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OISD publications are prepared for use in the oil and gas industr under !inistr of "etroleu# $ Natural %as& These are the propert of !inistr of "etroleu# $ Natural %as and shall not be reproduced or copied and loaned or e'hibited to others (ithout (ritten consent fro# OISD& Though e)er effort has been #ade to assure the accurac and reliabilit of the data contained in these docu#ents* OISD hereb e'pressl disclai#s an liabilit or responsibilit for loss or da#age resulting fro# their use& These docu#ents are intended to supple#ent rather than replace the pre)ailing statutor re+uire#ents&

Note 2 in superscript indicates the modification/changes/addition based on the amendments approved in the 18th Safety Council meeting held in August,2000

FORE,ARD The oil industr in India is nearl ,-- ears old& As such a )ariet of practices ha)e been in )ogue because of collaboration.association (ith different foreign co#panies and go)ern#ents& Standardisation in design philosophies and operating and #aintenance practices at a national le)el (as hardl in e'istence& This* coupled (ith feed bac/ fro# so#e serious accidents that occurred in the recent past in India and abroad* e#phasised the need for the industr to re)ie( the e'isting state of art in designing* operating* and #aintaining oil and gas installations& 0ith this in )ie(* Oil Industr Safet Directorate 1OISD2 (as established in ,345 staffed fro# (ithin the industr in for#ulating and i#ple#enting a series of self regulator #easures ai#ed at re#o)ing obsolescence* standardising and upgrading the e'isting standards to ensure safer operations& Accordingl OISD constituted a nu#ber of functional co##ittees co#prising e'perts no#inated fro# the industr to dra( up standards and guidelines on )arious sub6ects& The present docu#ent on fire protection facilities for petroleu# Depots* Ter#inals and "ipeline installations is the a#ended edition of the docu#ent prepared b the Functional Co##ittee on 7Fire Fighting and Safet 7 (hich (as published in 8ul * ,343& This docu#ent is prepared based on the accu#ulated /no(ledge and e'perience of industr #e#bers and the )arious national and international codes and practices& It is hoped that the pro)ision of this docu#ent (ill go a long (a to i#pro)e the safet and reduce accidents in the Oil and %as Industr & Suggestions are in)ited fro# the users for further i#pro)e#ent after it is put into practice& Suggestions for a#end#ents to this docu#ent should be addressed to9 The Coordinator Co##ittee on :Fire Fighting and Safet : Oil Industr Safet Directorate ;ND FLOOR* <AILAS= >UILDIN%* ;5* <&%&!AR%* NE0 DEL=I ? ,,---,

335 Oil Industr Safet Directorate Oil Natural %as Corporation =industan "etroleu# Corp& Ltd& >harat "etroleu# Corp& Ltd& Indian Oil Corp& Ltd Indian Oil Corp& Ltd I>" Co& Ltd& Indian Oil Corp& Ltd 1 "ipeline2 Engineers India Li#ited Engineers India Li#ited Sh& <&S& %aneshan Oil Industr Safet Directorate (&e&f& August* .&.&.&3B Sh& !&!& <apoor (&e&f& ..& Sh& R&"& Sa'ena .COMMITTEE ON FIRE PROTECTION List of Members ___________________________________________________________ S&No& Na#e Organisation @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ Leader Sh& R&"& >hatla upto A.& Sh& >& >alan A& Sh& %&S& 0an/hede B& Sh& C&T& Anant/rishanan C& Sh& S&C& 8ain 5& Sh& =&<&>& Singh D& Sh& E& <oti Co?ordinator Sh& Ei6a !& Ranal/ar Upto 8ul * .&3C !e#bers .335 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ In addition to the abo)e* se)eral other e'perts fro# industr contributed in the preparation* re)ie( and finalisation of this docu#ent& FIRE PROTECTION FACILITIES FOR .

Its pro)en e+ui)alent S ste# =oses Co##unication S ste# Reference Anne'ures . B&A B&B B&C B&D C&C&. B&. 4&. 5&. A&.&A&A&.PETROLEU DEPOTS. Its pro)en e+ui)alent "rotection S ste# First Aid Fire Fighting E+uip#ent !obile Fire Fighting E+uip#ent Fire Alar#.Training Organistation Training Fire E#ergenc !anual Fire "rotection S ste#* Inspection and Testing Fire 0ater "u#ps Fire 0ater Ring !ain Fire 0ater Spra S ste# Fi'ed. Se#i Fi'ed Foa# S ste# =alon .& .&- DESCRIPTION Introduction Scope Definitions "etroleu# Depots* Ter#inals $ Oil Installations Classification of "etroleu# "roducts Flash "oint Fire "rotection Facilities %eneral Consideration Design Criteria of Fire "rotection S ste# Fire 0ater S ste# Foa# S ste# =alon. C&. TER INALS AND PIPELINE INSTALLATIONS CONTENTS SECTION .Co##unication S ste# Co##unication S ste# Fire Alar# S ste# Fire Safet Organisation. 4&A 4&B 4&C 4&5 4&D 3&B&5 . 5. T pical E'a#ple for calculation of Fire 0ater Flo( Rate Auto#ated actuated foa# flooding s ste# for larger floating roof tan/s brief description of fire fighting foa# T pical E'a#ple of fire case in a large floating roof tan/ after sin/ing of floating roof T pical E'a#ple for (ater rate calculation for "OL tan/ (agon loading gantr protection !"#$ %#&'$C'"&N !AC"("'"$S !&# %$'#&($)* +$%&'S. A&A B&B&. '$#*"NA(S AN+ %"%$("N$ . 5&5&. D&4&4&.& A& 4.

water storage 1 pumping facilities as per *I!+.!T+.--6 should be referred to. tan0 wagons. it may not be practicable to comply with. --6 or -6& as the case may be. pipeline installations with or without storages.9 . !T+. help in selective implemention of the recommendations at such locations for which a suitable structured approach should be adopted to carry out the review at site 0eeping in mind. 2. This standard does not cover the Plants handling 7iquified Petroleum 3as '7P3/ !torage. It can be impractical and prohibitively costly to design fire protection facilities to control catastrophic fires. However.!T+.--6 may be considered to protect both.--. 20 2. This standard will. however."NS'A((A'"&NS 10 "N'#&+)C'"&N Petroleum depots and terminals are generally located in the remote areas and near railway sidings./ where for a variety of reasons.-88. However. in case above facilities are located within the 5efineries 1 *il / 3as Processing Plants under the same management. the practicability. *il 4ollecting !tations '*4!/ and 4entral Tan0 (arms '4T(/.0 . The inventory of flammable materials stored therein necessitates inbuilt fire protection facilities. The usual requirement of a good system is to prevent emergencies from developing into ma or threat to the oil installation and surroundings. tan0 truc0s. This standard does not cover fire protection facilities for 5efineries. these shall be examined with due consideration to availability of the fire fighting services from city fire brigade and nearby installations and other neighbouring industries. . However. The same are covered in *I!+. It is not intended that the requirement of this !tandard should be applied rigidly to existing premises which were approved by !tatutory "uthorities prior to #uly$%& 'publication of (irst )dition of *I!+. terminals. 3as Processing Plants for which *I!+. the experience shows that with the passage of time. !T+. The fire fighting facilities required for the oil storages have been described in the following chapters. pipelines. 2. pipelines.1 +$!"N"'"&NS %$'#&($)* '$#*"NA(S +$%&'S - That portion of a property where combustible/flammable liquids are received by tan0er.2 acceptance of management 1 *I!+ requirement.- SC&%$ This standard lays down the minimum requirement of the fire protection facilities at petroleum depots. tan0 wagons. tan0 truc0s and are stored or blended in bul0 for the purpose of distributing such liquids by tan0ers. these get surrounded by residential/industrial installations. 3roup 3athering !tations '33!/. handling and bottling .

