. rejoice soleō. but ā is used instead of ab before f. as in. Possum. prae. be able. be accustomed fīdō. The present tense is.
Semi-Deponent Verbs Semi-deponent verbs have active forms for the tenses based on the present stem and passive forms for the tenses based on the perfect stem. prōsumus. fīsus sum. fīdere. prōdes. is a compound of pot– and sum. Sum is conjugated in the same way when combined in compounds with the prepositions ad.
Irregular Verbs Sum And Its Compounds 77. and super. potuī Present Imperfect Future Perfect Pluperfect Future Perfect INDICATIVE possum. Imperfect: laudātūrus eram.
75. āfutūrus. prōdestis.
Passive periphrastic constructions express obligation or necessity. prōdest.
PARTICIPLE potēns —
. gaudēre. etc. 79. 78. gavīsus sum. Praesum has a present participle: praesēns. I had to be praised. inter. They are formed by combining the future passive participle with the verb sum: Present: laudandus sum. In the compound absum. I am about to praise. sum is conjugated in the same way. etc. potest possumus. dē. can. sub. posse. but the preposition prō has its original form prōd before all forms of sum beginning with e. In the compound prōsum. dare gaudeō. I was to be praised. Principal parts: possum. I have to be praised.
fer unt ferēbam feram tul ī tuleram tulerō SUBJUNCTIVE feram fer rem tulerim tul issem
PASSIVE VOICE Present Imperfect Future Perfect Pluperfect Future Perfect INDICATIVE feror. fer ris. ferre. fer tis.
ferō. fers. fer t fer imus.36
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81. tulī. lātum. fer tur fer imur. carry ACTIVE VOICE Present Imperfect Future Perfect Pluperfect Future Perfect INDICATIVE ferō. fer iminī. fer untur ferēbar ferar lāt us sum lāt us eram lāt us erō ACTIVE IMPERATIVE fer fer te fer tō fer tōte fer tō fer tuntō INFINITIVE fer re tul isse lāt ūrus esse PARTICIPLE ferēns — SUBJUNCTIVE ferar fer rer lāt us sim lāt us essem
PASSIVE fer re fer tor fer tor fer iminī fer untor
Present Perfect Future
fer rī lāt us esse lāt um īrī
– lāt us
82. nōluī. be unwilling mālō.
volō. māluī. be willing nōlō. prefer Present volō vīs vult volumus vultis volunt volēbam volam voluī volueram voluerō INDICATIVE nōlō nōn vīs nōn vult nōlumus nōn vultis nōlunt nōlēbam nōlam nōluī nōlueram nōluerō SUBJUNCTIVE nōlim nōllem nōluerim nōluissem IMPERATIVE nōlī nōlītō nōlītō INFINITIVE nōlle nōluisse PARTICIPLE nōlēns mālō māvīs māvult mālumus māvultis mālunt mālēbam mālam māluī mālueram māluerō
Imperfect Future Perfect Pluperfect Future Perfect
Present Imperfect Perfect Pluperfect
velim vellem voluerim voluissem
mālim māllem māluerim māluissem
nōlīte nōlītōte nōluntō
. voluī. mālle. velle. nolle.
īte Fut. ā appears only in the following active forms: dās. ītō ītō INDICATIVE eō. fierī Perf.38
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83. iēns (Gen. iisse or īsse Fut.
eō. 85. ītis. In this case. factus sum Present Imperfect Future Perfect Pluperfect Future Perfect IMPERATIVE Pres. happen. fierī. ī. fītis. euntis)
Fut. except that the stem-vowel is regularly short a. dā. Principal parts: fīō. itūrus SUPINE itum. it īmus. ii usually contracts to ī before s. become. eunt ībam ībō iī ( for īvī) ieram ierō INFINITIVE Pres. fīs. īs. dedī. give. fit fīmus. fīunt fīēbam fīam factus sum factus eram factus erō INFINITIVE Pres. īre. itum. In the tenses based on the perfect stem. iī. Dō. be made. –ū
a. is conjugated like a verb of the fi rst conjugation. make. fī. SUBJUNCTIVE eam īrem ierim iissem or īssem
PARTICIPLE Pres. dare. supplies the irregular passive of faciō. ī becomes ĭ. itūrus esse GERUND eundī.
Fīō. etc. The vowel ī appears before all vowels except before the vowel e when e appears in the combination –er. factus esse SUBJUNCTIVE fīam fierem factus sim factus essem
PARTICIPLE Perf. fīte INDICATIVE fīō. factus
84. be done. datum. īrī Perf.
. go Present Imperfect Future Perfect Pluperfect Future Perfect IMPERATIVE Pres. dāns.
it pleases. the passive form coeptus sum is regularly used when a passive infi nitive depends on it. I hate. he began to be praised. Most verbs expressing actions of nature. The passives of most intransitive verbs. pudet. Perfect Pluperfect Future Perfect INDICATIVE meminī ōdī memineram ōderam meminerō ōderō SUBJUNCTIVE meminerim ōderim meminissem ōdissem IMPERATIVE mementō mementōte INFINITIVE meminisse ōdisse ōsūrus esse PARTICIPLE ōsus ōsūrus coepī coeperam coeperō
coepisse coeptūrus esse
a. it concerns. it becomes. it causes pity . it is permitted. as pugnātur. Impersonal verbs include: a. miseret. from accēdō. Notice that meminī and ōdī. They have no personal subject. rēfert. and coepī. The following. it displeases. and occasionally in the participles and gerund. are used with present meanings. Their pluperfects and future perfects have the meanings of imperfects and futures. such as accēdit. piget. it rains. oportet. I remember. They appear only in the third person singular of the indicative and subjunctive tenses.
87. c. it is right. Example: laudārī coeptus est. Impersonal Verbs Impersonal verbs correspond to English impersonals with it. d. Instead of coepī.
Defective Verbs The most important defective verbs (defective because they lack present tense forms) are the perfects meminī. it shames. I have begun. licet. it repents. ōdī. I approach. libet. Personal verbs that are used impersonally with a special meaning. paenitet. it wearies. b.
. the present and perfect infi nitives.Grammatical Appendix
86. taedet. such as pluit. All of these except rēfert belong to the second conjugation. but most of them take as subject a substantive clause or sometimes a neuter pronoun. it is fought. it is added. although perfect in form. which are exclusively impersonal: decet.
A sentence is a group of words brought together to express a complete thought.40
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88. could not be used in this sense. For further clearness many relations are expressed in Latin by prepositions. because. except the nominative and the vocative. Consequently we must know what uses each case can have. he was killed by a soldier. for.e. after. Example: Caesar vēnit. interrogative. Th is is shown in English almost entirely by word order and by the use of prepositions. is quite probably used in this way. expresses more than one thing. by conjunctions with such meanings as in order that. The clauses are connected by relative pronouns or by subordinating conjunctions. or. while multōs annōs. Latin sentences are declarative. i. 90. The cases help to show in what relation to the rest of a sentence any given substantive stands.
The Function of Cases
92. imperative. but. but mīlitem. Example: Caesar vēnit et Gallī fūgērunt.. Examples: the accusative may express duration of time. and must then determine which one of these uses it has in the sentence in which it occurs.. These two essential parts may be modified in various ways. But each of the cases. A Complex Sentence consists of a simple sentence (called the main or principal clause). A Simple Sentence has one subject and one predicate. although. and. Dīcit pīlum mīlitem vulnerāvisse might mean either he says that a javelin wounded the soldier. illustrate the use of the Latin cases: the ending ’s in the soldier’s arms indicates that soldier modifies arms and that the soldier is the possessor of the arms. he kills the soldier (direct object). and the predicate (what is said about the subject). many years. As in English. if. Example: ubi Caesar vēnit. although not by so many as in English.
94. he persuaded. before. because the subject is implied by its ending. when Caesar came. Th is can be determined sometimes by the meaning of the word itself. i. sometimes by the obvious meaning of the sentence. sometimes by the fact that another word needs a certain case to satisfy its meaning and that case appears just once in the sentence. Only word order shows the relation of the word soldier to the rest of the sentence. and are connected by coordinating conjunctions. but the latter makes much less sense. cum mīlite vēnit. when. or exclamatory. if there is just one dative in the sentence. however. needs a dative to express the person persuaded.
91. so that.
93. 89. mīlitem in the second. A Compound Sentence consists of two or more simple sentences of equal value. modified by one or more dependent sentences (called subordinate or dependent clauses). and mīlitī in the third. But in the English sentences the soldier (subject) fights. while in Latin mīles would be used in the fi rst sentence. Examples: ā mīlite interfectus est. It consists of at least two parts—the subject (about which something is said). he gives the soldier (indirect object) a sword. A sentence may consist of a single verb. the Gauls fled. a soldier. Caesar came and the Gauls fled. its use is then evident.
. The possessive case in English may. Caesar came. or a soldier wounded the javelin. by conjunctions with such meanings as and.e. he came with (in the company of) a soldier. Persuāsit. Gallī fūgērunt. These sentences are called coordinate clauses.
or that someone loves his father (objective). it is an objective genitive. connected by sum or a similar linking verb. it is a subjective genitive. regnī cupiditate (1. Examples: Pīsō.1.
98. (subjective). according to their meanings into the groups arranged below in §§98–105. or (b) predicative. but does not represent the same person or thing (compare §95) is put in the genitive case. become. a.
. the consul. Pīsō appellātus est cōnsul. Examples of such linking verbs include appear. the house is Caesar’s. 1.1). Appositional Genitive. Example: Gallia est dīvīsa (1. occīsum sōlis (1..
The Genitive Case
97. that sewage. These depend on nouns that have corresponding verbal ideas. as in domus Caesaris. The thought expressed by the noun and limiting genitive can be expanded into a sentence. Examples: Pīsō fuit cōnsul. it sometimes represents the same person or thing as the noun on which it depends. the love of the father. If the genitive then becomes the subject. from amō. Example: tuōrum comitum sentīna (Cic. the setting of the sun (subjective). Compare §97. such as amor. Piso. mīlitī Pīsōnī gladium dedit.2.
The Nominative Case
96. and the like.Grammatical Appendix
Agreement of Substantives (Nouns)
95. Caesar’s house. b. Cat. The nominative case is used for the subject of a finite verb (i. gave a sword to Piso. be chosen. the soldier. subjunctive. seem. but also often with for or with other prepositions. a. depending directly upon another noun. I love. verbs in the indicative. RULE: A noun in apposition to other nouns is set next to the noun that it explains without a connecting verb. may imply that the father loves. cōnsul. A genitive may be either (a) attributive. Gaul is divided. But the genitive is sometimes used instead of an appositive. by the desire for power (objective).e. Pīsō factus est cōnsul. be regarded. These combinations of nouns are divided. Attributive Subjective and Objective Genitives. etc. Examples: amor patris.. RULE: A predicate noun is connected with the subject by sum or by a similar linking verb. The relationship between two nouns is usually expressed in English with the preposition of.2). Such a noun may be either a predicate noun or an appositive. Piso was called consul.e. Piso was consul. see §126. your comrades (literally “the sewage of your comrades”). be called.22). as is domus est Caesaris. love.. For the predicate accusative with verbs of calling. Genitive with Nouns GENERA L RULE: A noun that explains or limits another noun.12). if it becomes the object. and imperative moods). Piso became consul.1. i. RULE: A noun that explains another noun and represents the same person or thing is put into the same case.
18. RULE: The genitive may express the whole of which a part is mentioned.14). Note especially the genitive of a noun. for my sake. especially with cardinal numerals and with quīdam.4). Example: hī omnēs (1. RULE: The genitive modified by an adjective may describe a person or thing by naming some quality.16). depending on a neuter singular adjective or pronoun or on satis used substantively. quantī. Example: ūnus ē fīliīs captus est (1.17). b. ubinam gentium sumus (Cic. the bravest of all these. Predicative 103.24.1. 105. 104. Examples: huius potentiae causā (1. for the sake of. parvī.7). satis causae (1.15). Cat. a. Partitive Genitive (Genitive of the Whole). 102. indefi nite value is expressed by the genitive. Examples: eōrum ūna pars (1. The Genitive of Value. a battle line (consisting) of four legions.20. In place of this genitive the ablative with dē or ex is often used. The possessive genitive (§99) is often used predicatively.5. hōrum omnium fortissimī (1.
Caesar De Bello Gallico
99. Example: est hoc Gallicae cōnsuetūdinis (4. a decree of this kind.3). The possessive adjectives are regularly used instead of the possessive genitive of personal pronouns. by your territory. this is a characteristic of the Gallic customs. all of these. RULE: The genitive may express the material of which a thing is composed.5. tantī. Note especially such phrases as est hominis.
Possessive Genitive. 1. he assured him that his fr iendship was of such value.6). Example: senātūs cōnsultum est huiusce modī. adjective. Cat. characteristic) of a man. it is the part (duty. English often uses of in apparently similar phrases when there is really no partitive idea.26. trium mēnsium molita cibāria (1.3). A genitive or possessive adjective must precede causā or grātiā. pronoun. by the territory of the Belgae versus fīnibus vestrīs. one of his sons was captured. Th is genitive may depend on any substantive. where in (not of) the world are we? a.40. and with verbs of valuing. or of the neuter singular of a second declension adjective used substantively. meā causā. Examples: huiuscemodī senātūs cōnsultum (Cic. Latin does not then use the genitive. Example: aciem legiōnum quatt uor (1.4). RULE: The genitive may express the possessor. 101. Compare the descriptive ablative (§141). minōris. sufficient (of) reason. 1. plūris.19. Example: tantī eius grātiam esse ostendit (1. one part of them. the decree is of this kind.14). Examples: quantum bonī (1.
100. food for three months. Descriptive Genitive. Compare the ablative of price (§147). Descriptive Genitive. Th is genitive is regularly used to express measure. Example: fīnibus Belgārum (1.12). or adverb which implies a part of a whole. With sum and verbs of similar meaning. c. Possessive Genitive. for the sake of this power.1. The descriptive genitive (§100) is often used predicatively.6).1. The words commonly so used are magnī.1.9). how much (of) good. Genitive of Material.
and the accusative of the person who has the feeling. it is to my interest. The genitive is more common of living objects. Cat. and condemning take a genitive of the charge. take the genitive of the person or thing which causes the feeling. 111. paenitet. a place midway between them. Interest and Rēfert. and their opposites. Verbs of Emotion. unlike. mē eius miseret or eius misereor. bear in mind. Examples: mē meōrum factōrum numquam paenitēbit (Cic. Occasionally other adjectives.3. Examples: bellandī cupidī (1.14. pity. 109. pudet. b.13. RULE: The impersonal verbs interest and rēfert. RULE: Many adjectives take a genitive to complete their meaning. and oblīvīscor. RULE: Verbs of accusing. Example: mē inertiae condemnō (Cic. RULE: Potior occasionally governs the genitive. Example: tuī similis (Cic. it is to the interest of the state. Verbs of Remembering and Forgetting. For potior with the ablative see §145. Examples: reminīscerētur veteris incommodī (1. it is to the interest of. convicting.2. meā interest.22). Examples: reī pūblicae intersit (2. The penalty is expressed by the ablative. Cat. They are: a. But if the person is expressed in English by a personal pronoun.13). acquitting. adjectives with such meanings as conscious (of). The genitive is regular of persons. to forget the former insult. probable (like the truth). Verbs of Judicial Action. piget.
