# August 2012 This month's newsletter is the first in a multi-part series on using the ANOVA method for

an ANOVA Gage R&R study. This method simply uses analysis of variance to analyze the results of a gage R&R study instead of the classical average and range method. The two methods do not generate the same results, but they will (in most cases) be similar. This newsletter focuses on part of the ANOVA table and how it is developed for the Gage R &R study. In particular it focuses on the sum of squares and degrees of freedom. Many people do not understand how the calculations work and the information that is contained in the sum of squares and the degrees of freedom. In the next few issues, we will put together the rest of the ANOVA table and complete the Gage R&R calculations. In this issue:  Sources of Variation  Example Data  The ANOVA Table for Gage R&R  The ANOVA Results  Total Sum of Squares and Degrees of Freedom  Operator Sum of Squares and Degrees of Freedom  Parts Sum of Squares and Degrees of Freedom  Equipment (Within) Sum of Squares and Degrees of Freedom  Interaction Sum of Squares and Degrees of Freedom  Summary  Quick Links Any gage R&R study is a study of variation. This means you have to have variation in the results. On occasion, I get a phone call from a customer wondering why their Gage R&R study is not giving them any useful information. And, in looking at the results, I discover that each result is the same - for each part and for each operator. There is no variation. I am asked - Isn't it good that there is no variation in the results? No, not in a gage R&R study. It means that the measurement process cannot tell the difference between the samples. So remember, a gage R&R study is a study in variation - this means that there must be variation. If you are not familiar with how to conduct a Gage R&R study, please see our December 2007 newsletter. This newsletter also includes how to analyze the results using the average and range method. As usual, please feel free to leave comments at the end of the newsletter.

Sources of Variation

σt. these sources can be grouped into three categories:  variation due to the process itself  variation due to sampling  variation due to the measurement system These three components of variation are related by the following: where σt2 is the total process variance. For our purposes here. is equal to the length of one side of the triangle and the measurement system standard deviation.Suppose you are monitoring a process by pulling samples of the product at some regular interval and measuring one critical quality characteristic (X). Obviously. The process standard deviation. for some processes. sampling variation can greatly impact the results. σms. If the product standard deviation is larger than the measurement standard deviation. if the measurement standard deviation becomes too large. However. we will consider the total variance to be: Remember geometry? The right triangle? The Pythagorean Theorem? The above equation can be represented by the triangle below. the objective of improving a measurement system is to minimize the % variance due to the measurement system: % Variance due to measurement system = 100(σms2/σt2) . for a measurement is equal to the length of the hypotenuse. you will not always get the same result when measure for X. just include it as part of the process itself). However. σp. Thus. σp2 is the process variance. The total standard deviation. Note that the relationship is linear in terms of the variance (which is the square of the standard deviation). it will have the larger impact on the total standard deviation. not the standard deviation. Thus. Why not? There are many sources of variation in the process. However. σs2 is the sampling variance and σms2 is the measurement system variance. we will ignore the variance due to sampling (or more correctly. You can easily see from this triangle what happens as the variation in the product and measurement system changes. it will begin to have the largest impact. is equal to the length of the remaining side.

etc. The operator is the same and the part is the same. The variation in those results includes the variation due to the parts as well as the equipment variation. The variation in all results includes the equipment variation. Reproducibility is the ability of measurement system to return consistent measurements while varying the measurement conditions (different operators. you can break down σms2 into its two components: Repeatability is the ability of the measurement system to repeat the same measurements on the same sample under the same conditions. In this example. Operator 1 also runs Parts 2 through 5 three times each.) It represents an assessment of the ability to reproduce the measurement of other operators. In this series. The variation in these three trials is a measure of the repeatability.29 3. A picture of part of the Gage R&R design is shown below.The gage R&R study focuses on σms2. you can see that Operator 1 has tested Part 1 three times. Operator 1 will test 5 parts three times each. the part variation. The variation in all results is the reproducibility. Example Data We will re-use the data from our December 2007 newsletter on the average and range method for Gage R&R. there were three operators who tested five parts three times.41 3. different parts. What are the sources of variation in these three trials? It is the measurement equipment itself. the operator variation and the interaction between operators and parts.64 . It is also called the equipment variation in Gage R&R studies or the "within" variation in ANOVA studies. The data from the December 2007 newsletter are shown in the table below. Operator 2 and 3 also test the same 5 parts three times each. we will take a look at how the repeatability and reproducibility are determined using the ANOVA method for Gage R&R. In a gage R&R study. Operator A Part 1 Results 3. It represents an assessment of the ability to get the same measurement result each time. In the figure above.

