ABB Network Partner AB

September 1997 Version 1.21

Directional earth-fault overcurrent protection for solidly earthed networks

1MDX80015-EN
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Contents
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DIRECTIONAL EARTH-FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION FOR SOLIDLY EARTHED NETWORKS ....................................................... 2 Application ................................................................................ 2 Theory of operation ................................................................. 4 Setting........................................................................................ 6 Testing ....................................................................................... 8 Technical data ........................................................................ 11 Appendix ................................................................................. 12 Terminal diagrams ................................................................... 12 Signal list ................................................................................. 13 Setting table ............................................................................. 14

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.6.1 1.6.2 1.6.3

selectivity is more easily obtained by using the directional instead of the non-directional earth-fault overcurrent protection. the primary fault resistance will vary with the network conditions and location of the fault. since the time difference is constant for a given ratio between the currents. A logarithmic characteristic is generally the most suitable for this purpose. the fault resistance is much higher than the resistance that can be covered by an impedance measuring distance relay. In many cases. since the zero-sequence voltage is a product of the zero-sequence components of current and source impedance. Hence. .4 seconds. The current 3I0 lags the polarising voltage (-3U0) by a phase angle that is equal to the angle of the zero-sequence source impedance. Measurement of the distance to the fault can not be made using the zerosequence components of the current and voltage. this angle will be in the range of 40° to nearly 90°. the forward measuring element should have a characteristic angle of 65 °. see Fig. the limiting condition being that sufficient polarising voltage must be available. An earth-fault in a line will be selectively tripped if the difference between the fault current in the line and the residual current (3I0) in the other lines gives a time difference of 0. As a general rule.1MDX80015-EN Page 2 Directional earth-fault overcurrent protection for solidly earthed networks ABB Network Partner AB September 1997 Version 1.21 1 DIRECTIONAL EARTH-FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION FOR SOLIDLY EARTHED NETWORKS 1.1 Application In case of single-phase earth-faults. 2. where the high value refers to stations with direct earthed transformers with delta winding. all relays having the same type of inverse characteristic. Earth-faults with high fault resistances can be detected by measuring the residual current (3I0). To obtain maximum sensitivity under all conditions.3-0. the necessary selectivity must be obtained by current grading or time delay. The best selectivity is generally obtained by using inverse time delay. In solidly earthed networks. High resistive earth-faults can also be detected by the directional protection. Directional earth-fault protection is obtained by measuring the residual current and the angle between this current and the zero-sequence voltage (3U0).

The earth-fault overcurrent protection is therefore provided with second harmonic restraint.21 Directional earth-fault overcurrent protection for solidly earthed networks 1MDX80015-EN Page 3 The directional earth-fault overcurrent protection module for relay REL 5xx has available independent time delay plus four inverse time characteristics. The residual inrush current can cause unwanted tripping of the earth-fault overcurrent relay when energizing a directly earthed power transformer.1. viz. which can be activated at breaker closure. The most common type of serial fault is pole discrepancy at breaker manoeuvring.35 ⋅ ln I / Ia (s) where Ia is the set characteristic value (3I0>) In some cases. • Normal inverse (NI) • Very inverse (VI) • Extremely inverse (EI) • Logarithmic inverse (IDG) according to IEC 255-3 according to IEC 255-3 according to IEC 255-3 according to the formula t = 5. the selectivity can be improved by adding a settable minimum operating current (IMin) and a minimum operating time (tMin) to the inverse characteristic. To minimise the operating time. which blocks the operation if the residual current (3I 0) contains 20 per cent or more of the second harmonic component. which temporarily reduces the tripping time to 300 ms. . Serial faults can be correctly detected. the earth-fault overcurrent protection module is provided with a switch-onto-fault logic. or pole discrepancy in a circuit-breaker or a disconnector.ABB Network Partner AB September 1997 Version 1. These functions are included in the protection.8 . A serial fault can be caused by broken phase conductor(s) with no contact to earth. if the voltage transformers feeding the directional earth-fault protection are situated on the bus side of the breaker.