. sometimes with the dative (§122). Genitive with Verbs 107. full (of). desirous of fighting. 108. pity. and plēnus. veteris contumēliae oblīvīscī (1. I pity him. skilled (in). RULE: The Impersonal verbs miseret. c. I shall never repent of my deeds.5. repent.11).5).20). dislike.21. Example: Galliae potīrī (1. remember.9).2). Sometimes with the genitive. desirous (of). most skilled in military science.11). 110. sharing (in). take the genitive of the person concerned.5). forget. vērī simile (3.Grammatical Appendix
Genitive with Adjectives 106. taedet. like.13. be disgusted.34. 1. be ashamed. Regularly. Cat. similis. to become masters of Gaul.7). Example: locum medium utrīusque (1. interest is used with the ablative singular feminine of a possessive pronoun. dissimilis. RULE: Mēminī. also takes the genitive. like you. I pronounce myself guilty of inactivity. the accusative of neuter pronouns. It concerns. 1.rēs mīlitāris perītissimus (1. he should remember the former disaster. govern either the genitive or the accusative. and regular of personal pronouns. reminīscor. mindful (of).4). The personal verb misereor. 4.
very rarely. a. give. RULE: Many verbs govern an indirect object in addition to a dirert object.7. Allobrogibus imperāvit (1. he persuaded them of this (literally. but each with a different meaning. if you consult me (ask my advice). less often by for.44
Caesar De Bello Gallico
The Dative Case
112.3.3). iuvō. he persuaded the state. Cat. favor. Examples: prōvinciae mīlitum numerum imperat (1. It may also modify a whole sentence without depending on any one word. while the dative of reference (§120) modifies the whole clause. trust. the indirect object with such verbs in Latin must be translated with a direct object in English. he gives (to) him a daughter. he commands Labienus. consult or consult for. c. b). Example: Labiēnum iubet (1. vetō.13). The dative is used with all intransitive verbs whose meaning permits it. and the dative is retained. becomes Caesarī ā mē persuādētur. The dative may depend on a verb or on an adjective or.21. forbid. or the accusative of the person and the ablative of the thing. it is persuaded to Caesar by me). I give (to) him a book. Indirect Object. I persuade Caesar. envy. delight. The dative expresses that to or for which anything is done or is. command or obey. c. Not all verbs with the meanings given above are intransitive. id eīs persuāsit (1. on a noun. fear or fear for. 115. spare. please. Indirect Object with Intransitive Verbs. and the like. Dōnō. Examples: Caesarī persuādeō. a.5). although it is usually translated as a subject. Because many of these verbs seem to be transitive in English. The indirect object depends closely on the verb. he levies a number of soldiers on the province. instead of permitt ing both the accusative and the dative.
. believe.28. which are transitive and therefore take the accusative (§124).4).9. RULE: The dative (usually of the person) is used with many verbs meaning benefit or injure.8). 114. a daughter is given to him. he commanded the Allobroges.3). Especially cōnsulō. Some verbs.19. The dative is usually translated by to. and metuō. Verbs of giving and saying take an indirect object especially frequently. threaten. present. The dative is used with some phrases of similar meanings. serve or resist. The most important exceptions are the verbs dēlectō.6).7). Since only the direct object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive (§124. Example: eī fīliam dat (1.2. Examples: sī mē cōnsulis (Cic. Examples: cīvitātī persuāsit (1.2. pardon. Many of these verbs which are ordinarily intransitive occasionally take an accusative of the thing. and a few other verbs take either the dative of the person and the accusative of the thing. no intransitive verb can have a personal subject in the passive. 4. GENERA L RULE: The dative denotes the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of a verb. Caesar is persuaded by me (literally. usually a neuter pronoun. cōnsulite vōbīs (Cic. as audiēns sum. d. persuade. eum librō dōnō. trust or distrust. The verbs of §115 can be used in the passive only impersonally. Cat. I present him with a book. 1. and fidem habēre. Th is use of the dative is retained with the passive voice. b. Example: cui fidem habēbat (1. he persuaded this to them). can use either. b. he was anxious for a revolution. consult for yourselves (for your own interests).15).15). please or displease. For the indirect object with transitive verbs compounded with a preposition (“dative with the compound verb”: see §116. 113. iubeō command.novīs rēbus studēbat (1. Indirect Object with Transitive Verbs. Example: eī fīlia datur. whom he trusted. obey. Examples: eī librum dōnō.
which is used with the other forms of the passive. instead of the dative. assault. RULE: The dative is used with compounds of satis and bene.13). Th is dative is especially common with sum. oppugnō. super. burn. If the simple verb is transitive. The dative is retained with the passive. he decided that he must not wait (literally. post. dative of possession) in the “double dative construction.5). b. 118. having snatched a shield from a soldier.2. Dative of Possession. sub. interficiō. especially if the dative would be ambiguous. Th is is the case especially if place is designated or if motion is expressed. but there are many others. it is sometimes called the dative of separation.9). Example: cīvitātī ā tē persuādendum est. ob.30. since they excelled all.25.12).14. or some other preposition is used.19).7). The Indirect Object with Compound Verbs. and ex. Example: illum in equum intulit (6.
. the compound verb governs a direct object in addition to the indirect. prō. mūnītiōnī Labiēnum praeficit (1.11. dative of reference. It is often found in connection with another dative (indirect object.10. if they make restitution to the Aedui. scūtō mīlitī dētractō (2. that it must not be waited by him). 119.13). adgredior. I. in Latin. Example: mūnītiōnī Labiēnus praeficitur. he put him on a horse. Dative of Purpose (and the “Double Dative”). The ablative of agent (§137) is often used with the passive periphrastic. the state must be persuaded by you. Compare the ablative of agent (§137). When they are compounded with verbs. Very often with these compounds the preposition is repeated. incendō. The dative is variously translated with such verbs: when it is translated with from. Example: eōs adgressus (1. Example: sī Aeduīs satisfaciant (1.12. having attacked (or attacking) them.11.25.18. who were guarding the rear (literally. I have a book (literally a book is to me). RULE: The dative may express purpose or tendency. whom they had sent to aid Caesar (literally. con. RULE: The dative is used in the predicate with sum to denote the possessor. inter. II. RULE: The dative is used with the passive periphrastic (§76) to express the agent.12). a. Examples: mihi est liber. and with some compounds of ab. c.15). 117. The meaning of the compound does not always permit the dative. Among the most important exceptions are the transitive verbs. governing its proper case.2. he puts Labienus in command of the works.14). kill. prae. The dative of possession may be translated as a nominative with the verb have.27). circum. dēmonstrant sibi nihil esse (1. quī novissimīs praesidiō erant (1. Examples: cum omnibus praestārent (1. ante. dē. RULE: The dative is required with many compounds of ad. fīnitimīs bellum īnferre (1.Grammatical Appendix
116. to make war upon their neighbors. Dative of Agent. there was nothing to them). a. Labienus is put in command of the works. they declared that they had nothing (literally. in. whom they had sent for an aid to Caesar). Example: nōn exspectandum sibi statuit (1. certain prepositions usually give those verbs a meaning that. attack. requires the dative. who were for a guard to the rear).” Examples: quem auxiliō Caesarī mīserant (1.
Direct Object. RULE: Adjectives meaning fr iendly or unfr iendly. a.5). as coniūrātiōnem fēcit. he formed a conspiracy. Many compounds of intransitive verbs with prepositions. Cat. but flūmen trānsīre. he took out “my” Tongilius. they order each one to carry food for himself.
The Accusative Case
123.3).8). proximī sunt Germānīs (1. a place suitable for a camp. useful or useless. intransitive. per. The direct object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive.9). or simply he took out Tongilius.4). some of these adjectives use a preposition that takes its proper case. 122. Many verbs that are transitive in English are. b.14). see especially §115. coniūrātiō facta est. RULE: The accusative is used as the subject of the infinitive. especially ad. 262. The direct object may be either (a) the person or thing directly affected by the action of the verb. or suitable govern the dative. near. The direct object may be a substantive clause (§§228. praeter. Ethical Dative.31.3. Example: proximī Rhenum (1. It often takes the place of a genitive modifying a noun.4). in. Examples: puer laudātur. sēsē Caesarī ad pedēs prōiēcērunt (1. RULE: The accusative is used with transitive verbs to express the direct object.46
Caesar De Bello Gallico
120. but loosely modifies the whole predicate. For similis and dissimilis.12. 121. circum. Th is dative does not depend on any one word (compare §113). have transitive meanings. Examples: plēbī acceptus (1. nearest the Rhine. to go. Dative of Reference. Dative with Adjectives. as puerum laudat. acceptable (pleasing) to the people. Example: Tongilium mihi ēdūxit (Cic. Example: ad amīcitiam idōneus. equal. d. RULE: The dative may name the person with reference to whom the statement is made. The ethical dative is a dative of reference with so weak a meaning as to be unnecessary to the sense. a conspiracy was formed. he took “me” out Tongilius. Instead of a dative. trāns. he praises the boy. and thus take accusative direct objects. or (b) the thing produced by the action of the verb. Subject of Infi nitive. Its use is confi ned to personal pronouns.1. he was informed that the Helvetii had led across. sub. he took out Tongilius (“and I have some interest in this”). Example: īre.54. castrīs idōneum locum (6. 229. like or unlike. Like the preposition prope. they are nearest to the Germans.5). see §106. 2. a. Examples: cibāria sibi quemque efferre iubent (1. 277). 124. Example: certior factus est Helvētiōs trādūxisse (1. b.5. the adjectives propior and proximus and the adverbs propius and proximē sometimes govern the accusative. to cross (go across) the river. they threw themselves at Caesar’s feet.
. c. It designates the person to whom the thought is of interest and usually shows some emotion. however. c. intransitive in Latin. the boy is praised. fit. b. suitable for fr iendship.10.
125. Two Objects. A few verbs take two objects, one of the person, one of the thing. a. RULE: Verbs of asking, demanding, and teaching, (also celō, I conceal) have a direct object of the thing, and may have another of the person. Example: Aeduōs frūmentum flāgitāre (1.16.1), he kept asking the Aedui for the grain. But with verbs of asking and demanding the person is usually expressed by the ablative with ab. Example: eadem ab aliīs quaerit (1.18.5), he asked the same question of others. b. RULE: Moneō, I warn, advise, and a few other verbs may take an accusative of the person and the neuter accusative of a pronoun or adjective of the thing. The pronoun is an inner accusative (§128, a). Examples: eōs hoc moneō (Cic. Cat. 2.20), I give them this advice; sī quid ille sē velit (1.34.6), if he wanted anything of him. c. With the passive forms of these verbs the accusative of the person becomes the subject, and the accusative of the thing is retained. Example: Aeduī frūmentum flāgitābantur, the Aedui were asked for the grain; (eī) hoc monentur, they are given this advice. 126. Object and Predicate Accusative. RULE: Verbs of making, choosing, calling, regarding, showing, and the like take a direct object and a predicate accusative, both referring to the same person or thing. The predicate accusative may be either a noun or an adjective. Examples: quem rēgem cōnstituerat (4.21.14), whom he had appointed king; Caesarem certiōrem fēcit, he informed Caesar (made Caesar more certain). a. With the passive forms of these verbs the direct object becomes the subject, and the predicate accusative becomes the predicate nominative (§95, a). Examples: quī rēx cōnstitūtus erat, who had been appointed king; Caesar certior factus est (1.12.5), Caesar was informed (made more certain). 127. Two Objects with Compounds. RULE: Transitive verbs compounded with trāns may take one object depending on the verb, another depending on the preposition. Example: trēs partēs flūmen trādūxērunt (1.12.6), they led three parts across the river. a. With the passive of these verbs the object of the verb becomes the subject, the object of the preposition is retained. Example: trēs partēs flūmen trāductae sunt, three parts were led across the river. 128. Cognate Accusative. RULE: An intransitive verb may take an accusative of a noun of related meaning, usually modified by an adjective or genitive. Examples: eam vītam vīvere, to live that life; trīduī viam prōcēdere (1.38), to advance a three days’ march. a. A neuter accusative of a pronoun or adjective is often used in a similar way. Th is is sometimes called an inner accusative. Examples: id eīs persuāsit (1.2.3), he persuaded them of this (literally he persuaded this to them); multum posse, to have much power. b. Adverbial Accusative. A few accusatives are used adverbially. In some cases it is impossible to decide whether an accusative should be classed here or under a. The most common adverbial accusatives are multum, much, plūs, more, plūrimum, most, plērumque, for the most part, and nihil, not at all. Under this rubric belong also id temporis (Cic. Cat. 1.10), at that time, and maximam partem (4.1.14), for the most part. Example: multum sunt in venātiōne (4.1.15), they engage much in hunting.
Caesar De Bello Gallico
129. Accusative in Exclamations. RULE: An accusative is sometimes used as an exclamation. Example: O fortūnātam rem pūblicam (Cic. Cat. 2.7), Oh, fortunate state! The nominative and vocative are less often used in the same way. 130. Accusative of Time and Space. RULE: The accusative is used to express duration of time and extent of space. The noun must be one meaning time or distance, as, diēs, day, or pēs, foot. Compare §152 and §148. Examples: rēgnum multōs annōs obtinuerat (1.3.10), he had held the royal power many years; mīlia passuum ducenta quadrāgintā patēbant (1.2.16), extended two hundred and forty miles. 131. Place to Which. RULE: Place to which is regularly expressed by the accusative with ad or in, but the names of towns and the words domus and rūs omit the preposition. Compare §134, a, and §151. Examples: ad iūdicium coēgit (1.4.14), he brought to the trial; in agrum Nōricum trānsierant (1.5.11), they had crossed over into the Noreian territory; sē Massiliam cōnferet (Cic. Cat. 2.14), he will go to Marseilles; domum reditiōnis (1.5.6), of a return home. a. Ad is, however, sometimes used in the sense of towards (not to), or in the vicinity of. Example: ad Genavam pervenit (1.7.4), he reached the vicinity of Geneva.
The Vocative Case
132. The name of the person addressed is put in the vocative. Example: dēsilīte, commīlitōnes (4.25.11), jump down, comrades.
