Properties of Nuclei
Z protons and N neutrons held together with
a shortranged force gives binding energy
P and n made from quarks. Most of the mass
due to the strong interactions binding them
together. Recent JLAB results show masses
inside nucleus might be slightly smaller than
free particles
P and n are about 1 Fermi in size and the
strong force doesnt compress. Size ~ range
of strong force all nuclei have the same
density and higher A nuclei are bigger
(unlike atoms)
m MeV c m MeV c
M Zm Nm E Am
with A Z N m u MeV c
p n
nucleus p n bind N
N
= =
= +
= + = =
938 3 939 6
9315
2 2
2
. / . /
. /
P461  Nuclei I 2
Protons vs Neutron
neutron slightly heavier than proton and so it
decays. No reason why just observation
quark content: n = udd and p = uud (plus g,
qqbar) Mass up and down quarks 510 Mev
three generations of quarks. Only top quark
ever observed as bare quark. Somehow up
quark seems to be slightly lighter than down
quark
K
0 0
33 31
35
2 2
,
) ( 10
886 ) mod ( 10
/ 56 . 939 / 27 . 938
+ +
+ + >
>
+ +
e p
e p n specific yrs
s es all yrs lifetime
c MeV c MeV mass
neutron proton
????
3
1
3
2
u d s c b t
m m m m m m
b
t
s
c
d
u
> > >


\



\



\



\

P461  Nuclei I 3
Nuclei Force
Strong force binds together nucleons
Strong force nominally carried by gluons. But
internucleon force carried by pions (quark
antiquark bound states) as effective range too
large for gluons
Each p/n surrounded by virtual pions. Strong
force identical pp, pn, nn (except for
symmetry/Pauli exclusion effects)
Range of 1 F due to pion mass
p n n p
p p n n
+ +
+ +
+
0 0
p
n
n
p
E t t
m
s
x
c
m
MeVF
MeV
F
=
= =
h
h
h
10
197
135
1
25
P461  Nuclei I 4
Nuclear Sizes and Densities
Use e + A e + A scattering completely EM
p
e
= 1000 MeV/c wavelength = 1.2 F now
JLAB, in 60s/70s SLAC up to 20 GeV( mapped
out quarks)
Measurement of angular dependence of cross
section gives charge distribution (Fourier
transform)
Can also scatter neutral particles (n, K
L
) in
strong interactions to give n,p distributions
Find density ~same for all but the lowest A
nucleii
( )
( )
/
( )/
r
e
kg m
r a b
=
+
0
1
10
18 3
a A F volume A
b F surface area A
skin depth radius A
=
=
107
055
1 3
2 3
1 3
.
.
/
/
/
P461  Nuclei I 5
Nuclear Densities
can write density as an energy density
Note QuarkGluon Plasma occurs if
3
2 27 3 / 1
/ 14 . 0 /
/ 938 10 7 . 1 2 . 1
F GeV vol E
c MeV kg m FA R
p
= = + =
3
/ 1 / F GeV vol E
m F
F
kg
cm g
m
kg
15
3
28
3 14
3
17
10 1
10
/ 10
10
=
= =
P461  Nuclei I 6
Nuclear Densities
) 1979 ( 9 , 42
, , , ,
) (
PRL
Pb Sn Cu Al C A
anything A K
L
=
+
P461  Nuclei I 7
Nuclear Densities
) 1979 ( 9 , 42
, , , ,
) (
PRL
Pb Sn Cu Al C A
anything A K
L
=
+
84 .
A
P461  Nuclei I 8
P461 Model of Nuclei
billiard ball or liquid drop
Adjacent nucleons have force between them but not
permanent (like a liquid). Gives total attractive
energy proportional to A (the volume) a surface
term (liquid drop)
Repulsive electromagnetic force between protons
grows as Z
2
Gives semiempirical mass formula whose terms
can be found by fitting observed masses
Pauli exclusion as spin two (interacting)
Fermi gases which can be used to model energy
and momentum density of states
Potential well is mostly spherically symmetric so
quantum states with J/L/S have good quantum
numbers. The radial part is different than H but
partially solvable shell model of valence states
and nuclear spins
P461  Nuclei I 9
Semiempirical Mass Formula
M(Z,A)=f0 + f1 +f2 + f3 + f4 + f5
f0 = m
p
Z + m
n
(AZ) mass of constituents
f1 = a
1
A A ~ volume binding energy/nucleon
f2 = +a
2
A
2/3
surface area. If on surface, fewer
neighbors and less binding energy
f3 = +a
3
Z
2
/A
1/3
Coulomb repulsion ~ 1/r
f4 = +a
4
(ZA/2)
2
/2 ad hoc term. Fermi gas gives
equal filling of n, p levels
f5 = f(A) Z, N both even
= 0 Z even, N odd or Z odd, N even
= +f(A) Z., N both odd f(A) = a
5
A
.5
want to pair terms (up+down) so nuclear spin = 0
Binding energy from term f1f5. Find the constants
(a
i
s) by fitting the measured nuclei masses
P461  Nuclei I 10
Semiempirical Mass Formula
the larger the binding energy E
b
, the greater the
stability. Iron is the most stable
can fit for terms
good for making quick calculations; understanding
a small region of the nuclides.
A
E
b
=
E/A
volume
surface
Coulomb
N/Z asymmetry
Total
P461  Nuclei I 11
www.meta
synthesis.com/webbook/33_segre/segre.html
Number of neutrons
number of protons
most stable (valley)
P461  Nuclei I 12
Semiempirical Mass
the f5 term is a paring term. For nuclei near U
there is about a 0.7 MeV difference between
having both n and p paired up (even A), odd A
(and so one unpaired), and another 0.7 MeV for
neither n or p having paired spin (even A)
so ~5.9 MeV from binding of extra n plus 0.7
MeV from magnetic coupling
easier for neutron capture to cause a fission in
U
235
. U
236
likelier to be in an excited state.
MeV f
MeV M M M n E
U n U
b
7 . 0
236
11
6 . 6 ) (
5
236 , 92 1 , 0 235 , 92
236 235
= =
= + =
+
MeV MeV n E
U n U
b
2 . 5 7 . 2 6 . 6 ) (
239 238
=
+
P461  Nuclei I 13
Fermi Gas Model
p,n spin form two Fermi gases of
indistinguishable particles p n through
beta decays (like neutron stars) and p/n ratio due
to matching Fermi energy
In finite 3D well with radius of nucleus.
Familiar:
Fermi energy from density and N/A=0.6
Slightly lower proton density but shifted due to
electromagnetic repulsion
N p p D E
V
h
m E ( ) ( ) ( )
/ /
=
2
3
3 1 2 1 2
8
2
E
h
m
N
a A
a F
E MeV p mE MeV
F
F F F
=