the symbol indicates a binary output from the module. The current measuring. The connections to binary inputs and outputs of the module are made in the setting menu for the REL 5xx relay. 1. 3Io> NI VI EI IDG EFK & t1EF 1 & t & 1 EF---TREF 3Io Imin & %5 2fn + - tmin t & 50 ms EF---STEF EF---BLOCK EF---BLKTEF Directional t 1 & EF3IoSTD 2fn 3 Io x cos( φ -65) 100% FORWARD 60% REVERSE 0.1MDX80015-EN Page 4 Directional earth-fault overcurrent protection for solidly earthed networks ABB Network Partner AB September 1997 Version 1.21 1. the symbol indicates a binary input to the module.2 Theory of operation The directional earth-fault overcurrent protection measures the residual current (3I0) and the residual voltage (3U0). 1 Logic diagram for the directional earth-fault overcurrent protection. VI etc.3) 3Uo Fig.01 Un & & & & EF---DEFF EF---DEFR (X80015-1. For inverse time curves (NI. setting according to the text within the figure gives logical 1 on the output. The symbol indicates parameter setting. This must be connected to a binary input of the REL 5xx relay before it can be activated. 1000 ms EF---BC 300 ms t t & EF---TRSOTF Def. Generally. . When placed at the left-hand side of the diagram. When placed at the right-hand side.). time delay and logic circuits of the protection are shown in Fig. the setting activates the selected inverse time characteristic.

A deviation of 20° will increase the operate value by only 6. The forward measuring element operates when: 3I 0 ⋅ cos ( 65 ° – ϕ ) ≥ 3I0D where ϕ 3I0D is the angle between 3I0 and -3U0 (positive if 3I0 lags -3U0) is the set operate value The change in operate value is small when the phase angle deviates moderately from 65°. The inverse time delay is determined by the selection of the characteristic (NI. In the module. the filtering secures a correct function for fundamental frequency polarising voltages down to 1% of rated voltage. the capacitive current generated on the line will decrease the current to the earth-fault relay situated at the line end towards the fault. It can be used to add a constant time to the inverse time delay. The inverse time calculation starts when 3I0 is equal to or higher than the set operating value for IMin and the content of the second harmonic in 3I 0 is less than 20%. particularly when capacitive VTs are used.21 Directional earth-fault overcurrent protection for solidly earthed networks 1MDX80015-EN Page 5 The current 3I0 lags the polarising voltage (-3U0) by a phase angle that is equal to the angle of the zero sequence source impedance. .ABB Network Partner AB September 1997 Version 1.5%. The reverse direction comparator should therefore have an increased sensitivity to secure reliable blocking in case of external faults when a directional comparison or a blocking communication scheme is used. To secure a correct measurement. Timer t1 is normally set at zero. as a fixed ratio. The effect of the settings IMin and tMin on the inverse characteristic is shown in Fig.6 ⋅ 3I0D. the directional function must have an effective bandpass filtering of the voltage. The timer t1 starts when both the inverse time characteristic and the timer tMin operate. The polarising voltage.) under setting “CurveType =” and the setting of the characteristic current 3I0>. normally obtained from the broken delta windings of the VTs. The timer t1 starts when the current 3I0 to the relay is equal to or higher than the set operating value for IMin and the content of the second harmonic in 3I0 is less than 20%. The independent time delay function is activated by setting CurveType= Def. 2. In case of an external fault. can have a high content of harmonics relative the fundamental frequency when the output voltage is low. set at 0. The operate current of the reverse direction measuring element in the module is. VI etc.