The Ablative Case
133. At an earlier stage in its development, Latin had two more cases than it has in its classical form: the instrumental and the locative. The original ablative meant separation (from), the instrumental meant association or instrument (with or by), and the locative meant place where (in). The forms of these three cases united in the Latin ablative. As a result, this single case has meanings that originally belonged to three separate cases. Th is fact accounts for the many and widely differing uses of the ablative. 134. Ablative of Separation. RULE: Separation is usually expressed by the ablative, with or without ab, dē, or ex. With some verbs both constructions are used. The individual usage of other verbs must be learned. For the so-called dative of separation see §116, I. Examples: suīs fīnibus eōs prohibent (1.1.13), they repel them from their own territory; quae hostem ā pugnā prohibērent (4.34.9), which kept the enemy from battle; ā Bibracte aberat (1.23.2), he was distant from Bibracte. a. Place from which: with verbs expressing motion: RULE: Place from which is expressed by the ablative with ab, dē, or ex, but the names of towns and the words domus and rūs omit the preposition. Compare §131 and §151. Examples: ut dē fīnibus suīs exīrent (1.2.4), to go out from their territory; quī ex prōvinciā convēnerant (1.8.2), who had gathered from the province; Rōmā profūgērunt (Cic. Cat. 1.7), they fled from Rome; domō exīre (1.6.1), to go out from home. Ab is, however, used with names of towns to express from the vicinity of.
b. RULE: With verbs and adjectives of depriving, freeing, being without, and the like, the ablative without a preposition is generally used. Examples: magnō mē metū līberābis (Cic. Cat. 1.10), you will free me from great fear; proeliō abstinēbat (1.22.11), refused battle (literally, refrained from battle). 135. Ablative of Source. RULE: The ablative, usually without a preposition, is used with the participles nātus and ortus to express parentage or rank. Examples: amplissimō genere nātus (4.12.13), born of the highest rank; sorōrem ex mātre (nātam) (1.18.16), his sister on his mother’s side. 136. Ablative of Material. RULE: The material of which anything is made is expressed by the ablative with ex, less often by the ablative with dē. Example: nāvēs factae ex rōbore (3.13.5), the ships were made of oak. 137. Ablative of Agent. RULE: The agent of the passive voice is expressed by the ablative with ab. The agent is the person who performs the act. Compare the ablative of means (§143), and the dative of agent (§118). Example: exercitum ab Helvētiīs pulsum (1.7.13), that his army had been routed by the Helvetii. 138. Ablative of Cause. RULE: Cause is expressed by the ablative, generally without a preposition. Examples: grātiā et largitiōne (1.9.5), because of his popularity and lavish giving; quod suā victoriā glōriārentur (1.14.11), that they boasted (because) of their victory. a. Cause is more frequently expressed by causā and the genitive (§99, a); by the accusative with ob, per, or propter; and by dē or ex with the ablative. Examples: propter angustiās (1.9.2), because of its narrowness; quā dē causā, (1.1.11), and for this reason. 139. Ablative of Comparison. RULE: With comparatives, “than” may be expressed by the ablative. Examples: lūce sunt clariōra tua cōnsilia (Cic. Cat. 1.6), your plans are clearer than day; nōn amplius quīnīs aut sēnīs mīlibus passuum (1.15.14), not more than five or six miles (compare b). Th is is not to be confused with the ablative of measure of difference (§148). a. When quam is used for than, the two nouns compared are in the same case. The ablative is generally used only when the fi rst noun is nominative or accusative, and when the sentence is negated. b. Plūs, minus, amplius, and longius are often used instead of plūs quam, etc. Example: quae amplius octingentae ūnō erant vīsae tempore (5.8.19), of which more than 800 had been in sight at one time. 140. Ablative of Accompaniment. RULE: Accompaniment is expressed by the ablative with cum. Example: ut cum omnibus cōpiīs exīrent (1.2.4), to go out with all their troops. In military phrases cum is sometimes omitted. Example: Caesar subsequēbātur omnibus cōpiīs (2.19.1), Caesar followed with all his troops.
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141. Descriptive Ablative. RULE: The ablative modified by an adjective may describe a person or thing by naming some quality. The ablative may be used in this way either att ributively or predicatively. Compare the descriptive genitive (§100). Examples: hominēs inimīcō animō (1.7.15), men of unfr iendly disposition; nōndum bonō animō vidērentur (1.6.11), they did not yet seem (to be) well disposed (of a good spirit). 142. Ablative of Manner. RULE: Manner is expressed by the ablative, usually with either cum or a modifying adjective, rarely with both. Examples: pars cum cruciātū necābātur (5.45.5), some were killed with torture; magnīs itineribus (1.10.8), by forced marches. a. Ablative of Accordance. RULE: In some common phrases the ablative means “in accordance with.” The ablative of accordance (or means with the meaning of “in accordance with”) is especially common with the following nouns, modified by either an adjective or a genitive—cōnsuētūdine, iūre, iussū (iniussū), lēge, mōribus, sententiā, sponte, voluntāte. Examples: iniussū suō (1.19.4), without his orders; mōribus suīs (1.4.1), in accordance with their customs; suā voluntāte (1.20.11), in accordance with his wish. b. Ablative of Attendant Circumstances. RULE: Sometimes the ablative expresses situation or an attendant circumstance. Usually it is impossible to distinguish clearly the ablative of attendant circumstances from the ordinary ablative of manner. Examples: imperiīs populī Rōmānī (1.18.22), under the sovereignty of the Roman people; intervāllō pedum duōrum iungēbat (4.17.9), he joined at a distance apart of two feet. 143. Ablative of Means. RULE: The means or instrument by which a thing is done is expressed by the ablative without a preposition. Compare the ablative of agent (§137). Example: rēgni cupiditāte inductus (1.2.2), influenced by the desire for royal power. a. Notice the ablative with the following words—verbs and adjectives of filling (except plēnus, §106); fīdō, cōnfīdō, trust in; nītor, rely upon ; lacessō (proeliō), provoke (to battle); adsuēfactus, adsuētus, accustomed to; frētus, relying upon. Examples: nātūrā locī cōnfīdēbant (3.9.12), they trusted in the nature of the country; nūllō officiō adsuēfactī (4.1.17), accustomed to no obedience. 144. Ablative of the Way. RULE: The road or way by which a person or thing goes is expressed by the ablative of means. Examples: frūmentō quod flūmine Ararī navibus subvexerat (1.16.5), the grain which he had brought up (by way of) the Saone; eōdem itinere contendit (1.21.8), he advanced by the same road. 145. Ablative with Special Deponent Verbs. The ablative is used with ūtor, use, fruor, enjoy, fungor, perform, fulfill, potior, get possession of, vēscor, eat, and their compounds. Th is is an ablative of means, but should be translated as a direct object. Examples: eōdem usī cōnsiliō (1.5.9), adopting (having used) the same plan; imperiō potīrī (1. 2.6), to get possession of the government.
But if the thing needed is expressed by a neuter pronoun or adjective it may be used as the subject. or a noun and an adjective.12). bought up at a low price. . (translated by subordinate clause) omnibus rēbus comparātīs diem dīcunt (1.Grammatical Appendix
146. 2.9. GENERA L RULES: 1. literally.10. Ablative with opus est. selling.9.1).4). when everything was ready they set a day.5. unworthy. Eō . Example: parvō pretiō redēmpta (1. if there should be need of action. (1. 149. they differ in language. but sometimes other translations are more convenient. may be translated the . Example: sī opus factō esset (1.2). may stand in the ablative absolute when English would connect them with the word “being.25). the.14. The ablative is used with comparatives and words of similar meaning to express the degree of difference.11). (translated by prepositional phrase) Marcō Messalā Marcō Pīsōne cōnsulibus (1.18. paucīs ante diēbus.1. before by a few days). Note the translations of the following examples: (translated by an active past participle) remōtīs equīs proelium commīsit (1. and indignus. 148. Caesar needs many auxiliaries. with opus as predicate noun. a. Th is construction is used much more frequently than we use the nominative absolute in English. Example: Caesarī multīs auxiliīs opus est.34. he waited for our men. 147. .2.
.11).35. Sometimes the ablative neuter of the perfect passive participle is used with opus est. Examples: linguā inter sē differunt (1.2).3). they occupied advantageous positions and tried. monte occupātō nostrōs exspectābat (1. Two nouns. The ablative is used with dignus. and for this reason it should be translated in some other way. although he had occupied the mountain. worthy. It is always possible to translate the construction as a subordinate clause. in this construction. 150.9).22.25. if the Sequani refused. older (greater in birth). Ablative of Degree of Difference. if he needed anything. Example: sī quid opus esset (1. less by nothing = nevertheless. Compare the genitive of value (§105). . a few days before (literally. a. Ablative Absolute. conantur (1. he began the battle.19).13).6. by his mediation. unworthy of themselves.5). Examples: nihilō minus (1.” The construction is called absolute (literally “cut loose from”) because it does not depend syntactically on anything else in the sentence. meaning there is need of. Compare §139.42.1). . price is expressed with the ablative. a. . etc. they could not go. RULE: With verbs of buying. and the like. RULE: The ablative of means is used with opus est and ūsūs est. eō deprecatōre (1. (translated by coordinate clause) locīs superiōribus occupātīs . in the consulship of Marcus Messala and Marcus Piso. he endured these things with more anger by that amount by which they had happened less deservedly = he was the more angry the less deservedly these things had happened. Ablative of Price. quō. maior nātū. A noun and a participle in the ablative may modify a sentence as a subordinate clause would. b.3). literally. Example: eō gravius ferre quō minus meritō accidissent (1. RULE: The ablative is used to express that in respect to which a statement is true. . Example: ipsīs indignum (5. Ablative of Respect or Specification. having sent the horses away.18. Sēquanīs invītīs īre nōn poterant (1.
the river is wide. a. they marched during that whole night. b) if they are singular nouns of the first and second declensions. although ab and ex are often found. RULE: Time when or within which is expressed by the ablative without a preposition. 155. at that time. respectively. RULE: No preposition is regularly used with locō. is crossed in several places. cotīdiānīs proeliīs contendunt (1. ex. prō. at home. Ablative of Time.13). id quod ipsī diēbus vīgintī aegerrimē confēcerant (1.13). c. prae.1). Latin often uses some other construction where the English would lead one to expect the construction of place in which. a. §16. cum. a thing which they had barely accomplished in (within) twenty days.
Predicate and Attributive Adjectives
156. So ab and ex are used to express position. or with any noun modified by tōtus. locīs. Accusative. The ablative rarely denotes duration of time. memoriā tenēbat (1.13. the wide river. parte.52
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151. Subter and super sometimes govern the ablative.12). he held in (by means of) memory. cōram. b. in the country. Ablative of Place Where. Examples: ūnā ex parte (1.
Cases with Prepositions
153.17). flūmen lātum. Accusative or Ablative.7).14). otherwise in the ablative without a preposition. everywhere throughout the entire camp. All other prepositions govern the accusative. are also in regular use. they contend in (by means of) daily battles. The locatives domī. It is always safe to use ā and ē before words beginning with a consonant.26. An attributive adjective modifies its noun without such a connecting verb.13). as. absque. tenus. a. Example: in eōrum fīnibus bellum gerunt (1. 154. and the ablative of means is often used instead of the ablative with in if the construction is at all appropriate. b. he had great influence at home. they fight in their territory. sine.6. partibus when accompanied by an adjective or an equivalent genitive.39. on one side.24. The following prepositions govern the ablative: ab. 152.2.1. A predicate adjective is connected with its noun by some part of the verb sum or a verb of similar meaning (see §95. and rūrī. at Samarobriva. b. RULE: Names of towns and small islands stand in the locative (§15.1.8). a.4).7. domī largiter posse (1. Compare the accusative of time (§130). Compare §131 and §134. Examples: nōn nūllīs locīs trānsītur (1. Examples: eō tempore (1. a). The forms ab and ex must be used before words beginning with a vowel or h.18. RULE: Place in which is regularly expressed by the ablative with in. Examples: Samarobrīvae (5.
. In and sub with the accusative imply motion from outside into and under. Example: eā tōtā nocte iērunt (1. vulgō tōtīs castrīs (1. dē. and usually with the relative and interrogative.12). as. Cum is enclitic with the personal and reflexive pronouns.3. flūmen est lātum. Ablative.
the last part of.15). the adjective regularly agrees with the nearest noun. many things. Comparatives and superlatives of both adjectives and adverbs are usually to be translated by the corresponding English forms. As a predicate. feminine rather than neuter.3). The superlative is often strengthened by quam. or the greatest possible number. montēs et flūmina sunt magna. prīmā nocte (1.14. multō diē. a. mulierī bonae. But the adjective may be neuter under almost any circumstances. summus mons (1. medius. Examples: multī. The masculine is used in all cases in the sense of man or men.12). number.1). Some adjectives are commonly used where English generally prefers adverbs. multārum. be plural. If the nouns are of the same gender the adjective usually takes that gender.
Adjectives with Partitive Meaning
Agreement of Adjectives
157. the top of. rather. many men. by the very high mountain Jura. a.. bellōrum magnōrum. prīmus. as great a number as possible.4). a good man and woman. īnfimus. otherwise it is neuter unless one or more of the nouns denote things with life. in which case the adjective is usually masculine rather than feminine. the bottom of.e. multārum rērum. and the feminine in the sense of woman or women. the mountains and rivers are large. Adjectives are rarely used as substantives (i. as nouns) in the singular. the top of the mountain.22. more commonly in the plural. quite long immunity.27.24.2. reliquus.3). 2. Examples: in colle mediō (1. Examples: quam maximum numerum (1. quam maximum potest numerum (1. Some adjectives mean only a part of an object.
Adjectives for Adverbs
159. in the first part of the night. with or without a form of possum. cupidius īnsecūtī (1. and commonly only in the nominative and accusative because these are the only cases in which masculine and neuter forms can be distinguished from each other. multae. therefore. the adjective regularly agrees with all the nouns to which it refers. but the comparative is sometimes to be translated by quite. multa.15. Examples: diūturniōrem impūnitātem (1. the middle of. multōrum. extrēmus. many women. literally he the first came = he came first or he was the first to come. late in the day.5). great wars and victories. prīmus vēnit.9). RULE: Adjectives (including participles and adjective pronouns) agree with their nouns in gender. or too. of great wars. on the middle of (half way up) the slope. An adjective can refer to more than one noun: 1. the men and their characters are good. The neuter is used in the sense of thing or things. a good man. and must. literally he came unwilling = he came unwillingly or he was unwilling to come. a). of many men.
. Examples: homō bonus. primarily when such adjectives modify the subject or object. of many things. bella et victōriae magnae. The most common of these adjectives are īmus. following too eagerly. somewhat. summus. monte Iūrā altissimō (1. the rest of. Examples: hominēs et mōrēs sunt bonī. Examples: vir bonus et mulier. to a good woman. But the genitive singular neuter is common as the partitive genitive (§101. and case. of many women. hominēs et arma sunt magnī. the men and their arms are large. the first part of. the superlative by very.
Comparatives and Superlatives
161. If att ributive. Examples: invītus vēnit.
Adjectives Used Substantively
we praise one another or each other.
167. Reflexive pronouncs correspond to myself. See §164 and §165. Example: ego maneō. each other. The reflexive pronouns are used with inter to express the reciprocal idea.54
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162. Example: Caesar dīcit mē sē laudāvisse. as I (literally we) have said before. etc.1. I see the man who praises himself. that book (near you). The reflexive of the third person has two uses..
168. A personal pronoun (§51) is rarely used as the subject of a fi nite verb except for emphasis or contrast. The Reciprocal Expression. 169. Example: hīc liber. RULE: Suī and suus are used in every kind of sentence or clause to refer to the subject of the clause in which they stand. etc. The possessive pronouns (or adjectives) are rarely expressed except for clearness or contrast. Example: iste liber. Th is rule is especially important in indirect statement (§271) where the whole indirect statement expresses the thought of the speaker. On the other hand..9. Iste refers to something near the person spoken to. The Direct Reflexive. Example: utī suprā dēmōnstrāvimus (2. GENERA L RULE: Reflexive pronouns refer to the subject of the clause or sentence in which they stand. 165. where myself emphasizes I and is in apposition with it. and is sometimes called the demonstrative of the second person. 166. in such sentences as I praise myself. The fi rst person plural (we) is used more often for the fi rst person singular (I) than it is in English. Caesar says that I praised him (i. one another. When used of an opponent. must not be confused with the use in such sentences as I myself praise him. tū abīs. he praises himself. it often implies contempt. RULE: In a subordinate clause that expresses the thought of the main subject suī and suus are also used to refer to the main subject (i. obsidēs utī inter sēsē dent (1.. Caesar). as is done in English. and is used in the same way. the subject of the main clause) instead of the subject of the subordinate clause in which they stand. The Indirect Reflexive. the plural of the second person is not used for the singular. Hīc refers to something near the speaker. Examples: inter nōs laudāmus. Example: eum videō quī sē laudat. you go. and is sometimes called the demonstrative of the fi rst person. Suus is the adjective of the reflexive pronoun suī.e. Example: Caesar exercitum dūxit. this book (near me). Th is latter use corresponds to the Latin intensive pronoun (§172). that they give hostages to each other.