\
 = =
= = =
2
2 3
4
3
3
8
3
11
43 2 270
/
.
P461  Nuclei I 14
Fermi Gas Model II
V = depth of well = F(A) ~ 50 MeV
Fermi energy same for all nuclei as density =
constant
Binding energy B = energy to remove p/n from
top of well ~ 710 MeV V = E
F
+ B
Start filling up states in Fermi sea (separate for
p/n)
Scattering inhibited 1 + 2 1 + 2 as states 1
and 2 must be in unfilled states nucleons are
quasifree
vs
(ignore Coulomb)
n p
n p
V
B
+ +
e p n
P461  Nuclei I 15
Nuclei
If ignore Coulomb repulsion, as n p through
beta decay, lowest energy will have N=Z (gives (N
Z) term in mass formula)
proton shifted higher due to Coulomb repulsion.
Both p,n fill to top with pn coupled by Weak
interactions so both at ~same level (Fermi energy
for p impacted by n)
n p
+ +
+ +
+ +
+
n e p
e n p
e p n
n p U 146 , 92
238
P461  Nuclei I 16
Nuclei: Fermi motion
if p,n were motionless, then the energy thresholds
for some neutrino interactions are:
but Fermi momentum allows reactions to occur at
lower neutrino energy.
MeV E p n
MeV E e n p
e
120
8 . 1
+ +
+ +
MeV
p E
m
MeV E
e n p
p p
p
thrsh
4 . 1 8 . 1 =
+
=
+ +
+
MeV mE p
MeV E
F F
F
280 2
40
dN/dp
p
P461  Nuclei I 17
Nuclei:Fermi motion
) , (
) 1971 ( 445 , 26
Pb Ni
X p e C e
p free
p e p e
PRL
+ + +
+ +
solid lines are
modified Fermi gas
calculation (tails
due to interactions)
electron energy loss
P461  Nuclei I 18
n in C nucleus
p n + +
P461  Nuclei I 19
Nuclei:Pauli Suppression
But also have filled energy levels and need to give
enough energy to p/n so that there is an unfilled
state available. Simplest to say above Fermi
Energy
similar effect in solids. Superconductivity mostly
involves electrons at the top of the Fermi well
at low energy transfers (<40 MeV) only some p/n
will be able to change states. Those at top of
well.
Gives different cross section off free protons than
off of bound protons. Suppression at low energy
transfers if target is Carbon, Oxygen, Iron...
In SN1987, most observed events were from
antineutrinos (or off electrons) even though (I
think) 1000 times more neutrinos. Detectors were
water..
e e
p n
e n p
e
+ +
+ +
+ +
P461  Nuclei I 20
C
Fe
Physics Reports
1972 C.H.
LlewellenSmith
Fermi gas
shell model
includes spin
effects
energy transfer
1Suppression
factor
P461  Nuclei I 21
Nuclei: Fermi Suppression and
Pauli Exclusion
important for neutrino energies less than 1 GeV. prevents
accurate measurement of nuetrino energy in detector
P461  Nuclei I 22
Nuclear Shell Model
Potential between nucleons can be studied
by studying bound states (pn, ppn, pnn,
ppnn) or by scattering cross sections:
np np pp pp nD nD pD pD
If had potential could solve Schrod. Eq.
Dont know precise form but can make
general approximation
3d Finite Well with little rdependence
(except at edge of well)
Almost spherically symmetric (fusion can
be modeled as deformations but well
skip)
NN interactions are limited (at high A)
due to Pauli exclusion. p + n p + n
only if state is available
P461  Nuclei I 23
Infinite Radial Well
Radial part of Scrod Eq
Easy to solve if l=0
+ +
+
(
=
=
h h
2 2
2
2
2
2
2 2
1
4
m
d u
dr
V r
m
l l
r
u Eu
u r rR r P r u
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
u kr k
n
a
E
p
m
k
m
hn
ma
= = = = = sin
( ) ( ) 2
2 2 2 8
2 2 2
2
h
P461  Nuclei I 24
Infinite Radial Well