!(AS0 %&"N' The flash point of a liquid is the minimum temperature at which the liquid gives off vapour in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid within a container. Bobile (ire (ighting )quipment (ire !ystem alarm/4ommunication 12 +$S"/N C#"'$#"A for %#&'$C'"&N S2S'$* !"#$ . Pipeline Installations are those facilities on cross. 7iquids which have a flash point at 29 +egree 4. . means of escape in case of fire and also segregation of facilities so that the ad acent facilities are not endangered during a fire. are classified according to their closed cup (7"!H P*I:T! as follows.portable tan0s or containers. 4lass $"$ 7iquids which have a flash point below 29 +egree 4. 7ayout of a bul0 oil storage location should be done in "ccordance with *I!+. .!T+. . " good layout provides adequate fire fighting access. 10 .. .22 Classification %roducts. those carrying lighter products.11 %"%$("N$ "NS'A((A'"&NS.2 C(ASS"!"CA'"&N %$'#&($)* %#&+)C'S /eneral Classification. and above but below 6= +egree 4. 7iquids which have a flash point at 6= +egree 4. 7iquids which have a flash point of &9 +egree 4. . 4lass $<$ 112 !"#$ %#&'$C'"&N.21 !"#$ !AC"("'"$S %#&'$C'"&N /$N$#A( C&NS"+$#A'"&NS (ayout . for 0eated "t locations where the handling temperatures are higher than the flash point of the product in circumstances where product handled is artificially heated to above its flash point. and above but below &9 +egree 4. special consideration should be given in the plant layout and product line layout for heated products laid alongside . . . . The following fire protection facilities shall be provided depending upon nature of ris0 in the installation.--% on ?7ayouts for *il 1 3as pipelines which have pumping and / or delivery station with or without storages. 11 111 &! . and above. Petroleum products other than 7P3 which is a separate category. (ire Aater !ystem (oam !ystem Halon / Its proven equivalent Protection !ystem (irst "id )quipment (ire (ighting 4lass $4$ >nclassified.

!"#$ 6A'$# S2S'$* Aater is an essential and the most important medium available to man0ind for fire protection. the fixed water spray system shall be provided on all tan0s except as mentioned for small terminals as per 8. However. The fire water system in an installation should be designed to meet the fire water flow required for fighting one largest ris0 at a time as per section 8. 'i/ (ire water flow rate for a tan0 farm shall be aggregate of the following. 1. storing 4lass $"$ or 4lass $<$ products. Ahen 4lass " 1 < above ground storage tan0s are placed in a common dy0e. 1 2 10 Banifold area shall be adequately protected with hydrant and monitors. (ire Aater Pumps and +istribution Piping :etwor0.(ixed system with foam tender shall be provided on Petroleum tan0s '(loating roof or fixed roof/ exceeding -% mtrs. (or these purposes water is used in various forms such as straight et. 1. "utomatic "ctuated (oam (looding !ystem may be considered for 124 128 .2 7asis . water curtain. "re exempted from fixed water spray system.2. for small installation with aggregate above ground storage capacity of 4lass $"$ and $<$ products does not exceed =CCC D7. F Aater flow calculated for cooling a tan0 on fire at a rate of 9 lpm/mG of tan0 123 (ixed foam system/!emi. dia. 4lass $"$ above ground Petroleum storages shall have fixed water spray system.2. deluge / sprin0ler. fire control.8. 1. 125 *ne single largest ris0 shall be considered for providing facilities. water fog. water spray.121 (acilities should be designed on the basis that city fire water supply is not available close to installation. floating roof tan0s diameter larger than 6C meters as an alternative to Halon/ its equivalent systems. dia. +$S"/N !(&6 #A'$. Aater and/ or (oam !pray system shall be provided on tan0 wagon loading gantries. 122 12. Halon / Its proven equivalent fire protection may be considered for floating roof tan0s larger than 6C mtrs.1 Components System of !ire 6ater The main components of the system are (ire Aater !torage. 4lass $<$ above ground Petroleum storage tan0s of diameter larger than 9C mtrs shall be provided with fixed water spray system. exposure protection of equipment and personnel from heat radiation. cooling of equipment. oscillating monitors for foam preparation etc. of tan0 storing 4lass " product not exceeding & mtrs. and dia.2. The installation having aggregate above ground storage capacity of more than -CCC D7 '4lass " E < E 4/ and pipeline installations other than only scrapper stations shall be fully covered by hydrant system. Aater is used for fire extinguishment.

. 4apacity of each hydrant outlet as 96 m 9/hr and of each monitor as -88 m 9/hr minimum may be considered at a pressure of . pumps of volatile product service under located under pipe rac0 in pipeline pumping station .. 0g/cm 2g at the hydraulically remotest point of application at the designed flow rate at that point.. Ahere ma0e up water supply source is =CI or more of design flow rate. all tan0s farms having class " or < petroleum storage shall be considered irrespective of diameter of tan0s and whether fixed water spray is provided or not apn the tan0s as per design calculation vide clause 8. ..... 'ii/ or 'iii/.. 1. F (or water flow calculations.lpm/m2 of tan0 shell area... 1. ' (or typical calculation please refer "nnexure.-C lpm/ m2 F )quipment area . 5adius of tan0 on fire/ and situated in the same dy0e at a rate of 9 lpm/mG of tan0 shell area. where provided../ F Harious combinations shall be considered in the tan0 farm for arriving at different fire water flow rate and the largest rate to be considered for design.. F Aater flow calculated for exposure protection for all other tan0s falling within a radius of '5 E9C/m from centre of the tan0 on fire '5... (ire water supply shall be preferably .I /. 2C lpm/m 2 The design fire water rate shall be the largest of 'i/ area... 0$A+$# %#$SS)#$ The fire water pressure system shall be designed for a minimum residual pressure of . '5efer section 8..1 S'&#A/$ Aater for the hydrant service shall be stored in any easily accessible surface or underground lined reservoir or above ground tan0s of steel concrete or masonary.. F Aater flow required for applying foam on a single largest tan0 by way of fixed foam system. 0g/cm 2g.% for foam solution application rates... or by use of water/foam monitors.... 'iii/ (ire water flow rate for tan0 wagon loading guntries and other equipment area shall be calculated as under . The effective capacity of the reservoir / tan0 above the level of suction point shall be minimum 8 hours aggregate wor0ing capacity of pumps.. F Tan0 wagon loading gantries . the storage capacity may be reduced to 9 hours. 'ii/ (ire water flow rate for supplementary streams shall be based on using 8 single hydrant outlets and monitor simultaneously.2. F Aater flow calculated for exposure protection for all other tan0s falling outside a radius of '5E9C/m from centre of the tan0 on fire and situated in the same dy0e at a rate of ..