.10). a.. and consequently every pronoun referring to the speaker is regularly some form of suī or suus. I remain. Th is use of myself. a.1).
163. himself.e. 164. Caesar led (his) army.
quem laudō. a. your own book (the book of you yourselves). a. quī mē laudant.
. 2). a. Example: quispiam dicat. Conjunctio Relativa or the Coordinate Relative. I.5). 176.1). 175. some. Is is the weakest of the demonstratives and the one used most often as the personal pronoun of the third person. it is translated by a personal pronoun. etc. they.
The Intensive Pronoun
172.) and a personal or demonstrative pronoun. but. without emphasis. 171.
The Relative Pronoun
173. the latter. anyone. It then stands in the genitive to agree with the genitive implied in the possessive. a. nisi. Example: aliquis dīcat. etc.
174. it is translated in various ways. Example: sī quis laudat. if anyone praises. with its antecedent in the preceding sentence. and num. but it may be the former. that book (over there). Ipse is often used to strengthen a possessive pronoun. Examples: Caesar. there was left only one way. the verb agrees in person with the antecedent. Latin is fond of lett ing a relative stand at the beginning of an entirely new sentence. Ille refers to something more remote from the speaker or person spoken to. someone may say.9.Grammatical Appendix
170. or to refer. as referring to the nearer of two things mentioned.15. to something just mentioned. when used as an adjective. When is is used substantively. if the former object is more important and therefore nearer in thought. a man. that. Hīc is usually the latter. quā īre nōn poterant (1. nē. and is often called the demonstrative of the third person. it is translated by this or that. RULE: Aliquis (aliquī) is the indefinite commonly used in affirmative sentences to mean someone. It is then usually best translated by a personal or demonstrative pronoun. Caesar and Cicero. Caesar et Cicerō. If the relative has two or more antecedents it follows the same rules of agreement as predicate adjectives (§157. It is often necessary to translate a relative by a coordinating conjunction (and. whom I praise. RULE: Quis. Caesar himself praises himself. a.—the man. Examples: ipse Caesar eum laudat. It is usually translated by self. who praise me. such a man. but its case depends on its use in its own clause. quī eum laudō. vester ipsōrum liber. and is not to be confused with the reflexive pronoun. when used as the antecedent of a relative. Examples: meus ipsīus liber. ipse Caesar sē laudat. and by it they could not go. is the indefinite commonly used after sī. ego. Caesar himself praises him. Example: quī (1. but is rare. my own book (the book of me myself). someone may say. Ille and hīc are often used in the sense of the former. Caesar. If the relative pronoun is used as the subject. Example: ille liber. who praise him. RULE: A relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in gender and number. etc. Quispiam has almost exactly the same meaning as aliquis. The relative pronoun is never omitted. Example: relinquēbātur ūna via. Ipse emphasizes the noun with which it agrees. or as the antecedent of a relative.
etc. the women were praised. Caesar and Labienus came.56
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177. he praises. laudatne? does he praise? 184. mulierēs laudātae sunt. Examples: laudat. a great number came. b. is often used in a sense very much like that of aliquis. Nesciō quis (nesciō quī).
The Moods of Verbs
182. If the subjects differ in person the fi rst person is preferred to the second and the second to the third. as wished. 183. a.e. the Marne and Seine separate (they make one boundary line). and a neuter noun a masculine participle in agreement. Examples: laudat. The name mood. The Subjunctive mood has three classes of meanings. fīlia atque ūnus ē fīliīs captus est (1.11. his daughter and one of his sons were taken. to mean any. An intransitive verb cannot be used in the passive except impersonally. he is praised. The Subjunctive of Desire. nor do I praise anyone. Examples: laudet.40. I give the command “let him praise. nōn laudat.5). imperō ut laudet.
The Voices of Verbs
181. someone or other praises. either stating a fact or asking a question about a fact. Example: Matrona et Sēquana dīvidit (1. he does not praise. 180. Caesar was praised. anyone. But the verb sometimes agrees with the meaning of the subject rather than its grammatical form. The Latin verb has three moods—the indicative. Example: Caesar vēnit et Labiēnus. eī creditur (§115.6). as willed. If the two or more subjects are thought of as forming a single whole. which derives from the Latin modus or mode.26. i. two thousand were killed. active and passive) have the same meanings and uses as in English. If there are two or more subjects. you and I came. The verb may agree with the nearest subject. Thus a singular collective noun sometimes has a plural verb.. neque Caesar neque Labiēnus vēnit. and in questions implying a negative. In the compound tenses of the passive. especially if the verb stands fi rst or after the fi rst subject. Examples: Caesar laudātus est. why should anyone suppose? 178. Examples: neque quemquam laudō. the subjunctive and the imperative.. It regularly does so if the subjects are connected by conjunctions meaning or or nor. the verb is singular.
Agreement of Verb and Subject
179. RULE: A finite verb agrees with its subject in person and number. originally meaning I know not who. neither Caesar nor Labienus came. Example: nesciō quis laudat. the verb is usually plural. 2).e. some of which may be further subdivided. laudātur. ego et tū vēnimus. for example. Both in independent sentences and in dependent clauses the subjunctive may express will (then called volitive subjunctive) or wish (then called optative subjunctive). he praises. the man and the woman were killed.11). a. as fact. a. cur quisquam iūdicāret (1. the participle follows the rule given for predicate adjectives (§157. is applied to them because they indicate the manner in which the action of the verb is spoken of. In the compound tenses the participle agrees with the subject in gender. but with even more indefi niteness. Examples: homō et mulier occīsī sunt. Examples: multitudō venērunt. I command that he praise. a. duo mīlia occīsī sunt. The Indicative mood speaks of the action as a fact. The voices of verbs (i.”
. d) literally it is believed to him = he is believed. let him praise or may he praise. RULE: Quisquam and ūllus are the indefinites commonly used in negative sentences (except with nē).
25. he was praising. nor) are used to negate statements and questions.
. whether already completed. Only in dependent clauses may the subjunctive express certainty and be translated like the indicative. The Subjunctive of Contingent Futurity (or Potential Subjunctive). RULE: Nōn (not) and neque (and not. or may he not praise: nē laudat quidem. Verbal Nouns and Adjectives. Example: laudātur cum laudet. Examples: laudet. present. very seldom. Examples: nē laudet. means that the action was going on in the past time. he does not praise.
The Tenses of Verbs
189. or about to take place. is est quī laudet. jump down (you pl. . and the infi nitive. Both in independent sentences and in dependent clauses the subjunctive may express what would take place under some condition. used as a mood in certain kinds of dependent clauses. b). he would praise (if there should be a reason to do so). There are two kinds of negatives in Latin. he is praised because he praises. he praised simply puts the action in the past. For example.). laudābat. still going on. 187. c. But nē . c). means that the action was already completed in the past time. the subjunctive of fact (§184. they are used with the indicative. is used in statements. The latter use is the potential subjunctive. None of these can form clauses in Latin. Latin is much more accurate in its use of tenses than English is. quidem. laudāverat. The gerund and the supine are verbal nouns. he is praised because he praises. whether past. The tense of a verb tells either one or both of two things: (1) the time of the action. however. Examples: nōn laudat. Compare laudātur quod laudat. either expressed or implied. he was going to praise.
188. desilīte (4. nōnne laudat? does he not praise? b. the gerundive and the participles are verbal adjectives. he had praised. the subjunctive of contingent futurity (or potential subjunctive) (§184. strictly speaking. the following forms are all past. but a verbal noun.11).
Other Verbal Forms
186. RULE: Nē (not) and nēve (and not. a mood. .Grammatical Appendix
b. It expresses a command. not even. praise (you sing. and (2) the stage of progress of the action at that time. and laudātūrus erat. 185. although they are often best translated into English by clauses. he is a man who would praise. or future. The Imperative mood is used only in independent sentences. let him not praise. it may express what may possibly take place. or. nor) are used to negate the subjunctive of desire (§184. and yet express different things: laudāvit. nōn laudet. Example: dīcit Caesarem laudārī. Example: laudā.). means that in the past time the action was on the point of taking place. he does not even praise. he would not praise. That is. The Infi nitive is not. It is. The Subjunctive of Fact. a). he says that Caesar is praised. a.
Example: laudat. a.58
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The Tenses of the Indicative
190. Example: laudāvī. I knew. I. It is much more common in Latin than in English. There are really two ideas. Example: laudāveram. iam prīdem. they burned (burn) all their towns. I had been warning you for many years. a. The Imperfect tense puts the action in the past and represents it as going on at that time. 196. nōverō. cognōvī. The imperfect is often used of repeated past action.5. b. a. See §199. A few perfects are regularly translated by presents. he tried to praise. without telling anything about the stage of progress (§189) at that time. I shall or will praise. 194. etc. I have praised. and consuēvī. multōs annōs. I shall know. as laudābat. are nearly equivalent to imperfects.3). the Latin present should be translated with the English present perfect. Examples: vēnerō. cōnsuēveram.” English expresses one of them. he will be about to praise. in English. a. Examples: laudātūrus est.e. nōveram. See §189. I shall have come. Example: laudāverō. See §189. i. is nearly equivalent to I am here. I shall be accustomed. the imperfect should be translated with the English past perfect. laudātūrus erat. The historical (or indefi nite) perfect simply puts the action in the past. The Future Perfect tense represents the action as completed in future time. With the expressions mentioned in §190. I praised. The Future tense puts the action in the future time and corresponds to the English future. like French and German. I was accustomed. Cf. The present (or defi nite) perfect corresponds to the English present perfect with have. 195. Example: multōs annōs tē moneō.. The pluperfect of the verbs mentioned in §193. b. for many years. It corresponds to the English past tense. I have been warning you for many years. 192. for a long time. See §199. he was praising. he does praise (emphatic). laudātūrus erit. he is praising (progressive).e. are nearly equivalent to futures. The Perfect tense has two uses. in order to put it vividly before the mind. It is less often used of attempted past action. Example: laudāvī. The historical present speaks of a past fact as if it were present. I shall or will have praised. It represents the action as completed at the present time. 191.. or puts it at a time before another past point of time. a. vēnī. I had come. cōnsuēverō.
. For example. I shall be there. 193. a. The future perfects of the verbs mentioned in §193. or be praising. i. I. a. Examples: vēneram. Latin. “I have been in the past” and “I still am. Example: laudābat. With such expressions as iam diū.” II. he was about to praise. and therefore should usually be translated with a past tense. Example: laudābo. Example: multōs annōs tē monēbam. “I’ve got it. Example: oppida sua omnia incendunt (1. I am accustomed (literally I have become accustomed). he is about to praise. Th is perfect is often nearly equivalent to a present. he praises (simple). or as to take place before some future point of time. The Present tense regularly puts the action in the present time and corresponds to all the forms of the English present. The Active Periphrastic (§75) Tenses represent the action as about to take place in a time future to the time of the tense of sum. expresses the other. For the present with dum.. I know (literally I have found out). The Pluperfect tense describes the action as already completed in the past. as laudābat. a. c. I. b. he used to praise.” for “I have it. I had praised. see §234. I was there. especially nōvī. or he kept praising. I have come.
planned . In telling about past events. to be carried into effect after the time of commanding. and which led up to it. but the story is badly told. a. the indicative tenses used are the historical perfect (or the equivalent historical present). . One would certainly pick out some chief event or events and group the others around them. The other tenses are descriptive tenses. but lived is thought of as subordinate detail.” In this telling. went is thought of as the fi rst main event. which are therefore expressed by perfects. Latin is very accurate in the use of the future and future perfect. they planned to leave. suppose we wished to begin a story with the following points. b. . . . while (see §234. “The Helvetii lived in a small country. usually appear in the main. each being thought of as a separate step in the story. etc. . is a past command. imperāvit ut laudāret. But Caesar went. a. The main events. lived is still imperfect.Grammatical Appendix
Indicative Tenses In Narration
197. c). See §189. but had planned is thought of as a subordinate detail. (see §237). and is. while the rest would be imperfect and pluperfect. the tenses of the subjunctive mean the same as the corresponding indicative tenses. Caesar went to Gaul. Examples: laudet. .
The Tenses Of The Subjunctive
200. 198. the dependent clauses generally use the imperfect and pluperfect. and are used for the details that surround the main events. The following are the most important exceptions: 1. let him praise. 2. In many subordinate clauses English uses the present for the future or the future perfect. But there are dependent indicative clauses where this principle does not hold. tellings us something that had happened before the went.
. . telling something that was going on at the time of the main event (planned) and must thus be imperfect in Latin. When the subjunctive has the same meaning as the indicative (§184.” In this case. .” Told in this way all the verbs would be perfects. The following principle is thus a good one to follow unless there appears a clear reason for violating it: RULE: In a narrative of past events the independent clauses generally use the perfect. a. a) the present is regularly used. The tenses of the subjunctive have two sets of meanings. ubi. The perfect is the tense used for narrating the main sequence of events in a story. . or independent clauses. he commanded that he praise. therefore. and whatever events we picked out in this way would be expressed by the perfect. . the perfect or historical present is regularly used. had planned . b). a. is a command to praise in the future. Or we might prefer to begin in this way: “The Helvetii. . and is the only perfect. although English would use the simple past tense. the time denoted by the tenses is future to that denoted by the corresponding indicative tenses. who lived . . the imperfect. For example. and §236. and the subordinate details. We might begin in this way: “The Helvetii. a pluperfect. . See also §235. a. For an example see §256. who lived . When the subjunctive has one of its other meanings (§184. . and occasionally the imperfect periphrastic. After dum. planned and went are perfects. while English is very inaccurate. the pluperfect. After postquam. usually appear in the subordinate. which are therefore expressed in imperfects and pluperfects. But Caesar went . or dependent clauses. while Latin uses the tenses required by the meanings. .
The Future And Future Perfect
the subjunctives refer to the future (see above §201). 203. the periphrastic tenses are used. When. When the tenses of the subjunctive mean the same thing as the corresponding tenses of the indicative. But where the meaning would be doubtful and it is necessary to express the future clearly. Primary tenses are those that have to do with the present and future. Notice that the perfect subjunctive. So rogō quid faciās regularly means I ask what you are doing. can be followed. it will be found that a present or perfect tense is usually required after a tense of present or future meaning. See §§221.
. even when it means past time.e. the usage is more regular than in the indicative. Therefore the latter meaning must be expressed by rogō quid factūrus sīs. Present subjunctive = present or future Imperfect subjunctive = imperfect or future to a past event Perfect subjunctive = perfect or future perfect Pluperfect subjunctive = pluperfect or future perfect to a past event a. on the other hand. 198). Some tenses have developed special meanings in certain constructions. laudārem.
