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Instructor: Mohamed Mahmoud T.A. Ning Lu Email: mmabdels@bbcr.uwaterloo.ca n7lu@uwaterloo.ca Oﬃce Hours: Tuesday 1:30-3:00 pm and Wednesday 3:30-5:00 pm

two central concepts in data networking. Comment and compare. b. Ignoring processing and queuing delays. Suppose s = 2. an image or a music ﬁle) into smaller packets and sends the packets into the network. Suppose dprop is greater than dtrans . Fig. and suppose the propagation speed along the link is s meters/sec. M . Consider sending the message from source to destination without message segmentation. where is the ﬁrst bit of the packet? g. d. Find the distance m so that dprop equals dtrans . The receiver then reassembles the packets back into the original message. the source host segments long. where is the ﬁrst bit of the packet? f. and R = 56 kbps. A wants to send a ﬁle of size M = 15 Mbytes over to B. At time t = dtrans . 1 illustrates the end-to-end transport of a message with and without message segmentation. 1. Assume packet switching and that all packets have the same size L = 1200 bits. in term of L and R. Consider a message that is 8 × 106 bits long that is to be sent from source to destination in Fig. obtain an expression for the end-to-end delay. Host A is to send a packet of size L bits to Host B. dprop . how long would it take for the whole ﬁle to be received by B? Explain your assumptions. Consider two hosts. Suppose each link in the ﬁgure is 2 Mbps.5 Mbit/s. what is the total time to move the message form source host to destination host? b. Suppose Host A begins to transmit the packet at time t = 0. L = 120 bits. a. At what time will the second packet be fully received at the ﬁrst switch? c. Suppose that the two hosts are separated by m meters.000 packets. Ignore propagation. a.5 × 108 . and possibly other parameters. Each link has the same data rate C = 1. Page 1 of 2 . d. How long does it take to move the message form the source host to the ﬁrst packet switch? Keeping in mind that each switch uses store-and-forward packet switching. Suppose dprop is less than dtrans . Express the propagation delay. At time t = dtrans . in terms of m and s. connected by a single link of rate R bps. b. and processing delays. Write ﬁrst the formula giving the time in terms of C . how long would it take for the whole ﬁle to be received by B? Explain your assumptions. Determine the transmission time of the packet. At time t = dtrans . queuing. Now suppose that the message is segmented into 4. application-layer messages (for example.E&CE 610. Problem 2 (Delay ) This elementary problem begins to explore propagation delay and transmission delay. Discuss the drawbacks of message segmentation. M . with each packet being 2. Problem 3 (Segmentation ) In modern packet-switched networks. a. How long does it take to move the ﬁrst packet from source host to the ﬁrst switch? When the ﬁrst packet is being sent form the ﬁrst switch to the second switch. where is the last bit of the packet? e.000 bits long. Assume message switching. Winter 2013 : Assignment #1 Problem 1 (Message Switching and Packet Switching ) Consider two hosts A and B separated by 2 nodes (switches or routers). How long does it take to move the ﬁle from source host to destination host when message segmentation is used? Compare this result with your answer in part (a) and comment. dtrans . the second packet is being sent form the source host to the ﬁrst switch. c. Write ﬁrst the formula giving the time in terms of C . We refer to this process as message segmentation. A and B. and possibly other parameters.

and so on. When circuit switching is used. but each user only transmits 12 percent of the time. . The optimal way to break up the ﬁle into packets. separate headers/trailers are added to each of the smaller packets. n users are transmitting simultaneously. (b)with message segmentation Problem 4 (Optimal Packet Size ) Consider two hosts A and B connected via n hops (n ≥ 2): A ↔ R1 ↔ R2 ↔ · · · ↔ Rn−1 ↔ B That is. Also assume the propagation delay of the links to be negligible and that no packets from other hosts exist on the path from A to B (this is a very unrealistic assumption). For the remainder of this problem. Assume the size of headers/trailers to be H for packets of any size. Problem 5 (Statistical Multiplexing ) Suppose users share a 2-Mbps link.E&CE 610. Consider a ﬁle of size S (in bits) to be transmitted from A to B. R1 is connected to R2 by a point-to-point link. Find the probability that at any given time. Page 2 of 2 . R1 . Suppose there are 50 users. How many packets is optimum? (Notice that when the packet is split into smaller packets. . is to divide it into a number of equal-sized packets (believe us!). in order to minimize the total delay. . Assume all links have the same capacity C (in bps). c. . Find the probability that there are 6 or more users transmitting simultaneously. Winter 2013 : Assignment #1 Figure 1: End-to-end message transport: (a)without message segmentation. Also suppose each user requires 300 Kbps when transmitting. and A is connected to R1 by a point-to-point link. how many users can be supported? b. Rn−1 are routers. a. d. How much time does it take to transmit a packet of size L from A to B? b.) Comment. Find the probability that a given user is transmitting. a. suppose packet switching is used.

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