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Citation: Juan S. Larrosa-Fuentes. (2012).

Desconcentrar y descentralizar un sistema de comunicación local: una propuesta para fortalecer el desarrollo de la opinión pública en México. In Premio Nacional de Investigación Social y Opinión Pública 2011 (pp. 291–314). México: Centro de Estudios Sociales y de Opinión Pública. Retrieved from http://goo.gl/Pc5gZ

Dispersal and Decentralization of a Local Communication Network: A Proposal to Strengthen the Development of Public Opinion in Mexico By Juan S. Larrosa-Fuentes In a constitutional and representative democracy the State has the obligation of converting itself into a structure that facilitates the materialization of the agreements and values of a society. In this process, public opinion plays a fundamental role in the construction of a diverse public sphere. Various studies have shown that societies that have favored proper conditions for the development of a powerful public sphere have had more success in their democratic incursions. This is opposed to those that have weak public spheres where breeding grounds for authoritative regimens and scarce democratic values are generated (Castells, 2010: 216-217; García Canclini, 2006: 12; Gerbner et. al., 1994). Within this context, mass media (film, press, radio, television) and recently internet communication are some of the tools for the construction of public opinion in many countries around the world. From this stems a fundamental premise on which this work is based: the States that look to constitute and acknowledge the diversity of their citizens’ public opinion should guarantee, among other things, a communication network that allows for the development of a public sphere in which its participants are (more or less) equally able to participate in it. This essay is the fruit of many investigations carried out over a four year period through a media observatory (Larrosa, 2011a; Larrosa, 2011b; Quid: observatorio de

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medios, 2008, 2009, 2010). 1 Its objective is to show, through a study of a local communication network (case study), some of the weaknesses of the Mexican communication network that have prevented the construction of a public sphere in which a public that participates in democratic life can develop. The second objective is to outline a series of proposals to transform the legal framework that regulates the media in Mexico by implementing specific public policies. In order to reach this objective, the essay is divided into three parts: the first constructs a brief theoretical framework to observe the relationships between the concept of public opinion and the political economy of communication and culture; the second section is dedicated to developing the case description of a local communication network; and the third part contains proposals for legislation and public policies for the transformation of the Mexican communication network, as well as the general conclusions of this project. Concentration and Centralization of Communication Networks Since the 1970’s, the political economy of communication and culture has been an important field of social research in discovering the formation and development of massive communication networks in different countries around the world. Of course, this field of research does not include all the aspects by which media can be studied, but it has however constituted a fundamental branch for understanding massive communication as a cultural industry. This industry is generally formed by private companies, although there are also State or public ones, whose principal function is to commercialize and reproduce multiple forms of information and interaction. The study of mass communication networks operating in a capitalistic and globalized economy structure, and under regimens that are more or less standardized in liberal democracies, is of great importance in understanding contemporary societies. It helps to unravel and clear up some of the balances and imbalances of power that allow for certain social structuring (Murdock, 2002). In this context, the political economy has
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Quid: Observatorio de Medios (Media Observatory). Project from the ITESO University in Guadalajara. For more information visit the following website: http://quidmedios.wordpress.com/about/.