The Subjunctive Tenses In Dependent Clauses
202. is still called a primary tense. historical or past) tenses follow secondary tenses. RULE: In dependent subjunctive clauses. primary tenses (i. and the imperfect and pluperfect tenses after one of past meaning. The following table of examples shows which are the primary and which the secondary tenses of both indicative and subjunctive. they will be used in the same way (§§197.. so that the convenient but not very accurate rule. For example: I come. 226. and would not be understood to mean I ask what you will do. present and future tenses) follow primary tenses. 254. b. In the subjunctive. Primary Tenses Present INDICATIVE rogō I ask Future rogābō I will ask Present Perfect rogāvī I have asked Future Perfect rogāverō I will have asked Present Perfect SUBJUNCTIVE quid faciat what he is doing quid fēcerit what he has done (or did)
Secondary Tenses rogābam Imperfect I was aking Historical Perfect rogāvī Pluperfect I asked Pluperfect rogāveram I had asked Imperfect
quid faceret what he was doing quid fēcisset what he had done
a. just as in the indicative. secondary tenses are those that have to do with the past. laudem.. Any tense of the subjunctive may thus refer to the future. that I may praise. When a subjunctive clause depends on some other clause. and secondary (i. I came that I might praise. or I shall come. a litt le knowledge of the real meaning of the English will enable one to use the right tense. called the rule of the sequence of tenses.e.60
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201. The following table shows the meanings of the subjunctive tenses.
were put into Latin. licuit. Still. a. literally he said that it would be that he was praised = he said that he would be praised. In both cases. The following table gives examples of the infi nitive. omne fūmentum combūrunt ut parātiōrēs ad perīcula subeunda essent (1.Grammatical Appendix
204.21. The most common exceptions are in result clauses.5). with the present or imperfect subjunctive. Example: laudāre potuī literally I was able to praise = I could have praised. oportuit. Two special points must be mentioned which are not hard to understand if one remembers that this rule tells only how the natural meanings of the tenses make them depend on each other.
. where a perfect subjunctive sometimes follows a perfect indicative. An exception may occur whenever the meaning of the sentence makes it natural. and a perfect infi nitive or participle expresses action as completed at the time of the main verb. literally he says that it will be that he fears = he says that he will fear. ut tempus dēfuerit (2. Latin is not fond of these exceptions. whether that time is present. for it may either keep up the liveliness of the present or behave as if the historical perfect had been used. and. literally: dicō I say dīcam I will say dīxī I said eum him that he laudāre to be praising is praising laudātūrum esse to be about to praise will praise laudāvisse to have praised has praised or praised has praised or praised had praised
a. Latin correctly uses the present infi nitive. Exceptions to Rule of the Sequence of Tenses. Examples: dīcit fore ut timeat. he marched around because the mountains are high. b. Example: temporis tanta fuit exiguitas.9). etc. Some verbs lack the supine stem and therefore have no future active infi nitive. it will (would) be that. future. they appoint a day on which they are to assemble. potuī. With such perfects as dēbuī. when there is a choice. In other words. so short was the time that there was no opportunity. if exceptional tenses must be used. The future passive infi nitive which is given in the paradigms is rarely used. a future infi nitive or participle expresses action as future to the time of the main verb.5. The tense meanings of the participles are the same. the place of the future infi nitive is taken by fore (futūrum esse) ut.
Tenses Of Infinitives And Participles
205. RULE: The time denoted by infinitives and participles is relative to the tenses of the verbs on which they depend. A subjunctive following an historical present may be either primary or secondary. dīxit fore ut laudārētur. For example. b. cum sint would be an exception to sequence and it is better to use the indicative construction quod sunt.14). if the sentence. Examples: diem dīcunt quā diē conveniant (1. or past. although English illogically says ought to have. it is better to use an indicative construction instead of a subjunctive. a present infi nitive or participle expresses action as going on at the same time as the main verb.6. they burned all the grain so that they might be more ready to undergo danger.
is a command. rarely. but not always. In many grammars this use of the subjunctive is called potential subjunctive. The answer. Example: quid faciam? what shall I do? what am I to do? a. Because Romans had no question mark. It is very rarely used except where a negative is expressed or implied and in the phrase aliquis dīcat. Th is kind of statement is the conclusion of the conditional sentences in §254 and §257. the student should always express may. Caesar nōn venisset. the subjunctive of contingent futurity (or potential subjunctive). are used in questions with precisely the same meanings as in statements (§§206–208). without suggesting the answer. a. could. A Deliberative Question is one that asks for an expression of someone’s will. no one can doubt. The indicative. by such words as possum and licet. Caesar would come. b) is used to state what would take place under some condition. introduced by an interrogative particle. Caesar nōn veniet. The condition is usually. 207. Any of the above questions may be either rhetorical or real. Th is kind of question is asked by the subjunctive. expressed. or adverb. adjective. Examples: quis veniet? who will come? quis veniat? who would come? quis dubitet? who can doubt (implying that no one can)? 210. see above §208). Questions that cannot be answered by yes or no are introduced in Latin. Example: nēmō dubitet. Example: cur dubitem? why should I doubt? 211. Examples: quis vēnit? who came? qualis est? what sort of man is he? ubi est? where is he? 213. The Indicative mood is used to state facts. but not always. unless some other word is put fi rst for emphasis. 208. Examples: Caesar veniat. The Potential Subjunctive (§184. as in English. RULE: Questions that can be answered by yes or no are usually. Examples: Caesar vēnit. see those paragraphs. b) is sometimes used to state what may or can happen. Caesar would not have come. the enclitic –ne is added to the first word. if any.
Use Of Moods 209. Introductory Words 212. I would like. For the peculiar use of tenses in such cases. A rhetorical question is one that is used for rhetorical effect and that expects no answer. The fi rst word is regularly the verb. someone may say. can. Caesar will not come. RULE: When the question asks for information. by an interrogative pronoun. might. Under deliberative questions are usually classed those subjunctive questions which ask why one should do something or what one should do. In written English the question mark and (usually also) the order of words show that a sentence is a question. but usually nēmō dubitāre potest.62
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206. Caesar came. velim. In an independent sentence. and. the potential subjunctive (in its more restricted sense. The Subjunctive of Contingent Futurity (§184. an introductory particle was usually necessary. The rhetorical character of the question has no effect on the mood. Examples: scrībitne epistulam? is he writing a letter? epistulamne scrībit? is it a letter that he is writing?
. and the order of words was freer.
217. for yes. RULE: A command or prohibition in the third person is regularly expressed by the third person of the present subjunctive. Examples: eat. come (you pl. for no. Commands and prohibitions are expressions of will. The negative with the subjunctive is nē (§188. RULE: A command in the second person is expressed by the imperative. Examples: nōlī dubitāre. a) and the imperative (§185). the interrogative particle is nōnne.. nōn scrībit. nōn. sānē. Example: num epistulam scrībit? he is not writing a letter. Examples: utrum pugnāvit an fūgit? pugnāvitne an fūgit? pugnāvit an fūgit? did he fight or run away? pugnāvit annōn? did he fight or not?
215. less often cavē (nē) dubitēs. Double questions ask which of two or more possibilities is true. or no introductory word may be used at all (as always in English).). RULE: When the form of the question suggests that the answer is no. 220. etc. the interrogative particle is num. nōlīte. no. let us praise. RULE: When the form of the question suggests that the answer is yes. Example: nōnne epistulam scrībit? is he not writing a letter? c. The future imperative is seldom used unless the verb used has no present. 218. A prohibition is less often expressed by cavē (with or without nē). RULE: A prohibition (negative command) in the second person is usually expressed by nōlī. Examples: laudēmus. let him go. take care. or Latin may use ita. and the present infinitive. nē eāmus. but instead merely as a warning that a double question will follow. Utrum may stand at the beginning of a question not to be translated. or not is expressed by annōn. and the present subjunctive.
. minimē. or by nē and the perfect subjunctive. RULE: An exhortation is a command or prohibition in the first person plural of the present subjunctive. Examples: venīte. for which the appropriate moods are the subjunctive of desire (§184. etc. do not doubt. yes. let us not go. remember. nē veniant. The or is expressed by the particle an. or –ne may be added to the fi rst word. mementō.. b).
Commands and Prohibitions
216. or nē dubitāverīs.Grammatical Appendix
b. It often replies by repeating the verb as a statement. Example: epistulamne scrībit? scrībit. let them not come. be unwilling. Latin has no words corresponding exactly to yes and no. is he? Double Questions 214. 219.
substantive clauses of desire (substantive purpose) (§228). and the like. Examples: utinam adesset. temporal clauses (§§233–242). or. before. substantive clauses of result or fact (§229). with or without utinam. parenthetical relative clauses (§232). utinam adfuisset. indirect questions (§262–264). The subjunctive of desire (§184. and on the other hand the presence of a negative determines the kind of clause.
. or when an English clause is to be translated into Latin. A coordinate clause is connected with another clause by means of a coordinating conjunction. or rather a regret. c) in result clauses. indirect statement (§§265–273). in order that. Example: (utinam) adsit. so that. the subjunctive of fact (§184. infi nitive clauses (§§277–280). Th is explains the difference in negatives (§188). a. result clauses (§226). RULE: A wish for something in the future is expressed by the present subjunctive. Wishes are regularly expressed by the subjunctive of desire (§184. although. Dependent clauses are classified according to their meaning and use in the following groups: purpose clauses (§225). for something unattainable. and the like. Both of these express a wish. a) and are usually introduced by utinam (not to be translated). 247). In the ut clauses. substantive quod clauses (§248). of result. the only test is the meaning: if any feeling of will or intention is implied. would that he were here or if only he were here. otherwise. Neither the relatives nor any of the conjunctions have in themselves any effect on the mood of the verb in the dependent clause. relative clauses of characteristic (§230). The coordinating conjunctions are such as mean and. but. conditional clauses (§§249–259). a) is used in purpose clauses. RULE: A wish for something at the present time is expressed by the imperfect subjunctive with utinam. clauses of comparison (§261). c. may he be here! b.64
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221. adversative (concessive) clauses (§§246. determining relative clauses (§231). Dependent clauses are those that are attached to other clauses by a relative or interrogative pronoun or adverb. Such clauses may thus contain the indicative or the subjunctive with any of its meanings (§184. when.
223. after. for. a–c). clauses of proviso (§260). Subordinating conjunctions are such as mean if. They are used as in English. the clause is one of purpose. because. causal clauses (§§243–245). RULE: A wish for something in the past is expressed by the pluperfect subjunctive with utinam.
Purpose And Result Clauses
224. or by a subordinating conjunction. would that he had been here or if only he had been here!
222. att racted clauses (§274).
literally who were to see. For the substantive clause of result see §229. or in apposition with a noun or neuter pronoun. If the main clause contains a noun that can conveniently be used as an antecedent. There is the same difference between substantive clauses of desire (or purpose) and substantive clauses of result as between purpose clauses and result clauses. or in order to see. RULE: Purpose may be expressed by the subjunctive with ut. is never to be used. because they serve to complement (complete) the meaning of such expressions as I command. so that a very few could easily prevent. Example: vēnit quō facilius vidēret. quō is used. 2. or to keep anyone from seeing. ut perpaucī prohibēre possent (1. he came that he might see more easily. Examples: mōns impendēbat. The infi nitive. he sent men to see. the conjunction ut is used. that he might see. nē. For the so-called relative clause of result see §230. he comes to see. literally by which the more easily he might see. tam fortis est ut pugnet.
226. a. The connecting words are used as follows: a. For the so-called substantive clause of purpose. a mountain overhung. Substantive clauses of desire and result differ from clauses of purpose and result in that they are used like nouns. They are also called complementary clauses. I hinder. Example: vēnit ut vidēret. a relative pronoun or adverb is commonly used.
. incrēdibilī lēnitāte. venit ut videat. he did this that no one might see. common in English. quō. or that he fights. b. the result is. 3. Example: hoc fēcit nē quis (not ut nēmō) vidēret.6. or a relative. or as the subject of the passive.2).Grammatical Appendix
225.12. In negative clauses the conjunction nē is always used. and most commonly.
Substantive Clauses Of Desire (Or Purpose) And Of Result
227. he is so brave that he would fight. so that it cannot be determined. of extraordinary sluggishness. If the purpose clause contains an adjective or adverb in the comparative degree. ita ut iūdicārī nōn possit (1. see §228. In affi rmative clauses: 1. Otherwise. Example: hominēs mīsit quī vidērent. RULE: Result is expressed by the subjunctive with ut or ut nōn.4). and they are to be distinguished in the same way (§224). he came to see. or as to fight. either as the object of a transitive verb.
I am afraid: let him. it is right. Another common name. Substantive clauses of desire (or purpose) all consist of the subjunctive of desire (§184. usually without ut. command. eum nōn impediō quīn. strive. and the like. eī licet eat.9. quōminus after either positive or negative. patior. not come). Nē is used after an affirmative main clause. But with some of these verbs an indicative quod clause of fact may be used with the same meaning. cōnor. command.2. Examples: timeō nē veniat. But the infi nitive may be used instead. is often used instead of ut. substantive purpose clauses. Ut is often omitted after verbs of asking. cīvitātī persuāsit nē exīrent. prevent. because they do not really express purpose. a) introduced by a conjunction. quīn. some grammars divide these clauses into substantive volitive clauses and substantive optative clauses. Examples: eum impediō nē. timeō ut (or nē nōn) veniat. is often used with oportet.
Substantive ut Clauses of Result or Fact
229. Examples: cīvitātī persuāsit ut exīrent (1.
. may take the subjunctive with ut or ut nōn.2. he persuaded the citizens to leave. Such verbs are verbs meaning accomplish (when the subject is a conscious agent). but see §276. or quōminus. especially after volō. it happens. it remains. b. RULE: Verbs meaning accomplish take the subjunctive with ut or ut nōn when the subject is not a conscious agent. c) and should be translated by the indicative. The clause is the subject of the verb. he persuaded the citizens not to leave. and the infi nitive is always used after iūbeō. he ought to go. persuade. I fear that he will not come (originally timeō: veniat. See §280. ut or nē nōn was then used as the opposite of nē). urge. permit. neque recūsātūrōs quōminus esset (1. hinder. But nē nōn. wish. and the like. obsidēs utī dent perficit (1. and wishing. Compare §228. As the subjunctive of desire is divided into the volitive (expressing will) and the optative (expressing wish). but most of them are better called ut clauses of fact. is not as precise. attempt. veniat. I fear that he will come (originally timeō: nē veniat. The subjunctive. I do not hinder him from coming.24). I hinder him from coming.31. and refuse may take the subjunctive with nē. RULE: Impersonal verbs meaning the result is.11). permit. I command you to go. c. a. a. or quōminus. the mountains make (that they cannot leave) it impossible for them to leave. he causes them to give hostages. They usually contain the subjunctive of fact (§184. there is added. quīn after a negative.3). may take the subjunctive with ut or nē. since they do not express result. or quōminus. or of attempt to carry out a desire.” a. Example: montēs efficiunt ut nōn exīre possint. it is permitted. For example: imperō ut eās. resolve. the result was that they wandered. veniat. Substantive clauses of result or fact are all usually called substantive result clauses. he may go. But after most of these verbs the infi nitive may be used instead. RULE: Verbs expressing fear take the subjunctive with nē meaning that or ut meaning that not. oportet eat. RULE: Verbs meaning avoid. and that they would not refuse to be. sinō. RULE: Most verbs expressing any form of desire. request.66
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Substantive Clauses Of Desire (Or Purpose)
228. does not really mean I command in order that you will go. commanding. Example: hīs rēbus fiēbat ut vagārentur (1. but rather I give the command “go. come. See §248.11). I am afraid: let him or may he. a. b. that not. and licet. or may he.
The clause is a predicate nominative. to that part of the ocean which is near Spain. the clause is parenthetical (§232). After an affi rmative expression of doubting an indirect question with num. he is the only man who. one road by which wagons could be moved. it is their custom to fight on horseback. it is a determining clause (§231). b. or sī is used. c. or by should.6. Clauses of characteristic are of the following kinds. Examples: nūllī sunt quī putent. neque commissum intellegeret quārē timēret (1. there are none who think. could.