fire water supply may be sea water or other acceptable source li0e treated effluents water. The diesel engines shall be quic0 starting type with the help of push buttons located on or near the pumps or located at a remote location. 1. Ahere oc0ey pumps are used. 1. !torage reservoir shall be in two equal interconnected compartments to facilitate cleaning and repairs. 7arge natural reservoirs having water capacity exceeding -C times the aggregate water requirement of fire pumps may be left unlined.3 !"#$ 6A'$# +"S'#"7)'"&N N$'6&#9 i/ (ire water pumps shall be installed to meet the design fire water flow rate and head. iii/ " minimum of =CI standby pump's/ 'minimum one no. Ahere treated effluents is used as fire water head shall not exceed -2CI of rated head for horiJontal centrifugal pumps and -8CI for vertical turbine pump./ of the same type and capacity as the main pumps shall be provided. The installation shall have facilities for receiving and diverting all the water coming to the installation to fire water storage tan0s in case of an emergency. Ahere fresh water source is not easily available. Ahere electric supply is reliable =CI of the pumps may be electric driven. iv/ The fire water pump's/ including the standby pump's/ shall be of diesel :i. The fire water networ0 shall be laid in closed loops as far as possible to ensure multi. vii/The fire water networ0 shall be 0ept pressurised by a static tan0 or oc0ey pump's/. The isolation valves shall be located normally near the loop unctions. Isolation valves shall be provided in the networ0 to enable isolation of any section of the networ0 without affecting the flow in the rest. (ooping. tubewell or la0e. directional flow in the system.8 !"#$ 6A'$# %)*%S engine driven type. These should have flooded suction. v/ (ire water pumps 1 storage shall be located at 9C mtrs 'minimum/ away from equipment or where hydrocarbons are handled or stored. ii/ The pumps shall be capable of discharging -=CI of its rated discharge at a minimum of 6=I of the rated head. )ach engine shall have an independent fuel tan0 adequately siJed for 6 hours continuous running of the pump. vi/ (ire water pumps shall be exclusively used for fire fighting purpose only. "dditional valves . The capacity of #oc0ey pump shall not be less than 9I 'with a minimum of -%C lpm/ and not more than -CI of the designed fire water rate at networ0 pressure not less than 9 Dg/cm 2g. In case of steel tan0s there shall be minimum two tan0s each having =C I of required capacity. The !hut.from fresh water source such as river. the capacity of pump shall be sufficient to maintain the system pressure in the event of lea0ages from valves etc. it shall not have faecal waste contamination.

F Ahere frost condition warrants. earth cushion in open ground and -. It may be necessary to assume several combinations of flow requirement for design of networ0. )nderground under the pipe. above the highest point of fire water networ0. the fire water networ0 piping shall be laid below ground level at the following places .%rotection of pipelines. underground F The mains shall have at least one mtr.9. F 5oad crossings. :iv. F The mains shall be provided with protection against soil corrosion by suitable coating/wrapping. +esign flow rates shall be distributed at nodal points to give the most realistic way of water requirement in an emergency. F The mains shall be supported at regular intervals not exceeding 6 mtrs. F If fire water is stored in above ground storage tan0s with water level more than = mtrs.IH/ the networ0 around the tan0 farm shall be suitably designed. (ire water distribution ring main shall be siJed for -2CI of the design water rate.9. F The system for above ground portion shall be analysed for flexibility against thermal expansion and necessary expansion loops where called for shall be provided.= mtrs cushion under the roads.ground beneath the frost layer. The minimum residual pressure shall be as defined in 8. :ii. vehicle movement and places where the above ground piping is li0ely to get damaged mechanically. Above / Net<or= . pipe may be protected with concrete/steel encasement. The fire water networ0 piping should normally be laid above ground at a height of 9CC mm to 8CC mm above finished ground level. v. In case of poor soil conditions it may be necessary to provide concrete/masonry supports . However.The fire water networ0 shall always be 0ept pressurised by any of the following arrangements. :iii. The analysis of networ0 shall be preferably done through a computer programme. %rotection of above ground pipes.Si>ing. F Places where the above ground piping is li0ely to cause obstruction to operation. (or large water requirement for floating roof tan0 '"nnx. In case of crane movement areas. the pipeline shall be laid under.shall be provided in the segments where the length of the segment exceeds 9CC mtrs.

1. they shall be spaced at 8= mtrs.return valve shall be provided to the fire water networ0 from the storage tan0.a direct connection with a non. oscillating monitors may be provided in inaccessible area within dy0e with isolation valve or 5*H outside the tan0 farm. from the face of building. However. The location of the monitors shall not exceed 8= mtrs from the haJard to be protected.4onnections for fixed water monitors shall be provided with independent isola tion valves.(ire water mains shall not pass through buildings or dy0ed areas. "t least one hydrant post shall be provided for every 9C mtrs of external wall measurement or perimeter of battery limit in case of high haJard areas. from the periphery of storage tan0 or equipment under protection. :vi. above ground level. The horiJontal range 1 coverage of hydrants with hose connections shall not be considered beyond 8= mtrs. Hydrant/Bonitors shall be located along road side berms for easy accessibility. (or non. 'iii/ +ouble headed hydrants with two separate landing valves on 8L standpost shall be used. F Ba0e up water shall be provided to account for lea0ages in the system so that fire water storage is 0ept to the desired capacity. intervals.4 02+#AN'S AN+ *&N"'&#S. 'vi/ Tan0 wagon 7oading/unloading facility and Tan0 Truc0 gantry . haJardous area. 'v/ Hydrants and monitors shall not be installed inside the dy0ed areas. Provision of hydrants within the building shall be provided in accordance with I! . as an additional requirement. and not more than -= mtrs. :vii. the fire water networ0 shall be connected to an overhead water tan0 if available in the installationK otherwise a oc0ey pump shall be installed to 0eep the mains pressurised. 'i/ Hydrants shall be located bearing in mind the fire haJards at different sections of the premises to be protected and to give most effective service. 9%88. "ll hydrant outlets shall be situated -. 'ii/ Hydrants shall be located at a minimum distance of -= mtrs. In case of buildings this distance shall not be less than 2 mtrs.2 mtrs. from haJardous equipment. Bonitors shall not be installed less than -=mtrs. 'iv/ Bonitors shall be located to direct water on the ob ect as well as to provide water shield to firemen approaching a fire. :viii. F If the fire water is stored in underground tan0s. In case of underground mains the isolation valves shall be located in 544/bric0 masonary chamber. The requirement of monitors shall be established based on haJards involved and layout considerations.

:iii.2 may be reviewed on case to case basis and increased.%ipes ... from the Tan0 Aagon/Tan0 Truc0s. The system shall. Mn "lloy . hose boxes etc shall be painted $(ire 5ed$. 4arbon !teel as per I!. therefore.8 *A'$#"A( S%$C"!"CA'"&NS "ll the materials used in fire water system shall be of approved type as indicated below.I! 'Type "/ or !ynthetic hose 'Type </ :vi. 4ast Iron / :iv. the area should be divided into suitable segments so that maximum water requirement can be optimiJed. Isolation valves having open/close indication shall be 3ate valves or <utterfly valves. 'iii/ The water application rates indicated in section =."solation ?alves 4ast !teel . ' Please refer >se of 4ast !teel valves is preferable which may be decided on economic considerations.(ire Hose .5 !"@$+ 6A'$# S%#A2 S2S'$* 'i/ (ixed spray water system is a fixed pipe system connected to a reliable source of water supply and equipped with water spray noJJles for specific water discharge and distribution over the surface of area to be protected. In case of saline water service the fire water main pipes shall be cement mortar/poly glasslined internally. 'vii/ Hydrants/Bonitors shall be preferably located with branch connection. be designed to discharge effective water spray within shortest possible time.area should be provided with alternate water cum foam monitors having multipurpose combination noJJles for et spray 1 fog arrangement and fire hydrants located at a spacing of 9C mtrs.3unmetal / "luminium /!tainless !teel / "l.(ire Aater networ0. :i. 4arbon !teel / 3un Betal 696.-29& or its equivalent. The hydrants 1 monitors shall be located at a minimum distance of -= mtrs. !tandpost *utlet valves/ landing valves . (ire water spray system for exposure protection shall be designed to operate before the possible failures of any containers of flammable liquids or gases due to temperature rise. on both sides of the gantry. 'ii/ Aater supply patterns and their densities shall be selected according to need.Bonitors . monitors. :v. 4arbon !teel . 1. The piping system is connected to the hydrant system water supply through an automatically or manually actuated valve which initiates the flow of water. 9=%&/ I!. :ii. if required.0ydrant. 1. Ahile calculating the water rates for spray application for cases other than tan0s/vessels... hydrants.

