You are on page 1of 61

1he IGM In|t|at|ve

Lva|uat|on of the I|rst Þhase (2010-2013)

I|na| report by L|eanor 8rown and Ioanne nemm|ngs

Þub||shed Iu|y 2013










D|sc|a|mer: 1he vlews expressed ln Lhls reporL represenL Lhose of Lhe auLhors, and noL
necessarlly Lhose of Lhe varlous organlsaLlons LhaL supporLed Lhe work.

































Contact:
Lleanor 8rown, Pead of uk Þrogrammes
e.brown[opLlons.co.uk
CpLlons uk
uevon Pouse
38 SL. kaLherlne's Way
London L1W1L8
+44 (0)20 7430 1900
www.opLlons.co.uk/uk


About the funders
Lsmóe Ia|rba|rn Ioundat|on alms Lo lmprove Lhe quallLy of llfe for people and communlLles
LhroughouL Lhe uk boLh now and ln Lhe fuLure. We do Lhls by fundlng Lhe charlLable work of
organlsaLlons wlLh Lhe ldeas and ablllLy Lo achleve poslLlve change.

1he loundaLlon ls one of Lhe largesL lndependenL granL-makers ln Lhe uk. We make granLs of £30 -
£33 mllllon annually Lowards a wlde range of work wlLhln Lhe arLs, educaLlon and learnlng, Lhe
envlronmenL, and soclal change. We also operaLe a £21 mllllon llnance lund whlch lnvesLs ln
organlsaLlons LhaL alm Lo dellver boLh a flnanclal reLurn and a soclal beneflL.
www.esmeefalrbalrn.org.uk

1rust for London ls Lhe largesL lndependenL charlLable foundaLlon Lackllng poverLy and lnequallLy ln
Lhe caplLal. lL supporLs work provldlng greaLer lnslghLs lnLo Lhe rooL causes of London's soclal
problems and how Lhey can be overcome, acLlvlLles LhaL help people lmprove Lhelr llves, and work
empowerlng Londoners Lo lnfluence and change pollcy, pracLlce and publlc aLLlLudes.

Annually lL provldes around £7 mllllon ln granLs, and aL any one polnL lL ls supporLlng some 400
volunLary and communlLy organlsaLlons. LsLabllshed ln 1891, lL was formerly known as ClLy Þarochlal
loundaLlon. www.LrusLforlondon.org.uk

kosa, the Uk Iund for women and g|r|s ls Lhe flrsL uk-wlde fund for pro[ecLs worklng wlLh women
and glrls. 8osa's vlslon ls of equallLy and soclal [usLlce for women and glrls and a socleLy ln whlch Lhey:
• are safe and free from fear and vlolence,
• achleve economlc [usLlce,
• en[oy good healLh and wellbelng,
• have an equal volce.

8osa wlll achleve Lhls by champlonlng women and glrls, ralslng and dlsLrlbuLlng new funds and
lnfluenclng change. www.rosauk.org

About the eva|uators
Cpt|ons Uk ls Lhe uk programme of CpLlons ConsulLancy Servlces LLd, a leadlng lnLernaLlonal
provlder of Lechnlcal asslsLance, consulLancy, and managemenL servlces ln Lhe healLh and soclal
secLors. CpLlons uk was launched ln early 2006 Lo provlde Lechnlcal experLlse Lo servlce provlders,
pollcy makers, and commlssloners ln Lhe uk. Worklng wlLh Lhe nPS, local auLhorlLles and 1hlrd SecLor
organlsaLlons, Lhe mulLldlsclpllnary CpLlons uk Leam provldes fresh, lnnovaLlve, and pracLlcal advlce,
supporL, and soluLlons Lo provlders and commlssloners of healLh and soclal care servlces.

1o learn more abouL CpLlons uk, vlslL www.opLlons.co.uk/uk. 1he ÞLL8 approach ls a speclallsm of
CpLlons, developed ln collaboraLlon wlLh academlcs aL Lhe unlverslLy of Swansea. lor more
lnformaLlon abouL ÞLL8 conLacL peer[opLlons.co.uk or see www.opLlons.co.uk/peer.




Contents

loreword ................................................................................................................................... 6

LxecuLlve Summary ................................................................................................................... 7

1. lnLroducLlon .............................................................................................................. 11

2. 8esulLs ....................................................................................................................... 13
2.1 ConLexLual/8ackground lacLors AffecLlng Lhe lnlLlaLlve ................................... 13
2.2 SLakeholder vlews on Approaches Lo 1ackllng lCM ln Lhe uk ......................... 13
2.3 Þrogress AgalnsL Þrogramme-level Cb[ecLlves ................................................. 17
2.4 Þrogress AgalnsL Þro[ecL-level CuLcomes ......................................................... 28

3 Concluslons ............................................................................................................... 43
3.1 Summary of llndlngs ......................................................................................... 43
3.2 lmpllcaLlons and 8ecommendaLlons ................................................................. 46

4 Annexes ..................................................................................................................... 49
Annex 1. Þro[ecL Summarles ............................................................................................. 49
Annex 2. 8ellefs Lo 8elnforce, 8ellefs Lo Change ................. Lrror! 8ookmark not def|ned.





3

Acronyms

AAl Afrlca Advocacy loundaLlon
8AWSC 8lack AssoclaLlon of Women SLep CuL
8ML 8lack and MlnorlLy LLhnlc
8SC 8rlLlsh Somall CommunlLy
8SCA 8olLon SolldarlLy CommunlLy AssoclaLlon
8SWAlu 8lrmlngham and Sollhull Women's Ald
8WPAlS 8lack Women's PealLh and lamlly SupporL
C8C CommunlLy-based CrganlsaLlon
CCC Cllnlcal Commlsslonlng Croup
uP ueparLmenL of PealLh
lCM lemale CenlLal MuLllaLlon
lC8WA8u loundaLlon for Women's PealLh, 8esearch and uevelopmenL
CSWC Cranby Somall Women's Croup
Plv Puman lmmunodeflclency vlrus
luvA lndependenL uomesLlc vlolence Advlsor
M&L MonlLorlng and LvaluaLlon
nSÞCC naLlonal SocleLy for Lhe ÞrevenLlon of CruelLy Lo Chlldren
ClS1Lu Cfflce for SLandards ln LducaLlon, Chlldren's Servlces and Skllls
CSCA Ccean Somall CommunlLy AssoclaLlon
ÞC1 Þrlmary Care 1rusL
ÞLL8 ÞarLlclpaLory LLhnographlc LvaluaLlon and 8esearch
ÞSPL Þersonal, Soclal, PealLh and Lconomlc LducaLlon
SCA SouLhall CommunlLy Alllance
SuS Somall uevelopmenL Servlces
vAWC vlolence agalnsL Women and Clrls




6

Ioreword

When Lhe ldea of lnvesLlng ln communlLy-based work Lo Lackle lemale CenlLal MuLllaLlon
(lCM) was flrsL dlscussed ln early 2010 Lhere was llLLle aLLenLlon glven Lo Lhe sub[ecL by
CovernmenL or Lhe medla. As a group of lndependenL funders, many of us were already
fundlng small buL dedlcaLed groups who had been campalgnlng on Lhe lssue for many years.
1hey were Lelllng us LhaL slnce Lhe updaLed leglslaLlon ln 2003, lCM was slldlng down Lhe
pollLlcal agenda, and Lhey were concerned LhaL Lhere were sLlll many young glrls aL rlsk ln
Lhe uk.

1he lCM lnlLlaLlve was launched ln Lhe Pouse of Lords, hosLed by 8aroness 8uLh 8endell, a
long-Llme campalgner on Lhe lssue, and 13 groups were funded Lo develop communlLy-
based pro[ecLs ln varlous locaLlons across Lngland and Wales. Alongslde Lhe £1mllllon
lnvesLmenL, an exLernal evaluaLlon was commlssloned, so LhaL Lhe groups could be
supporLed Lo capLure evldence of Lhe dlfference Lhey were maklng, and also Lo share Lhe
learnlng wlLh oLhers.

1hls reporL provldes slgnlflcanL evldence of Lhe progress whlch communlLy-based prevenLlon
work has made over Lhree years, buL also hlghllghLs Lhe remalnlng challenges and makes a
number of recommendaLlons for lmprovemenLs.

1he key message of Lhe evaluaLlon ls LhaL lnvesLlng ln communlLy-based work wlLhln
affecLed communlLles ls powerful and effecLlve, noL leasL because Lhe advocaLes are LrusLed
whlch means Lhe messages Lhey convey abouL lCM are more llkely Lo be llsLened Lo. 8uL Lhe
responslblllLy does noL solely lle wlLh Lhem, sLaLuLory bodles need Lo become more
proacLlve ln Lhelr response Lo proLecLlng glrls and young women aL rlsk, and an lnLegraLed
approach whlch means LhaL responslble agencles worklng alongslde communlLy groups ls
Lhe mosL effecLlve way of addresslng Lhe lssue.

1he reporL also provldes useful lnformaLlon abouL whaL works, wlLh a number of case
sLudles lllusLraLlng Lhe pracLlcal work LhaL has been underLaken, whlch oLhers can learn
from. As Lhe lnlLlaLlve moves forward Lo Lhe nexL phase, Comlc 8ellef's lnvesLmenL of
£330,000 for a small granLs programme Lo exLend Lhe reach of Lhls lmporLanL work boLh
geographlcally and wlLh a broader range of communlLles, ls very much welcomed. 1hls wlll
help Lo bulld an even sLronger neLwork of dedlcaLed campalgners, many of whom Lake
personal rlsks Lo hlghllghL Lhe lssues, and bulld Lhe momenLum Lo end lemale CenlLal
MuLllaLlon ln Lhe uk once and for all.

!"##$% '"()%* +',
Cha|r of the IGM In|t|at|ve Adv|sory Group



7

Lxecut|ve Summary

Introduct|on
1he alm of Lhe lemale CenlLal MuLllaLlon (lCM) lnlLlaLlve ls Lo safeguard chlldren from lCM,
Lhrough communlLy-based prevenLlve work. 1hls uk-wlde lnlLlaLlve was esLabllshed by Lhree
lndependenL charlLable organlsaLlons: 1rusL for London, Lhe Lsmee lalrbalrn loundaLlon and
8osa, Lhe uk lund for Women and Clrls. 1he flrsL phase of Lhe lnlLlaLlve lnvesLed
approxlmaLely £1 mllllon ln communlLy-based organlsaLlons across Lhe uk over a Lhree-year
perlod (2010-2012). 1he second phase sLarLed ln 2013 and wlll lasL for anoLher Lhree years.
1hls ls Lhe summary of an lndependenL evaluaLlon, conducLed by CpLlons uk.

key I|nd|ngs
1. Where communlLy-based prevenLlve work ls Laklng place, re[ecLlon of lCM has
lncreased.
2. lunded pro[ecLs have lncreased undersLandlng of whaL works ln Lackllng lCM ln Lhe
uk (learnlng ls summarlsed on page 3).
3. Worklng wlLh younger women Lo empower Lhem Lo speak ouL and make declslons
has been more effecLlve Lhan Lrylng Lo change Lhe ofLen deeply enLrenched oplnlons
of older people.
4. 1he argumenLs used by funded groups agalnsL lCM are maLurlng and becomlng
more sophlsLlcaLed. 1hls has resulLed from funded pro[ecLs sparklng necessary
dlscusslons and debaLe abouL lCM, ln a culLurally senslLlve and grounded way.
Þro[ecLs recognlse Lhe rlsk of legal messages soundlng punlLlve and LhreaLenlng, and
have worked Lo develop undersLandlng of lCM as a form of chlld abuse.
3. Awareness of lCM ls rlslng, and dlscusslons abouL lCM are Laklng place more
frequenLly, boLh aL communlLy level ln pro[ecL areas, and ln naLlonal pollcy clrcles.
1he lnlLlaLlve has made a valuable conLrlbuLlon Lo lncreaslng Lhe number of safe
publlc and prlvaLe spaces ln whlch Lo dlscuss lCM ln an lnformed and balanced way.
6. Þro[ecLs have broughL LogeLher male and female rellglous leaders and scholars of
dlfferenL falLhs Lo confronL mlsconcepLlons abouL llnks beLween rellglon and lCM.
1here are now clear examples of rellglous leaders dlsmlsslng Lhe percelved rellglous
basls for cerLaln forms of lCM.
7. 1here ls mounLlng supporL wlLhln affecLed communlLles for a more lnLervenLlonlsL
sLance Lo be Laken by Lhe uk auLhorlLles agalnsL lCM.
8. lCM prevenLlon requlres mulLlple sLakeholders - lncludlng communlLy groups -
worklng LogeLher aL local level, malnsLreamlng lCM under vlolence agalnsL women
and glrls or safeguardlng sLraLegles.
9. CommunlLy groups have a valuable role ln comprehenslve responses Lo lCM. 1hey
have supporLed women's access Lo speclallsL care, acLed as lnLermedlarles wlLh
soclal care professlonals ln cases of glrls aL rlsk, dlssemlnaLed lnformaLlon ln schools,
and provlded Lralnlng Lo healLh and oLher professlonals.
10. 1he lnlLlaLlve has helped Lo bulld a sLronger neLwork of communlLy organlsaLlons
Lackllng lCM wlLh lncreased confldence and sklll. 1he Þan-London lCM lorum has
lobbled on naLlonal pollcy lssues, and Lhe funders and Advlsory Croup members
have conLrlbuLed key sLraLeglc acLlons Lo supporL Lhe work of pro[ecLs.
8