For L>0, angular momentum term
goes to infinity at r=0. Reduces
effective wavelength, giving higher
energy
Go to finite well. Wave function
extends a bit outside well giving
longer effective wavelength and
lower energy (ala 1D square wells)
In nuclei, potential goes to infinity at
r=0 (even with L=0) as that would be
equivalent to nucleon inside other
nucleon
P461  Nuclei I 25
Angular part
If V(r) then can separate variables (r,,) =
R(r)Y( ,) have spherical harmonics for angular
wave function
Angular momentum then quantized like in
Hydrogen (except that L>0 for n=1, etc)
Energy doesnt depend on m
L l l L m
l m l l n r quantum
Z
2 2
1
012
= + =
= = =
( )
, , #
h h
K K
P461  Nuclei I 26
Angular part
Energy increases with increasing n (same l)
Energy increases with increasing l (same n)
will have 1s, 1p, 1d....2s, 2p, 2d... with energy 1p >
1s; 2s > 1s but unknown if 1p vs 2s
If both n,l vary then use experimental observation
to determine lower energy
Energy will also depend on strong magnetic
coupling between nucleons
Fill up states separately for p,n
P461  Nuclei I 27
L,S,J Coupling: Atoms vs Nuclei
ATOMS: If 2 or more electrons, Hunds rules:
Maximize total S for lowest E (S=1 if two)
Maximize total L for lowest E (L=2 if 2 P)
Energy split by total J (J=3,2,1 for S=1,L=2)
NUCLEI: large selfcoupling. Plus if 2 p (or 2
n) then will antialign giving a state with J=0,
S=0, L=0
leftover odd p (or n) will have two possible
J = L + or J = L
higher J has lower energy
if there are both an odd P and an odd n (which
is very rare in stable) then add up Jn + Jp
Atom called LS coupling nuclei called jj
Note that magnetic moments add differently as
different gfactor for p,n
P461  Nuclei I 28
Spin Coupling in Nuclei
All nucleons in valence shell have same J
Strong pairing causes Jz antiparallel (3 and 3)
spin wavefunction = antisymmetric
space wavefunction = symmetric
This causes the NN to be closer together and
increases the attractive force between them
ee in atoms opposite as repulsive force
Can also see in scattering of polarized particles
Even N, even Z nuclei. Total J=S=L=0 as all n,p
paired off
Even N, odd Z or odd N, even Z. nuclear spin
and parity determined by unpaired nucleon
Odd N, odd Z. add together unpaired n,p
Explains ad hoc pairing term in mass formula
P461  Nuclei I 29
Energy Levels in Nuclei
Levels in ascending order (both p,n)
State n L degeneracy(2j+1) sum
1S
1/2
1 0 2 2***
1P
3/2
1 1 4 6
1P
1/2
1 1 2 8***
1D
5/2
1 2 6 14
2S
1/2
2 0 2 16
1D
3/2
1 2 4 20***
1F
7/2
1 3 8 28***
2P
3/2
2 1 4 32
1F
5/2
1 3 6 38
2P
1/2
2 1 2 40
1G
9/2
1 4 10 50***
*** magic number is where there is a large
energy gap between a filled shell and the next
level. More tightly bound nuclei. (all filled
subshells are slightly magic)
P461  Nuclei I 30
Magic Numbers
Large energy gaps between some filled shells
and next (unfilled) shell give larger dE/A and
more made during nucleosynthesis in stars
# protons #neutrons
2 He 2 He4
6 C 6 C12
8 O 8 O16
20 Ca 20
28 Ni 28 Cr52(24,28)
50 Sn 50 Ni78
82 Pb 82
126
136
Ni78 (2005) doubly magic. While it is
unstable, it is the most neutron rich.
Usually more isotopes if p or n are magic. Sn
has 20 isotopes, 10 of which are stable
P461  Nuclei I 31
P461  Nuclei I 32
Magic Numbers
P461  Nuclei I 33