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(Sánchez Ruiz. among other things. 2009. and at the time of the foundation of UNESCO. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 2 “‘Centralization’ is related to the hierarchical structuring of a society by virtue of the concentration of power (economic. but that such decisions (and subsequent actions) tend to have a minimal or nonexistent effect on the highest level subsystems and/or the system as a whole. The tendency towards concentration and centralization of communication networks has not only been recognized on a theoretical level but it has also been proven by various academic studies during the past forty years. McChesney. the ownership structure of the media (the number of mediums that make up a network. For example in the 1980’s.2 Concentration refers to the tendency or the possibility of the ownership structure of a communication network to be concentrated among few businessmen or players. 3 ! . 1987: 14). detrimental to the development of localized industries in cities with medium or small populations. Centralization reduces the autonomy and self-sufficiency of the units and subsystems at the lower levels of the hierarchy. seen from the political economy. cultural. This was a diagnosis of the world’s communication networks during the past three decades and in it. Gómez and Sánchez. as will be seen further on). Centralization refers to the process of geographic unification of cultural industries in the large urban capitals.proposed to study. are a fundamental part of the argumentative logic of this essay. This is caused by unequal access and differential control of power resources. how big they are or the relationships established between them). the “MacBride Report” was published. 2002. This does not mean that they do not have vital decision making processes. political. the more the decisions made and actions taken in the center(s) of power tend to directly. informative. describe the economic nature of these cultural industries. the tendencies of concentration and centralization in cultural industries were already being recognized (McBride. Sánchez. Mosco. The concepts of centralization and concentration of a media network. and analyze how their structure and nature influence the production of media content (Becerra and Mastrini. and frequently immediately. 1998. Richieri. 2006. 1992).” (Sánchez Ruiz. 1987: 14). 1993: 236). 2008. The more centralized a system is. effect a large number of elements and subsystems. This causes the smaller cities to be culturally dependent on the media production of the larger ones.

McCombs. 1995. that number was reduced to 700 (Castells. the possibilities of including diverse points of view are also decreased. these economic phenomena that can be verified in cultural industries are part of the economic globalization process. 1998: 1). However. and have affected the independence and autonomy of the most delicate communication networks. However. The damages to democratic societies that are caused by the processes of concentration and centralization are very exact.In his book. that in 1996 there were more than 10. A network of this nature would not be possible on the basis of closed communication networks. Comunicación y poder (Communication Power). The first of them is that concentration and centralization limit. the plurality of the public space. As Castells himself has well explained. after a legal reform that permitted the concentration of ownership. Manuel Castells provides an interesting stance on the matter of the processes of concentration in cultural industries all over the world. It has been widely studied that the media is a fundamental and in some cases definitive player in the formation of public opinion (Nöelle-Neumann. This is why a decrease in voices (in political terms) or players (in economic terms). 2006: 12): 4 ! . and in some cases eliminate. They are also part of an extraordinary development of communicative technologies. or of what the Catalan author has called the creation of a “network society. The book shows for example.000 commercial radio stations in this country. 2006). 2010: 96). reduces the diversity of the public sphere (García Canclini. at the same time these processes have opened and connected the world.” This new society demands the implementation of an open and global communication network conformed of multiple national communication networks. particularly in the United States. During the last two decades this has provoked the implementing of liberalization and deregulation processes in the communication networks. due to intense processes of concentration and centralization (McChesney. When the number of communication companies is reduced.

as global or transnational culture tends to erode the local cultural (re) production. Becerra and Mastrini (unknown) clearly show the relations between economy and culture. On the other hand. States should be very careful and responsible with the tasks of creating legislation and generating public policies concerning their cultural industries. where radio and television programming tend to be produced in a few countries (particularly the United States). and on the other. of counting on a collection of opinions represented in the media. Precisely along this line of thought. concentration and centralization of cultural industries also have effects on a society’s cultural reproduction. On one hand they should look for a political and economic structure that allows them to incorporate themselves into the global communication network.“Political pluralism is the need. 5 ! . both issues should be considered together. undermining local production. in accordance with the interests of the citizens. This can be clearly observed in the audiovisual industry. This means that its products not only have a production cost and an exchange value on the market. but also a significant role in the formation of political and cultural identities. as will be shown later. [unknown]). the greatest challenge to pluralism. From our prospective. very much overlooked by the neoclassic economic stances: “The economic characteristics of the cultural industry should be complemented by the social and political mark of symbolic production.” Under these circumstances. they have the task of ensuring autonomy and independence regarding cultural production. should represent the main focus of all those who promote it. Its mission would be to ensure that the media allows for the expression of a group of political opinions and not only those that pertain to the interests of the owners” (Becerra y Mastrini. and especially since the transformations of the sector in the last twenty years. The connection between ownership and the potential influence of the media.