the false earth-fault current must be measured or calculated when maximum sensitivity is desired. a low operating current is required. extremely inverse or logarithmic inverse.21 t [s] I min 5 Logarithmic Inverse 4 3 Normal Inverse (K=0. Generally. depends on the network.2) Fig. This false earth-fault current is directly proportional to the load current. 2 Normal inverse and logarithmic inverse time characteristics. The minimum operating current (IMin) of the earth-fault overcurrent protection must be set higher than the maximum false earth-fault current. On the other hand. normal inverse. a low setting will increase the risk for unwanted operation due to unbalance in the network and the current transformer circuits. 1.1MDX80015-EN Page 6 Directional earth-fault overcurrent protection for solidly earthed networks ABB Network Partner AB September 1997 Version 1. independent (definite time). the false earth-fault current is normally lower than 5% of the line current. except for extremely short parallel lines (less than 5 kilometres). 80 A is recommended as a minimum primary operating value for the earth-fault overcurrent protection.4) 2 t min 1 1 2 3 5 7 10 20 30 50 x 3Io> (X80056-2. where a higher false earth-fault current may be found. In case of extremely short or not fully transposed parallel lines. very inverse.3 Setting To detect high resistive earth-faults. In a well transposed system. The choice of time delay characteristic. The unbalance in the network that causes false earth-fault currents is caused mainly by untransposed or not fully transposed parallel lines with strong zero-sequence mutual coupling. .

The voltage contains a certain amount of harmonics.1 All inverse time characteristic settings will be a compromise between short fault clearing time and selective operation in a large current range. and the selectivity at maximum fault current. settable in the range of 0. This time is normally set to be longer than the time delay of distance Zone 2 in REL 5xx. . The following formulas for the operating time in seconds apply to the characteristics used within the REL 5xx line protection terminal: Characteristic: Normal inverse Operating time (s): 0.05 to 1. an inverse characteristic with a low set 3I0> to get a short operating time at minimum fault current can be combined with a higher set minimum operating current IMin. one to four times the set characteristic quantity (3I0>) of the inverse time delay. in order to avoid interference with the impedance measuring system in case of earth-faults with moderate fault resistance within Zone 2. 5 -⋅k t = ----------I–1 80 -⋅k t = -----------2 I –1 t = 5. Therefore. The minimum operating current (IMin) of the earth-fault overcurrent protection is settable.ABB Network Partner AB September 1997 Version 1. the same type of characteristic should be used for all earth-fault overcurrent protections in the network. 8 – 1. Hence. 14 -⋅k t = -------------------0. in networks already equipped with earth-fault overcurrent relays. The polarising voltage for directional earth-fault overcurrent protection is normally obtained from broken delta-connected secondary windings of instrument voltage transformers or interposing voltage transformers. 35 ⋅ ln I Very inverse Extremely inverse Logarithmic inverse where: I k is a multiple of set current 3I0> is a time multiplying factor. 02 –1 I 13. The main determining factors are the maximum allowed fault clearing time at the maximum fault resistance to be covered. the best selectivity will normally be achieved by using the same type of characteristic as that in the existing relays. The minimum operate time is set independent of the inverse time characteristic. especially when the protection is connected to CVTs. in order to avoid unwanted operation due to false earth-fault currents.21 Directional earth-fault overcurrent protection for solidly earthed networks 1MDX80015-EN Page 7 To achieve optimum selectivity.

Normally.21 Due to the bandpass filtering within REL 5xx. 3 below shows the connection of a threephase test set at the test of a directional relay. If not blocked. due to measuring errors in the VT circuits. the earth-fault overcurrent protection is tested in conjunction with the testing of the distance protection functions.1MDX80015-EN Page 8 Directional earth-fault overcurrent protection for solidly earthed networks ABB Network Partner AB September 1997 Version 1. using the same multiphase test set. This is also valid when the protection is connected to CVTs. as well as a variable phase angle between the current and voltage is required. . a test set with a variable current and a variable voltage output. Therefore.4 Testing For testing of the directional protection and the directional comparison logic functions. a polarising voltage down to 1 per cent of the rated voltage will provide correct directional functioning. the directional comparator will operate during the dead time in case of a single-phase autoreclosure. The minimum polarising voltage to the protection (Umin) is calculated from the formula: U sec U min = I F min ⋅ Z 0 min ⋅ ------------U where: IFmin Z0min Usec. To secure operation in unfavourable cases as well.Uprim is the minimum primary operating fault current is the minimum zero-sequence impedance at the relay site are the rated phase voltages of the open delta-connected CVTs prim Observe that when a blocking scheme or a permissive scheme with current reversal or weak infeed logic is used. IFmin represents the primary operating current of the reverse looking directional element. 1. Fig. Umin should be equal to at least 1 volt plus the maximum network frequency false voltage. blocking input EF---BLOCK should be activated during the single-phase autoreclosing cycle.