Cha||enges
1. 1here ls no effecLlve naLlonal pollcy on Lhe role of local auLhorlLles ln Lackllng lCM.
WlLhouL Lhls, funded groups flnd lL dlfflculL Lo advocaLe for a comprehenslve
response Lo lCM, lf Lhe lssue ls noL already on Lhelr local auLhorlLy's agenda.
2. Some people wlLhln affecLed communlLles conLlnue Lo supporL lCM, whlch Lhey llnk
Lo Lhelr culLural herlLage and/or conLrol of female sexuallLy. SupporL for less severe
forms of lCM ls sLlll also reporLed.
3. 'Speaklng ouL' wlLhln communlLles sLlll carrles rlsks, and requlres senslLlvlLy,
safeguards and a long-Lerm approach.
4. AlLhough Lhere are examples of promlslng pracLlce (e.g. 8rlsLol), local sLaLuLory
responses Lo lCM prevenLlon are largely paLchy and lnadequaLe, and do noL reflecL
local levels of need. AlLhough mosL pro[ecL areas had pollcles ln place, Lhey were noL
always LranslaLed lnLo concreLe acLlons, e.g. Lralnlng soclal care/healLh professlonals
ln lssues relaLlng Lo lCM.
3. CovernmenL cuL-backs, decenLrallsaLlon and re-organlsaLlon have all lmpacLed on
pro[ecLs' sLraLeglc relaLlonshlps. AlLhough Lhe new commlsslonlng landscape may
provlde opporLunlLles for pro[ecLs, Lhere ls llkely Lo be lncreased compeLlLlon for
scarce resources ln fuLure, whlch may make relaLlonshlp-bulldlng harder sLlll.
6. AlLhough Lhere have been some successes, mosL pro[ecLs faced reslsLance when
Lrylng Lo work ln schools. Many schools sald LhaL Lhey dld noL wanL Lo address Lhe
lssue for fear of sLlgmaLlslng cerLaln groups.
7. ln less dlverse seLLlngs, Lhere was a percelved rlsk LhaL dlscusslng lCM could
conLrlbuLe Lo sLlgmaLlsaLlon of parLlcular eLhnlc groups. 1hls creaLed challenges for
groups conducLlng prevenLlon work.
8. Some fronLllne sLaff, lncludlng Leachlng, soclal work and healLh professlonals, lack
Lhe confldence and/or skllls Lo respond adequaLely, or Lo acL proacLlvely, ln relaLlon
Lo lCM. Some are afrald Lo ralse Lhe lssue for fear of appearlng dlscrlmlnaLory.

What Works: 1ack||ng IGM at the Grassroots, Commun|ty Leve|
uurlng Lhe flrsL phase of Lhe lnlLlaLlve, Lhe followlng promlslng approaches Lo Lackllng lCM
aL Lhe communlLy level were developed:
• Incorporat|ng IGM |nto other messages, lncludlng a wlder range of healLh lssues
(e.g. sexual healLh, menLal healLh), and Lhe law. Lxcluslve focus on lCM can feel
LhreaLenlng for people who are unaccusLomed Lo Lalklng abouL lCM or can lead Lo
people feellng fed up of dlscusslng Lhe lssue. lnvlLlng healLh professlonals Lo
conLrlbuLe Lo Lhese sesslons has proved helpful for many pro[ecLs.
• Þrov|d|ng safe spaces Lo dlscuss lCM and relaLed lssues, where all oplnlons are
heard ln confldence (wlLhln an approprlaLe safeguardlng framework: any
lnformaLlon regardlng a chlld who may be aL rlsk of lCM musL be reporLed Lo Lhe
approprlaLe auLhorlLles).
• Work|ng w|th re||g|ous |eaders, addresslng rellglous [usLlflcaLlons for lCM.
• Work|ng w|th young peop|e (ofLen young women) uslng a r|ghts-based approach.
• 8ecrulLlng, Lralnlng and supporLlng Commun|ty Champ|ons or Advocates Lo moblllse
communlLy re[ecLlon of lCM and lncrease Lhe reach of prevenLlon acLlvlLles.
9

• Avoldlng assoclaLlng lCM wlLh a s|ng|e ethn|c]re||g|ous group ln publlc seLLlngs.
• Worklng wlLh m|xed groups (dlfferenL ages, eLhnlclLles, or genders) helps Lo counLer
vlews of lCM as an lmmuLable pracLlce.
• use of performance and v|sua|]mu|t|-med|a. ueveloplng dramas and fllms has
successfully engaged young people ln Lhelr producLlon, and Lhe flnal audlence ln
explorlng lssues relaLlng Lo lCM.
• 8eachlng ouL Lo d|verse commun|t|es (raLher Lhan worklng wlLh Lhe exlsLlng cllenL
base of a C8C).
• Þartner|ng w|th front||ne hea|th workers Lo supporL women affecLed by lCM ln
cllnlcal seLLlngs.

kecommendat|ons
Notloool leoJetsblp
1. A clear naLlonal pollcy on lCM should be a prlorlLy for governmenL, addresslng:
• SLandards for how local auLhorlLles should engage wlLh communlLy groups
Lo respond Lo local needs.
• MandaLory Lralnlng ln lCM for approprlaLe professlonals.
• Pow Lhe performance of local areas ln response Lo naLlonal guldance wlll be
managed and monlLored.
2. AlLhough Lhere ls rlslng awareness of lCM ln naLlonal pollcy clrcles, Lhls needs Lo be
LranslaLed lnLo concreLe acLlons. 1hls musL lnclude fundlng prevenLlon sLraLegles,
and addresslng Lhe demand Lo brlng abouL a prosecuLlon under lCM leglslaLlon.
3. A number of promlslng naLlonal lnlLlaLlves have been launched (lncludlng Lhe MulLl-
agency Culdellnes on lCM and PealLh ÞassporL). Powever, aLLenLlon and resources
need Lo be commlLLed Lo lmplemenLaLlon and follow up Lo ensure Lhey have an
lmpacL. 8ulldlng sLronger relaLlonshlps wlLh communlLy groups, Lo roll ouL such
lnlLlaLlves, ls recommended.

A co-otJlooteJ, loteqtoteJ, ooJ tesootceJ locol tespoose
1. lCM prevenLlon aL a local level needs Lo be co-ordlnaLed and lnLegraLed. vlolence
agalnsL women and glrls and safeguardlng frameworks are boLh useful for Lhls.
MulLlple sLakeholders, lncludlng sLaLuLory agencles and communlLy groups, should
work LogeLher Lo ldenLlfy local needs and lmplemenL approprlaLe prevenLlon
sLraLegles (e.g. Lhrough Lhe local !olnL SLraLeglc needs AssessmenL (!SnA)). A focal
person Lo coordlnaLe and champlon Lhe cause - e.g. from wlLhln mldwlfery servlces
or prlmary care - ls lmporLanL.
2. CommunlLy groups can play a cenLral role ln helplng sLaLuLory agencles Lo dellver
Lhelr safeguardlng obllgaLlons ln Lerms of proLecLlng chlldren from lCM. Powever,
Lhey need Lo be:
• SlgnlflcanLly beLLer resourced.
• SupporLed Lo ensure Lhey have Lhe relevanL skllls.
• ConnecLed wlLh local agencles for coordlnaLlon and susLalnablllLy.
• lnvlLed Lo parLlclpaLe meanlngfully ln plannlng and commlsslonlng cycles.
LxlsLlng models ln healLh (e.g. Plv prevenLlon) show how Lhls can be done.
10

3. 1here should be proacLlve aLLempLs Lo reach new arrlvals Lo Lhe uk wlLh lCM
prevenLlon efforLs. CommunlLy groups can also conLrlbuLe Lo Lhls, for lnsLance, by
developlng lnformaLlon abouL lCM Lo lnclude ln packages of supporL Lo new
arrlvals.
4. Þrofesslonals should seek ouL supporL and advlce from approprlaLe communlLy
groups Lo help Lhem bulld Lhelr confldence Lo work on lssues relaLed Lo lCM.
3. Schools should be encouraged Lo address Lhe lssue of lCM, and should seek ouL
approprlaLe communlLy groups LhaL can help Lhem ralse Lhe lssue senslLlvely.
6. CurrenL resourclng for lCM prevenLlon does noL always maLch need. ln Lhe absence
of rellable prevalence daLa, local areas can work wlLh communlLy groups and
analyse exlsLlng daLa Lo see wheLher Lhere are affecLed populaLlons ln Lhelr area,
and declde how besL Lo reach Lhem.

5tteoqtbeoloq commoolty qtoops ooJ tbelt pteveotloo effotts
1. AccredlLaLlon for communlLy groups, demonsLraLlng an approprlaLe level of Lralnlng
and quallLy ln Lhelr lCM-relaLed work, would be useful ln Lerms of helplng local
auLhorlLles Lo ldenLlfy groups Lo parLner wlLh on lCM prevenLlon. CuallLy sLandards
for Lhlrd-secLor groups worklng on harmful pracLlces are currenLly belng plloLed by
lmkaan and could be adopLed.
2. Worklng wlLh volunLeers requlres careful resourclng, ln Lerms of Lralnlng, monlLorlng
and supporLlng Lhem, parLlcularly Lo ensure LhaL Lhey are meeLlng Lhelr safeguardlng
obllgaLlons.
3. Þerlodlc re-engagemenL wlLh rellglous leaders wlll be requlred Lo ensure Lhe
lmporLanL messages LhaL Lhey have communlcaLed remaln relevanL and fresh.
4. Croups ln less dlverse seLLlngs should be supporLed Lo neLwork more wldely, for
lncreased confldence and skllls, or Lo [oln forces wlLh oLher groups ln Lhelr area for a
sLronger volce.
3. All pro[ecL workers and volunLeers should be provlded wlLh approprlaLe Lralnlng so
LhaL Lhey can effecLlvely supporL safeguardlng agencles ln Lhe conLexL of lCM-
relaLed work.


11

1. Introduct|on

´Ooe qtooJmotbet stoteJ, ´My CoJ, l bove oevet beeo oskeJ tooqbet poestloos ooJ boJ to
jostlfy wby tbls ls my coltote. l ooJetstooJ tbe ptoblems lt btloqs ooJ l koow tbot my
qtooJJooqbtet wlll oot be pott of tbls ttoJltloo, bot lt ls soJ to see wbot l qtew op bellevloq lo
leove me, wbot wlll we Jo oow?´ 1be lofloeoce ptoJoceJ ot tbls eveot wos o Jlffeteot type of
lofloeoce, oot ooe otqoeJ ottlcolotely by ootslJets wbo boJ oevet boJ lCM petfotmeJ oo
tbem, bot otqoeJ by tbose wltblo tbe commoolty offecteJ most by tbls type of ptoctlce ooJ
lts cootloootloo´
1


1he alm of Lhe lemole Ceoltol Motllotloo loltlotlve ls Lo safeguard chlldren from female
genlLal muLllaLlon (lCM, see 8ox 1) Lhrough communlLy-based, prevenLlve work. 1hls uk-
wlde lnlLlaLlve was esLabllshed by Lhree lndependenL charlLable organlsaLlons: 1rusL for
London, Lhe Lsmee lalrbalrn loundaLlon and 8osa (Lhe uk lund for Women and Clrls). 1he
flrsL phase of Lhe lnlLlaLlve lnvesLed approxlmaLely £1 mllllon ln fourLeen organlsaLlons
across Lhe uk over a Lhree-year perlod (2010-2012).

1he ptoject-level ouLcomes of Lhese parLlclpaLlng organlsaLlons were:
1. 1o ra|se awareness among affecLed communlLles abouL uk law and Lhe healLh and
psychologlcal rlsks of lCM
2. 1o |ncrease the conf|dence of women, men and young people wlLhln affecLed
communlLles Lo re[ecL Lhls procedure as parL of Lhelr ldenLlLy
3. 1o |ncrease the sk|||s and capac|ty wlLhln affecLed communlLles Lo lnfluence
lndlvlduals, groups, and sLaLuLory agencles
4. 1o strengthen the vo|ce of women and communlLles speaklng ouL agalnsL lCM
3. 1o |mprove co-ord|nat|on of acLlvlLles amongsL volunLary and communlLy groups
and sLaLuLory agencles worklng on Lhls lssue

1he lCM lnlLlaLlve also had Lhe followlng ptoqtomme-level ob[ecLlves:
1. 1o |ncrease awareness of lCM amongsL pollcy-makers, sLaLuLory agencles, affecLed
communlLles and Lhe general publlc ln Lhe uk
2. 1o strengthen the network of communlLy organlsaLlons Lackllng Lhls lssue wlLh
lncreased confldence and sklll
3. 1o |ncrease understand|ng of what works ln Lackllng Lhls lssue wlLhln affecLed
communlLles ln Lhe uk
4. 1o |mprove po||cy and pract|ce as a resulL of learnlng from Lhls lnlLlaLlve

CpLlons uk supporLed Lhe MonlLorlng and LvaluaLlon (M&L) of Lhls lnlLlaLlve. 1he alm of Lhls
evaluaLlon ls Lo assess Lhe exLenL Lo whlch boLh programme and pro[ecL-level ob[ecLlves
have been meL, whllsL hlghllghLlng examples of effecLlve pracLlce and lessons learned.