and as will be described in the following pages. This outlook. They will provide empirical evidence that will confirm the processes of concentration and centralization of cultural industries in the case of Mexico. 3 This case is relevant because Guadalajara is the second most populated city in Mexico and it has historically been an important center for commercial and industrial development. examples have been given of the tendency for cultural industries to become concentrated and centralized on a global level in the last decades. that looks to position itself from a political and economic position in the study of communication networks. Tlajomulco de Zúñiga. but does highlight the effects that these dynamics have on towns that do not have the magnitude of a country. At the same time they also protect the right to information. does not verify different phenomena that can be observed from a global perspective. or the whole world. El Salto. is the looking glass through which the following sections of this essay should be read. Zapopán. of not only the country as a whole. On previous pages. These specificities appear to be the ones that can give clear ideas on how to create public legislation and policies that make a modern and globalized communicational structure possible. a region. this metropolis has approximately four and a half million inhabitants (INEGI. but also of the inhabitants of its local communities. All together. 6 ! . Tonalá. and particularly in the Metropolitan Zone of Guadalajara. these processes have not been widely studied from a local perspective. 2011). Tlaquepaque. Juanacatlán en Ixtlahuacán de los Membrillos. also has a !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 3 The municipalities that make up the Metropolitan Zone are: Guadalajara. The local communication network that is being used in the case analysis is the state of Jalisco (Mexico). However. Concentration and Centralization of a Local Communication Network: Case Analysis The economic phenomena described here have been studied from a global and national perspective. a bottom-up approach.This theoretical framework.

2011c). In the television industry. Concentration of Communication in Mexico The concentration of the Mexican communication network. it should be remembered that the commercial radio industry is made up. Radiocima. MVS Radio. in its majority. of ten groups that control the sector. and added to radio and television audiences. Structure of the Communication Network in Jalisco (1984 and 2010) Media Radio stations Television channels 1984 61 4 2010 88 22 7 ! . Organización Radio Fórmula. the structure of the media network in the entire state of Jalisco is made up of 15 newspapers. 2006). This data does not include nationally circulated newspapers that are produced in Mexico City or radio stations from other states in the country that can be heard in Jalisco. 21 television channels. Radiodifusoras Asociadas (RASA). Gómez and Sosa. Promosat de México. Sociedad Mexicana de Radio (SOMER). they capture the attention of close to ninety-five percent of the public” (Cervantes. Larrosa. “Televisa and Televisión Azteca are affiliates of 92% of the country’s radio spectrum. There is a tendency to equate what happens in Mexico City to what happens in the entire country without acknowledging the distinct qualities of each region. reason for which this matter will not be greatly elaborated on here. Table 1. To give a general overview. 2010. Organización Impulsora de Radio (OIR).complex communication network where the radio and television structure reflects a high level of concentration and centralization. In national terms. Nevertheless. 2006). and 5 cable television networks. in the greater part of these analyses it is not often noted what happens in the different states of the Republic. 88 radio stations. and Multimedios Estrellas de Oro (Solís. These are: Radiorama. has been widely studied throughout the past decades (Alva and Esteinou. particularly in the audiovisual sector. Grupo ACIR.

being commercial. the communication network is predominantly commercial with only five public or cultural television channels. However. Megacable. the state’s communication network structure has numerically grown in the last 26 years. al. Out of the twenty-two television channels that exist in the state. The increase in the number of television channels that can currently be seen in the state is particularly noteworthy being that it is six times more than those that existed in 1984. Also. and the rest of the affiliates or agencies each have one channel. Televisa continues to widely dominate the television sector in the state of Jalisco (see table 2).. 2010. there would be another 178 private television channels added to that currently offer different cable services through the companies of Dish. In addition. Just as it was more than two decades ago. In terms of radio stations. just as is the case in the rest of the country. Corporación Tapatía de Televisión). these have increased by 27. and the television channels. Structure of Ownership of the Communication Network in Jalisco Channel Channel 22 Channel 21 Channel 21 Affiliate or Subsidiary Asociación Cultural Arandina (Arandina Cultural Association) Televimex (Televisa) Radiotelevisora de México Norte (Televisa) Legal Status Subsidiary Affiliate Affiliate Location Arandas Atotonilco Atotonilco 8 ! . the Government of the State of Jalisco has three. Televisión Azteca has four channels. this increase in the communicative infrastructure has not implied an increase in the number of companies or entities that offer their audiovisual services. As evidenced here. Sky. have grown by 22. Radiotelevisora de México Norte. and the rest (77%). 12 belong to Televisa and its subsidiaries (Televimex. Table 2. This information clearly shows that television channels are concentrated in the hands of few companies. counting the digital ones. and Telecable (Pálau et. representing 54% of the total.Digital television channels Cable networks 0 No data 5 5 Source: Compiled with information from Arredondo. 1980 and CIRT (National Chamber of the Radio and Television Industry). 2011).