54 2.34 3.08 2.42 4.64.53 4. 3. For example. Since this is a relatively simple Gage R&R.32 4.32 4.88 3. This helps understand the process better.5 2.27 3.41 and 3.47 2.78 3.04 1.04 3.07 2.67 3.72 2. The basic ANOVA table is shown in the table below for the following:  k = number of appraisers  r = number of replications  n= number of parts .94 4.44 3.08 3.11 1.2 1.2 3.09 3.16 3. The next three columns contain the results of the three trials for that operator and part number.03 1.B C 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 2.89 1.19 3.62 3. The ANOVA Table for Gage R&R In most cases.87 4.55 The operator is listed in first column and the part numbers in the second column.34 3. the three trial results for Operator A and Part 1 are 3.25 1. We will now take a look at the ANOVA table.85 2. which is used as a starting point for analyzing the results.64 2.14 1.17 3.2 1.44 4. The software usually displays the results in an ANOVA table.8 2. you will use computer software to do the calculations.01 2. we will show how the calculations are done.29.93 2.

then we have n . We use the sample to estimate something . Remember what the equation for the variance is? The variance of a set of number is given by: The sum of squares for the source of variation is very similar to the numerator. suppose you have a sample that contains n observations. the interaction between the operator and part. The second column is the degrees of freedom associated with the source of variation. The sum of squares is a measure of variation. Remember that a Gage R&R study is a study of variation. . the part. You just take the sum of squares around different averages depending on the source of variation. The degrees of freedom are simply the number of values of a statistic that are free to vary. if we have n observations and want to estimate the average. Note the similarity to the formula for the variance above. There are five sources of variability in this ANOVA approach: the operator. The third column is the sum of squares (SS) associated with the source of variation. the mean square is the sum of squares divided by the degrees of freedom. The fourth column is the mean square associated with the source of variation.1 degrees of freedom left. it costs us one degree of freedom.usually an average.The first column is the source of variability. For example. the equipment and the total. The mean square is the estimate of the variance for that source of variability based on the amount of data we have (the degrees of freedom). When we want to estimate something. It measures the squared deviations around an average. So. So.

909 0.317 The calculations are shown in the table below. It is the ratio of two variances (or mean squares in this case). Total Sum of Squares and Degrees of Freedom The total sum of squares (SST) is the sum of the other sources of variability.815 7.458 0.0000 0.227 0. Operator Part Trial Trial Trial 1 1 2 3 Squared Deviation Squared Deviation Squared Deviation . The overall average of the 45 results is: The total sum of squares is then given by: where Xijm is the result for the ith operator running the jth part for the mth trial. This equation is simply a fancy way of saying that you subtract the average from an individual result and square that result. So. This is shown in the figure below for the squared deviation of the first result.317 MS 0. The ANOVA Results The data above were analyzed using the SPC for Excel software.057 F 100.712 32. Source Operator Part Operator by Part Equipment Total df 2 4 8 30 44 SS 1. If you do this for each point and add up the results.0000 0.142 p Value 0.065 1.the average of all results. you will obtain the following: SST = 32. SST = SS0 + SSP + SS0*P + SSE The total sum of squares is the squared deviation of each individual result from the overall average .9964 Let's see where the numbers come from.008 0. This is the statistic that is calculated to determine if the source of variability is statistically significant.630 28. The resulting ANOVA table is shown below.The fifth column is the F value.322 889.