1
A pro[ecL worker reflecLs aL Lhe end of a dlscusslon sesslon ln Llverpool.
12

1.1 Cverv|ew of IGM In|t|at|ve
1he lCM lnlLlaLlve conslsLed of Lhe followlng lnLerllnked componenLs:
• lourLeen pro[ecLs (Lwelve by Lhe end of phase one) carrylng ouL communlLy-based
prevenLlve work ln Llverpool, LelcesLer, Cardlff, Mlddlesbrough, ManchesLer,
8lrmlngham, 8rlsLol, 8olLon, and slx pro[ecLs ln London (see page 13)
• AcLlvlLles Lo bulld capaclLy and sLrengLhen Lhe neLwork beLween Lhese pro[ecLs,
lncludlng learnlng evenLs and exchange vlslLs beLween pro[ecLs
• 1he formaLlon of an Advlsory Croup Lo advlse on coordlnaLlon, communlcaLlon and
sharlng of learnlng, and Lhe sLraLeglc dlrecLlon of Lhe lCM lnlLlaLlve
• naLlonal level acLlvlLles coordlnaLed by Lhe funders, lncludlng supporL for
communlcaLlons, and advocacy and dlscusslon evenLs
• 8esearch and M&L


8ox 1. 1he four ma|n types of fema|e gen|ta| mut||at|on
2

1he World PealLh CrganlsaLlon classlfles female genlLal muLllaLlon lnLo four ma[or Lypes:
• 1ype 1: CllLorldecLomy: parLlal or LoLal removal of Lhe cllLorls
• 1ype 2: Lxclslon: parLlal or LoLal removal of Lhe cllLorls and Lhe labla mlnora, wlLh or
wlLhouL exclslon of Lhe labla ma[ora
• 1ype 3: lnflbulaLlon: narrowlng of Lhe vaglnal openlng Lhrough Lhe creaLlon of a
coverlng seal. 1he seal ls formed by cuLLlng and reposlLlonlng Lhe lnner, or ouLer,
labla, wlLh or wlLhouL removal of Lhe cllLorls.
• 1ype 4: CLher: all oLher harmful procedures Lo Lhe female genlLalla for non-medlcal
purposes, e.g. prlcklng, plerclng, lnclslng, scraplng and cauLerlslng Lhe genlLal area.



1.2 Methodo|ogy
Several meLhods were used Lo gaLher lnformaLlon for Lhe evaluaLlon:
• 8evlew of Lhe funded pro[ecLs' self-reporLed M&L daLa
• lnLervlews wlLh key sLakeholders (Lhose wlLh a sLraLeglc, operaLlonal or cllnlcal role
relaLed Lo lCM)
• CuallLaLlve ÞarLlclpaLory LLhnographlc LvaluaLlon and 8esearch (ÞLL8) endllne daLa
• 8apld pollcy mapplng
lnLerlm evaluaLlon reporLs (from 2011 and 2012) and Lhe full ÞLL8 base and endllne reporLs
are avallable on Lhe funders' webslLes
3
.

Stakeho|der Interv|ews
SLakeholders were ldenLlfled by lCM lnlLlaLlve pro[ecL leads, ln collaboraLlon wlLh Lhe
evaluaLlon lead. ln addlLlon, sLakeholders wlLh a sLraLeglc/operaLlonal role relaLed Lo lCM ln
local healLh and soclal care agencles ln areas wlLh funded pro[ecLs were conLacLed dlrecLly
by evaluaLors. Powever, few people aL local level (4 ouL of 7 people conLacLed) were wllllng

2
Source: World PealLh CrganlsaLlon, lacL SheeL no 241: lCM
www.who.lnL/medlacenLre/facLsheeLs/fs241/en
3
hLLp://www.LrusLforlondon.org.uk/speclal-lnlLlaLlves/female-genlLal-muLllaLlon-fgm/
hLLp://esmeefalrbalrn.org.uk/whaL-we-fund/ma[or-granLs/female-genlLal-muLllaLlon-speclal-lnlLlaLlve
13

Lo be lnLervlewed. Where sLakeholders (such as Safeguardlng leads) were unresponslve or
decllned Lo be lnLervlewed, furLher lnLervlews wlLh pro[ecL leads ln Lhese areas were
conducLed Lo undersLand barrlers Lo worklng wlLh local sLakeholders. A LoLal of 13 people
were lnLervlewed (see 1able 1), wlLh quesLlons focuslng on Lhe exLenL Lo whlch ptoqtomme-
level ob[ecLlves of Lhe lCM lnlLlaLlve had been meL.

1ab|e 1. Summary of Stakeho|ders Interv|ewed
CrganlsaLlon/level number of lnLervlews
Government Departments 2
London NnS 2
Þo||ce 1
London, |oca| author|ty |eve| 4
Non-London, |oca| author|ty |eve| 3
IGM Advocates 2
Domest|c Abuse Char|ty (non-London) 1
1C1AL 1S

Þro[ect M&L Data
Lach pro[ecL collecLed lLs own M&L daLa uslng a framework Lallored Lo Lhelr acLlvlLles. 1he
followlng approaches Lo daLa collecLlon were Lyplcally employed:
• keeplng records on Lhe number of acLlvlLles carrled ouL, and who parLlclpaLed
• LvaluaLlons/shorL quesLlonnalres for parLlclpanLs, requesLlng feedback on acLlvlLles and
lnformaLlon on Lhelr aLLlLudes Lowards lCM
• Þro[ecL worker reflecLlons/descrlpLlons of acLlvlLles and Lhelr effecLs, and how people ln
Lhe communlLy and oLher sLakeholders have responded Lo Lhe pro[ecL

ÞLLk Data
ÞLL8 ls an eLhnographlc evaluaLlon meLhod whlch uses quallLaLlve research Lo explore
pro[ecL lmpacL
4
. ÞLL8 provldes rlch lnslghLs lnLo aLLlLudes and how Lhey change over Llme,
buL does noL provlde daLa on Lhe prevalence of behavlours or aLLlLudes. CpLlons uk
conducLed Lralnlng for pro[ecL workers on how Lo conducL ÞLL8. Þro[ecL workers Lhen
recrulLed volunLeer communlLy members Lo lnLervlew Lhelr frlends abouL Lhe lmpacL of Lhe
pro[ecL and Lhelr vlews on lCM. 1hls provlded an opporLunlLy Lo assess aLLlLudlnal change
slnce Lhe basellne ÞLL8 exerclses (ln 2010). llndlngs from Lhe ÞLL8 endllne are provlded ln a
separaLe reporL
3
, and have been lnLegraLed lnLo Lhls evaluaLlon reporL.


kap|d Þo||cy Mapp|ng
Local-level pollcles were revlewed ln pro[ecL areas, Lo assess pollcles ln place for lCM and
chlld safeguardlng, and lnLegraLlon of lCM lnLo local vlolence agalnsL Women and Clrls
(vAWC) sLraLegles. ln a few cases, pro[ecL leads ldenLlfled local pollcy-maker leads for

4
ºÞrlce, n and k Pawklns. 8esearchlng sexual and reproducLlve behavlour: a peer eLhnographlc
approach. 5oclol 5cleoce & MeJlcloe 55 (2002) 1J25-1JJ6´. See www.opLlons.co.uk/peer for more
lnformaLlon.
14

furLher ln-depLh lnLervlews Lo assess Lhe lmpacL of funded groups' advocacy on local pollcy-
maklng.

1.3 Structure of the keport
1he evaluaLlon reporL ls presenLed as follows:
• ConLexLual/background facLors affecLlng Lhe lCM lnlLlaLlve
• key lnformanLs' vlews on Lhe mosL effecLlve approach Lo lCM prevenLlon (agalnsL whlch
Lhe lCM lnlLlaLlve's pasL and fuLure dlrecLlon can be assessed)
• 1he exLenL Lo whlch Lhe lCM lnlLlaLlve's ptoqtomme-level ob[ecLlves have been
achleved
• 1he exLenL Lo whlch Lhe lCM lnlLlaLlve's ptoject-level ouLcomes have been achleved
• Concluslons, lmpllcaLlons and recommendaLlons
• Summary of lndlvldual pro[ecL acLlvlLles, progress made, and challenges faced (Annex 1)


Iunded Crgan|sat|ons
S
:
Afrlca Advocacy loundaLlon, London www.a-af.org
8lrmlngham and Sollhull Women's Ald www.bswald.org
8awso, Wales www.bawso.org.uk
8lack Women's PealLh and lamlly SupporL, London www.bwhafs.com
8olLon SolldarlLy CommunlLy AssoclaLlon www.bolLonbsca.com
8rlLlsh Somall CommunlLy, London www.brlLlshsomall.org
lC8WA8u www.forwarduk.org.uk
Cranby Somall Women's Croup, Llverpool www.granbysomallwomensgroup.org
Manor Cardens CenLre, London www.manorgardenscenLre.org
Ccean Somall CommunlLy AssoclaLlon, London www.oceansomall.org.uk
Somall uevelopmenL Servlces, LelcesLer www.sds-lLd.org
SouLhall CommunlLy Alllance, London hLLp://souLhallcommunlLyalllance.org/





3
Sudanese Women's AssoclaLlon (Camden) and Women's PealLh and CulLural CrganlsaLlon
(Mlddlesbrough) were also funded for a llmlLed perlod. 1he ouLcomes of Lhelr work are lncluded ln
Lhe llrsL lnLerlm 8eporL (CcLober 2011) www.LrusLforlondon.org.uk/lCM°20lnLerlm°208eporL.pdf
13

2. kesu|ts

2.1 Contextua|]8ackground Iactors Affect|ng the In|t|at|ve
Several facLors had cross-cuLLlng lnfluence on Lhe lmpacL and sLraLeglc dlrecLlon of Lhe lCM
lnlLlaLlve. 1hese should be consldered ln any analysls of Lhe susLalnablllLy of lCM
prevenLlon. 1hey lnclude:

a) Auster|ty - Lhls has affecLed fundlng for enLlLles responslble for malnsLreamlng lCM
prevenLlon, lncludlng local Safeguardlng boards.
b) Iund|ng]comm|ss|on|ng - ln general, Lhere has been a sLrong move away from local
auLhorlLles fundlng slngle eLhnlc group Lhlrd secLor organlsaLlons, Lowards more
'general' 8lack and MlnorlLy LLhnlc (8ML) and healLh organlsaLlons, ln order Lo
address healLh lnequallLles.
c) ke-organ|sat|on w|th|n the |oca| NnS - whlch ln some areas has resulLed ln greaLer
avallablllLy of fundlng for lCM prevenLlon (for lnsLance, Lhrough Lhe Cllnlcal
Commlsslonlng Croups (CCCs)), buL ln mosL areas has resulLed ln lack of
engagemenL and responslveness from local pollcy-makers and commlssloners whose
remlL ls Lo assess local healLh and soclal care needs.
d) Cap|ta|]reg|ona| d|v|des - Lhere appear Lo be sLrong dlvldes (echoed ln Lhe ÞLL8
daLa) beLween Lhe resources and dynamlcs of lCM prevenLlon ln London and oLher
areas of Lhe uk wlLh populaLlons of affecLed communlLles.

2.2 Stakeho|der V|ews on Approaches to 1ack||ng IGM |n the Uk
1hls secLlon reporLs sLakeholder vlews on approaches Lo lCM prevenLlon, deLecLlon and
care ln Lhe uk. A consensus among lCM experLs on Lhe mosL effecLlve approach emerged
from lnLervlews, whlch provldes a framework agalnsL whlch Lhe pasL and fuLure dlrecLlon of
Lhe lCM lnlLlaLlve can be dlscussed. An lnLegraLed approach Lo Lackllng lCM - lncorporaLlng
Lhe efforLs of mulLlple parLners lncludlng communlLles, safeguardlng chlldren speclallsLs, and
cllnlcal servlces - ls lncreaslngly belng promoLed.

SLakeholders descrlbed Lhree maln approaches whlch currenLly exlsL aL local level ln Lhe uk
Lo respond Lo Lhe healLh, soclal proLecLlon and legal lssues ralsed by lCM:
• lnLegraLlon lnLo ch||d protect|on]safeguard|ng (see 8ox 1, Lhe '8rlsLol Model')
• lnLegraLlon lnLo VAWG sLraLegles (8ox 2)
• Þrovldlng c||n|ca| (speclallsL gynaecologlcal/obsLeLrlcs) servlces

16


8ox 1. 1he '8r|sto| Mode|'
8rlsLol's Þrlmary Care 1rusL (ÞC1) has led Lhe clLy's focus on lCM. A mulLl-sLakeholder group,
lncludlng represenLaLlves from Lhe healLh, pollce and Lhlrd secLors, has focused on malnsLreamlng
lCM prevenLlon as a chlld proLecLlon lssue. 1he ÞC1 has funded Lhree maln communlLy groups (from
dlfferenL eLhnlc communlLles, so LhaL messages agalnsL lCM are noL overly assoclaLed wlLh a slngle
eLhnlc group, whlch can be sLlgmaLlslng) Lo carry ouL lCM prevenLlon work, whlch has lncluded
ralslng awareness of Lhe legal and healLh lmpllcaLlons of lCM. 1he lncorporaLlon of lCM prevenLlon
lnLo chlld proLecLlon has bolsLered supporL from fronLllne agencles, and vlslble communlLy supporL
has lncreased. 1he local CCCs conLlnue Lo be lnLeresLed ln fundlng fuLure lCM prevenLlon efforLs.