The radio structure is different. or general public broadcasting (Larrosa. followed by Televisa Radio with six stations. Jalisco Radio —on AM and FM— and Radio María). Of all these radio stations. making up 18% of the total. indigenous. although it also shows some characteristics of concentration. making up 12% of the total. 9 ! . only four are agencies (University of Guadalajara Radio. For example. 2011a). community. The rest are affiliates. They have nine stations. Many of these stations belong to groups or parent companies that operate on a national level (see Table 3 and Table 4): Radiorama de Occidente is the group with the most stations. with information from COFETEL (Federal Telecommunications Commission). in the Metropolitan Zone of Guadalajara one can tune in to 51 radio stations: 26 on the AM band and 25 on the FM band. making up a highly commercial network of communication that does not favor cultural.Channel 11 Channel 21 Channel 12 Channel 5 Channel 2 Channel 9 Channel 7 Channel 4 Channel 21 Channel 13 Channel 11 Channel 44 Channel 27 Channel 5 Channel 2 Channel 4 Channel 7 Channel 11 Channel 13 Televimex (Televisa) Radiotelevisora de México Norte (Televisa) Government of the State of Jalisco Corporación Tapatía de Televisión (Televisa) Televimex (Televisa) Televimex (Televisa) Government of the State of Jalisco Televisora de Occidente (Televisa) Radiotelevisora de México Norte (Televisa) Televisión Azteca Televisión Azteca University of Guadalajara Promoting entities of audiovisual media Televimex (Televisa) Televisión Azteca Radiotelevisora de México Norte (Televisa) Televisión Azteca Televimex (Televisa) Government of the State of Jalisco Affiliate Affiliate Subsidiary Affiliate Affiliate Affiliate Subsidiary Affiliate Affiliate Affiliate Affiliate Subsidiary Subsidiary Affiliate Affiliate Affiliate Affiliate Affiliate Subsidiary Autlán de Navarro Autlán de Navarro Ciudad Guzmán Guadalajara Guadalajara Guadalajara Guadalajara Guadalajara Guadalajara Guadalajara Guadalajara Guadalajara Guadalajara La Barca Puerto Vallarta Puerto Vallarta Puerto Vallarta Puerto Vallarta Puerto Vallarta Source: Compiled by author.

Radio Stations in Guadalajara belonging to Televisa (2010) Station W Radio Guadalajara Estadio W Guadalajara La Consentida Radio Gallito Los 40 Principales Ke Buena Call Sign WEWK XEHL XEBA XEZZ XEHL XEBZ Source: Larrosa. Radio Stations in Guadalajara Belonging to Radiorama (2010) Station La Tapatía HK La Voz de Guadalajara Radio Ranchito Ciudad 1480 DK 1250 Frecuencia Deportiva Stereo Nova Éxtasis Digital Maxima Call Sign XHRX XEHK XEDKT XEZJ XEDK XEPJ XHOJ XHQJ XHGDA Source: Larrosa.7 97. even though it also shows a tendency towards concentration. the fundamental characteristics of the radio and television structure of Jalisco can be summarized: it is a communication network that has grown considerably in the last thirty years.1 Band AM AM AM AM AM AM FM FM FM Frequency 103.9 89. in radio. this growth has not contributed to the diversification of the structure’s ownership network and the most concentrated network is television with one company owning 54% of the networks.Table 3. 10 ! . Contrary to this. The last characteristic shows that it is a predominantly commercial network: in television there are only two university channels and one from the state government. however. 2011a Band AM AM AM AM FM FM Frequency 1190 1010 820 760 102. there are only four public broadcasting stations.1 With this information.5 960 1340 14880 1250 1370 106. the radio network shows a greater diversification. 2011a Table 4.7 105.