foam has proved useful for its inherent blan0eting ability. foam concentrate tan0. covering the entire haJard within the confines of the system. "queous (ilm (orming (oam '"(((/ compound is technically superior and compatible with other fire fighting agents. These units supply foam through monitors/foam towers to the burning surface. There are three types of systems.fixed foam system gets supply of foam solution through the mobile foam tender. 4onventional systems are of the open outlet type in which foam discharges from all outlets at the same time. This is a system for protection (or detailed description of (ire (ighting (oam 4ompounds. suitable proportioning equipment for drawing foam concentrate and ma0ing foam solution.III. SubBsurface foam inCection. 11 111 !&A* S2S'$*S 'ypes of !oam for typical i/ ii/ iii/ (ixed !emi. eductor. . heat resistance and security against burn. SemiB!iAed !oam System !emi.(ixed Bobile :i."nnexure. *obile System Bobile system includes foam producing unit mounted on wheels which may be self propelled or towed by a vehicle. )fficient and effective foam delivery system is a vital tool for its usefulness in controlling the fire. vapour seal box and foam pourer. !uitable detection system may be provided to activate the foam system. a proper piping system. fixed piping system for onward conveying to foam ma0ers for ma0ing foam. certain other foam systems as follow are also available . The process of adding or in ecting the foam to water is called proportioning.H calculations/. 11. C&N?$2"N/ S2S'$*S The system consists of an adequate water supply.bac0. foam ma0ers and discharge devices designed to adequately distribute the foam over the haJard. " fixed piping system connected to foam ma0ers cum vapour seal box in caseof cone roof tan0s and foam ma0er and foam pourers in the case of floating roof tan0s conveys foam to the surface of tan0. However. please refer "nnexure. !iAed !oam System (ixed foam conveying system comprises of fixed piping for water supply at adequate pressure. :ii. suitable proportioning equipment. supply of foam concentrate. :iii. The mixture of water and foam compound 'foam solution/ is then mixed with air in a foam ma0er for onward transmission to burning surface. 112 (&6 $@%ANS"&N !&A* (or combating large hydrocarbon fires particularly in a contained area li0e storage tan0.

'ii/(oam shall be applied to the burning haJard continuously at a rate high enough to overcome the destructive effects of radiant heat. foam shall be poured at the foam dam to blan0et the roof seal. 111 !(&A'"N/ %#&'$C'"&N #&&! 'AN9 'iii/(oam ma0ers/foam pourers shall be located not more than 28 mtrs. 2 9 8 = 6 % -C . 118 !"@$+ #&&! 'AN9 %#&'$C'"&N (oam conveying system shall have same features as of floating roof tan0 excepting that a vapour seal chamber is required before the foam discharge outlet. Automatic Actuated !oam !looding system . 'iv/" minimum of two foam pourers shall be provided. '5efer "nnexure. In this system all the components and ingredients including premix solution are contained within the system. This comprises of high bac0 pressure foam generator and connected through product lines or separate lines near the bottom of the tan0. The automatic sensing of fire releases this pressure and places the system into operation. (eatures of the foam system for fixed roof protection shall be as follows. apart on the shell perimeter based on 6CC mm foam dam height. )nder the Seal !oam application. 'ii/ Ahere two or more pourers are required these shall be equally spaced at the periphery of the tan0 and each discharge outlet shall be siJed to deliver foam at approximately the same rate. !uch systems usually have a premix solution supply tan0 pressurised by air or inert gas. This is a system for floating roof tan0 where the foam travels through a flexible pipe inside the tan0 upto the center of the tan0 roof and exits at the seal rim of the floating roof precisely where the fire is located thus rapidly flooding the seal rim area and quic0ly extinguishing the fire. to prevent entrance of vapour into the foam conveying piping system. outlet N-% upto 2C N2C upto 2= N2= upto 9C N9C upto 9= N9= upto 8C N8C upto 8= N8= upto =C Binimum discharge (or floating roof tan0.II for details and typical s0etch/. 'i/ The vapour seal chamber shall be provided with an effective and durable seal. fragile under low pressure. (eatures of foam system for floating roof tan0 protection shall be as follows. Tan0 +iameter number of foam in mtrs. 'i/!ystem be designed to create foam blan0et on the burning surface in a reasonably short period.of fixed roof storage tan0s. 'iii/ Tan0s should be provided with foam discharge outlets/pourers as indicated below.

lpm/m 2 of liquid surface areas.. (or floating roof tan0s containing liquid hydrocarbons foam solution delivery rate shall be at least -2 lpm/m 2 of seal area with foam dam height of 6CC mm of the tan0 to be protected. potential foam losses from wind and other factors shall be considered. 1 1 11 !&A* D)AN'"'2 #$D)"#$*$N' The aggregate quantity of foam solution should be calculated as below .lpm/m 2 of the liquid surface of the largest floating roof tan0 for 6= minutes may be considered for a roof sin0ing case. Ouantity of foam solution required should be calculated . However. 6= minutes Ahere the system$s primary purpose is for spill fire protection . Protein foams in normal use have a 9I to 6I proportioning ratio...The estimation of number of foam discharge outlet is based on pourer capacity of -CCC lpm at a pressure of . (or cone roof tan0s containing liquid hydrocarbons. foam supplier data shall be used for determining water quantity required. However. 9C minutes 1 1 10 6A'$# !&# !&A* *A9"N/ Aater quantity required for ma0ing foam solution depends upon the type of foam used. (oam solution application at the rate of = lpm/m 2 for the liquid surface of the single largest cone roof tan0 or at the rate of -2 lpm/m 2 of seal area of the single largest floating roof tan0 whichever is higher. 118 !&A* A%%("CA'"&N #A'$ The minimum delivery rate for primary protection based on the assumption that all the foam reaches the area being protected shall be as indicated below . '5efer "nnexure. IH for sample calculation/ :ii... 0g/cm 2 g upstream of eductor. the rate considered should be %. In case of floating roof sin0ing.. This can be suitably ad usted for different pourer capacity in accordance with section 8. 1 1 5 +)#A'"&N &! !&A* +"SC0A#/$ The equipment shall be capable of providing primary protection at the specified delivery rates for the following minimum period of time. :i.8. 114 %#&'$C'"&N !&# +29$ A#$A/S%"(( !"#$ Portable monitors/foam hose streams shall be considered for fighting fires in dy0ed area and spills. 113 !(&A'"N/ C)* !"@$+ #&&! 'AN9 %#&'$C'"&N Protection facilities shall be provided as required for fixed roof tan0. a foam solution application rate of %. the foam solution delivery rate shall be at least = lpm/m 2 of liquid surface area of the tan0 to be protected. i/ Tan0s containing 4lass $"$ 1 $<$ .8 'iii/. In determining total solution flow requirements.