Magic Numbersexplore shortlived
Energy
flight time
Mg
Al Al
40
43 42
P461  Nuclei I 34
P461  Nuclei I 35
Nuclear Magnetic Moments
Protons and neutrons are made from quarks and
gluons. Their magnetic moment is due to their spin
and orbital angular momentum
The gfactors are different than electrons. orbital,
p=1 and n=0 as the neutron doesnt have charge
spin, g for proton is 5.6 and for neutron is 3.8
(compared to 2 for the electron; sometimes just 2).
A proton is made from 2 up and 1 down quark
which have charge 2/3 and 1/3
A neutron is made from 1 up and 2 down and has
more negative charge/moments
No theory which explains hadronic magnetic
moments
orbital and spin magnetic moments arent aligned,
need to repeat the exercise in atoms (Zeeman
effect) to get values for the zcomponent of the
moment
r r r
h
r r
h
= + = + =
L S
N
l S N
p
g L g S
e
m
( )
2
P461  Nuclei I 36
Nuclear
Magnetic
Moments
P461  Nuclei I 37
Simple Model of Nucleus
important for low energy cross sections (e,N,,,)
and for special cases (nuclei production in
supernovas, backgrounds to proton decay searches)
a very similar model is used for quarkgluon
plasmas
MODEL: semiindependent Fermi gas
nucleons have energy, momentum
Pauli suppression is low E
as the target protons and neutrons have nonzero
energy, outgoing angles change as does threshold
outgoing new particles can rescatter in nucleus as
12 thick (even thicker if QGP)
+
+ + +
+ +
n p p p production
n p exchange e ch
p p p p elastic
:
, : arg
:
0
P461  Nuclei I 38
Nuclear correlations
model  nucleons are quasifree no
interactions
but for about 20% of those in C, maybe
25% in Iron, the wavefunctions of a pair
overlap
called short range correlations (SRC)
2 nucleons have equal and opposite
momentum
can study at JLAB and BNL
P461  Nuclei I 39
Nuclear correlations
impacts p,n energies in neutron stars; no
longer completely independent Fermi seas
momentum space distributions
(larger radii = larger
momentum
no corrleations
with SRC
blue=neutrons red=protons
P461  Nuclei I 40
Simple Model of
NucleusRescattering
P461  Nuclei I 41
30% of time
something happens
72% of time
something
happens
code diffused to other neutrino
oscillation and proton decay
experiments (or they wrote
something similar
P461  Nuclei I 42
Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP)
normal nuclei have Q=Energy Density = 0.14
GeV/F
3
and consist of two spin Fermions (p,n)
with E
F
=45 MeV (and 3 spin 0 Bosons, pions, with
n
= probability <= .2
if Q increases to > 1 GeV/F
3
the p,n, dissociate
into quark and gluon constituents
Phase Transition. have to add energy to dissociate
and new Thermodynamics (specific heat, etc)
QGP occurs in early universe and in AA collisions
at RHIC (LHC)
outgoing new particles can rescatter in nucleus as
many thick
P461  Nuclei I 43
Need better control of Need better control of Need better control of Need better control of
dimensional analysis: dimensional analysis: dimensional analysis: dimensional analysis:
Relevant Thermal Physics
?? density nuclear Normal ~ fm GeV / 2 . 0 ~ ) fm 1 / ( ~
3 4
h > >> >
4
2
30
T g
= == =
Energy density for g massless
d.o.f
4
2
30
3 2 2 2
8
7
8 2 T
c f a s g
) )) )
` `` `
+ ++ + = == =
8 gluons, 2 spins;
2 quark flavors, anti
quarks,
2 spins, 3 colors
3
4
4
fm GeV / 4 . 2
1
12 12
  