Lxperlenced lCM campalgners - boLh ln sLakeholder lnLervlews and durlng dlscusslon
forums LhaL have Laken place under Lhls lnlLlaLlve
6
- argue LhaL Lhe 8rlsLol Model represenLs
Lhe mosL comprehenslve and lnLegraLed model, and should be applled ln areas wlLh
populaLlons affecLed by lCM. lL enLalls a hlgh level of coordlnaLlon beLween agencles
responslble for prevenLlng, deLecLlng, referrlng and carlng for women and glrls affecLed by
lCM. 1hls level of response ls resource-lnLenslve. Powever, lL has been effecLlve due Lo lLs
sLewardshlp by Lhe (former) ÞC1 and cllnlcal champlons wlLhln Lhe healLh sysLem.

8ox 2. 1he VAWG Mode|
1hls model can be lllusLraLed by recenL acLlvlLles ln Lhe London 8orough of LambeLh. 1he local
auLhorlLy lead for vAWC selecLed elghL sLrands Lo focus on ln Lhelr vAWC sLraLegy. An lnlLlaLlve-
funded pro[ecL lobbled for lLs lncluslon ln Lhe sLraLegy. lCM ls now dlscussed ln mulLl-sLakeholder
meeLlngs, whlch lnclude represenLaLlves from healLh, Lhe local auLhorlLy, soclal care and pollce. 1he
local auLhorlLy has funded a 'one sLop shop' servlce for women affecLed by vlolence. lronL-llne sLaff
screen all women aLLendlng servlces for lCM. 1hey have also funded empowermenL Lralnlng for a
small group of women from affecLed communlLles, who are Laklng anLl-lCM messages back Lo Lhelr
communlLles.

MalnsLreamlng lCM under vAWC efforLs has also sLarLed Lo Lake place ln many of Lhe lCM
lnlLlaLlve areas, such as 8lrmlngham and lsllngLon. Þro[ecLs whlch frame Lhelr work wlLhln a
vAWC approach come lnLo frequenL conLacL wlLh local healLh and soclal care agencles, and
have developed sLraLeglc llnks wlLh safeguardlng boards. 1hls model dlffers from Lhe 8rlsLol
Model ln Lerms of whlch agency leads, buL Lhere are many slmllarlLles:
• A mulLl-secLoral response, brlnglng LogeLher leads from dlfferenL secLors and
fronLllne professlonals Lo dlscuss lCM prevenLlon
• A named llalson person Lo coordlnaLe efforLs
• SLrong leadershlp and coordlnaLlon
• Worklng wlLh - and resourclng - local communlLy groups as parLners ln prevenLlon

SLakeholders acknowledge Lhe lmporLance of speclallsL obsLeLrlcs servlces. ÞrevenLlon and
care of women who have experlenced lCM are relaLed, as women may vlew lCM-relaLed
compllcaLlons as ´ootmol womeo´s ptoblems´
7
unLll Lhey access cllnlcal care. SpeclallsL
maLernlLy servlces provlde an opporLunlLy Lo engage wlLh women who may be moLhers Lo

6
See www.LrusLforlondon.org.uk/lCM.pdf
7
CuoLaLlon from endllne ÞLL8 research
17

glrls aL rlsk of lCM. Powever, Lhere ls growlng consensus among lCM campalgners LhaL
alLhough Lhe cllnlcally-focused approach ls Lhe mosL common across Lhe uk, lL ls Loo narrow
Lo prevenL lCM effecLlvely. ln addlLlon, Lhe lnvolvemenL of local communlLy groups ln
prevenLlon ls much less pronounced (e.g. communlLy groups are noL necessarlly lncluded ln
needs assessmenLs and Lhe commlsslonlng cycle).

Some sLakeholders argued LhaL lnLegraLed models, as descrlbed above, are needed for a
Lruly prevenLlve approach, and LhaL Lhls guldance should come from Lhe naLlonal level. As
one local auLhorlLy lead sLaLed, lnLegraLlng lCM under a chlld proLecLlon or vAWC approach
unlocks Lhe resources needed aL a local level for malnsLreamlng prevenLlon.


2.3 Þrogress Aga|nst Þrogramme-|eve| Cb[ect|ves
1hls secLlon dlscusses Lhe ptoqtomme-level ouLcomes of Lhe lCM lnlLlaLlve, ln Lerms of
changes ln pollcy, pracLlce and awareness abouL lCM. 1he ma[orlLy of Lhls secLlon ls based
on lnformaLlon from SLakeholder lnLervlews. ln many cases, lnLervlewees dlscussed lCM
prevenLlon ln general, raLher Lhan Lhe lCM lnlLlaLlve speclflcally. Cb[ecLlves Cne and lour
are reporLed LogeLher, as Lhere ls a clear llnk beLween lncreased awareness among pollcy
makers and sLaLuLory agencles, and lLs LranslaLlon lnLo lmproved pollcy and pracLlce.

2.3.1 Cb[ect|ve 1: Increased awareness of IGM amongst po||cy-makers, statutory
agenc|es, affected commun|t|es and the genera| pub||c |n the Uk "-. Cb[ect|ve 4:
Improved po||cy and pract|ce as a resu|t of |earn|ng from th|s |n|t|at|ve

What Changes nave Cccurred?
1here was consensus among sLakeholders LhaL Lhe vlslblllLy of lCM as an lssue, and acLlons
Laken Lo address lL, have lncreased aL naLlonal level, especlally ln Lhe lasL 18 monLhs.
ÞoslLlve sLeps aL naLlonal and pollcy levels lnclude:
• 8oundLables and an acLlon plan by Lhe offlce of Lhe ulrecLor of Þubllc ÞrosecuLlons
on brlnglng abouL a prosecuLlon for lCM
• AcLlvlLles by Lhe All ÞarllamenLary Croup on lCM (from uecember 2011)
• ln !anuary 2013, Lhe Cfflce for SLandards ln LducaLlon, Chlldren's Servlces and Skllls
(ClS1Lu) announced LhaL lCM prevenLlon efforLs would be lncluded ln Lhelr
lnspecLlon of schools
• 1he recenL Survey of Leachers' aLLlLudes and awareness of lCM (conducLed by Lhe
naLlonal SocleLy for Lhe ÞrevenLlon of CruelLy Lo Chlldren (nSÞCC)
8
)
• lnlLlaLlves led by Lhe Mayor's Cfflce Lo chalr a mulLlple sLakeholder group Lo focus on
lCM prevenLlon (London only)
• locus by Lhe ueparLmenL of PealLh (uP) Lo supporL beLLer recordlng of, and access
Lo, rouLlne healLh servlce daLa Lo obLaln a more robusL esLlmaLe of lCM prevalence
• Þrogress ln developlng an acLlon plan for lmprovlng lCM prosecuLlons by Lhe Crown
ÞrosecuLlon Servlce
9


8
See www.nspcc.org.uk/news-and-vlews/medla-cenLre/press-releases/2013/female-genlLal-
muLllaLlon/nSÞCC-warnlng-Leachers-on-lCM_wdn94822.hLml
18


A few sLakeholders also asserLed LhaL Lhere was a greaLer awareness of Lhe need for
ldenLlflcaLlon and referral of, and care for, glrls and women affecLed by lCM, especlally
wlLhln Lhe healLh secLor and among fronLllne sLaff. 8esources such as PM CovernmenL's
'MulLl-Agency ÞracLlce Culdellnes' on lCM
10
have, ln some areas, garnered commlLmenL
from local pollcy-makers and agencles. 1hose worklng dlrecLly wlLh women affecLed by lCM
(e.g. ln cllnlcal servlces) reporLed a sLrong shlfL ln aLLlLudes Lowards and awareness of lCM.
lor example, Lhey reporLed LhaL women accesslng servlces are less llkely Lo vlew dlscusslng
lCM as lnherenLly wrong, and LhaL fronL-llne healLh workers' confldence ln leadlng
conversaLlons on lCM has lncreased, resulLlng ln beLLer access Lo care for affecLed women.

1here ls also vlslbly more lnLeresL from local 8ML/Afrlcan communlLy organlsaLlons ln
worklng on lCM, and ln several areas, Lhese groups have Laken on lCM as a prlorlLy lssue
wlLh very llLLle fundlng.

1he pollcy mapplng hlghllghLed LhaL ln some areas, especlally where Lhere ls hlgh eLhnlc
dlverslLy and local auLhorlLles Lake an lncluslve approach (such as ln London), lCM has
galned pollcy momenLum, and ls lncluded wlLhln key pollcles and guldance ln all areas where
Lhe lCM lnlLlaLlve has funded pro[ecLs (e.g. Þersonal, Soclal, PealLh and Lconomlc LducaLlon
(ÞSPL) frameworks, Safeguardlng Lralnlng, vAWC sLraLegles). ln abouL half of Lhe areas
where pro[ecLs work, lCM pollcles were already ln exlsLence before Lhe beglnnlng of Lhe
lCM lnlLlaLlve. Cnly one area (Llverpool) nelLher had a speclflc vAWC or lCM pollcy ln
place. ln areas where lCM prevenLlon ls more comprehenslve, lCM professlonal forums
now focus on how Lo operaLlonallse Lhese pollcles.

Þrogramme-|eve| act|v|t|es and ach|evements
1he funders underLook sLraLeglc, one-off evenLs and acLlons Lo underpln Lhe work of Lhe
pro[ecLs, and provlde Lhem wlLh a sLraLeglc advanLage, lncludlng:
- AcLlng as a conLacL polnL for querles from Lhe pollce, medla eLc.
- 1he ?ouLh Conference, whlch was Lhe launch pad for uaughLers of Lve, a
campalgnlng organlsaLlon (whlch showed LhaL by provldlng a small amounL of
resources, and helplng Lo ralse confldence, doors can be opened for young
advocaLes)
- 1he Cpen Space evenL
11
, whlch broughL new acLors Lo Lhe Lable and ralsed lnLeresL
and awareness, sparklng a number of subsequenL acLlons
- Worklng wlLh a communlcaLlons agency Lo develop key messaglng for Lhe pro[ecLs
Lo work wlLh, and provldlng medla Lralnlng Lo some of Lhe funded groups




9
www.cps.gov.uk/news/laLesL_news/female_genlLal_muLllaLlon_acLlon_plan_launched/lndex.hLml
10
See www.gov.uk/governmenL/uploads/sysLem/uploads/aLLachmenL_daLa/flle/97837/lCM.pdf
11
1hls dlscusslon and consensus bulldlng evenL Look place ln !uly 2012
hLLp://esmeefalrbalrn.org.uk/news-and-learnlng/publlcaLlons/whaL-wlll-lL-Lake-Lo-end-fgm-ln-Lhe-uk-
and-how-can-we-work-LogeLher-Lo-achl
19