REL 5xx L1U U4 . Make the appropriate settings. The function activates digital output EF---DEFR. 1. to prevent operation of the impedance function when checking the earth-fault protection. The function activates digital output EF---STEF.6 ⋅ 3I0D. depending on the zone settings.3 activate the directional function by setting Dir = On. the current lagging the voltage. Check that the operating current of the forward directional element is equal to the setting 3I0D.21 Directional earth-fault overcurrent protection for solidly earthed networks 1MDX80015-EN Page 9 L1I L2I L3I NI IL1 IL2 IL3 IN RELAY TEST SET L2U L3U NU TRIP L1 TRIP L2 TRIP L3 (X80057-4) Fig. 1. Set the polarising voltage to 2% of Ur and the phase angle between voltage and current to 65° Check the operate current of the IMin function. 3 Connection of the test set to the relay. 1.2 Reverse the polarising voltage (ϕ = 180°+65°=245°) and check that the operating current of the reverse directional element is 0.1 Set the polarising voltage to 2% of U r and the phase angle between voltage and current to 65°. including the connections to the digital inputs and outputs. The impedance measuring zones may need to be blocked. The function 3I0D activates digital output EF---DEFF. Check with angles ϕ = 20° and 110° that the measuring element operates when 3I0 ⋅ cos (65°-ϕ) ≥ 3I0D. The logic diagram of the tested protection function is suitably considered when performing the test.ABB Network Partner AB September 1997 Version 1.

3 on page 7. The formulas for operate time for different types of inverse time delay curves are given in item 1. Input EF---BLKTEF blocks the output from the timers to digital outputs EF---TREF. EF---TRSOTF and the tripping output. . Check also the functions tMin (minimum operating time) and IMin (minimum operating current). When inverse time delay is selected. 4 Measuring characteristic of the directional element.4 When independent time delay is selected. 1.21 65 ϕ Upol = -3Uo 3Io Operation Iset (X80015-4 (2)) Fig. 1.5 Activate the input EF---BC to check the function of the switch-ontofault logic.7 Set the phase angle of the polarising voltage to ϕ = 245° and check that the directional current function and the switch-onto-fault logic gives no operation when the current is in reverse direction.1MDX80015-EN Page 10 Directional earth-fault overcurrent protection for solidly earthed networks ABB Network Partner AB September 1997 Version 1. check the operate time at three points on the inverse characteristic. 1. 1. Check that digital outputs EF---TRSOTF and EF---TREF are activated with time delay 300 ms when injecting current two times the set operate value IMin. check the operate time of timer t1 by injecting current two times the set operate value IMin.6 Check the blocking functions from digital inputs EF---BLOCK and EF---BLKTEF.