If in a global communication network the national networks tend to be eroded. In contrast. Jalisco’s television network consists of ten channels with five belonging to Televisa (56%). However. but it also is a focal point for issues such as politics and culture. The issue that is the basis of this discussion is the supremacy of one region over another in terms of cultural production and as such. in both public and academic discussions the debate over the “centralization of communication” or the “centralism of communication production” has been pushed to the background. The centralization of communication production is a topic of the utmost importance because it is in part an economic issue (the concentration of resources in a territory). The characteristics above can be verified in Jalisco’s radio and television and particularly in the communication network of the Metropolitan Zone of Guadalajara. one to the Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN or National Polytechnic Institute). All together. has increased considerably. this growth has not implied an increase in television offerings in the state. regarding the topic of concentration. In the previous section it was established that in the last twenty years the television structure of Jalisco (number of channels). going from 4 to 22 (see Table 1). and one other to the University of Guadalajara (UDG). This information shows a clear tendency of centralization in the communication network as all of the television signals are broadcast out of urban centers: 60% from Mexico City and 40% from Guadalajara. the imposition on or dismantling of local cultures. A large percentage of these television channels rebroadcast the programming from the channels in the Metropolitan Zone of Guadalajara (40%) or from Mexico City (60%). one to the Sistema Jalisciense de Radio y Televisión (SJRyT or Radio and Television Network of Jalisco). there are no television broadcasts from medium-sized 11 ! . two to Televisión Azteca (22%).The centralization of the Mexican Communication Model As previously explained. the local networks can end up being eliminated.

681 (INEGI.534 inhabitants and Puerto Vallarta has 255.4 and much less so from small towns. The second level of the centralization of communication is regarding the place of where the programming is produced. Public Television Channels That Can be Tuned-in to From Jalisco Channel Azteca 13 Azteca 7 Canal de las estrellas Canal 5 Galavisión Estación 4 Televisión Tapatía C7 Once TV Canal 44 Parent Company Televisión Azteca Televisión Azteca Televisa Televisa Televisa Televisa Televisa Sistema Jalisciense de Radio y Televisión Instituto Politécnico Nacional University of Guadalajara Origin Mexico City Mexico City Mexico City Mexico City Mexico City Guadalajara Guadalajara Guadalajara Mexico City Guadalajara Status Affiliate Affiliate Affiliate Affiliate Affiliate Affiliate Subsidiary Subsidiary Subsidiary Subsidiary Source: Compiled by author.3% !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 4 Ciudad Guzmán has a population of 100.cities in the state like Ciudad Guzmán or Puerto Vallarta. Origin of Television Programming Broadcasted in Guadalajara in 1984 Origin Mexico United States 1984 63. Table 5. the issue of where the programming is produced for these television networks will be analyzed. For 25 years the production of television programming that can be seen in Guadalajara has mostly come from the markets of Mexico and the United states. as is shown in the following tables: Table 6. 12 ! . with information from COFETEL.2% 28. Now. The television networks that can be watched in Jalisco have already been described as coming from Mexico City or Guadalajara. 2010).