What L|es 8eh|nd 1hese Changes?
SLakeholders vlewed Lhls progress as largely drlven by a few leadlng advocacy organlsaLlons
(Lhose frequenLly menLloned were LquallLy now, lnLegraLe 8rlsLol, Lhe loundaLlon for
Women's PealLh, 8esearch and uevelopmenL (lC8WA8u) and uaughLers of Lve) and by a
greaLer focus wlLhln Lhe medla. 1here was llmlLed menLlon of lnlLlaLlve-funded pro[ecLs
(oLher Lhan lC8WA8u) as a source of lnfluence aL naLlonal level. Powever, Lhere ls some
evldence of Lhe lCM lnlLlaLlve conLrlbuLlng Lo ralsed awareness and faclllLaLlng advocacy,
pollcy and research developmenLs:
• A number of examples of 'besL pracLlce' communlLy engagemenL and empowermenL
work conducLed by lnlLlaLlve-funded pro[ecLs were recognlsed by sLakeholders.
1hese lncluded work wlLh women's groups ln Cardlff and 8lrmlngham by Lhe 8lack
AssoclaLlon of Women SLep CuL (8AWSC) and 8lrmlngham and Sollhull Women's Ald
(8SWAlu) respecLlvely, and Lhe producLlon of useful resources for reachlng wlder
audlences, such as Lhe play and resulLlng uvu produced by Lhe Ccean Somall
CommunlLy AssoclaLlon (CSCA) (see 8ox 3)
• Þubllc forums, such as Lhe Cpen Space evenL, were hlghllghLed by some
sLakeholders as belng lmporLanL ln brlnglng LogeLher parLners across Lhe medla, and
Lhlrd and sLaLuLory secLors, Lo ralse Lhe lssue of lCM prevenLlon, and reach a clear
consensus on safeguardlng glrls aL rlsk of lCM.
• Some pro[ecLs have lnfluenced lCM prevenLlon procedures ln Lhe sLaLuLory secLor
(see 8ox 2, above, anoLher example ls 8ASWC's conLrlbuLlons Lo Lhe Welsh
CovernmenL's Subgroup on lCM, lorced Marrlage and Pome 8ased vlolence).
• CLhers have Lhus far successfully exerLed pressure for Lhe reLenLlon of speclallsL
cllnlcal servlces and lCM safeguardlng forums (e.g. 8SWAlu).
• 1he lCM lorum ln London (coordlnaLed by Manor Cardens) has successfully
lnfluenced pollcy and pracLlce. lor example, Þro[ecL Azure
12
, a regular member of
Lhe forum, consulLed forum members on Lhe deslgn of Lhelr summer lCM campalgn
ln 2012. 1he forum has also produced a number of campalgnlng leLLers (e.g. on an
acLlon plan Lo ensure Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe mulLl-agency guldellnes, on rlng-
fenclng funds on lCM ln Lhe vAWC agenda and on regulaLlng female genlLal
cosmeLlc surgery).
• Many fronLllne workers ln Lhe healLh and soclal secLors hlghly valued parLnershlps
wlLh lnlLlaLlve-funded pro[ecLs Lo work wlLh people from affecLed communlLles.
Þro[ecLs worked alongslde cllnlcal lCM leads Lo supporL women affecLed by lCM
and Lhelr parLners ln cllnlcs, and some pro[ecL workers parLnered wlLh soclal
workers/lndependenL uomesLlc vlolence Advlsors (luvAs) Lo work wlLh parenLs who
may supporL lCM. 1hese professlonals felL LhaL pro[ecL leads were much beLLer
placed Lhan Lhem Lo challenge lCM as a pracLlce. 1he resulLs from Lhe ÞLL8 daLa
sLrongly supporL Lhls concluslon.




12
1he MeLropollLan Þollce Chlld Abuse lnvesLlgaLlon Command's response Lo Lhe pracLlce of female
genlLal muLllaLlon.
20

8ox 3. 'Muted Cry'
A group of women volunLeers lnvolved wlLh CSCA's work developed a play abouL lCM wlLh a Somall
playwrlghL, LranslaLors, and dlrecLors. All Lhe characLers and sLorles are based on Lrue sLorles LhaL Lhe
women had heard abouL or personally experlenced. 1he resulLlng play, MoteJ cty has been wldely
shown wlLhln Lhe communlLy, and ls used Lo prompL dlscusslon abouL lCM. CSCA also succeeded ln
geLLlng sLrong conLrlbuLlons from Lwo rellglous leaders / scholars who conLrlbuLed Lo Lhe uvu
recordlng of Lhe play. 8esponses have been generally poslLlve:
• ´1be ploy wos vety tbooqbt ptovokloq. 1be Jlscossloo belpeJ wlJeo my koowleJqe lo tetms of
tbe coltotol ospects of lCM.´
• ´1be ploy wos o teollstlc lllosttotloo of tbe tlsk of lCM ooJ Jyoomlcs lo 5omoll commooltles.´

kema|n|ng Cha||enges
Some sLakeholders quesLloned Lhe exLenL Lo whlch enhanced awareness among pollcy
makers ls belng LranslaLed lnLo a sLraLeglc response and Langlble acLlon aL naLlonal and local
levels. Local auLhorlLy leads asserLed LhaL Lhe lncluslon of lCM wlLhln pollcles or procedures
can be LokenlsLlc lf resources are noL allocaLed Lo lL, or sLaff are noL named Lo champlon Lhe
lssue and LranslaLe lL lnLo pracLlce across local governmenL agencles (as per Lhe 8rlsLol
model).

Some key sLakeholders wanLed Lhe lnlLlaLlve Lo conslder Lhe lssue of susLalnablllLy more
carefully. lf, ulLlmaLely, Lhe alm ls for lCM prevenLlon Lo be malnsLreamed lnLo vAWC or
Safeguardlng pollcles - and Lhus be funded by local auLhorlLles - Lhls LranslLlon wlll lnvolve
closer worklng and coordlnaLlon wlLh local auLhorlLles, whlch may requlre greaLer supporL
from Lhe lCM lnlLlaLlve lf Lhe local pollcy envlronmenL ls unfavourable. ln some cases,
sLakeholders who have funded communlLy-based prevenLlon would have llked Lo have
known more abouL lnlLlaLlve-funded pro[ecLs, Lo beLLer lnLegraLe Lhem lnLo Lhelr own
sLraLeglc plans. Powever, slmply placlng lCM under a Safeguardlng or vAWC sLraLegy does
noL consLlLuLe a comprehenslve response. AlLhough local auLhorlLles are lncreaslngly wllllng
Lo lncorporaLe lCM wlLhln Safeguardlng, Lhls has been lnLerpreLed by some lCM advocaLes
as a move away from Lhe need Lo engage wlLh communlLles affecLed by lCM
13
.

MosL pro[ecLs funded by Lhe lnlLlaLlve bove aLLempLed Lo engage wlLh local healLh and soclal
pollcy-makers, buL whlle Lhere ls lncreased awareness of and dlalogue around lCM aL Lhe
naLlonal level, Lhere has been a reducLlon ln opporLunlLles aL local levels for organlsaLlons Lo
exerL lnfluence on lCM pollcy and pracLlce. ln several areas local safeguardlng boards had
sub-groups focuslng on lCM, whlch have now been dlsbanded ln recenL governmenL cuLs
and re-organlsaLlons (Llverpool, LelcesLer). 1he new organlsaLlons LhaL wlll be assesslng
needs and commlsslonlng servlces have only [usL come lnLo exlsLence, and aL Lhe Llme of Lhls
evaluaLlon had noL yeL esLabllshed alLernaLlve mechanlsms.

ln some areas, where lnlLlaLlve-funded pro[ecLs have ldenLlfled a hlgh level of need,
relaLlvely llLLle has resulLed from engagemenL wlLh local pollcy-makers, desplLe resource-

13
See 'lmkaan, LquallLy now and ClLy unlverslLy (2011) 1he Mlsslng Llnk: a [olned up approach Lo
addresslng harmful pracLlces ln London íxecotlve 5ommoty. London: CreaLer London AuLhorlLy'
www.dropbox.com/sh/4zq0[gk4xyez91l/9xvCka3r0P/1he°20Mlsslng°20Llnk°20Lxec°20Summary°
20SepLember°202011.pdf
21

lnLenslve efforLs (mosLly ouLslde London, buL also, for example, ln LasL London). A few
sLakeholders felL LhaL noL all lnlLlaLlve-funded pro[ecLs have Lhe requlslLe skllls Lo engage ln
Lhls sorL of pollcy advocacy. As one sLakeholder commenLed, ´lf tbey ote jost Joloq o blt of
eJocotloo, tbeo Jo we fotce tbem to become pollcy oJvocotes? 1be loltlotlve oeeJs to tblok
wbetbet tbey coo soppott o ceottol qtoop to pot ptessote oo locol ootbotltles.´ ln a few
areas, desplLe Lhe presence of communlLles affecLed by lCM, local pollcy-makers have been
largely unresponslve, buL Lhls may be due Lo local sLraLegles already belng ln place. ln one
area ln London where Lhere has been a lack of response Lo lnlLlaLlve-funded pro[ecLs, for
lnsLance, lCM ls already lncluded ln local safeguardlng pollcles and Lralnlng sLraLegles, buL
anoLher organlsaLlon acLs as a local advocaLe. CrganlsaLlons ouLslde London have Lo work
harder Lo make llnks wlLh sLraLeglc agencles. ln one area, pro[ecL workers asserLed LhaL wlLh
no named person Lo llalse wlLh ln Lhe local councll, advanclng a malnsLreamlng agenda had
become very Llme consumlng: ´uo we Jeol wltb tbe stoff to Jo bete ot Jo we speoJ tlme
bootloq Jowo tbe tlqbt otqoolsotloos?´

A recurrlng Lheme was Lhe lack of clarlLy abouL respecLlve roles of, and llnes of
communlcaLlon beLween, naLlonal and local levels. A few sLakeholders, lncludlng wlLhln
sLaLuLory agencles, wanLed Lo see sLronger llnks beLween naLlonal and local levels ln relaLlon
Lo lCM pollcles and pracLlce. 1hey provlded examples of where naLlonal agencles should
provlde greaLer leadershlp (e.g. holdlng local auLhorlLles Lo accounL for comprehenslve and
well-resourced lCM prevenLlon, and publlshlng naLlonal dlrecLlves Lo gulde local responses).

1he 'PealLh ÞassporL
14
' was quoLed by several sLakeholders as an example of naLlonal level
agencles launchlng an lnLervenLlon wlLh llLLle follow up Lo ensure LhaL local agencles fully
undersLood whaL was expecLed of Lhem. Some sLakeholders wanLed Lo see beLLer dlrecLlon
from Lhe Mayor's Cfflce (London) Lo coordlnaLe and monlLor Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of currenL
pollcy, and provlde dlrecLlon for local auLhorlLles Lo ensure commlLmenL Lo Lackllng lCM.
Llkewlse, lf lnformaLlon from Lhe local level (e.g. abouL barrlers Lo conducLlng lCM
prevenLlon work) were communlcaLed effecLlvely Lo Lhe naLlonal level, Lhls could faclllLaLe a
beLLer response from Lhe naLlonal level Lo address Lhese barrlers. lor lnsLance, lnlLlaLlve-
funded pro[ecLs frequenLly faced barrlers Lo worklng ln schools, ClS1Lu's announcemenL
LhaL Lhey wlll lnspecL lCM prevenLlon acLlvlLles ln schools could now make Lhem more open
Lo worklng wlLh communlLy groups.

Some sLakeholders were crlLlcal of generally slow progress aL local level ln respondlng Lo
lCM. lL was felL, for lnsLance, LhaL efforLs were Loo focused on speclflc areas, such as
lmprovlng Lhe avallablllLy of speclallsL healLh servlces, or brlnglng abouL a prosecuLlon,
resulLlng ln a slloed response.

CuLslde London (wlLh some noLable excepLlons, such as 8rlsLol and Wales), gaps ln lCM
prevenLlon also emerged. Several sLakeholders felL LhaL sLaLuLory and oLher fundlng sources

14
A governmenL sLaLemenL LhaL can be carrled ln a passporL explalnlng LhaL 8rlLlsh resldenLs can face
[all lf Lhey are lnvolved ln arranglng lCM whlle abroad, see
www.gov.uk/governmenL/uploads/sysLem/uploads/aLLachmenL_daLa/flle/118121/lCM-
declaraLlon.pdf
22

were more readlly avallable ln London, LhaL Lhere ls greaLer pollcy focus on lCM ln London,
and LhaL Lhere ls a more dlverse range of vlews on lCM (lncludlng sLrong anLl-lCM volces) ln
Lhe CaplLal. 1hls conLrasLs wlLh relaLlvely lsolaLed, more newly esLabllshed mlgranL/refugee
communlLles ouLslde London, who may adhere more sLrongly Lo Lhelr LradlLlonal values. lL
may also be LhaL ouLslde London, professlonals are less aware of lCM and more relucLanL Lo
lnLervene. lurLhermore, ln areas ouLslde London where eLhnlc groups are more soclally
lsolaLed, lL may be harder for affecLed women Lo demonsLraLe opposlLlon Lo lCM agalnsL
Lhe prevalllng vlews of Lhelr communlLles, for fear of sLlgmaLlslng Lhelr communlLy.

Challenges wlLhln Lhe soclal care response were ldenLlfled by a range of sLakeholders,
lncludlng local auLhorlLy and cllnlcal leads, many of whom dld noL feel confldenL LhaL Lhey
could refer glrls aL rlsk of lCM. 8arrlers lncluded hlgh referral Lhresholds for soclal care
agencles, and fallure Lo Lake lnLo accounL Lhe parLlcular naLure of lCM as a form of vlolence.
ln some cases, soclal workers are reporLed Lo focus on currenL abuse cases, raLher a hlsLorlc
case of lCM: ´lf tbey bove o cbllJ wltb btolses tbey woolJ totbet focos oo tbot tboo oo o
cbllJ wltb lCM Jooe flve yeots oqo."

SLakeholders are also concerned abouL Lhe overall low numbers of speclallsL servlces,
especlally ouLslde London. 8eporLs of women belng de-lnflbulaLed Loo laLe, or durlng labour,
are sLlll Loo common.

Some sLakeholders argued LhaL lCM ls hlghly prevalenL among some eLhnlc groups LhaL
have been overlooked Lo daLe. 1hls corroboraLes daLa from Lhe ÞLL8 research whlch found
LhaL some eLhnlc groups (ln parLlcular, some Somall groups) have reached a sLage of more
vocal opposlLlon, whereas oLhers have noL.