Determining Relative Clauses
231. Dubitō with the infi nitive means hesitate. These clauses complete the meaning of an expressed or implied antecedent like is = (such) a man (§171. a). RULE: Negated verbs and phrases meaning doubt take the subjunctive with quīn. So after est quī. The subjunctive is not used in all relative clauses which describe an antecedent. an.4). there were only two ways by which they could leave.8). d.1). Certain grammars call some of these clauses relative clauses of result. a. Example: ad eam partem Ōceanī quae est ad Hispāniam (1. he is a man who fights. especially with iūs est. RULE: The subjunctive is used in relative clauses which complete statements and questions of existence and non-existence. Examples: is est quī pugnet.1. so villainous as not to admit. RULE: The subjunctive is used in relative clauses which are equivalent in meaning to ut clauses of result.Grammatical Appendix
. RULE: Such phrases as mōs est. Example: nōn est dubium quīn hoc fēcerit. it is a conditional clause (§250). Cat.6. Examples: ūnum (iter) vix quā singulī carrī dūcerentur (1. storms followed which kept our men in camp (= such storms that they kept). If the clause is used chiefly to tell who or what the antecedent is. quis est quī? who is there who? sōlus or ūnus est quī. etc. such. there is a man who.14. Usually the subjunctive is to be translated as if it were indicative.5). secūtae sunt tempestātēs quae nostrōs in castrīs continērent (4. may take the subjunctive with ut or ut nōn.6). nōn or nēmō or nūllus est quī. GENERA L RULE: The subjunctive is used in certain kinds of relative clauses that describe an indefinite antecedent. lēx est. Example: mōs est ut ex equīs pugnent. there is no one who. he did not know that anything had been done on account of which he should be afraid. If the antecedent is defi nite. 1. If the clause can be turned into a condition without changing the meaning of the sentence. as whether is in English. erant omnīnō itinera duo quībus exīre possent (1. In some relative clauses of characteristic the subjunctive is to be translated by can. cōnsuētūdō est (it is the custom). or an adjective modified by tam. there is no doubt that he did this.21). tam improbus quī nōn fateātur (Cic. ought. RULE: Relative clauses that are used for the purpose of telling what person or thing is meant by an indefinite antecedent employ the indicative.34. But a substantive clause of desire (with ut or nē) may be used with such phrases. eius modī.
Relative Clauses of Characteristic
230. Usually the subjunctive is to be translated as if it were indicative.
233. or prepares for it. while (i. which is usually in the same tense as the main verb. at some time during the time that) is used with the present indicative.. who held the chief power. Examples: Gallī exspectāvērunt dum Caesar venīret. and sometimes he does not. Conjunctions with these meanings show that one act was going on at the same time as another.16).3. Conjunctions meaning until show that the action of the main clause lasted up to that of the subordinate clause. RULE: Dum meaning while (i. dōnec. Example: Gallī expectāvērunt dum Caesar vēnit. Example: dum haec geruntur. a. The most common is cum which must be treated by itself. b. during the entire time that) are used with the indicative. it was reported to Caesar. and quam diū.1). 2. Example: quoad potuit. while these things were going on. so that the relative clause may be entirely removed without destroying the meaning of the rest of the sentence. RULE: Dum. the Gauls were free until Caesar came. a. Cum with the imperfect subjunctive does the same. as long as. b. quī prīncipātum obtinēbat. dōnec. Caesarī nūntiātum est (1. the same meaning could be expressed by Dumnorīgī (is prīncipātum obtinēbat) persuādet. When the antecedent is indefi nite the clause is either characterizing (§230). The antecedent of a parenthetical clause must always be defi nite. and quoad meaning until are used with the subjunctive when the subordinate action is represented as foreseen or expected. See §198. RULE: Dum. While. persuādet (1. The perfect is regularly used for past time. the Gauls waited until Caesar should come. RULE: Dum.e.12. There are many conjunctions denoting time relations. as long as 234. he persuaded Dumnorix. quoad. and quoad meaning until are used with the indicative when the subordinate action is not represented as foreseen or expected. or until Caesar came.e.
. he resisted as long as he could.14). Th is is the basis for the distinction in the use of moods. dōnec.. determining (§231). or conditional (§250). Example: Dumnorīgī. RULE: A relative clause for which a parenthetical statement may be substituted usually employs the indicative. or for Caesar to come. even in speaking of past time. Sometimes the actor in the main clause foresees or expects the second action and intends to bring it about. restitit (4.68
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Parenthetical Relative Clauses
232.46. a. Until 235. but the others may be classified according to their meanings.
hīs cum persuādāre nōn possent. simul ac. or in view of Caesar’s arrival. Cat. The perfect is regularly used for past time. the Gauls tried to prepare large forces before Caesar should arrive. translated as in a. Cum has three main uses: temporal. the Gauls fought with one another before Caesar came. ubi. b. and the principle on which the choice of moods is based is the same as that given in §235. Examples: quae cum ita sint. Example: Gallī inter sē pugnāvērunt priusquam Caesar vēnit. RULE: Priusquam and antequam are used with the subjunctive when the subordinate action is represented as foreseen or expected. 240. legātōs mitt unt (1. as soon as (immediately after). Inaccurate but convenient rules are: RULE: Cum meaning when is always used with the indicative when the main verb is present or future.26. RULE: Cum meaning since or although is used with all tenses of the subjunctive.4). cum ad vesperum pugnātum sit (1. because adversative (concessive). ut. 250). Temporal cum. after. since this is so. Compare the causal relative (§245) and the adversative relative (§247). after causal. Example: Gallī prius inter sē pugnāvērunt quam Caesar vēnit. a. when (after.9. legātōs mitt unt (1. 247. whose antecedent is something like at the time or at a time. since they could not persuade them. RULE: Postquam. since. After 237. Conjunctions meaning before also represent the action of the subordinate clause as subsequent to that of the main clause. RULE: Cum meaning when is generally followed by the imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive when the main verb is past. more often only implied. Translate as if the complete word stood where quam does. which give more accurate rules for the same clauses. the prius or ante standing in the main clause.7. when. Example: Gallī magnās cōpiās comparāre cōnātī sunt priusquam Caesar venīret. RULE: Priusquam and antequam are used with the indicative when the subordinate action is not represented as foreseen or expected. Causal and Adversative Cum. cum prīmum. although they fought till evening. go on. are used with the indicative.6). 1. generally the perfect or the historical present. 245. These conjunctions are often written as two words.2). See examples under §241 and §242 .Grammatical Appendix
Before 236.10). although Cum is in reality an undeclined relative. and the quam at the beginning of the subordinate clause. 239. perge (Cic. Cum 238. c. Example: ubi certiōrēs factī sunt. or arrived.
. when they were informed of it they sent envoys. they sent envoys. The use of moods with cum is similar to the use of moods with the declined relative pronoun (§§230–232. sometimes expressed. not while).
These clauses are in reality determining clauses (§231) and are especially common when an antecedent like tum or eō tempore is expressed in the main clause. when Caesar was in Cisalpine Gaul. Orgetorix died (both situation and narrative.4. Clauses of Repeated Action. These rules are given together because most subjunctive clauses are both situation and narrative clauses. when the line had advanced the Gauls encouraged. c). a. one rule seems to apply better than the other. prōcesserat. because the fact that Caesar was in Cisalpine Gaul has been stated already. contrāria duo statuēbat (4. Example: vix agmen prōcesserat. Orgetorīx mortuus est (1.8. b.1). 3. at the time when Caesar came to Gaul the Aedui were the leaders. a) the main action is stated in the main clause. Inverted Cum Clauses. RULE: Cum meaning when is followed by the subjunctive when the clause describes the situation under which the main action took place. so that it is not a new point in the story). §241. 242. Example: haec cum dēfīxerat. because the fact that the state tried to enforce its laws is told only in this cum clause). b. hardly had the line advanced. RULE: Cum meaning whenever is usually followed by the indicative. RULE: Cum meaning when is followed by the indicative when the main action is stated in the cum clause.1). when he had set them firmly (in each of several cases) he put two others opposite. while the state was trying to enforce its laws. cum Caesar in Galliam vēnit.70
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241. a. . . RULE: Cum meaning when is followed by the subjunctive when the clause states a new point in the story (unless the clause is inverted. Situation and Narrative Clauses. In the inverted clause this relation is reversed. . Cat. For the occasional subjunctive in such clauses see §242 . RULE: Cum meaning when is followed by the indicative when the clause merely dates the action of the main clause. The situation clause corresponds to the relative clause of characteristic (§230). . at the time when I was trying to drive Catiline from the city. cum Gallī cohortātī (sunt) inter sē (6.10). c.1). when is usually a better translation. however. Clauses of Date. . cohortātī sunt. Temporal Cum with the Subjunctive.17.2).). crēbrī ad eum rūmorēs adferēbantur (2.11. frequent rumors came to him (primarily situation. In the most common type of cum clauses (§242 . These clauses correspond exactly to conditional relative clauses (§150).3). But a subjunctive is often found where an indicative might be expected. Temporal Cum with the Indicative. It is necessary only that whenever be a possible translation of cum.12. Sometimes. Examples: cum esset Caesar in citeriōre Galliā. when the Gauls encouraged one another (for cum . cum cīvitas iūs suum exsequī cōnārētur. and the cum clause describes the situation under which it happened.
. etc. prīncipēs erant Aeduī (6. Examples: tum cum ex urbe Catilīnam ēiciēbam (Cic.
quī. RULE: Quamquam.Grammatical Appendix
b. I pass over this. quoniam.. quī omnia praeclāra sentīrent. tametsī. the subjunctive is used.
Adversative (Concessive) Clauses
246. See §273. fortis est. Example: quod ūnum pāg um adortus es. RULE: Cum. do not despise us on that account.
. Cat. the energy of the soldiers deserved praise. and quandō. and quando. If praesertim. etc. that. Clauses of Repeated Action. Example: cum ferrum sē īnflexisset. although he. for. ut omnia contrā opīniōnem acciderent (Caes. Example: etsī nōndum eōrum cōnsilia cognōverant. Compare §241. when the iron had bent (in each of many cases). neque ēvellere poterant (1. Examples: (with the subjunctive) illī autem.8. Th is clause is most commonly used as the appositive of a neuter pronoun. are used with the subjunctive.31. etc. however old he may be. Example: illa praetereō.16. and etsī. is used in the sense of as to the fact that. introduce coordinate clauses. although. 247. 244. quia.11). who (= since they) kept up with. RULE: Substantive clauses with quod. 1. RULE: Cum.1. that he slew Maelius. tamen suspicābātur (4. and is then best translated by and yet. ut.12). and less commonly quamvīs (in Cicero). (as I thought). stands in a subjunctive quī or cum clause. since they had none but patriotic thoughts.
243. quī adaequārunt (5. they could neither draw it out. Examples: (with the indicative) reliquōs Gallōs praecēdunt. although. 3.1).18). RULE: Cum meaning whenever is sometimes followed by the subjunctive. enim. see §239. But the indicative is sometimes used with quī when the adversative idea is clear. since he.7). are used with the indicative unless the reason is quoted. But the indicative is often used with quī. although. however.3). he is brave. Examples: (for cum see §239) quamvīs senex sit. because. etc. 3. are used with the subjunctive. since. where the causal idea is perfectly clear. quia.9. When the writer wishes to imply because (as he said). quod.5). b. Dependent causal clauses are introduced by the conjunctions cum. even if. although he did not yet know their plans. quod Maelium occīdit (Cic. (with the indicative) fuit mīlitum virtūs laudanda. (as he thought). although everything should turn out contrary to their expectations.25. quod contendunt (1. etenim. he complained because (as he said) he had been deserted. The conjunctions nam. undertook the matter. or by the relative. and often quī. although. etc. are used with the indicative. because. 245. and they. Cat. the clause is probably causal. (as I said). although. they surpass the other Gauls because they fight. But quamquam sometimes introduces an independent sentence. however much.17). quoniam. a. RULE: Quod. Sometimes the quod clause. negōtium suscēpērunt (Cic. nevertheless he suspected.
Substantive Quod Clauses
248. as to your having attacked one canton.12).. (with the subjunctive) quod sit dēstitūtus queritur (1. especially. standing at the beginning of its sentence. whereas. nōlī ob eam rem dēspicere (compare 1.13. employ the indicative. since. For example with cum.
The speaker or hearer may know it to be true. nōn fortis fuit. if. I would praise. sī nōn. if he fights he conquers. eum laudō. either expressed or implied. everywhere (any word that includes all of a class of objects). sī pugnet. and so I do not). A conditional sentence has two essential clauses. the pluperfect to express past time. whenever I saw him he used to say. I would not have praised him (implying but he did. vincet. he would be conquering. and the clause is a condition.
Connectives In Conditional Sentences. In present or past time a conditional sentence may either express no opinion as to the truth or falsity of a statement. and so I do not. a condition (protasis) and a conclusion (apodosis). simply saying that one thing is true if another is. Whenever a relative has for its antecedent. Present or Past Contrary to Fact. sī pugnat. means if anyone thinks he will see. 253.72
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249. or it may imply that a condition is not fulfi lled. General or Undetermined Present or Past. and relative pronouns and adverbs used in a conditional sense. I would praise. The imperfect subjunctive is used to express present time. vīcisset. he would have conquered. everyone. I praise him. two for those dealing with present or past time. vinceret. Examples: sī fortis esset. 254. quī fortis est prō patriā pugnat. him (implying but he did not. he will conquer. or be praising. but if. sī pugnābit. if he should fight (or fought).
250. nisi prō patriā pugnāvit. nisi prō patriā pugnāvisset. if not or unless. whoever is brave fights for his country. Examples: sī fortis est. nisi. unless he fought for his country he was not brave. anyone who thinks he will see. a word like anyone. The connectives are the conjunctions sī. vincat. two for those dealing with future time: a. notice the change of tense). Compare this use of the relative with those given in §§230–232 . and is so called because it states the condition on which the truth of the main clause depends. RULE: A present or past conditional sentence whose form affirms nothing as to its fulfillment employs the present or past tenses of the indicative. vīcit. I shall see him (conclusion). eum nōn laudāvissem.
Classes of Conditional Sentences
. the contrary of the negative supposition). if he had fought. General or Undetermined Present or Past (§253). More Vivid (or Confident) Future (§256). if he fought he conquered. eum laudārem. if not. but the sentence does not say so. if he fights (shall fight). he would conquer. unless he had (if he had not) fought for his country. if he were fighting. There are four classes of conditional sentences. and that as a result the conclusion is not fulfi lled. if he is brave. RULE: A present or past conditional sentence whose form implies that the condition is not or was not fulfilled employs the imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive. or be praising. sī pugnāvisset. if he had fought. There is no form of condition that affi rms the truth of a statement. eum laudārem. The condition is the dependent clause. sī pugnāvisset. the conclusion is the main clause. always.if he were brave. Present or Past 252. means if at any time I saw him he used to say. Less Vivid (or Confident) Future (§257). it is a conditional relative. and so I do. Example: if he comes (condition). b. For example. d. him (implying but he is not. c. vincit. Present or Past Contrary to Fact (§254). sīn. sī pugnāvit. sī pugnāret.
if the condition must be fulfi lled before the conclusion can take place. 257. as in English. If I see him. while English commonly uses the present. the perfect or pluperfect for past time. if he should fight. In Latin. it was necessary that punishment be inflicted on him. The last two are simply the independent subjunctive of contingent futurity or potential subjunctive (§207). if he fights or is fighting (shall fight or shall be fighting) I will praise him. velim. he would say (if he should be asked). eum nōn laudem. vincat.3). I will tell him.Grammatical Appendix
a. Less Vivid (or Confident) Future. the verb of the conclusion is usually in the indicative. he would conquer. quī pugnet laudētur. There are two forms of future conditions. pugnāre poterat. the condition may be implied in a phrase or even in a single word. But sometimes. or were to be fighting. one expressing less confidence in the fulfi llment of the condition than the other. since one cannot be sure of the nonfulfi llment of a future condition. More Vivid (or Confident) Future. Examples: sī pugnābit eum laudābō. the subjunctive is used. is precise in using the future. the condition and the conclusion are usually of the same form. Example: sī veniat. Th is is because the conclusion is not usually really contrary to fact. Sometimes it is omitted altogether. sī fortis fuisset. whoever fights or has fought (shall have fought) will be praised. or were to fight. we are here. Examples: damnātum poenam sequī oportēbat (1. Moreover. one may wish to use a condition of one form.