Televisión Azteca broadcasts 336 hours of weekly programming to the population of Jalisco. and one sports program that is sometimes broadcasted from Monday through Thursday (“Los protagonistas Jalisco”). Both companies. 24 hours a day. On channels seven and thirteen. 2010. During most of the second half of the twentieth century. Televisa and Televisión Azteca. al. It 13 ! . only 24 weekly hours are produced locally. Of those. “Hit Tv”. It wasn’t until the last decade of the century that a second commercial option was added (Televisión Azteca). “Info 7 Jalisco”. Origin of Television Programming Broadcasted in Guadalajara in 2010 Origin Mexico Foreign Unspecified 2010 64% 33% 3% Source: Pálau et.Other Unspecified 5. and “Hechos Noche”). four news programs of which only one is an hour long and the rest are under fifteen minutes (“Primera Edición”. equating to 7% of their total scheduling. 1984: 36 Table 7. For example. Out of all their programming they have only eight programs that are locally produced: three entertainment programs that are a half-hour long and are broadcasted Monday through Thursday (“Mañaneando”. however these resources and spaces are not often used. particularly the United States (as is the case with fictional series and some game shows). “Hechos Meridiano”.1% 3. Most of their programming is produced in Mexico City or bought from other parts of the world. Televisión Azteca has two public networks that are broadcast in Jalisco from Monday through Sunday. on channels seven and thirteen. have offices and production studios in Guadalajara. Guadalajara’s television market was dominated by Televisa. and “Hit banda”).4% Source: Sánchez Ruiz.

and the budget !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 5 TV Azteca Jalisco (April 29.tvaztecajalisco.Thursday Monday . 2011): www.Friday Monday . since February of 2011.Friday Monday . Once TV (Instituto Politécnico Nacional) has been available since June of 2010 and Channel 44 (University of Guadalajara). educational. Some information that can help to see the budget differences between a commercial channel and that of a university or of public broadcasting are as follows: in 2011 the operating budget for the Canal 44 of the University of Guadalajara was 33 million pesos. Television Programs Produced in Guadalajara on Televisión Azteca Program Mañaneado Hit TV Hit Banda Primera Edición Info 7 Jalisco Hechos Meridiano Hechos Noche Los protagonistas Jalisco Day of broadcast Monday .Friday Monday .Thursday Monday .Thursday Monday .Friday Monday . 14 ! . Table 8. or cultural programs. a channel of the Sistema Jalisciense de Radio y Televisión. The scheduling on these two networks appears to be equal to the programming that C7 offers. and recently. Nonetheless. Of the three public channels.can be observed that in Guadalajara this network does not produce fictional. it should be noted that the channels produced locally have many spending and technical restrictions due to low budgets and the impossibility of soliciting resources because of a legal structure that prohibits it.mx. two are produced in Guadalajara and one in Mexico City. with information from the TV Azteca Jalisco webpage. Only recently has it been possible to tune in to these two public television networks.com.Thursday Weekly hours 2 hours 2 hours 2 hours 5 hours 1 hour 5 hours 5 hours 2 hours 5 Source: Compiled by author. two university channels have appeared that generally have programming with cultural content and tend to steer away from commercial and entertainment productions.

2011a). it is worth noting that the production of one episode of a telenovela (soap opera) that is one hour long. if the University of Guadalajara and the Sistema Jalisciense de Radio y Televisión combined their annual budgets. their scheduling varies a lot. university. However. These channels are very irregular in their production. or cultural content (Larrosa.for C7 of the Sistema Jalisciense de Radio y Televisión was 29 million pesos (Mural. To give an idea of the economic disadvantage these channels have. they do not offer professional local programming with a quality that allows them to compete with that of the rest of the cable channels programming. Jalisco is one of the most important states of Mexico and as !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 6 As part of a research agenda. and generally speaking. 6 Conclusions and Proposals The objective of this essay is to outline. 63% of this programming is music that is broadcasted 24 hours a day and there are few programs that have spoken. out of all the paid television options. 2008). In regards to cable television. and to show how they have not only developed processes of concentration in their control and ownership structure but also in the centralization of their programming. the investigation remains pending concerning the percentage of music that is broadcasted on Guadalajara’s radio networks and what percentage of it is produced locally. they would have enough funds to be able to produce 62 hours of this type of programming. So. being that 86% of its programming is created in the capital of Jalisco. 15 ! . So. there are two local production channels: Channel 8 and Channel 6.12%. 2010). The radio station network in Guadalajara offers more local programming in comparison to the television network. the programming of these two local channels represents 1. a map of Jalisco’s communication networks. nationally and internationally. in addition to the public access channels that this network offers. costs around one million pesos (Stock. in a very general way.