992 1.27 3.389 1.504 0.019 0.614 0.1 = 44.41 3.308 0.0453 A .A B C 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 3.44 3.039 1.254 0.27 3.08 2.01 2.88 3.09 3.009 1.32 4.07 2.54 3.028 1.254 1.32 4.485 0.. This can also be calculated as nkr .527 0.64 2.354 0.746 0.29 2.1.066 1.03 1.553 0.877 0.180 1.016 0. We calculated the overall average for these results.066 1.949 0.153 1. So the degrees of freedom associated with the total sum of squares are 45 .29 3.274 1.5 2.42 4." subscript means over all parts and trials for operator i.817 0.2 1.32 2.009 0.971 Trial 2 0.64 2.943 There were a total of 45 results.949 0.759 0.08 3.11 1.17 3.44 4.217 0.53 4.003 1.34 3.42 4.78 3. Algebraically. this is given by: where nr represents the number of results for operator i and the "i.04 1.04 3. Operator Sum of Squares and Degrees of Freedom As mentioned before.47 3. The table below shows how the calculations are done: Operator Parts 1 2 3 4 Trial Trial Trial 1 2 3 3.1567 Squared Deviation for Operator 0.16 3.47 2.277 0. With the operator source of variability.72 2.62 3.44 2.752 0.8 2.87 4.317 Trial 3 0.485 0.553 0. n = 5 and r = 3.120 0.41 2.004 0.028 32.314 0.89 1.94 4.64 Operator Average 3. so there are 15 results for each operator.85 2.19 3.309 0.2 3.34 3.55 Sum Trial 1 0.93 3.14 1. In this example.25 1.2 1.5 3.34 4.67 3.094 1.64 2.389 1.17 4.171 1. you will obtain the squared deviations between the operator average and the overall average.498 0. you obtain the sum of squares by determining the squared deviations between two numbers.

16 3.19 3.89 1.55 Sum of Deviations 15(Sum of Deviations) 0.04 3.07 2. Since we calculated the overall average. we lost one degree of freedom.14 1.08 3.34 3.62 3.88 3. you can see that the sum of squares due to the operators is based on how the operator averages deviate from the overall average. SSO = 1.1087 1. The horizontal green line is the overall average. or k -1 = 2.0621 0.8 2.2 3.32 4.03 1.2 1.87 4.08 2.85 2.67 3.53 4.0013 0.9800 2.44 3. There are three operator averages.6947 2.94 4. Parts Sum of Squares and Degrees of Freedom .B C 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 2.11 1.6304 So.72 2. The variability chart below shows the results by operator by part.1 = 2. The degrees of freedom associated with the operators are 3 .25 1.01 2.04 1.78 3.54 2.6304 Thus.2 1.93 2. The difference between those two lines is the deivation.09 3. The horizontal blue line is the average for the operator.

" is the average of the results for part j across all operators and trials.2 2.44 1.1 = 5 -1 = 4 degrees of freedom associated with the parts sum of squares.55 Sum of Deviations 9(Sum of Deviations) 0.11 2. so one degree of freedom is lost.6318 1.The sum of square due to the parts is done in the same manner as for the operators except the average you are focusing on are the part averages.67 3.3343 0. SSP = 28.03 3.85 2.1689 3.08 3.9356 1. The original data has been sorted by part.47 3.9094 Thus.64 3.2 3.1788 1.1489 2.16 1.27 4. There are five parts.32 2.62 4.94 4.53 1.32 1. Part Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Part Average Squared Deviation for Part 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 3.j.64 3.14 2.19 3.0989 4. Again.34 3.54 3.2 2. There are n . the equation for SSP is: where kr is the number of results for a given part (3 operators. Algebraically.25 2. Equipment (Within) Sum of Square and Degrees of Freedom The equipment sum of squares uses the deviation of the three trials for a given part and a given operator from the average for that part and operator.01 3.8 1.0165 3.9094 Again. you can see how the sum of square due to parts is based on how the part averages deviate from the overall average.42 2.5 4.17 3.93 3.44 2.29 3.08 1.3667 3.87 4.04 4.07 2.2122 28.34 4.0507 0.89 2. we calculated the overall average.78 1.09 3.88 3. The table below shows the calculations.72 1. This can be expressed as: .41 3. 3 trials) and the subscript ".04 2.