Note 2 This quantity may be suitably reduced if mutual aid for foam supply is available.2CC.:o. 1 1 12 !&A* C&*%&)N+ S'&#A/$ (oam compound should be stored in containers of 2C.CCC D7 -6CC lpm iii/(or installations having . Halon / its Proven )quivalent as per :(P".8. (rom this the quantity of foam based on 9I or 6I proportion should be calculated. Hence.CCC D7. the foam concentrate storage shall be based on 8.8. due to its oJone depleting properties. its production is being phased out as per the Bontreal Protocol. heat detection and activation devices. 18 0A(&N / $D)"?A($N' S2S'$* /eneral Halon is a liquefied gas extraordinarily effective as fire extinguishing agent.CCC D7 lpm :iii. spray noJJles. aggregate capacity upto of -C.8.--'ii/ and 8.--should be stored in the Installation. The aggregate quantity of foam solutions should be largest of 8. for installation having aggregate storage not more than -C.However. 181 . (oam compound shall be tested periodically for ensuring its quality and the deteriorated quantity replaced.8. However.shall be considered for such protection system.9C lts capacity or 2CC/2-C lts capacity barrels in case of protein. Binimum life of foam compound shall be ta0en as per manufacturer$s data. The deteriorated foam compound can be used for fire training purposes. fluroprotein or "(((. Ouantity of foam compound equal to -CCI of requirement as calculated in 8. signaling equipment and cables. the following Type of foam compound used can be protein or fluroprotein or "(((.based on guidelines .8. aggregate capacity upto of 2=. control 1 extinguish the fire and also simultaneously give audio visual indication on the control "'S %#&?$N %#&'$C'"&N Aheeled Portable water/foam Bonitors F i/(or installations having aggregate capacity of -CCC D7 :il ii/(or Installation having . " sample calculation is attached as "nne.--'i/.-'i/ only. The Protection !ystem broadly consists of container. The Protection !ystem can detect. feed lines.-'iii/ as above for a minimum period of 6= minutes. Two hose streams of foam each with a capacity of --8C lpm of foam solution.:o. "lcohol 5esistant (oam can be used for specific application.CCC D7 28CC lpm iv/(or installations having 2 :os. (oam compound can also be stored in overhead storage tan0 of suitable capacity for quic0 filling of foam tender/nurser during emergency. 8. of aggregate capacity more 28CC than 2=. IH. ring mains/laterals.

-CCI standby containers shall be considered for each protected haJard. "ll the components of the system shall be capable of withstanding heat of fire and severe weather conditions. In order to minimise the exposure. (loating roof tan0 may be protected by Halon / Its proven equivalent for . "s an alternative to the above system.8. automatic actuated foam flooding system as described in section 8. (loating roof tan0s of 6C mtrs and above diameter may be considered for protection by installing such systems 188 C&N'#&( #&&* AN+ C&*%)'$# #&&* %#&'$C'"&N 4ontrol room and computer room may be protected by Halon / Its its proven equivalent system. its heat causes one or more spray noJJles to open and the gas is applied on the surface of fire and alarm is sounded. persons should be evacuated from the areas after the system comes into operation. control rooms and computer rooms. 181 !(&A'"N/ %#&'$C'"&N #&&! 'AN9 its in built detection. chemical or other damage. 182 #ecommended )se The system may be considered for protection of floating roof tan0s. If a rim seal fire occurs. !torage containers shall be carefully located so that they are not sub ected to mechanical.9 may be considered.panel. control and actuation mechanism. It is considered good practice to avoid unnecessary exposure to Halon /Its proven equivalent.8. !torage containers shall be located as near as possible to haJard area but shall not be exposed to fire. This may be in addition to water spray and foam protection system as described in section 8.8. 18. The time needed to obtain the gas for replacement to restore the systems shall be considered as a governing factor in determining the reserve supply needed. D)AN'"'2 AN+ S'&#A/$ )ach haJard area to be protected by the protection system shall have an independent system.

"bove =C HP . length gantry 'siding/ and .no.-CC HP .no. The quantities mentioned below are minimum. '4lass " 1 </ .no. The maximum running distance to locate an extinguisher shall not exceed -= mtrs. 'v/Tan0 Truc0 loading . %ortable $Atinguishers .= Dg or 6 P =C Dg +4P mobile unit per installation 2 nos. above the floor 'ype of Area 'i/7ube godown 'ii/7ube filling shed 'iii/!torage of class. -C 0g. -C Dg +4P for and unloading for every 2 <ays. The extinguishers should be provided at various locations as below. of 2= 0g +4P for each pump.= Dg +4P mobile unit for each gantry. . -C Dg +4P for every 2 pumps ."/< products in pac0ed containers and stored in open/closed +4P or -x2= 0g. Binimum 2 2nos of -C 0g or . The portable extinguisher should be installed in such a way that the top of extinguisher is not more than -. -C Dg +4P for -CCB2 'iv/Pump House upto =C HP .no. %etroleum +epots . <eyond -CC HP .no. . .= Dg +4P mobile unit in each siding. -C Dg +4P for each pump.= mtrs. 'vi/Tan0 Aagon loading . -C Dg +4P for 2 pumps "bove =C. -CDg +4P for every 8 pumps >pto =C HP . -C Dg +4P for and unloading every =C 131 !"#S' A"+ !"#$ !"/0'"N/ $D)"%*$N' %ortable !ire $Atinguishers Portable extinguishers shall be located at convenient locations and shall at all times be readily accessible and clearly visible. -C Dg +4P for 2CC m 2 floor area. . 'vii/"bove 3round Tan0 >/3 Tan0 farms 'viii/(ire pump house. 2 -C Dg +4P or -x2= 0g +4P for 8 pumps. and P*7/speciality products .'erminals . -C Dg +4P for 2CC B 2 . +4P per tan0 and 8 x . '4lass 4/ . -C Dg +4P or -x2= 0g +4P . Pump House upto =C HP

% Dg 4* 2 extinguisher . 2 N&'$. 2 -C Dg extinguisher +4P 'xxii/<ooster Pump 'xxiii/!ump Pump Transmix Pump 1 *il Aater !eparator Pump 'xxiv/!crapper <arrel . 'xi/Bain switch room 'xii/4omputer 5oom/ cabin 'xiii/!ecurity 4abin 'xiv/4anteen 'xv/7aboratory 'xvi/)ffluent Treatment Plant 'xvii/Aor0shop 'xviii/Transformer 'xix/>P! / 4harger 5oom .no . 4* 2 )xtinguisher. each .no. 1 2 nos.% Dg 4* 2 extinguishers per two pumps upto a maximum of 8 4*2 )xtinguisher. 8.% -C Dg +4P per two pumps upto a maximum of 9. . building/ '!tore House/ 'x/3enerator room upto 2=C DH" .= 0g 1 .% Dg 4* 2 extinguishers per two pumps upto a maximum of 8 nos. -C 6. -C Dg +4P .'ix/"dmin. the portable extinguisher shall be provided as per the above list '8. 'xx/Bain line pump shed ')ngine +riven/ 'xxi/Bain 7ine Pump !hed 'Botor +riven/ .-/ suitably amended along with following additions . -C Dg +4P for -CC B 2 -x-C Dg +4P 1 -x8. "bove 2=C DH" . .6/. of -C Dg +4P and .= D3 4* 2 for every -C Dg +4P )xtinguisher . and .no. 2 Dg.:o per cabin whichever is higher . .no each -C Dg +4P 1 6. -C Dg +4P per 8 pumps .= Dg for =C B2 or .= Dg 4*2 for every 2= B2 Halon/Its Proven equivalent. 8. . +4P 1 . of -C Dg +4P . . (or pipeline installations. -C Dg +4P for 2CC B 2 'minimum -x-C Dg +4P on each floor/ . 2 nos of 8. . 4*2 )xtinguisher. +4P )xtinguisher. A(( !"#$ $@'"N/)"S0$#S S0A(( 7$A# "S" *A#9 %"%$("N$ "NS'A((A'"&N .= Dg 4* 2. -C Dg +4P 1 6.