1987). could help to decentralize the media network in Mexico: 16 ! . The proposal is not to eliminate communication flows that originate from global and national levels. the centralization of communication production provokes a (false) cultural homogeneity as it silences the distinct cultural expressions of a diverse country. national. Because of this.such. The following ideas are a series of proposals. economic. but that measures should be taken in an urgent manner that allow for equality in communicative options on global. as is the case of Mexico. and local levels. it promotes political. It should be made clear that the argument for decentralization does not coexist with insular or “hyperlocalist” ideas of communication. In order to initiate a process of change toward diversity and quality in the Mexican media. decentralizing them is also important. the hypothesis is proposed that the processes of concentration and centralization in other Mexican cities are even more serious. the current day reality can be observed that the greater part of communication is created in Mexico City or in the capitals of the 33 states of the country. Centralization does not allow full democratic participation in a society where diverse voices around the country make up a national public sphere. and last but not least. It has already been established in other academic realms that the centralization of communication causes serious harm to democratic societies by creating unequal access to the use and consumption of the media. aspects and levels that can be constructed in a democratic society. On the contrary. This reduces the autonomy of the parts of the network that do not have access to power (in this case. the cities or entities that are not part of Mexico City) (Sánchez. it seeks to focus on and understand the diversity of viewpoints. leading to the last point of this essay. it is not enough to disperse the communication networks. which after being improved upon and discussed. On the contrary. and cultural development that affects the entire country.

The creation of a national network of university radio stations and television networks that have the technical and economic possibilities to create attractive and local programming for Mexican audiences. 4. This would allow the development of smaller and medium-sized 17 ! . These regulations must create equality between national and local media.1. 3. In addition. Universidad Autónoma España de Durango. A necessary piece in the formation of critical public opinion depends on spaces for information and opinions that are independent (from the State and the market) and diverse (in content and voices). This network should not be related to universities or local governments. The creation of a national network of public access radio stations and television networks that can offer quality local programming. Its content would have to come from the citizens and would have to ensure high-quality informational spaces. Universidad de Sonora and the University of Guadalajara). This framework must also encourage the local media to not be “rebroadcasters” of national and international media content. Establish a legal framework that clearly distinguishes which radio and television stations are part of a national network of local media. 5. This will require that the legislation establish a minimum quota for local production and public policies that promote the development of audiovisual production clusters. Calling this a national network refers to the fact that it would be composed of at least one radio station and one television channel per state. 2. This network is currently scarce with only six university channels in existence (Instituto Politécnico Nacional. Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. the Universidad Autónoma de México. this legislation should also contain a disposition that forces affiliates to buy at least 30% of their production from a business other than their own.

endorsement. private sector initiative and civil society). 6. It is of vital importance for an entity like this to have a voice and vote in the granting. diversify the voices and points of view in the public space. regulation of State assistance for the radio and television.cl. educational. and assisting in the development of small companies dedicated to communication production. among others. stimulating. and regulating the activity of the participants involved in the television phenomenon." They help to define public policies in the audiovisual realm in these Latin American countries. and most importantly. public service.” For more information visit the webpage: http://www. 8. Only an organization of this nature (that includes the state. children’s. This should be done in harmony with technological and socio-cultural changes in a context of growing internationalization.businesses dedicated to the production of radio and television programs of a diverse nature. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 7 The Consejo Nacional de Televisión (National Television Council) is an organization that “must look after the proper functioning of Chilean television through institutional policies aimed at guiding. will be able to stop this historic tendency toward concentration of television in Mexico. For example: special tax programs for these types of producers. 18 ! . This type of entity has had very good results in countries like Colombia (Observatorio Nacional de Televisión. cultural and scientific discovery content. training for employees of this sector. Create public policies that give incentives to audiovisual production in the different regions of the country. ONTEL [National Observatory of Television]) or Chile (Consejo Nacional de Televisión [National Television Council]). Establish a national observatory of cultural industries. or withdrawal of concessions in radio and television in Mexico. Establish a legal framework that promotes diversity in the audiovisual industry and balances the predominance of entertainment content with informative.cntv. This observatory would have to be integrated of parties in the public and private sector and civil society. 7.

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