Many sLakeholders commenLed LhaL Lhe fundlng LhaL Lhe lCM lnlLlaLlve has provlded has
been a llfellne for lCM prevenLlon: ´lt ls teolly belploq to floJ o volce fot tbese qtoops ot o
qtosstoots level´ (local auLhorlLy lead, London). Powever, boLh sLaLuLory and Lhlrd secLor
sLakeholders crlLlclsed very low levels of governmenL fundlng for lCM prevenLlon. CenLral
governmenL deparLmenLs may expecL local auLhorlLles Lo assess local needs and fund lCM
prevenLlon accordlngly, buL sLakeholders are largely scepLlcal LhaL Lhls wlll acLually meeL Lhe
currenL need for lCM prevenLlon naLlonally.

1here was very llLLle consensus or clarlLy among sLakeholders on Lhe poLenLlal role of C8Cs
ln lCM prevenLlon, especlally from sLakeholders aL naLlonal/reglonal levels (as opposed Lo
local levels). 1hls ls parLly because commlsslonlng for prevenLlon acLlvlLles ls seen as Lhe
responslblllLy of local sLaLuLory agencles, and parLly because Lhere are relaLlvely few
opporLunlLles for engagemenL of C8Cs ln hlgher level sLraLeglc forums.

2.3.2 Cb[ect|ve 2: A stronger network of commun|ty organ|sat|ons tack||ng th|s |ssue
w|th |ncreased conf|dence and sk|||

1hree neLworks have operaLed Lhrough Lhe lCM lnlLlaLlve: the adv|sory group, whlch
comprlses of pollcy leads, lCM advocaLes and lCM speclallsLs wlLhln Lhe sLaLuLory secLor,
23

th|rd sector organ|sat|ons funded by Lhe lnlLlaLlve Lo lead on communlLy-level lCM
prevenLlon, and Lhe London IGM forum (coordlnaLed by Manor Cardens, whlch was Lhe
largesL non-sLaLuLory secLor forum on lCM ln London).

What Changes nave Cccurred?
llrsLly, several sLakeholders who had parLlclpaLed ln Lhe adv|sory group found Lhls Lo be a
useful parL of Lhe lnlLlaLlve, ln Lerms of sharlng and dlssemlnaLlng lnformaLlon on lCM
prevenLlon acLlvlLles: ´lt´s o vety qooJ woy of floJloq oot wbot´s boppeoloq, pollloq toqetbet
Jlffeteot expetts ooJ look ot tbe lssoes ftom oll ooqles´ (Covetomeot uepottmeot).

ln Lerms of bu||d|ng a network of organ|sat|ons conducLlng communlLy-based prevenLlve
work, a number of examples of lnlLlaLlve-funded pro[ecLs' conLrlbuLlons were dlscussed by
sLakeholders:
• Manor Cardens' role ln coordlnaLlng London-wlde lCM work,
• Llnkages wlLh sLaLuLory agencles ln 8lrmlngham (8SWAlu) and Cardlff (8AWSC).

1he neLwork approach and peer supporL offered Lhrough Lhe lnlLlaLlve were clLed by several
pro[ecL workers as bulldlng Lhelr own confldence ln Lackllng supporL for lCM: ´lt bos meoot
tbot l wos oble to speok to otbet qtoops ooJ meet tbem ooe to ooe, wblcb bos fotmeJ o
wotkloq telotloosblp ooJ o Jeepet ooJetstooJloq of oll tbe wotk tbot bos beeo Jooe
ootlooolly. 1bls bos boJ oo lmpoct oo tbe ptoject lo tetms of qlvloq me lJeos ooJ sbotloq my
qooJ wotk wltb otbets, os well os skllls ooJ tecbolpoes l oeeJ lo ovetcomloq tbe cbolleoqes
ooJ sttoqqles of eJocotloq tbe commoolty oboot tbls Jeep-tooteJ coltote.´ (8olLon SolldarlLy
CommunlLy AssoclaLlon (8SCA))

8elng parL of a neLwork was parLlcularly useful for pro[ecL workers when lL came Lo Lhe lssue
of llnks beLween rellglon and lCM. 1hey found lL useful Lo hear abouL work wlLh rellglous
leaders underLaken by oLher organlsaLlons ln Lhe lnlLlaLlve. Several pro[ecL workers reporLed
LhaL Lhls helped Lhem feel more confldenL abouL approachlng rellglous leaders Lo Lalk abouL
lCM, and pro[ecLs shared maLerlals used Lo Lackle mlsconcepLlons abouL Lhe llnks beLween
lCM and rellglon.

Þro[ecL workers also credlLed Lhe neLwork wlLh sLrengLhenlng Lhe lmpacL of Lhelr work: º1be
foct tbot mooy Jlffeteot ptojects wete opetotloq lo looJoo moJe lt eoslet to pot ptessote oo
stotototy ptofessloools to locloJe lCM lo tbelt sofeqootJloq oqeoJos´ (Manor Cardens).

Learnlng evenLs have provlded an opporLunlLy for pro[ecL workers and volunLeers Lo share
knowledge and lessons learned, elLher ln person on Lhe day, or wlLh follow-up
vlslLs/communlcaLlons. 1hey have also helped Lhem bulld Lhelr skllls ln key areas of Lhelr
work. lor many of Lhe pro[ecLs, Lhe sLaLuLory regulaLlons LhaL Lhey rouLlnely encounLer
Lhrough Lhelr work on lCM have been complex (e.g. Chlld ÞroLecLlon procedures), and Lhe
learnlng and capaclLy-bulldlng approach adopLed by Lhe lnlLlaLlve was hlghly valued: ´1be
most osefol ospect of tbe leotoloq eveots wos qettloq lo expetts lo tbe flelJ, socb os ífoo
uotkeooo ooJ ut. ctelqbtoo, wbo sboteJ tbelt koowleJqe ooJ losplteJ os to cootlooe oot
wotk´ (Mooot CotJeos). ln anoLher example, 8SWAlu found LhaL aLLenLlon from Lhe medla
24

presenLed a blg challenge Lo publlc percepLlons of Lhelr work ln 2012 afLer an alLernaLlve
docLor and a denLlsL were reporLed Lo have expressed wllllngness Lo perform lCM or
arrange for Lhe operaLlon. 8SWAlu recelved a loL of sensaLlonallsL aLLenLlon from Lhe medla,
and found LhaL Lhe Lralnlng from Champolllon, a communlcaLlons agency (whlch was
provlded by Lhe lnlLlaLlve), was exLremely helpful ln deallng wlLh press aLLenLlon.

lormaLs LhaL encouraged pro[ecL workers Lo share experlences or approaches face Lo face
have been more valued Lhan onllne formaLs. 1he knowledge gaLeway has been used as a
llbrary raLher Lhan as a forum for onllne debaLe, and lL may be LhaL formaLs such as emall
newsleLLers would be more approprlaLe for engaglng pro[ecLs ln vlrLual debaLe and learnlng.

kema|n|ng Cha||enges
ln some local forums, naLlonal-level lCM organlsaLlons are presenL and are even named as
'lCM leads', bypasslng local C8Cs. 1hls led Lo some resenLmenL among local pro[ecLs, whlch
could hamper Lhe effecLlveness of Lhe neLwork. 1hls ls compounded by Lhe facL LhaL Lhe
same few organlsaLlons represenLlng affecLed communlLles Lend Lo be lnvlLed Lo naLlonal-
level sLraLeglc forums. 1he role played by Lhese naLlonal-level organlsaLlons reflecLs Lhe
llmlLed spaces ln pollcy-maklng forums and lack of clarlLy abouL Lhe role of C8Cs ln lCM
prevenLlon, raLher Lhan Lhe deslre of parLlcular organlsaLlons Lo domlnaLe. Where
comprehenslve models of lCM prevenLlon are belng rolled ouL (such as ln 8rlsLol), a
neLwork approach across sLakeholder groups ls encouraged, and Lhere ls room for mulLlple
communlLy volces Lo conLrlbuLe.

ulfferenL pro[ecLs wlLhln Lhe lnlLlaLlve have dlfferenL levels of capaclLy and experlence. lL ls
noL always sLralghLforward, Lherefore, Lo plLch Lralnlng aL Lhe approprlaLe level. Powever,
Lhe lnlLlaLlve has provlded Lhe opporLunlLy Lo llnk less experlenced groups wlLh people who
can advlse Lhem, ln a supporLlve aLmosphere, and ln general, Lhe more experlenced groups
have been very enLhuslasLlc abouL sharlng Lhelr knowledge wlLh a wlder neLwork.

A few sLakeholders expressed Lhe need Lo supporL C8Cs furLher ln Lhe followlng areas:
• baslc pro[ecL managemenL and fundralslng skllls
• skllls Lo engage wlLh local healLh and soclal care pollcy-makers, parLlcularly Lo
promoLe malnsLreamlng lCM prevenLlon


2.3.3 Cb[ect|ve 3: Increased understand|ng of what works |n tack||ng th|s |ssue w|th|n
affected commun|t|es |n the Uk

1hls secLlon conslders 'whaL works', and wheLher Lhls knowledge has been effecLlvely
communlcaLed Lo a wlder audlence, ln Lerms of approaches aL Lwo maln levels:
• ÞrevenLlve work aL Lhe grassrooLs, communlLy level
• MalnsLreamlng lCM (worklng wlLh sLaLuLory agencles)

23

8obusL daLa on wheLher parLlcular approaches have had a poslLlve lmpacL on aLLlLudes and
behavlour ls very dlfflculL Lo obLaln. lor Lhe purposes of Lhls evaluaLlon, Lhe followlng proxy
measures are used Lo ldenLlfy wheLher parLlcular approaches 'work':
• Commun|ty |eve|: pro[ecL acLlvlLles are meL wlLh poslLlve response by communlLy,
are well aLLended, are valued by Lhe communlLy (poslLlve feedback), sLlmulaLe
dlscusslon and lnLeresL, are credlLed wlLh caLalyzlng change ln M&L and ÞLL8 daLa,
generaLe a hlgh level of consensus among sLakeholders abouL effecLlveness of
approach
• Ma|nstream|ng: resources are commlLLed Lo lCM, susLalnablllLy of efforLs ls hlgh

What Works: Þrevent|ve Work at Grassroots, Commun|ty Leve|
Þro[ecLs have found LhaL Lhe followlng approaches Lo be effecLlve aL communlLy level:
• lncorporaLlng Lhe lssue of lCM lnLo oLher messages, lncludlng a wlder range of
healLh lssues (e.g. sexual healLh, menLal healLh), and Lhe law. Lxcluslve focus on
lCM can lead Lo people feellng fed up of dlscusslng Lhe lssue, or can appear overly
LhreaLenlng for people who are unaccusLomed Lo Lalklng abouL lCM. lnvlLlng healLh
professlonals Lo conLrlbuLe Lo Lhese sesslons has proved helpful for many pro[ecLs.
• Þrovldlng safe spaces Lo dlscuss lCM and relaLed lssues, where all oplnlons are
heard ln confldence (wlLhln an approprlaLe safeguardlng framework: any
lnformaLlon regardlng a chlld who may be aL rlsk of lCM most be reporLed Lo Lhe
approprlaLe auLhorlLles).
• Worklng wlLh rellglous leaders, and/or addresslng rellglous [usLlflcaLlons for lCM
(8ox 4), parLlcularly when rlghLs-based messages are lnLegraLed.
• Worklng wlLh young people (ofLen young women) uslng a rlghLs-based approach. A
few sLakeholders felL LhaL Lhere should be a flrmer embrace of Lhls approach, whlch
argues for 'zero Lolerance' of all forms of lCM, and LhaL work wlLh oLhers ln Lhe
communlLy - such as older people supporLlve of lCM - was unllkely Lo be effecLlve.
• 8ecrulLlng, Lralnlng and supporLlng CommunlLy Champlons or AdvocaLes Lo moblllse
communlLy re[ecLlon of lCM (see 8ox 3) and scale up Lhe reach of prevenLlon
acLlvlLles
• Avoldlng assoclaLlng lCM wlLh slngle eLhnlc/rellglous groups ln publlc seLLlngs
• Worklng wlLh mlxed groups (mlxed ages, eLhnlclLles, genders) whlch helps Lo
counLer vlews of lCM as an lmmuLable pracLlce
• use of performance and vlsual/mulLl-medla Lo explore lssues relaLlng Lo lCM. lor
lnsLance, developlng dramas and vldeos has been a successful way Lo boLh engage
young people ln Lhe producLlon of Lhese maLerlals, and for Lhe flnal audlence Lo
explore lssues relaLlng Lo lCM (e.g. 8AWSC's parLnershlp wlLh Lhe naLlonal 1heaLre
Wales and young Sudanese people Lo ralse awareness of harmful LradlLlonal
pracLlces llke lCM Lhrough drama)
• 8eachlng ouL Lo dlverse communlLles (raLher Lhan worklng wlLh Lhe exlsLlng cllenL
base of a C8C), see 8ox 6
• ÞarLnerlng wlLh cllnlcal leads Lo supporL women affecLed by lCM


26

8ox 4. Case Study: Work|ng w|th ke||g|ous Leaders
lCM ls commonly belleved by some rellglous leaders and communlLles Lo be sancLloned ln rellglous
LexLs and Leachlngs. 1hls mlsLaken bellef leglLlmlses Lhe pracLlce for many people, and can be a
barrler Lo changlng communlLles' aLLlLudes abouL lCM, even when Lhe healLh rlsks are wldely
undersLood.

ln response Lo Lhls challenge, Lhe Manor Cardens pro[ecL ln London has worked dlrecLly wlLh rellglous
leaders Lo confronL mlsconcepLlons abouL lCM and rellglon. ln 2011, Lhe pro[ecL Leam organlsed a
mulLl-falLh conference ´loltb oqolost lCM´ aL whlch rellglous leaders (lncludlng a Þrofessor of Lhe
Musllm College, a Somall lmam, a member of Lhe Musllm Councll of 8rlLaln, and ChrlsLlan ÞasLors)
spoke abouL Leachlngs on lCM ln Lhelr falLhs. 1hey ldenLlfled a shared message across Lhelr rellglons:
LhaL 'your body ls a Lemple of Cod'. 1he conference was aLLended by 70 people, and recordlngs of Lhe
evenL have been subsequenLly vlewed on ?ou1ube over 600 Llmes. Lncouraglngly, 91° of aLLendanLs
reporLed LhaL Lhelr vlews on Lhe llnks beLween rellglon and lCM had changed Lo some degree as a
resulL of aLLendlng Lhe evenL.