= Dg 4* 2 extinguisher.:o. egate capacity upto 2=. . 8 nos -C Dg +4P 1 2 nos 2 Dg 4*2 extinguisher . (ire (ighting equipments shall be 2 Dg 4* 2 extinguisher. for 28 to 9C mtrs dia and 9 Dg Halon/Its proven equivalent and 8.Halon/Its proven equivalent and 8. (or installation having aggr.'xxv/4ontrol 5oom 4*2 'xxvi/>H( / 5adio 5oom 2nos 2.= Dg. = Dg +4P (ire extinguisher 'xxvii/Betre Prover. egate capacity of -CCC D7 (or installation having aggr.:o. -C Dg +4P extinguisher .CCC D7 (or installation having aggr. !eparator (ilter 'xxviii/5epeator !tation 'xxix/Bainline )mergency )quipment 4entre 'xxx/"ir 4ompressor 132 60$$($+ !"#$ !"/0'"N/ $D)"%*$N' 'i/(or Installations having tan0s of dia large than & mtrs. .CCC D7 (or installation having aggr.:o. . egate capacity more than 2=. for 9C to 8C mtrs or above dia tan0s. of 28CC 7PB 'ii/(oam compound trolley 2CC/2-C litres . upto 28 mtrs dia tan0s. egate capacity upto of 2 Dg 4* 2 type . of -6CC 7PB .no -C Dg +4P 1 . 2 :os. of 28CC 7PB 2 :o.= Dg extinguisher 2nos 2.CCC D7 :il .

(irst "id <ox with "nti sna0e serum . )xplosimeter . The hose station shall be located at convenient and easily accessible location in the oil installation. The minimum :o.&C9/8 :os.:o./ 8 :os.:o. In addition. :iii.No>>les (ollowing minimum quantities of fire fighting noJJles shall also be stored in the central hose stations. "'$*S D)AN'"'2 !and !coops 8 :os. 5ed/3reen flag for fire drill . Hand operated siren . water tenders. 0&S$S. (ire Proximity suit .-/ (ollowing minimum quantities of accessories shall be provided . F (og noJJles 'I!.:o. !afety helmets % :os.13. shall not be less than -C. In view of comprehensive fixed and (irst "id (ire protection equipment recommended in the !tandard. 2-.:o. F #et noJJles with branch pipe 'I!.:o.:o. :ii. !tretcher . Aater el blan0et . however. F >niversal noJJles 'I!. The hoses shall be of -=mtrs.Accessories Bobile fire fighting equipment include foam tenders. F (oam <ranch Pipes 'I!. Aater curtain noJJles 2 :os. each Positive Pressure type self contained breathing apparatus with spare cylinder '9C minutes/ . 14 *&7"($ !"#$ $D)"%*$N' !"/0'"N/ 8 :os. +4P tender a eep with traileretc. AN+ ACC$SS&#"$S 'i/ (ire hoses conforming to I! 696 Type " or !ynthetic Hose of Type < shall be stored in a central hose station in the oil installation.:o. The number of hoses stored in an oil installation shall be 9CI of the number of hydrant outlets.:o. of hoses stored. H"M4H)B noJJle and high flow long range multi purpose noJJles may also be considered.:o. 5ubber hand gloves for electrical obs 9 :os. 2C&. N&EE($S. 5escuscitator 2 :os. provision of Bobile fire fighting equipments in installation is not considered necessary. )lectrical siren '9 Dm range/ . &=2/ 8 :os. . standard length and shall be provided with gun metal/"luminium alloy male and female couplings of instantaneous pattern.

However. (ire siren code should be as follows. The record of such drills shall be maintained. Instructions on the action to be ta0en in the event of fire should be posted at each alarm point and familiarity with these instructions should be ensured and recorded. !ince separate fire fighting set up is not usually envisaged. He shall draw the necessary emergency plan. operators. The fire alarm shall be different from shift sirens. truc0 drivers and other employees who are li0ely to be present in the installation. nature and location of the installation. 9. 32 81 '#A"N"N/ 'i/ The fire fighting training shall be compulsory to all officers. 'iii/ *I!+. +I!"!T)5. There shall be regular moc0 fire drills. He shall also coordinate the activities during fire fighting. the shift incharge in case of terminal. 80 !"#$ A(A#*/C&**)N"CA'"&N S2S'$* !"#$ A(A#* S2S'$* )lectrical/hand operated fire siren shall be installed at suitable location in installation. identifiable and accessible location. !traight run siren for two minutes. :o siren 2. once a month. =. the siJe. !traight run siren for two minutes. 'ii/ )very employee or authorised persons wor0ing in the oil installation should be familiarised with the fire alarm signal and should 0now the location of the fire alarm point nearest to his place of wor0. the requirement of such equipment may be reviewed 0eeping in mind. !irens will be unded three times for thirty seconds with an interval of fifteen second in between. !B"77 (I5). !ame type of siren as in case of Ba or (ire but the same will be sounded for three times at the interval of two minutes.-=8 .charge. " wailing siren for two minutes. B"#*5 (I5).in. "77 47)"5 '(or fire/. 31 &#/AN"SA'"&N 'i/ *verall responsibility for fire safety in the oil installation shall be of the 7ocation. T)!T.!T+.tal0ie system should be considered. 'ii/ Hot wor0 permit shall be issued by the +epot Banager Incharge in case of +epots and by Terminal Banager or in his absence. -. 8. !afety "spects in (unctional Training shall be 82 C&**)N"CA'"&N S2S'$* "dequate communication system li0e telephone/Public "ddress !ystem/Paging !ystem/ intrinstically safe Aal0ie. one of the officers shall be designated and responsible for maintenance and inspection of all fire fighting equipment. 30 !"#$ SA!$'2 &#/AN"SA'"&N/ '#A"N"N/ . The operating switch buttons shall be located near the 5is0 "rea at a safe.

Inspection of fire fighting equipment should be done in accordance with *I!+. )very pump should be chec0ed for performance once in a six month. 83 0&S$S (ire hoses shall be tested once in 6 months to a minimum water pressure of . 8. 82 !"#$ 6A'$# #"N/ *A"NS The ring mains should be chec0ed for lea0s etc. 0g/cm 2 g. The ring mains. 81 !"@$+/S$*" S2S'$* !"@$+ !&A* 40 !"#$ $*$#/$NC2 *AN)A( )ach installation shall prepare a detailed fire emergency manual containing all the actions to be ta0en in the event of fire emergency. "NS%$C'"&N AN+ '$S'"N/ The fire protection equipment should be 0ept in good operating conditions at all the time and the fire fighting system should be periodically tested for proper functioning and logged for record and corrective actions. "ll fire mains valves should be chec0ed for operation and lubricated once a month.-. standard. )very pump should be chec0ed and tested and the shut off pressure observed and logged once a month. The foam chamber should be designed suitably to facilitate of foam discharge outside the cone roof tan0. 88 0A(&N/"'S $D)"?A($N' S2S'$* %#&?$N 81 %. once a year by operating one or more pumps with the hydrant points 0ept closed as required to get the maximum operating pressure. %. (ixed/!emi fixed foam system on storage tan0s should be tested once in 6 months. 80 !"#$ %#&'$C'"&N S2S'$*.9 Halon / Its proven equivalent system should be chec0ed once in 9 months. This shall include the testing of foam ma0er/chamber.- !"#$ 6A'$# %)*%S )very pump should be tested for at least half an hour twice a wee0. valves should be visually inspected for any pilferage. !"#$ 6A'$# S%#A2 S2S'$* (ixed water cooling spray systems on storage tan0s should be tested at least once a month.-82 on $Inspection of (ire (ighting )quipment and !ystem$. piping should be flushed with water. the following periodic inspection/testing shall be ensured. hydrants.2 %. efects and damage every month.adhered to in this regard. This may be done by opening required number of hydrants/monitors depending on the capacity of the pump and by verifying that the discharge pressure and the motor load are in conformity with the design parameters.-. The 0ey points of this manual shall be displayed at strategic locations in the installation to ensure prompt action.-. In addition to routine daily chec0s/maintenance. "fter testing foam system. .