  
  
\ \\ \
  
fm
T
h
Reasonable
estimate
4
2
30
37 T
= == =
37 (!)
from Bill Zajc
) (
30
1
) (
1
15
4
3
units these
hc
T kT
=
P461  Nuclei I 44
37 B, 
90
4
2
= == = = == = g T g P
QGP
Pressure in plasma
phase with
Bag constant B ~ 0.2
GeV / fm
3
4
2
90
3 T P
= == =
Pressure of pure pion gas at
temperature T
Rough Estimate
Compare
Phase transition
at T ~ 140 MeV
with latent heat
~0.8 GeV / fm
3
0.25
0
0.25
0.5
0 100 200
Temperature (MeV)
Pressure
(GeV / fm
3
)
Pion Phase
QGP Phase
PQGP
P
Select Select Select Select system with higher system with higher system with higher system with higher
pressure: pressure: pressure: pressure:
Compare to best
estimates (Karsch, QM01)
from lattice
calculations:
T ~ 150170 MeV
latent heat ~ 0.7 0.3
GeV / fm
3
P461  Nuclei I 45
1. Deconfinement
R() ~ 0.13 fm < R(J/) ~ 0.29 fm <
R( ) ~ 0.56 fm
Electrons, Muons
2. Chiral Symmetry Restoration
Mass, width, branching ratio of to
e
+
e

, K
+
K

with M< 5 Mev:
Electrons, Muons, Charged
Hadrons
Baryon susceptibility, color
fluctuations, antibaryon
production:
Charged hadrons
DCCs, Isospin fluctuations:
Photons, Charged Hadrons
3. Thermal Radiation of Hot Gas
Prompt , Prompt * to e
+
e

,
+

:
Photons, Electrons, Muons
4. Strangeness and Charm Production
Production of K
+
, K

mesons:
Hadrons
Production of , J/, D mesons:
Electrons, Muons
5. Jet Quenching
High pT jet via leading
particle spectra:
Hadrons, Photons
6. SpaceTime Evolution
HBT Correlations of
, K
:
Hadrons
Summary: Electrons, Muons,
Photons, Charged Hadrons
PHENIX Approach to
QGP Detection
Rate of particles exiting from
the QGP are different then if
it were ordinary nuclear
matter. Due to much higher
particle density inside QGP
P461  Nuclei I 46
PHENIX at RHIC
2 central
spectrome
ters
2 forward
spectrome
ters
3 global
detectors
We
st
Ea
st
Sou
th
Nort
h