We will finish out the ANOVA table as well as complete the Gage R&R calculations in the coming issues.(SS0 + SSP + SSE) SS0*P = 32.317 .63 + 28.(df0 + dfP + dfE) df0*P =44 . Quick Links Visit our home page .(1.(2 + 4 + 30) df0*P = 8 Summary This is the first of a multi-part series on using ANOVA to analyze a Gage R&R study.The calculations are shown in the table below. This equality was: SST = SS0 + SSP + SS0*P + SSE SS0*P = SST. It focused on providing a detailed explanation of how the calculations are done for the sum of squares and degrees of freedom. Interaction Sum of Square and Degrees of Freedom We will make use of the equality stated earlier to find the interaction sum of squares.065 The same equality holds for the degrees of freedom: df0*P = dfT .712) SS0*P = 0.909 + 1.

we will break down the variance into four components: parts. operators. We took an indepth look at how the sum of squares and degrees of freedom were determined.SPC for Excel Software Online Videos of How the SPC for Excel Software Works Measurement Systems Analysis (Gage R&R) Software Customer Complaint SPC Software SPC Training Complete Teaching Guides SPC PowerPoint Training Modules You Can Customize SPC Implementation Special Offers Ordering Information September 2012 This month's newsletter is the second in a multi-part series on using the ANOVA method for a Gage R&R study. Many people do not understand how the calculations work and the information that . interaction between parts and operators and the repeatability error due to the measurement system (or gage) itself. but they will (in most cases) be similar. The two methods do not generate the same results. With the ANOVA method. The first part of this series focused on part of the ANOVA table. This method simply uses analysis of variance to analyze the results of a gage R&R study instead of the classical average and range method.

The operator is the same and the part is the same. In this example. The variation in all results includes the equipment variation. In this issue we will complete the ANOVA table and show how to determine the % of total variance that is due to the measurement system (the % GRR). The variation due to operators is called the reproducibility.is contained in the sum of squares and the degrees of freedom. . you can see that Operator 1 has tested Part 1 three times. Operator 2 and 3 also test the same 5 parts three times each. The data we are using are shown in the table below. An interaction can exist if the operator and parts are not independent. please feel free to leave a comment at the bottom newsletter. In the figure above. In this issue:  The Data  The ANOVA Table for Gage R&R  The ANOVA Table Results  Expected Mean Squares  The Variances of the Components  The % Gage R&R  Summary  Quick Links As always. the part variation. there were three operators who tested five parts three times. Operator 1 also runs Parts 2 through 5 three times each. A partial picture of the Gage R&R design is shown below. The variation in these three trials is a measure of the repeatability. The variation in those results includes the variation due to the parts as well as the equipment variation. This newsletter also explains how to set up a gage R&R study. What are the sources of variation in these three trials? It is the measurement equipment itself. The Data We are using the data from our December 2007 newsletter on the average and range method for Gage R&R. the operator variation and the interaction between operators and parts. It is also called the equipment variation in Gage R&R studies or just with the “within” variation in ANOVA studies. Operator 1 tested each 5 parts three times.

Remember that a Gage R&R study is a study of variation. the equipment and the total. the part.16 3. The software usually displays the results in an ANOVA table.2 1.14 1.55 The ANOVA Table for Gage R&R In most cases.72 2. There are five sources of variability in this ANOVA approach: the operator. the interaction between the operator and part.11 1.64 2.87 4.Operator A B C Part 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 3.04 1.34 3.29 2.53 4.17 3.5 2.42 4.08 2.67 3.44 4. you will use computer software to do the calculations.09 3.32 4.03 1. The basic ANOVA table is shown in the table below for the following where k = number of operators.19 3.08 3.25 1.47 2.62 3.78 3.2 1. The first column is the source of variability.64 2.94 4.44 3. This helps understand the process better. r = number of replications.85 2.32 4.93 3.27 3.2 3.8 2.41 2.01 2. and n= number of parts.34 3.07 2.54 Results 3.89 1. Since this is a relatively simple Gage R&R.04 3. we will show how the calculations are done.88 3. .