) 12) Internationa safe pra'ti'es of oi industry.Standard Insta a tion of &entrifuga pumps for fire .5.) Fire Prote'tion manua 1Part-II) of 2A& -) 2A& /ui ding *egu ations.2%%1 Standard on ' ean Agent Fire (xtinguishing system. )) API 2%%1 .Standard for the Insta ation of sprin! er systems. 11) Mode 'ode of safe pra'ti'es 2he Institute of Petro eum 14.ydro'ar/on 0epots .Standard Insta ation of #ater systems.Fren'h *egu ation for . for spray $) NFPA 2% . 50 #$!$#$NC$S 1) NFPA 11A -Standard for Midium and high expansion foam systems..Fire Prote'tion in *efineries +) No.84 C&**)N"CA'"&N S2S'$* (ire sirens should be tested once a wee0.. ") NFPA . 2) NFPA 13 . 3) NFPA 1" .+2-2. 1%) 2A& *egu ations for e e'tri'a e3uipment of /ui dings.

. Therefore. of tan0s 4apacity of each tan0 +iameter of each tan0 Height of tan0 a/ 4ooling water requirement 4ooling water rate 4ooling water required Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q 92. p x 8C x -8.8m 9 lpm/m 2 of tan0 area for tan0 on fire. 2 !"#$ 6A'$# +$*AN+ !&# *AF&# !"#$S 4onsider various areas under fire and calculate fire water demand for each area based on design basis.B9/hr c/ Total water required for Tan0 cooling Q 926 E -C& Q 89=mR/hr . 21 !(&A'"N/ #&&! 'AN9 %#&'$C'"&N +ata Total storage capacity in one dy0e area :o. "ssuming that second tan0 is located within the tan0 dy0e at a distance more than 9Cm from the tan0s shell.mG -C x -2 xC.ANN$@)#$B" '2%"CA( $@A*%($ !&# CA(C)(A'"&N &! !"#$ 6A'$# !(&6 #A'$ 1 +$S"/N 7AS"S The fire water system in an installation shall be designed to meet the fire water flow requirement of fighting one ma or fire.8 x -%C& lpm -C& mR/hr b/ (oam water requirement.6 lpm . 4ooling water required Q Q Q p x 8C x -8. -8. (or floating roof tan0 of 8Cm diameter !eal area (oam solution rate S -2 lpm/m 2 Aater required for foam solution application Q Q Q Q p x 8C x C. --.CCCm9 2 -6. water flow required for applying foam on a largest tan0 burning surface area.CCCm9 8Cm. in such case cooling required at the rate of -/min/m 2 of tan0 shell area.8 x 9 =826 lpm 926 mR/hr.&.% Q -C.

..(oam solution "pplication Total Q Q .62 m9/hr. Q Q 9 x 2=8 Q . Total cooling water b/ (oam water requirement 5ate of foam solution Aater required for (oam !ol.62 Q -C-6 m9/hr.=/G x = x C. '5ef "nn.mR/hr =C6 mR/Hr.m9/hr Q -99. '(or . !ay Q =-C mR/hr 22 C&N$ #&&! 'AN9S %#&'$C'"&N +ata Total storage capacity no.tan0 only/ Q = lpm/mG area Q p x '9. c/ Total water required for Tan0 cooling m9/hr (oam solution application Total Q Q -C-6 92. 4ooling water required Q Q Q Q =C. Q =9=8 lpm Q 92. 2.=B -2B capacity each Q 9 lpm /mG of tan0 shell area for tan0 on Q Q Q p x 9.mR/hr.CCC mR 8 with -2=CC mR 9. of tan0s +iameter of each tan0 Height of each tan0 a/ 4ooling water requirement 4ooling water rate fire.lpm 2=8 m9/hr..H/ . %ol 'an= 6agon (oading gantry . Total water requirement !"#$ 6A'$# !&# S)%%($*$N'A#2 0&S$ S'#$A*S Aater for 8 hydrant streams Q 8 x 96 Q -88 m9/hr Q &-% m9/hr 21 .= x 9 x -2 828. m9/hr say -9=C m9 Hr. 4ooling water required for other tan0s at the rate of 9 lpm/m9 for tan0s falling within '5 E 9CB/ from centre of tan0 on fire.&.. 2=8 E .

9 and 2.8 above.Aater for .0 '&'A( +$S"/N !"#$ 6A'$# #A'$ Total design fire water rate is the largest of water rates calculated as per 2.monitor stream Q -88 m9/hr 2%% m9 / hr .2.-. +esign fire water rate Q -9=C m9/hr. 2. 2. .

(ilm (orming (luro Protein (oam '(((P/ type concentrate is normally used in the system. In case of fire. dia is given below. The foam aspirating noJJles are mounted on the line at an interval of 2. tube ruptures and the pressure drop triggers the foam discharge.capacity containing -9= lts.& P C.= mts. 5imseal area of Tan0 . required in 8C secs. T P . Total nos. (or effective control. "n example of design calculation of the system for a (loating roof tan0 of . length/ laid along the tan0 perimeter.& mts.8. of (oam/ Q .visual alarms for different operating parameters can also be coupled with the system.= B2 Q Q %&8 lts. Q . The provision of audio.9 '4onsidering a flexible seal area of typically 9CC mm/ 5ate of (oam application S -% 7PB/B2 Total (oam soln. which is 0ept charged with nitrogen. -98. The premix foam is contained in a vessel which is 0ept charged with nitrogen through a nitrogen cylinder.7PB . of Bodular unit required for the tan0 'considering a foam vessel of -=C lts.ANN$@)#$B "" A)'&*A'"C AC')A'$+ !&A* !(&&+"N/ S2S'$* !&# (A#/$# !(&A'"N/ #&&! 'AN9S The automatic actuated foam flooding system is a system designed to automatically detect and extinguish the floating roof tan0 rimseal fire at its incipient stage. The system consists of a detector networ0 normally thermoplastic tubing type. +$S"/N C#"'$#"A . The !ystem is designed for minimum foam application rate of -% lpm/m2 of rimseal area. The system is mounted on the roof of the tan0. The system consists of a long foam line 'typically available in 8C Bts. foam is applied for a period of 8C seconds.