258. on the other hand. Examples: sī fortis esset. the imperfect for present time. he could fight (he has the power in any case. hīc adsumus. Latin. Instead of being expressed by a clause as in the examples given above. if he should come or were to come. I will tell him. I would not praise him. Future 255. RULE: A future conditional sentence whose translation contains shall or will employs the future or future perfect indicative. If he arrives first. There is no form to express nonfulfi llment.4.
. Latin uses the future perfect. RULE: A future conditional sentence whose translation contains should or would employs the present or perfect subjunctive. When the conclusion of such conditions contains a verb meaning could or ought. whoever should fight. he will tell him. pugnāre dēbuit or dēbuerat. hence the indicative). Examples: sī pugnet. or just. sī nōn pugnāverit.
Condition Omitted or Implied
259. (if) condemned. The condition requires the subjunctive. I would like. dīcat. or should fail to fight. would be praised. if he were brave. a conclusion of another. but is supplied in thought. English commonly uses the present with a future meaning in the condition. if he had been brave he ought to have fought (the duty rested upon him in any case. if he should not fight. in both languages. When the conclusion is really contrary to fact. Latin is precise in using the future perfect. quī pugnāverit laudābitur. means if I will see him. 256. The difference between the present and perfect is the same as that between the future and future perfect indicative in §256. hence the indicative). means if he shall have arrived first. although English idiom makes it seem so. or such expressions as it would be hard. like any other condition contrary to fact. Again.
tamquam. quasi. Sī is also used in the sense of to see whether or whether. you will rid me of much fear provided that there is (only let there be or if only there be) a wall between us. Th is is because the construction originally meant only let (him come: I will. Examples: magnō mē metū līberābis dummodo mūris intersit (Cic. with such changes as make it a dependent clause. as he asked “where are you going?”. a). Cat.
Indirect Questions 262. provided that. an fūgisset.10). provided that (or if only) he does not leave. a. RULE: All indicative questions change to the subjunctive in the indirect form. 264. because the subjunctive is always used. although these seem like conditions. whether (no difference in meaning). that is. the same word serves to introduce the indirect form. and dummodo in the sense of if only. Indirect double questions are introduced by the same particles as direct double questions (§214). I asked what I was to do. just as if. adjective. he waited to see whether they would come. modo. exspectāvit sī venīrent. Examples: (direct) venitne? is he coming? (indirect) rogō num veniat.74
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Clauses of Proviso
260. 210) retain the subjunctive in the indirect form.
. I ask who would come. or rogō veniatne. I asked whether he had fought or run away. b. I will see him. I ask who came. (direct) quid faciam? what am I to do? (indirect) rogāvī quid facerem. and the negative is often nē. the construction is not the same. Examples: currit quasi timeat. Examples: (direct) quis vēnit? who came? (indirect) rogō quis vēnerit. cucurrit quasi timeret. I asked whether he had fought or not. as he asked where I (or he) was going. c. but or not is expressed by necne. The meaning implied by the mood is unchanged. RULE: The subjunctive is used with ac sī. he runs as if he were afraid. Examples: (direct) quis veniat? who would come? (indirect) rogō quis veniat. When the direct question can be answered by yes or no (§213) the indirect form is introduced by num or –ne. velut. GENERA L RULE: The subjunctive is employed in all indirect questions. modo nē (or nōn) discēdat eum vidēbō. and the mood is the subjunctive of desire (§184. instead of annōn. it is an indirect question. as if. Notice that. ut sī. When the direct question is introduced by an interrogative pronoun. I ask whether he is coming. or adverb (§212). RULE: Subjunctive questions (§§209. The tenses follow the rule of the sequence of tenses although the English translation might lead one to expect always the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive. RULE: Dum. or it may be quoted indirectly. tamquam sī.
Clauses of Comparison
261. 263. An indirect question is a substantive clause introduced by an interrogative word. velut sī. Examples: rogāvī utrum pugnāvisset. he ran as if he were afraid. A direct question may be quoted in the exact words in which it was asked. 1. he told me where he was. (direct) ubi est? where is he? (indirect) mihi dīxit ubi esset. quam sī.). etc. In the latter form. rogāvī utrum pugnāvisset necne. are used with the subjunctive.
nonetheless. It follows from the statements made in §205 that the present infi nitive must be used for an original present indicative. if rhetorical (§211). a. Direct discourse repeats the exact words of a remark or a thought. the negative is nē. what do you want?)? II. But the subject is not always expressed. 210). num memoriam dēpōnere posse (1. Apr. 268. . When one speaks of a main clause in indirect statement. . each sentence should be thought of as depending on a verb of saying or thinking. Example: incusāvit: . from which it could be seen what an advantage courage had.13. ex quō iūdicārī posse quantum habēret in sē bonī constantia. changes to the infinitive in indirect statement. : (that) they should return. I. Example: he said. . But a coordinate relative clause (§173. becomes respondit: . (that) he should not despise (from an original nōlī dēspicere (§219). Examples: ad Īd. ad Īd. changes to the subjunctive in indirect statement. . . . habeat. becomes dīxit mīlitem esse fortem. is ita egit: . Apr. . but. Example: he said that the soldiers were brave. which would require the infi nitive (§266). RULE: Every subordinate indicative or subjunctive clause of the direct form requires the subjunctive in indirect statement. potest.
.19). if real (§211).8). sometimes uses the infi nitive in indirect statement.6). Example: mīles est fortis. or some other coordinating conjunction.17). could he forget (for an original I cannot forget [can I?])? III. and the perfect for the imperfect. RULE: A subjunctive question (§§209. RULE: An indicative question (§209). See example under §269: since quō connects with the preceding sentence posse might have been a subjunctive. which may be either expressed or implied at the beginning. RULE: Every sentence. nē . he instructed him: . a.7. he replied . Th is is because a rhetorical question is equivalent to a declarative sentence. . . “the soldiers are brave. a). . Infi nitives remain unchanged. and periods may be used between these sentences. do not despise). proptereā quod . or Discourse) 265. RULE: Every main clause containing a statement requires the infinitive with a subject in the accusative in indirect statement (§279). the soldier is brave.14).24). what did he want (for an original quid tibi vīs.. Imperative Sentences. . why should anyone suppose (for an original iūdicet. RULE: An indicative question (§209). 267.40. Declarative Sentences. a)? 269. etc. dēspiceret (1.14. Example: incusāvit: . cūr quisquam iūdicāret (1. Th is is a use of the subjunctive of desire. Main Clauses 266. because it is equivalent to a clause connected by et. the future for the future indicative. superāvistis). . Subordinate Clauses. perfect. retains the subjunctive in indirect statement.44. whether real or rhetorical.Grammatical Appendix
Indirect Statement (Speech. reverterentur (1. . . Example: respondit: . . Example: respondit: . superāssent (1. and pluperfect indicative. See §210. quid sibi vellet (1. . one means a clause that was the main clause in the direct form. . Indirect speech may quote a long speech consisting of separate sentences. revertiminī. he said that the soldier was brave.” Indirect statement (or speech or discourse) repeats a remark or thought with such changes in the words as to make of them a dependent construction.40. containing a command or prohibition requires the subjunctive in indirect statement. return about the thirteenth of April. . since they had conquered (for original iūdicārī. . . For the meanings of the infi nitive tenses see §205. Interrogative Sentences.
a. must have its verb in the infi nitive. The present and perfect subjunctive of less vivid (or confident) future conclusions become the future infi nitive. . Vocatives will become nominatives or disappear. here to there. Example: dīcit Caesarem laudātum esse quod fortis esset. If a pronoun of the fi rst person changes to one of the third person. a. sē eum laudātūrum fuisse. becomes. if he were fighting. it must be to some form of suī or suus (rarely of ipse). . the following rule is helpful: keep the stem of the original and follow the sequence. pluperfect after dīxit. It is best to use past tenses in translating. Examples are needed for only the conditions contrary to fact. even though it depends on a present. But after a past verb of saying or thinking the person who quotes very often drops the secondary sequence and uses the tenses of the original speaker. The tense follows the rule for the sequence of tenses except that the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive of conditions contrary to fact never change. . he says that Caesar was praised because he was brave. in either case retaining the perfect stem. becomes. Other Changes 271. he would make peace. sē eum laudātūrum fuisse. I. c. sī pugnāvisset. he says that he praises that soldier. sēsē pācem esse factūrum (1. eum laudārem. In changing from the direct form to a subjunctive of the indirect. or dīcit sē illum mīlitem laudāre. eum laudāvissem. if he had fought. b. II. . Conditions in Indirect Discourse 272. The conclusion. I would praise him. Example: hunc mīlitem laudō. even after a primary tense. after either dīcit or dīxit. may become dīcō mē hunc mīlitem laudāre. I say that I praise this soldier. now to then. the secondary sequence must be used even if the infi nitive depends on a primary verb of saying or thinking. since it is the dependent clause. that. imperfect after dīxit. . must have its verb in the subjunctive. in –ūrus esse. . after either dīcit or dīxit. All other changes of person or pronouns are the same as in English.14. Sī pugnāret.76
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Tenses of the Subjunctive 270. sī pugnaret. After a perfect infi nitive. etc. The tenses of the subjunctive regularly follow the rule of sequence. taking their time from the verb of saying or thinking. a perfect or future perfect indicative becomes perfect subjunctive after dīcit. since all others follow the regular rules of sequence and indirect statement.16). See §165. for the sake of vividness. So for example a present or future indicative becomes present subjunctive after dīcit.
. he replied . The imperfect and pluperfect of conclusions contrary to fact become an infi nitive not elsewhere used. Repraesentātiō. sī pugnāvisset. since it is the main clause. The condition. I would have praised him. Example: respondit: . since these things were so. Indicative tenses change to infi nitive tenses according to §266. Adverbs will be changed in the same way. cum ea ita sint . in –ūrus fuisse. in either case retaining the present stem. Th is is because the perfect infi nitive is past. I praise this soldier.
eī īre licuit. determine. But with licet a predicate is commonly dative.
For the tenses of the infi nitive see §205.3. it is permitted.2). a man may be brave. a predicate noun or adjective is regularly in the accusative. See §228.23.1). Examples: īre oportet. he tries to be brave. quod Helvētiōs tradūxisset (1. Th is is the reason for the subjunctive in causal clauses with quod. As these verbs have no subject accusative. literally to go was right. Caesar kept demanding the grain which (as he said) they had promised. Example: fortis esse cōnātur. a predicate noun or adjective must agree with the nominative subject of the principal verb. he ought to go. RULE: Sometimes a verb that would otherwise stand in the indicative is put in the subjunctive only because it depends on another subjunctive or on an infinitive. RULE: Many verbs which imply another action of the same subject take a present infinitive to complete their meaning. With licet. a. a. either expressed or understood. Examples: Caesar frūmentum quod essent pollicitī fl āgitāre (1. Examples: īre potest.
. Example: cum certissimae rēs accēderent. dare. īre potuit. wish. the dative is commonly used instead of a subject accusative. RULE: The subjunctive may be used in any subordinate clause to imply that it is a quotation. begin. Examples: fortem esse oportet. he might have gone. one ought to be brave.
Subjunctive By Attraction
274. and the like. cōnstituērunt comparāre (1. he can go. a. since the most clearly proven facts were added (namely) that he had led the Helvetii. literally to go is right. But with some of these verbs a substantive clause of desire (or purpose) is often used. one must go. It is also especially common in clauses depending on purpose clauses and substantive clauses of desire (or purpose). (§244). The present infi nitive (rarely the perfect) without an expressed subject accusative may be used as the subject of the verbs mentioned in §278.8). īre necesse est. ought. īre dēbet.1). be accustomed. attempt. literally to go was permitted to him. Such verbs are verbs meaning be able.19.Grammatical Appendix
Implied Indirect Discourse 273. Since a subject accusative is easily supplied in thought with these infi nitives. Infi nitive As Subject 276. cease. literally it is permitted to a man to be brave. a). he had been commanded not to engage in battle unless Caesar’s forces should be seen (Caesar had said nisi meae cōpiae visae erunt. Without Subject Accusative Complementary Infi nitive 275.16. literally he was able to go. one ought to have gone (§205. he could have gone. īre oportuit. one must go. they decided to prepare. unless my forces shall be seen). erat eī praeceptum nē proelium committeret nisi ipsīus cōpiae vīsae essent (1. etc. virō licet esse fortī (fortem).
either the personal construction or the impersonal is possible. Th is is indirect statement. (impersonal) Caesarem vēnisse dictum est. which might be expected to take the substantive clause of desire (pupose) (§228. cupiō mē esse clēmentem (Cic. RULE: The infinitive is sometimes used with a nominative subject. with subject accusative. a. and of est with a predicate noun or adjective. he ordered the soldiers to fight. a.78
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With Subject Accusative 277. cupiō. Historical Infinitive. b. mē īre necesse est.3. I ought to go. But posse may be used instead of a future infi nitive. placet. patior. they hoped that they could get possession. libet.26. Caesar is said to have come. because possum implies futurity. praestat. Examples: id sēsē effectūrōs spērābant (7. With volō. Infi nitive Clause As Subject 278. sinō. I want him to go. Examples: mē īre oportet. a). but the personal is the more common in the uncompounded tenses. c. sometimes when it is the same (compare §275). a. they hoped that they could accomplish this = they hoped to accomplish this.1). the accusative and infi nitive are used regularly when the subject of the infi nitive is not the same as that of the main verb. RULE: The infinitive in all its tenses. But with some of these verbs the subjunctive is also used. RULE: The present infinitive (rarely the perfect) with subject accusative may be used as the subject of such impersonal verbs as decet. the subject accusative is not always expressed with these verbs. With Subject Nominative 281. Note the use of the accusative and infi nitive with the following verbs. Example: cotidiē Caesar frūmentum flāgitāre (1. forbid. as an equivalent for an independent past indicative. a). For examples see §205 and §266. is used as the object of verbs of knowing. permit. 1. Examples: volō eum īre. c. Examples: (personal) Caesar vēnisse fertur.
.4). learning. See §228. Caesar daily demanded the grain. Example: mīlitēs pugnāre iūssit. The accusative and future infi nitive are used regularly with verbs of hoping and promising. The infi nitive with a subject accusative (§123) forms an infi nitive clause (§186). and telling. and §229. it has been said that Caesar came.4). The accusative and infi nitive are used regularly with iūbeō. When these verbs are made passive. oportet. vīsum est. nōlō. after verbs of hoping. I desire to be merciful. Cat. I must go.16. literally. sēsē potīrī posse spērant (1. As stated in §276. 280. Caesar ought to have gone (§205. order. Infi nitive Clause as Object 279. mālō. Caesarem īre oportuit. vetō.22). and with licet the dative is much more common.