Calnlng Lhe LrusL of rellglous leaders Lo parLlclpaLe ln Lhe conference was a challenge. Þro[ecL workers
sLarLed by ldenLlfylng leaders wlLh Lhe sLrongesL volces wlLhln Lhe communlLles Lhey worked ln,
before esLabllshlng wheLher Lhey would be wllllng Lo parLlclpaLe. 1he Leam carefully researched whaL
lslam, ChrlsLlanlLy and !udalsm say abouL lCM, and lnvesLed Llme formlng relaLlonshlps wlLh
lndlvldual leaders, meeLlng Lhem each ln person before Lhe evenL Lo dlscuss aspecLs of Lhelr falLh.
Þro[ecL workers qulckly reallsed LhaL Lhe maln rlsk was LhaL speakers would noL condemn all Lypes of
lCM aL Lhe evenL. 1he concern was around a dlspuLed PadlLh LhaL has ln Lhe pasL been used Lo
supporL Lhe pracLlce of 1ype 1 lCM. Þro[ecL workers screened parLlclpanLs ln advance, and one of Lhe
programme's advocaLes, who ls hlmself an lmam, prepared a llsL of quesLlons abouL lslam and lCM Lo
check wheLher poLenLlal Musllm parLlclpanLs would condemn all Lypes of lCM. WlLh ChrlsLlan
leaders, Lhe concern was lack of knowledge around Lhe sub[ecL and fear of speaklng publlcly abouL a
Laboo lssue. ln order Lo help leaders overcome Lhelr concerns, pro[ecL workers researched rellglous
documenLs and scholarly LexLs and helped Lhem prepare Lhelr speeches. When leaders felL LhaL Lhey
could noL speak ouL agalnsL lCM ln a publlc forum because of culLural Laboos, Manor Cardens
encouraged Lhem Lo hold evenLs wlLhln Lhelr communlLles.

uesplLe many challenges organlslng Lhe evenL, Þro[ecL Manager PekaLe Þapadakl feels LhaL Lhe
conference was cruclal: ´1be mojotlty of bellevets bove oot stoJleJ tellqloos Jocomeots ooJ most of
wbot fotms tbelt foltb ls posseJ oo otolly, by exomple ooJ olooqslJe otbet coltotol ptoctlces,´ she says.
´1betefote, tbe ooly people wbo coo cbolleoqe tbe bellef tbot lCM ls o tellqloos obllqotloo ote
tellqloos scbolots ooJ leoJets tbemselves.´


8ox S. Case Study: 8SWAID Commun|ty Champ|ons
ln early 2012, 8SWAlu sLarLed an lnlLlaLlve Lo develop a cadre of lCM CommunlLy Champlons. 1helr
role was Lo ralse communlLy awareness abouL harmful pracLlces such as lCM and encourage people
Lo eradlcaLe Lhese pracLlces. 8SWAlu sLarLed Lhe lnlLlaLlve as a naLural progresslon from Lhelr ÞLL8
research sLudy lnLo lCM ln 8lrmlngham, Lhrough Lhe research Lhey had already recrulLed several
female communlLy members who wanLed Lo play a larger role ln ralslng awareness of lCM. 1hey
were keen Lo ensure LhaL Lhe communlLy was empowered Lo lead work on lCM prevenLlon ln
8lrmlngham, and also hoped Lo lncrease Lhe lmpacL of Lhelr work: ´1be molo cbolleoqe l foceJ lo my
tole wos o lock of tlme,´ says Þro[ecL Worker khadl[a. ´8y qettloq commoolty membets to toke o tole lo
lCM wotk, l bopeJ to locteose tbe teocb of tbe ptoject ooJ tbe omooot of tlme JeJlcoteJ to lCM
27

pteveotloo.´

Cver several monLhs, 8SWAlu recrulLed women from regular lCM communlLy groups who showed
leadershlp quallLles and people skllls, alongslde Lhe women who were already lnvolved from Lhe ÞLL8
research. Several men who were keen Lo eradlcaLe lCM were also recrulLed along Lhe way. khadl[a
and colleagues aL 8SWAlu provlded Lralnlng on lCM and healLh, rellglon, and human rlghLs, domesLlc
vlolence, and faclllLaLlon Lechnlques. khadl[a also provlded on-golng menLorlng supporL Lo develop
Lhe Champlons' skllls and confldence. '1be cbomploos lofotmeJ me wbeo tbelt commooltles wete
qotbetloq,´ says khadl[a, ´AoJ l eocootoqeJ tbem to ptoctlse tbelt skllls ot tbe eveot by tolkloq oboot
tbe botmfoloess of lCM, wbot lslom soys oboot type J lCM ot wbot cbtlstloolty soys oboot botmloq
otbet bomoos.´ ln addlLlon Lo Lhls on-golng work aL communlLy and rellglous meeLlngs, Lhe champlons
each used funds from 8lrmlngham ClLy councll Lo organlse and faclllLaLe an evenL. khadl[a asslsLed
Lhem wlLh Lhls and Lhe Champlons recelved a cerLlflcaLe and a small paymenL Lo reward and
acknowledge Lhls work.

khadl[a feels LhaL Lhe CommunlLy Champlons have added slgnlflcanL value Lo 8SWAlu's work. 8y
recrulLlng Champlons from dlfferenL backgrounds, eLhnlclLles, and rellglons, she feels LhaL Lhe pro[ecL
has been able Lo reach a far greaLer and more dlverse range of people Lhan khadl[a alone would have
been able Lo Lhrough her own predomlnanLly LasL Afrlcan neLworks. Lngaglng Lhe Llme and energy of
a group has also ampllfled Lhe reach of Lhe pro[ecL. lor khadl[a, Lhe key Lo Lhe lnlLlaLlve's success has
been carefully selecLlng confldenL, skllled volunLeers, and lnvesLlng sufflclenL Llme Lo supporL and
nourlsh Lhelr ldeas and enLhuslasm.



8ox 6. keach|ng D|verse Commun|t|es
8AWSC ls an All Wales organlsaLlon whlch has been parLlcularly successful ln reachlng a dlverse range
of people from dlfferenL eLhnlclLles, naLlonallLles, rellglons and language groups ln Cardlff. 1he
organlsaLlon polnLs Lo a number of facLors whlch has allowed lL Lo connecL wlLh people from
counLrles lncludlng Sudan, Cambla, Somalla, Slerra Leone, nlgerla, lndonesla and ?emen:
• 8AWSC has an on-golng and long esLabllshed programme of work Lo engage wlLh communlLy
groups on lssues of lnLeresL Lo Lhelr members, and help bulld Lhelr capaclLy. 1hls has
esLabllshed an lmporLanL level of LrusL whlch has enabled pro[ecL workers Lo engage wlLh
communlLles on more senslLlve lssues such as lCM.
• A close parLnershlp wlLh Lhe Welsh 8efugee Councll has also been cenLral Lo Lhe pro[ecL's
success. SLaff aL Lhe 8efugee Councll have agreed Lo alerL 8AWSC when refugees arrlve from
areas wlLh hlgh lCM pracLlce raLes. Þro[ecL workers Lhen aLLend sesslons organlsed by Lhe
8efugee Councll where Lhey lnLroduce Lhe lCM pro[ecL and ldenLlfy lf 8AWSC's wlder
programme of work may be of lnLeresL.
• 1he use of lnLerpreLers has been lmporLanL ln effecLlve communlcaLlon wlLh people from a
wlde range of language groups. AlLhough mosL cllenLs speak some Lngllsh, 8AWSC has found
LhaL uslng lnLerpreLers allows a level of dlscusslon and debaLe LhaL cannoL be achleved ln a
second language. Carefully selecLlng lnLerpreLers (someLlmes from ouLslde Lhe communlLy Lo
proLecL anonymlLy), and speaklng wlLh lnLerpreLers abouL Lhelr bellefs abouL lCM before
Lhey sLarL work has been essenLlal.
• 8AWSC has found LhaL employlng people Lo work wlLhln Lhelr own communlLles can have
boLh advanLages (more lmmedlaLe sense of LrusL, beLLer grasp of Lhe culLural norms) and
dlsadvanLages (lack of ob[ecLlvlLy, fear of [udgmenL by communlLy). 1he key has been Lo
ensure LhaL pro[ecL workers remaln self-aware, consclous of how Lhelr own eLhnlclLy, rellglon
28

and race may affecL Lhelr effecLlveness.
• llnally, 8AWSC has found LhaL lL ls cruclal LhaL pro[ecL workers engage wlLh communlLles on
Lhelr own Lerms, undersLandlng Lhelr lnLeresLs and prlorlLles, wlLhouL reduclng people Lo
Lhelr experlences of lCM. lor example, 8AWSC has found LhaL whlle Lhe local Somall
communlLy are mosL lnLeresLed ln engaglng wlLh Lhe lssue of lCM ln Lhe conLexL of healLh
and famlly plannlng, Lhe Sudanese communlLy ln Cardlff ls more lnLeresLed ln Lhe
relaLlonshlp beLween rellglon and lCM, and lndlvlduals from Cambla and Slerra Leone are
[usL keen Lo learn more abouL lCM ln general.

kema|n|ng Cha||enges
• A few sLakeholders felL LhaL worklng wlLh rellglous leaders was noL an approach LhaL
could be furLher developed, or LhaL funders should prlorlLlse, as boLh naLlonal-level
leadershlp and Lhe exLenslve resources requlred Lo engage wlLh falLh leaders were
lacklng (see secLlon 2.4.2).
• Several sLakeholders polnLed ouL LhaL some lnlLlaLlve-funded pro[ecLs are yeL Lo fully
embrace a rlghLs-based approach. Some pro[ecLs lack Lhe skllls/deslre Lo do so, or
reporL LhaL some communlLles are hosLlle Lo/unlnLeresLed ln Lhe concepL.
• ln some cases, lnlLlaLlve-funded pro[ecLs have focused on worklng wlLh groups
where supporL for lCM ls sLrongesL (ofLen older people), raLher Lhan empowerlng
Lhose who are more llkely Lo proLecL and prevenL (arguably, younger people/parenLs
of younger chlldren).

What Works: Ma|nstream|ng IGM
1he followlng approaches - whlch have been dlscussed ln greaLer deLall earller ln Lhe reporL
- characLerlse Lhe sLraLegles of pro[ecLs whlch have been successful ln lnLegraLlng lCM lnLo
sLaLuLory responses (Lhus leveraglng resources and lmprovlng Lhe susLalnablllLy of efforLs):
• ÞoslLlonlng lCM wlLhln a vAWC or Safeguardlng agenda
• Worklng wlLh fronLllne sLaLuLory sLaff Lo address lCM-relaLed lssues ln a culLurally
senslLlve way
• CoordlnaLlng Lhe lnlLlaLlve's work wlLh local auLhorlLles ln areas where lCM ls belng
addressed (and resourced)

kema|n|ng Cha||enges
1he pollcy mapplng hlghllghLed LhaL lnlLlaLlve-funded organlsaLlons were ofLen worklng ln
parallel Lo, raLher Lhan ln con[uncLlon wlLh, local auLhorlLy leads.

lnlLlal phases of Lhe lCM lnlLlaLlve have focused on plloLlng and developlng approaches, and
so far, have noL focused on documenLlng and sharlng whaL Lhey have found Lo be effecLlve.
Many sLakeholders wanLed Lo see beLLer vlslblllLy of pro[ecLs' work aL naLlonal level,
lncludlng evldence on successful approaches Lo Lackllng lCM.

2.4 Þrogress Aga|nst Þro[ect-|eve| Cutcomes
1hls secLlon examlnes Lhe exLenL Lo whlch pro[ecLs funded by Lhe lnlLlaLlve have made
progress under flve ouLcome areas (see secLlon 1.1). 1wo separaLe sLreams of daLa are
29

referenced: ÞLL8 endllne daLa and pro[ecL M&L daLa. CuoLaLlons ln boxes are elLher from
ÞLL8 daLa, or are pro[ecL workers' reflecLlons from Lhelr M&L reporLs.