21 C0$*"CA( !&A* . (ire fighting foam is a homogeneous mass of tiny airor gas filled bubble of low specific gravity. petrochemical and other chemical industries.=C.. but usually between =. This foam has limited use in controlling hydrocarbon liquid fire because of it$s limitations w.r... poor resistant to hot surface/radiant heat etc. (oam expansion ratio vary from =C-. Bechanical foam compound may be classified in to 9 categories based on it$s expansion ratio.-. . (oam expansion ratio vary from typically produced by foam generators with air fans. 20 '2%$S &! !&A* C&*%&)N+ Two Types of foams are used for fighting liquid fires. *$+")* $@%ANS"&N !&A* . oil platforms. It is produced by mechanically mixing a gas or air to a solution of foam compound 'concentrate/ in water. )ach concentrate has its own advantage and limitations. (oam expansion ratio may be upto =C to typically produced by self aspirating foam branch -CCC.t.. Ahen two or more chemicals are added the foam generates due to chemical typically produced by self aspirating foam branch pipes with nets. The chemical foam is generally used in (ire extinguishers. (&6 $@%ANS"&N !&A* . The most common ingredients used for chemical foam are sodium bicarbonate and aluminimum sulphate with stabiliJer.0 *$C0AN"CA( !&A* C&*%&)N+ . The brief description of foam concentrates is given below.1 0"/0 $@%ANS"&N !&A* . which when applied in correct manner and in sufficient quantity.ANN$@)#$B""" 7#"$! +$SC#"%'"&N &! !"#$ !"/0'"N/ !&A* 10 !"#$ !"/0'"N/ !&A*. forms a compact fluid and stable blan0et which is capable of floating on the surface of flammable liquids and preventing atmospheric air from reaching the liquid. The low expansion foam contains more water and has better resistant to fire. This foam has also very limited use .to -=CC. 22 . *$C0AN"CA( !&A* . depending on the requirement and suitability. poor cooling. usually between . It is suitable for hydrocarbon liquid fires and is widely used in oil refinery.. Harious types of foam concentrates are used for generating foam.

12 !()&#& %#&'$"N !&A*. The foam concentrate is prepared from hydrolyJed protein either from animals or vegetable source. which flows freely on liquid surface. The concentrate is available for induction rate of 9 to 6I and the shelf life is more than -C years. The concentrate is available for induction rate of 9 to 6I and the shelf life is similar to that of protein base foam.. AD)$&)S !"(* !&#*"N/ !&A* :A!!!. "s the foam has poor drainage rate. 11 *)('"%)#%&S$ A!!!. It is used for protection of hydrocarbon gases stored under cryogenic conditions and for warehouse protection. foaming liquid designed specially for fire protection of water soluble solvents and water insoluble hydrocarbon liquids. The aqueous film produced suppresses the liquid vapour quic0ly. Bultipurpose "((( concentrate is synthetic.r. poor cooling. The foam concentrate mainly consists of fluoro carbon surfactants. 1. This is similar to protein base foam with fluro. but not on water miscible liquids. The shelf life of concentrate is 2 controlling hydrocarbon liquid fire because of its limitations w. 10 11 '2%$S &! (&6 $@%ANS"&N !&A* . The concentrate is available for induction rate of 9 to 6I. This can be used either with fresh water of sea water.chemical which ma0es it more effective than protein base foam. This can also be used with non aspirating type noJJles. poor resistant to hot surface/radiant heat etc. The suitable stabiliJer and preservatives are also added. . The foam is very effective on deep pools of low flash point fuels which have had lengthy pre burn time. It produces very fluid foam. %#&'$"N 7AS$ !&A*.t. The concentrate forms a thic0 foam blan0et and is suitable for hydrocarbon liquid fires. The foam has quic0 fire 0noc0 down property and is suitable for liquid hydrocarbon fires. The effectiveness of foam is not very good on deep pools or low flash point fuels which have had lengthy preburn time unless applied very gently to the surface. The concentrate forms a thic0 foam blan0et and is suitable for hydrocarbon liquid fires. foaming agent and stabiliJer. the effectiveness is limited on deep pool fires of low flash point fuels which have lengthy pre burn time. but not on water miscible liquids. This can be used with fresh water as well as with sea water.

The foam is also suitable for deep pool fires because of superior drainage rate and more resistive to hot fuels/radiant heat. Bany of the low expansion foam concentrate can also be used with suitable devices to produce medium / high expansion foam. The foam is very light in weight and gives poor cooling effect in comparison to low expansion foams. The foam is suitable for hydrocarbon liquid fires including deep pool fires of low flash point fuels which have had lengthy pre burn time. This can also be used with non aspirating type noJJles.Ahen applied it forms foam with a cohesive polymeric layer on liquid surface. The foam is susceptible to easy brea0 down by hot fuel layers and radiant heat. This can also be used with non aspirating type noJJles. The shelf life of concentrate is not less than -C years. The induction rate in water may vary from -.= to 9I. This can be used on hydrocarbon fuels with low boiling point. !ynthetic foam concentrate is used with suitable devices to produce medium and high expansion foams. The concentrate can either be used with fresh water or sea water. which suppresses the vapour and extinguishes the fire.G (((P combines the rapid fire 0noc0 down quality of conventional film forming "((( with the high level of post fire security and burn bac0 resistance of flouro protein foam. . The 9I induction rate is suitable for liquid hydrocarbon fires and =I for water miscible solvents. 18 !"(* !&#*"N/ !(&)#& %#&'$"N :!!!%. The concentrate is available for induction rate of 9 to 6I and the shelf life is not less than = years. 80 '2%$S &! *$+")* AN+ 0"/0 $@%ANS"&N !&A*.

. however.CCC litres. . Q Q Q !ay Q 8C m (loating 5oof %. .8 m 9/hr 6-C m9 /hr. )xample for calculation of (oam 5equirement for (loating tan0 with Portable Bonitors.ANN$@)#$ "? '2%"CA( $@A*%($ &! !"#$ CAS$ "N A (A#/$ !(&A'"N/ #&&! 'AN9 A!'$# S"N9"N/ &! !(&A'"N/ #&&! . +iameter of Tan0 2.6 lpm 6-C. Type of 5oof 9.lpm ' as per :)P". The same may be achieved by 2 nos.9. of -CCC gpm such monitors. 2C. (oam "pplication 5ate (oam !olution 5equirement . +A'A -.9. . sin0ing of floating roof has not been considered.-/8 -C-. This much quantities has to be thrown over to sun0en roof area with the help of external long range high volume monitors from the road side periphery of the tan0 farm.6 x 9/-CC 9C=. installation may consider siJing the water networ0 around tan0 farms to ta0e up such load so than long range monitors can be fed from this networ0 by diverting other water available in installation to tan0 farms in such emergencyUU (oam 4ompound 5equirement Q Q !ay Q (oam 4ompound 5equirement for 6= minutes with 9I concentration -C-.-.--/ II x 8C x 8C x %.2 lpm 9C= lpm Q Q !ay Q 9C= x 6= -&%2= litres. UU If two ma or fire occurs in an installation with roof sin0ing case as one of them. In design rate calculation in "nn.

2 x -2 x -C 69C cum/hr. of loading points 4onsider 2C loading points on each side 7ength of 5ail 3antry Aidth of tan0 wagon gantry 4ooling two spur other distance b/ 4ooling water requirement .2 4onventional or 8% <TP: ./ and consider 9 segments operating at any time. P -2 mtrs. .ANN$@)#$ ? '2%"CA( $@A*%($ !&# 6A'$# #A'$ CA(C)(A'"&N !&# %&( 'AN9 6A/&N (&A+"N/ /AN'#2 %#&'$C'"&N a/ +ata. "pproximately -2 mtrs. 69C cum/hr E 2%% cum Q Q Q Q .CC Btrs. +ivide it$s the whole area decides to into 28 segments 'each segment Q 2&. Aater rate required Q Q Q 9 x 2&. Total water requirement 'including hydrant/monitors/ Q &-% cum/hr.2 mtrs. Total :o.