So. As you can see in the table.458 0.008 0.227 MSOperators*Parts = 0. Source Operator Part Operator by Part Equipment Total df 2 4 8 30 44 SS 1. the “operator by part” source is not significant.0000 0. this would be wrong. It is based on the ratio of two variances (or mean squares in this case).057 You might be tempted to assume. for example.0000 0. The mean square is the estimate of the variance for that source of variability (not necessarily by itself) based on the amount of data we have (the degrees of freedom). Many software packages contain an option to remove the interaction if the p value is above a certain value – most often 0.9964 Note that there is an additional column in this output – the p values. There are other sources of variation present in all put one of these variances.815 MSParts = 7. The fourth column is the mean square associated with the source of variation. The next column we want to look at is the mean square column.9964. In that case. If the p value is less than 0. We will keep it in the calculations here – though it has little impact since its mean square is so small.227 0. The ANOVA Table Results The data was analyzed using the SPC for Excel software.065 1. So. The third column is the sum of squares. MSOperators = 0.815 7. it means that the source of variation has a significant impact on the results.008 MSEquipment = 0.630 28. The calculations with these two columns were covered in the first part of this series.057 F 100. We must use the Expected .909 0. This is the statistic that is calculated to determine if the source of variability is statistically significant. We will use the mean square information to estimate the variance of each source of variation – this is the key to analyzing the Gage R&R results.815.05.322 889. The results for the ANOVA table are shown below. Its p value is 0. This column is an estimate of the variance due to the source of variation.25. that the variance due to the operators is 0. However. This is the column we want to examine first. the mean square is the sum of squares divided by the degrees of freedom.317 MS 0.712 32.The second column is the degrees of freedom associated with the source of variation.142 p Value 0. The fifth column is the F value. the interaction is rolled into the equipment variation.

The other three can be solved as follows: . Repeatability is already related directly to the mean square for equipment so we don’t need to do anything there. This is what is estimated by the mean square of the interaction. So. It is the repeatability portion of the Gage R&R study. the mean square column contains a variance that is related to the source of variation in the first column. the expected mean square for the operators is given by: The EMS for operators contains the variances for repeatability. Let’s start at the bottom with the equipment variation. This is what is estimated by the mean square for parts. The expected mean square represents the variance that the mean square column is estimating. To find the variance of each source of variation. The parts expected mean square is shown below. This is beyond the scope of this newsletter. The repeatability variance is the mean square of the equipment from the ANOVA table. Now consider the interaction expected mean square which is given by: Note that the EMS for the interaction tern contains the repeatability variance as well as the variance of the interaction between the operators and parts. the interaction and operators. This is really the within variation (also called error). Note that the EMS for parts contains the variances for repeatability. The Variances of the Components We can solve the above equations for each individual σ2.Mean Square to find out what other sources of variation are present. There are algorithms that allow you to generate the expected mean squares. And last. The expected mean square for equipment is the repeatability variance. We will use σ2 to denote a variance due to a single source. the interaction and parts. we will just present the expected mean squares. Expected Mean Squares As stated above. we have to use the expected mean square (EMS). This is what the mean square for operators is estimating.

We can now do the calculations to estimate each of the variances. For example.aiag. Source Variance % of . This is done by dividing the variance for each source by the total variance. the variance is simply set to zero. Note that the value of the variance for the interaction between the operators and parts is actually negative.org) provides the following definition: The measurement system variation for repeatability and reproducibility (or GRR) is defined as the following: GRR2=EV2 + AV2 where EV is the equipment variance and AV is the appraiser (or operator) variance. the % variation due to GRR is given by: The results for all the sources of variation are shown in the table below. % Gage R&R The Measurement Systems Analysis manual published by AIAG (www. If this happens. Thus: The total variance is the sum of the components: We can use the total variance to determine the % contribution of each source to the total variance.

You could also use a variance calculated directly from a month's worth of production in place of the total variance in the analysis. This may or may not be acceptable depending on the process and what your customer needs and wants. It is very important that the parts you use in the Gage R&R study represent the range of values you will get from production. One of the major problems people have with Gage R&R studies is selecting samples that do not truly reflect the range of production.14% of the total variance. the measurement system is responsibility for 12.GRR Equipment (Repeatability) Operators (Reproducibility) Interaction Parts Total 0. we continued our exploration of the using ANOVA to analyze a Gage R&R experiment. In the next newsletter.14% 6. We will take a look at that next month as we compare the ANOVA method to the Average and Range method for analyzing a Gage R&R experiment. you can begin to look at how the results compare to specifications. If you have to do that.00% Based on this analysis. We completed the ANOVA table.9130 Total Variance 12.1109 0. Note that this result is based on the total variance.00% 87. we will compare the ANOVA method to the Average and Range method for Gage R&R.0000 0. and showed how to determine the %GRR as a percent of the total variance.8021 0.86% 100.0538 0.25% 5. Summary In this newsletter.0571 0. Quick Links .89% 0. presented the expected mean squares and how to use those to estimate the variances of the components.