5 ±60 ms IEC 255-3 class 7. Very inverse characteristic Extremely inverse charact.01 k = (0.5% ±10 ms IEC 255-3 class 5 ±60 ms IEC 255-3 class 7.0) s in steps of 0.1) in steps of 0.05-1.05-1.04 ⋅ [1 .fixed ±5% at 50 Hz ±15% at 60 Hz ±5° at 20 V and 3I0D = 35% I t = 5.1) in steps of 0.3-29) Iset tMin for dependent charact.5 Technical data Table 1: Setting range Basic current 3I0 > (5-300)% Ir in steps of 1% Operating value for directional current measurement forward 3I0 ⋅ cos (ϕ-65°) reverse Accuracy ±5% Iset (5-35)% Ir in steps of 1% (5-10) Iset ±10% (10-35) Iset ±5% 60% of the setting for forward operation (5-10) Iset ±15% (10-35) Iset ±10% (0-6.1) in steps of 0.05-6.5 ±60 ms Independent time delay Normal inverse charact.0) s in steps of ±0.05-1.01 s Start current for independent and minimum operate current for inverse time characteristic IMin (100-400)% of 3I0 > in ±5% Iset steps of 1% Rated voltage Minimum polarising voltage Characteristic angle 110/√3 V 1% Ur 65° lag . 35 ⋅ ln -------------3I 0set .01 k = (0. Logarithmic characteristic See the formula below ±0. (0.5% ±10 ms 0.ABB Network Partner AB September 1997 Version 1.21 Directional earth-fault overcurrent protection for solidly earthed networks 1MDX80015-EN Page 11 1.01 ±0.I / Iset] at I = (1.01 k = (0. 8 + 1.

2) Fig.1MDX80015-EN Page 12 Directional earth-fault overcurrent protection for solidly earthed networks ABB Network Partner AB September 1997 Version 1.01 Un & & & & EF---DEFF EF---DEFR 3Uo (X80015-6. .6. 6 Terminal diagram of the function. 1000 ms EF---BC 300 ms t t & EF---TRSOTF Def.6 Appendix 1. NI VI EI IDG 3Io> & t1EF EFK 1 & t & 1 EF---TREF 3Io Imin & %5 2fn + - tmin t & 50 ms EF---STEF EF---BLOCK EF---BLKTEF Directional t 1 & EF3IoSTD 2fn 3 Io x cos(φ -65) 100% FORWARD 60% REVERSE 0.1 Terminal diagrams DIRECTIONAL EARTH-FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION EF---BC EF---BLOCK EF---BLKTEF EF---STEF EF---TREF EF---TRSOTF EF---DEFF EF---DEFR (X80015-5 (2)) Fig. 5 Simplified terminal diagram of the function.21 1.

6.2 Signal list ABB Network Partner AB CONNECTIONS: Block overcurrent E/F protection Block of trip timer Breaker closing DESCRIPTION: E/F Pick-up Trip E/F Trip E/F for switch-onto-fault condition Directional E/F: Forward operation Directional E/F: Reverse operation TO: SETTING: DESCRIPTION: EF---BLOCK BI EF---BLKTEF BI EF---BC BI PRODUCTION: TO: SETTING: EF---STEF BO EF---TREF BO EF---TRSOTF BO EF---DEFF BO Directional earth-fault overcurrent protection for solidly earthed networks EF---DEFR BO 1MDX80015-EN Page 13 .21 1.September 1997 Version 1.

operating current for inverse time delay Definite time delay setting. Operating current of the reverse directional element is 0.00 .10 tMin 0.6 x 3I0D 3I0> (5 .05 .Page 14 1MDX80015-EN 1.6.400)% of 3I0> Directional earth-fault overcurrent protection for solidly earthed networks t1 0.00 s Direction NonDir Directional ABB Network Partner AB 3I0D> (5 .6.6.00 s K 0.300)% of Ir IMin (100 .21 .3 Setting table PARAMETER: SETTING RANGE: ACTUAL Group 2 Activation of the protection function Group 3 Group 4 DESCRIPTION: SETTING Group 1 Operation On / Off CurveType Def / NI / VI / EI / IDG Def=Independent (definite) time delay NI= Normal inverse VI=Very inverse EI=Extremely inverse IDG=Logarithmic inverse Setting value of the characteristic quantity for the inverse time delay Starting current for independent time delay and min.05 . alternatively setting of a fixed time in addition to the inverse time delay Time multiplier for inverse time delay Minimum operate time for inverse time delay Selection of directional or non-directional E/F protection function Operating current of the forward directional element.1.35)% of Ir September 1997 Version 1.