Th is denotes duty or necessity. Therefore such forms as seeing. cōnsulibus senātus rem pūblican] dēfendendam dēdit.Grammatical Appendix
282. a) or cum with the imperfect (or pluperfect) subjunctive (§242 . a). suscipiō. making either the active periphrastic conjugation (§75 and §196) or the future active infi nitive. I. Like other adjectives they may be used substantively (§158). in agreement with the objects of verbs meaning to have (a thing done) or to undertake (to do a thing). literally Caesar must be praised by me = I must praise Caesar. Present participles are very often used in English where Latin uses dum with the present indicative (§234. The future passive participle is used with the verb sum to form the passive periphrastic conjugation (§76). literally it had to be fought by me = I had to fight. but in usage is quite distinct. cause.5). literally this having been seen. the Senate entrusted the defense of the state to the consuls. and may be translated hōc visō (§150) fūgit. dō. There is no present passive participle.. Future Participles 285. The future active participle is used by Caesar and Cicero only with some form of sum.
. Present Participle 284. Examples: pontem faciendum cūrat (1. literally except what they were about to take with them = except what they intended. he fled. Examples: victus fūgit may mean he was conquered and fled.13. see §205. undertake. have (literally take care). Examples: he was killed (while) fighting. etc. or cum pugnāret.2). It has two uses. For example. See also the examples under §150. 1. he is to be praised. he must (ought. must be translated into Latin otherwise than by a present participle. seeing this he fled. Present participles are often used in English where the action has actually been completed before the action of the verb: Latin uses the perfect participle when this is the case. Example: praeter quod sēcum portātūrī erant (1. Participles are often used in Latin where English uses a coordinate or a subordinate clause. 3. 283. never est currēns. seeing this he fled means having seen. occīsus est. For the meanings of their tenses. victus fugiet may be translated by similar clauses. as laudandus est. but is much less frequently used. The present active participle corresponds in meaning to the English present participle. The English form is usually active: remember that the Latin is passive. mihi pugnandum fuit (impersonal). he will flee. deserves to) be praised. sometimes pugnāns occīsus est. he had a bridge made. Participles are verbal adjectives and are used either att ributively or predicatively (§157). The future passive participle has the same form as the gerundive (§288). usually. or because he had been conquered. Intransitive verbs must be used impersonally.5. b. 2. a. They may govern cases just as the fi nite verb does. he fled. The future passive participle is sometimes used to denote purpose. always. give over. especially cūrō. etc. a. cum hoc vīdisset fūgit. usually either dum pugnat occīsus est. or by if he is conquered. II. Remember that he is running is always currit. Only the meaning of the sentence shows what conjunction to use in translating. The agent is regularly dative (§118). when he had been conquered. Examples: Caesar est mihi laudandus. he fled. and such forms as being seen.
for the sake of fleeing. Examples: vīsus fūgit. hope of taking the town. a.7. potior. urbis is the genitive modifying causā and videndae agrees with urbis. and case. literally for the sake of the city to be seen. he (has) collected great forces. fungor. But the perfect passive form of deponent verbs usually (not always) has an active meaning.
. while magnās cōpiās coēgit. after the founding of the city. II. see §285. corresponding to such English forms as seen or having been seen. b. Example: magnās cōpiās coāctās habet. literally. In this construction the English direct object takes the Latin case which the gerund would have taken. The perfect passive participle is sometimes used in agreement with the object of habeō. having seen Caesar he fled. Latin has a perfect passive participle.
288. rather than the past action. and must agree with its noun in gender. after the city founded. and the gerundive agrees with it. The gerundive is passive. but no perfect active participle (but see a). corresponding to such English forms as having seen. Examples: fugiendī causā (§99. having seen Caesar he fled. There is no exact English equivalent.5). Both constructions alike must be translated for the sake of seeing the city. but see §289. for persuading him. In the gerundive construction urbis videndae causā .
287. for the sake of seeing the city.80
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286. the gerund must be used. It governs the case that is governed by the fi nite forms of the verb. a. and vēscor (§145) is used. fruor. ad persuādendum eī (§115). For example. But the gerundive of ūtor. in the gerund construction urbem videndī causā. RULE: If the verb is intransitive. For the same form used as a future passive participle. The gerundive is a passive verbal adjective. The gerund is an active verbal noun and corresponds to the English verbal nouns in -ing. II. a). leaves it uncertain whether he still has them. Example: eī crēdendī causā. Example: Caesarem cōnspicātus fūgit. I. and urbem is the direct object of videndī. Example: spēs potiundī oppidī (2.
Choice of Construction
289. or he has collected great forces (and still has them). for the take of believing him (§115). videndī is the genitive modifying causā. but the resulting fact is emphasized. Caesare vīsō fūgit. urbem videndī causā. Note the translation of such phrases as post urbem conditam. number. The translation is the same as for a gerund with a direct object.c. The meaning is nearly the same as that of the past active tenses of the simple verb. See also §150. The gerundive construction is commonly used in place of the gerund with a direct object. and intransitive verbs can be used in the passive only impersonally. §150). The English perfect active participle with a direct object can usually be translated into Latin by putt ing the English object in the ablative and using the passive participle in agreement with it (ablative absolute. literally Caesar having been seen he fled. having been seen he fled. he has great forces (which he has) collected. so that with these verbs the change described in §286 is not to be made.
the gerundive suī cōnservandōrum. The usual gerund would be sē cōnservandī.4). sometimes gerundive). A direct object is sometimes used with a gerund in the genitive or the ablative without a preposition. Examples: (always) ad effēminandōs animōs (1. he came to see Caesar.
Use of Cases
290. and as the ablative of means or cause.
295. especially ad expressing purpose. the gerundive construction is more common and must always be used after a preposition. iniūcundus.4). 294. RULE: The Ablative of the supine is used as an ablative ofspecification (§149). Examples: parātus ad proficīscendum. for weakening minds and spirits. opus est. nostrī. iūcundus. The Accusative is used with a few prepositions. Neither the gerund nor the gerundive is used as the subject or direct object of verbs. they sent envoys to ask aid. lēgātōs mitt unt rogātum auxilium (1. regardless of gender and number. cognōscō. optimus. Examples: in quaerendō reperiēbat. vēnit.30. videō. dīcō.11. (usually) urbis videndae causā. or vestrī with a genitive in –ī (sometimes called gerund. Caesaris (or Caesarem) videndī cupidus.8). ready to set out. with the prepositions ab. Example: perfacile factū (1. The Genitive is used with nouns and adjectives. for the sake of seeing the city. The Ablative is used. a. The Dative is very rare. 296. faciō. and with the adjectives facilis. for the sake of seeing the city. difficilis. Examples: grātūlātum vēnērunt (1. mirābilis. RULE: The Accusative of the supine is used after verbs of motion to express purpose.1. suī. crēdibilis. With causā and grātiā it forms a common expression of purpose.16) literally very easy as to the doing = very easy to do. It does not take a direct object. an irregular construction is used—meī. 293.3. lapidibus subministrandīs (3. It may govern a direct object. ex. bellandī causā vēnit. 291. see §289. sometimes urbem videndī causā. ad Caesarem videndum (gerundive. a desire of fighting. incrēdibilis. nefās est. Example: suī cōnservandī causā. dē.2). in questioning (them) he learned. 292.25. by furnishing stones. he came to fight (for the sake of fighting). in. II). The supine of the verbs audiō. Examples: bellandī cupiditās. If the substantive is a personal or reflexive pronoun. RULE: If the verb is used transitively. desirous of seeing Caesar. for the sake of saving themselves.Grammatical Appendix
II. tuī. and the expressions fās est.
. is most commonly found. they came to offer congratulations.
-um).. Nōn. for example.e. pl. that is. Fēbruārius.. IV. Ian. the seventh. In the times of Caesar and Cicero the names of the months were Iānuārius (-a. (eight days [see §299] before the Calends. and Sextīlis to Augustus. take the dates: Jan.” etc. remember that the Calends do not belong to the month in which the required day is. on the fourth day before the Ides of January. July. and the Ides. The Months. instead of forward from the fi rst as we do. 298. 22 = a. they counted both the fi rst day and the last day.e. f. Kal. while we would speak of Monday as the second day before Wednesday. Aprīlis (-e). i. Iūl.) were always the fi rst of the month. pl. Add one to the number of days in the preceding month. and October had 31 days. Iān.= ante diem quārtum Īdūs Iānuāriās. viii. then count backwards. i. In calculating dates. Tuesday as two. d. (four days [see §299] before the Nones. -ārum.82
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The Roman Calendar
297. d. Method of Reckoning. Before 46 bce. of July)
. Jan. iv. Sextīlis. (four days [see §299] before the Ides. Nones. the fi rst. For examples. f. they called the days “the third before the Ides.. d. The Romans counted the days backwards from three points in each month. November. Ian. The logical. In other words. the Nones.) the fi fteenth of March. for example a. and December. March. 10 = a. In 46 bce. of March) July 4 = a. but less usual form is diē quārtō ante Īdūs Iānuāriās. May. f. 299. February had 28. In all other months they were the fi ft h and thirteenth. a Roman would have counted Wednesday as one. counting both ends as usual. An idiomatic formula is commonly used. the thirteenth of January) Feb. Calends. i. Maius. September (-bris. the Ides (Īdūs. Mār. July. Īd. Octōber. Later Quīntīlis was changed to Iūlius. The Nones (Nōnae. -bre). Īd. Iūnius. which can neither be parsed nor translated literally. and each of the others had 29. iv. The Latin names of months are adjectives.” “the fourth before the Calends. in honor of Julius Caesar. and would thus have called Monday the third day before Wednesday. and Ides.e. 300. -ārum. the Calends. and Monday as three. till near the death of Caesar and Cicero. -uum.) were the seventh. pl. May. d. and October. 1 = Kal. The Calends (Kalendae. not nouns as are ours. Method of Expressing Dates. in honor of the emperor Augustus. In counting back from the Calends. Caesar reformed the calendar and gave the months their present number of days. Mārtius. Quīntīlis.
from a grammatical perspective. the harbors (and) the approaches (BG 4. the use of two nouns with a connective where a noun with a modifying genitive or adjective might have been expected. a pledge of good faith bound by an oath. construction according to the sense without regard to the grammatical form.20). ut supportārī posset. exīrent.28). Ellipsis (ĕ-lĭp´-sĭs).) 302. the use of a noun as object in a clause preceding the one in which it naturally belongs as subject. he levied as many soldiers as possible (there was only one legion. aditūs cognōvisset. c. Polysyndeton (pŏl-ĭ-sĭn´-dĕ-tŏn). as in.27). the omission of a conjunction where a connective might have been used. cōnsimilis caprīs figūra. pp.3). . nōn aetāte cōnfectīs. as in. fāma nōbilēs potentēsque bellō. but the Gauls on him (BG 1. rem frūmentāriam. the Graioceli. for example. quam maximumpotest mīlitum numerum imperat (erat . lit. . the omission of words essential to the meaning. the Ceutrones. and gave orders that the bridge be cut down (BG 1. Duae fīliae. . (BG 1. often one that helps explain the main construction.) caprārum (BG 7. should have become acquainted with the natural features. in further Gaul). 307–309. they spared not the aged. nōn īnfantibus pepercērunt.2). they feared the supply of grain. for Duae fīliae fuērunt. figūra cōnsimilia figūrae (dat. sed Gallīs sibi. ut . not the children (BG 7. Ceutronōs et Graiocēlī et Caturīgēs. f. nōn mulieribus. g. the use of more conjunctions than the sense requires. as in. the effect tends to emphasize whatever is joined in this way (compare asyndeton). good faith and an oath (BG 1. so. loca. in the consulship of Lucius Piso (and) Aulus Gabinius (BG 1. b. he persuaded his state that they should go out (BG 1. an arrangement of contrasted words in inverse order (follows a pattern of ABBA) or inverted parallellism.44). Parenthesis (pă-rĕn´-thĕ-sĭs). cīvitātī persuāsit.53). as in.e. he persuaded the (people of his) state to go out. It also appears in Caesar: Selections from his Commentarii De Bello Gallico. e. Brachylogy (bră-kĭl´-ŏ-gē). cīvitās is singular. the repetition of the same word at the beginning of successive phrases or clauses. legiō ūna). 301. as in. lit. as in. Non sēsē Gallia. Caesar uses the following Grammatical Figures: a. pontem . Aulō Gabīniō cōnsulibus.39). the insertion of an independent sentence or phrase that interrupts the construction with a separate thought. as in. as in. (i. altogether. that it . . fīdem et iūs iūrandum. timēre. b. and powerful in war (BG 7. Chiasmus (kī-ăs´-mŭs). as in. portūs. Prolepsis (prō-lĕp´-sĭs).
. . c.iubet (historical present) rescindī. Asyndeton (ă-sĭn´-dĕ-tŏn).7).Grammatical Appendix
Figures of Speech
Th is table is a slightly revised version of the one found in Kelsey 1918. bellum intulisse. the juxtaposition of contrasted expressions in like order. shape like (that of) goats. Lūciō Pisōne. in reputation notable. and the Caturiges (BG 1. There were two daughters (BG 1. pp. Antithesis (ăn-tĭth´-ĕ-sĭs).6). the effect is terse and clipped (compare polysyndeton). or Anticipation. not the women. Anaphora (ă-năf´-ŏ-ră). 582–584. that is. . ... He did not make war on the Gauls.. Synesis (sĭn´-ĕ-sĭs). as in. h. d. . Hendiadys (hĕn-dī´-ă-dĭs). exīrent should have been singular as well. Caesar uses the following Rhetorical Figures: a. as in.10).. a condensed form of expression. lit. that they feared that the supply of grain could not be brought in.77).
Brūtī. that it was being collected. the representation of something inanimate or abstract as endowed with life and action. that Caesar under the pretense of friendship.44).6). as the separation of words that belong together. was on the way. Euphemism (yū´-fĕ-mĭzm). phrases.18).16). simulātā amīcitiā (BG 1.84
Caesar De Bello Gallico
d. such as the insertion of one or more words between the parts of an ablative absolute. adesse. as in. e. the use of a mild expression in order to avoid a word of bad omen or occurrence. simulātā Caesarem amīcitiā. an arrangement of words. Two triremes. cōnferre. as in. neque tam imperītum esse rērum ut nōn scīret. the usual order would be Caesarem. Litotes (līt´-ŏ-tēz or lī-tō´-tēz). meaning if any disaster should befall the Romans (BG 1. thus. g. and he was not so unversed in affairs as not to know.
. as in Cōnspicātae nāvēs trirēmēs duae nāvem D. the affi rmation of an idea through thenegation of its opposite. h. f. was at hand (BG 1. meaning that he was so worldly wise that he very well knew (BG 1. the arrangement of words in unusual order. Climax (klī´-măx). having caught sight of the ship of Decimus Brutus (BC 2. as in. Hyperbaton (hī-pĕr´-bă-tŏn). sī quid accidat Rōmānīs. Personification (pĕr-sŏn´-ĭ-fĭ-kā´-shŭn). if anything should happen to the Romans.44). or clauses with gradual increase of interest or vigor of expression to the end. comportārī.