2.4.1 Cutcome Cne: 1o deve|op pro[ects w|th|n commun|ty organ|sat|ons to ra|se
awareness among affected commun|t|es about Uk |aw and the hea|th and
psycho|og|ca| r|sks of IGM

Þro[ect Act|v|t|es
All pro[ecLs lncluded ralslng awareness of Lhe law on lCM and of Lhe psychologlcal/healLh
effecLs of lCM as parL of Lhelr key messages ln communlLy-based acLlvlLles, lncludlng
ouLreach ln cllnlcal seLLlngs. Many pro[ecLs have lnLegraLed lCM lnLo oLher healLh-based
messages, e.g. sexual healLh. PealLh-based messages have been communlcaLed ln several
ways - Lhrough ouLreach and workshop-based acLlvlLles, and Lhrough lndlvlduallsed supporL
Lo women affecLed by lCM aL drop-ln sesslons or on-slLe supporL ln speclallsL cllnlcal
servlces. Þro[ecL workers ln all pro[ecLs have provlded conslsLenL messages abouL Lhe law on
lCM, as well as lmpllcaLlons for Safeguardlng (LhaL a glrl chlld affecLed by lCM may be
removed from her parenLs).

Lega| Awareness
Awareness of Lhe law was low buL varlable aL basellne, varylng by mlgraLlon rouLe lnLo Lhe
uk. ln communlLles who had LranslLed Lhrough Lhe neLherlands, for lnsLance, awareness of
lCM as boLh lllegal and harmful was already hlgh. 1he ÞLL8 endllne sLudy provlded evldence
of a subsLanLlal shlfL ln aLLlLudes Lowards lCM, wlLh awareness of Lhe law and penalLles for
performlng lCM havlng lncreased subsLanLlally slnce basellne.

Powever, Lhe exLenL Lo whlch Lhe law deLers Lhe pracLlce of lCM ls varlable. lndlvldual
lnsLances of moLhers chooslng noL Lo conducL lCM on Lhelr daughLers because of fear of
lmpllcaLlons were clLed by a few, buL ln pro[ecL areas where supporL for lCM was more
pronounced, pro[ecL workers noLed LhaL some people were noL deLerred by fear of Lhe law,
as Lhe lack of prosecuLlons for lCM ln Lhe uk ls wldely known.

l wanL more supporL for Lhe women, llke whaL
Women's Ald are dolng, noL whaL governmenL
are dolng. lf you don'L know Lhe law. you geL
punlshed. llrsL educaLe, and she knows lL's
wrong: lf you go Lo an evenL and Women's Ald
Lell her LhaL lf you do lL you wlll lose your klds
and go Lo [all, and she does lL, Lhen she knows.
8uL lf she doesn'L know Lhe language, or know
Lhe law, and she has done lL by mlsLake and she
Lakes punlshmenL. lf she ls noL educaLed lL ls
unfalr. l llke Lo educaLe Lhe communlLy. 8SWAID
ÞLL8 researchers asked speclflcally abouL
vlews on Lhe uk governmenL's lnLervenLlons
and legal sLance Lowards lCM. vlews
depended on respondenLs' own aLLlLudes
Lowards lCM, buL Lhose who had dlscussed
Lhe lssue and vlewed Lhemselves as anLl-
lCM wanLed Lo see more legal awareness/
educaLlon on eLhlcal grounds, so LhaL people
were aware of how Lo noL break Lhe law.

Legal awareness appears lower ln some eLhnlc/naLlonallLy groups Lhan ln oLhers: Sudanese
and LrlLrean groups reporLed lower legal awareness Lhan Somall groups, who have been
LargeLed by long-sLandlng lnLervenLlons. Some respondenLs wanLed Lo see more legal
30

lnformaLlon and educaLlon LargeLed aL new arrlvals, whlch respondenLs and pro[ecL workers
conslsLenLly ldenLlfy as havlng hlgher levels of supporL of lCM.

l know LhaL lL ls agalnsL Lhe law and LhaL lL ls
lllegal ln Lhe uk buL l am noL aware of Lhe
penalLy. l am noL sure lf Lhls facL ls wldely known
amongsL Lhe Sudanese communlLy ln Lhe uk. l
suggesL a Lalk Lo ralse awareness abouL uk
governmenL vlews and laws on lCM. 8AWSC
ÞLLk data

Cenerally Lhls communlLy has goL Lhe awareness
and ls wllllng Lo sLop and proLecL Lhelr chlldren
and frlends from abuse. lL's lmporLanL LhaL
communlLles are made aware LhaL lCM ls lllegal
ln uk when Lhey arrlve ln Lhe uk. 8SWAID

1he maln quesLlon Lhey ask ls: ºCan my
clLlzenshlp be revoked?" 1hey are surprlsed by
Lhe senLence aLLached Lo lL, as Lhey generally do
noL see lL as a serlous lssue - Lhey are
condlLloned Lo Lhlnk LhaL lL ls normal. 8WAInS -
Þro[ect worker notes

?ounger women sLlll malnLaln LhaL Lhe lack of
convlcLlons relaLlng Lo lCM pracLlce was due Lo
Lhe pollce 'noL carlng abouL Lhe lssue'. 8WAInS -
Þro[ect worker notes
ln many lnsLances, pro[ecL workers noLed
LhaL legal awareness resulLs ln shallow shlfLs
ln aLLlLudes Lowards lCM, and LhaL deeper
shlfLs resulL from undersLandlng of lCM as a
form of abuse, raLher Lhan as a means of
proLecLlng glrl chlldren. Þro[ecL workers are
ofLen well placed Lo dellver compllcaLed
messages around safeguardlng chlldren,
because Lhey are recognlsed and LrusLed
wlLhln Lhelr communlLles.

1here ls some lndlcaLlon LhaL where supporL
for lCM ls sLlll sLrongly Lled Lo culLural
ldenLlLy, people Lend Lo vlew Lhe law as
punlLlve: ´5ome commooltles belleve tbe
ptoctlce ls wbo tbey ote, ooJ tbot tbelt
ttoJltloo/coltote ls beloq tokeo owoy ftom
tbem.´ (SouLhall CommunlLy Alllance (SCA)).

Cne lndlcaLor of rlslng legal awareness ls
LhaL Lhere ls a clear and emergenL demand,
parLlcularly among young women, for more
lnLervenLlons from prosecuLlng auLhorlLles.

LasLly, awareness LhaL less severe forms of lCM are lllegal was low aL basellne. Many
pro[ecLs have developed comprehenslve responses addresslng Lhese percepLlons.
CommunlcaLlons wlLh Lhe pollce (Þro[ecL Azure) aL Lhe beglnnlng of Lhe pro[ecL ensured LhaL
all pro[ecLs were clear ln sLaLlng LhaL all forms of lCM are lllegal.

lssues concernlng legallLy and deLecLlon were
also dlscussed, and how lL would be very hard Lo
sLop or flnd ouL lf someone was golng Lo carry
ouL lCM on Lhelr chlld unless Lhe communlLy
endorse a 'no Lolerance' pollcy, and how Lhls
should be Lhe dlrecLlon Lhe workshops Lake ln Lhe
nexL phase of Lhe pro[ecL. Granby Soma||
Women's Group (GSWG)
Powever, boLh lnLerlm evaluaLlon reporLs
(2011 and 2012) and Lhe ÞLL8 endllne sLudy
ldenLlfled LhaL Lhere was sLlll supporL for
lesser forms. Þro[ecL workers have been
developlng 'zero Lolerance' argumenLs Lo
lCM (l.e. noL LoleraLlng lCM ln any form,
lncludlng 'lesser' forms).

nea|th Awareness
ulscusslng Lhe healLh lmpacLs of lCM has been Lhe mosL accesslble enLry polnL for pro[ecL
workers looklng Lo moblllse women Lo parLlclpaLe, and Lo shlfL aLLlLudes Lowards recognlslng
Lhe harm LhaL lCM causes. 1he second lnLerlm reporL from Lhe lnlLlaLlve commenLed LhaL
31

whlle ralslng healLh awareness on lCM has been successful ln counLerlng supporL for lCM,
supporL for less severe forms of lCM has been harder Lo counLer uslng healLh-based
argumenLs. MosL of Lhe elderly Somall women reached by CSCA have expressed a cerLaln
degree of scepLlclsm abouL Lhe healLh dangers assoclaLed wlLh lCM havlng noL experlenced
any Lhe dangers dlrecLly Lhemselves, and several oLher pro[ecLs esLlmaLe LhaL Lhere remalns
conslderable supporL ln Lhelr communlLles for less severe forms of lCM.

CreaLer awareness of Lhe harms LhaL lCM
causes has also supporLed dlscusslons on
why lCM ls lllegal ln Lhe uk, explalnlng why
a pracLlce vlewed by some as lnLrlnslcally
parL of culLural expresslon ls vlewed as a
form of chlld abuse by many.
MosL women aLLendlng groups held by AAl were
found Lo be agalnsL Lype 3 lCM, buL Lhere was
supporL for Lype 1 lCM from women who had
undergone Lhe procedure Lhemselves. lor Lhese
women, lCM was felL Lo be cenLral Lo Lhelr
culLural ldenLlLy and was percelved as harmless.
AAI M&L data

A few pro[ecLs have also worked alongslde speclallsL lCM cllnlcal servlces, or as healLh
advocaLes for women accesslng servlces. ÞLL8 daLa show LhaL ln pro[ecL areas, Lhere has
been a subsLanLlal lncrease ln women's knowledge of who Lhey can conLacL Lo access
speclallsL servlces, or one Lo one supporL.

Þro[ecL and ÞLL8 daLa show LhaL women ofLen prefer Lo access soclal supporL from an lCM
advocaLe before accesslng care. lCM cllnlcal leads have reporLed lncreases ln women
accesslng care, and where speclallsL lCM sLaff work wlLh pro[ecL workers on-slLe, Lhey hlghly
valued Lhelr presence, whlch helped Lhem Lo have conversaLlons wlLh paLlenLs abouL
aLLlLudes Lo lCM. Þro[ecL workers' reporLs show LhaL women accesslng care may noL
recognlse Lhe severlLy of Lhelr sympLoms, or LhaL healLh problems Lhey have experlenced are
due Lo lCM, unLll Lhls ls conflrmed by cllnlcal sLaff and/or pro[ecL workers.

2.4.2 Cutcome 1wo: 1o |ncrease the conf|dence of women, men and young peop|e
w|th|n affected commun|t|es to re[ect th|s procedure as part of the|r |dent|ty, and
Cutcome Iour: 1o strengthen the vo|ce of women and commun|t|es speak|ng out
aga|nst IGM

CuLcomes 1wo and lour are presenLed LogeLher as Lhere ls conslderable overlap ln Lhe
evldence used Lo assess each ouLcome.

Þro[ect Act|v|t|es
´locteosloq cooflJeoce to teject lCM´ aL a communlLy level requlres several sLages of work,
lncludlng (buL noL llmlLed Lo): ldenLlfylng Lhose wllllng Lo be lnvolved, developlng communlLy
undersLandlng and skllls, and deslgnlng and lmplemenLlng a range of acLlvlLles where
confldence can be developed, and people have Lhe opporLunlLy Lo reflecL on and Lalk abouL
lCM and relaLed lssues.

Þro[ecL acLlvlLles ln Lhe early sLages of Lhe lnlLlaLlve focused on Lackllng percepLlons of lCM
as a rellglous pracLlce, worklng wlLh a range of women and glrls Lhrough workshops, youLh-
32

led approaches (bulldlng up Lhe confldence and skllls of young people Lo campalgn agalnsL
lCM), and conducLlng ouLreach Lo help people develop confldence Lo Lalk openly abouL
lCM (e.g. chaLLlng wlLh people ln communlLy cenLres or places where Lhey meeL Lo
soclallse).

1he Camblan lady owns a shop and salon, loLs of
people go Lhere. She losL her flrsL chlld Lo lCM.
Per moLher ln law ls a cuLLer. now she ls very
commlLLed (agalnsL lCM) and she has a loL of
lnfluence ln Lhe Afrlcan communlLy because of
Lhe shop and salon. 8AWSC
ln laLer sLages, many pro[ecLs have moved
onLo worklng wlLh men, rellglous leaders,
and mulLlple eLhnlc or lnLer-generaLlonal
formaL workshops. Þro[ecLs have also
dlverslfled Lhe ways ln whlch Lhey reach
people.

lor example, havlng prevlously sLruggled Lo reach LrlLrean women aL sesslons ln Lhe
communlLy, Lhe Manor Cardens pro[ecL successfully engaged Lhls group by organlslng
workshops aL regular prayer meeLlngs held aL Lhe home of local women. LrlLrean men were
successfully engaged Lhrough workshops ln a grlll resLauranL LhaL Lhey regularly frequenLed.
8AWSC has worked wlLh a Camblan woman (see quoLe above) who has become an
advocaLe agalnsL lCM, Lalklng Lo women abouL Lhe lssue ln her shop/salon, and organlslng
an evenL Lo dlscuss Lhe negaLlve effecLs of lCM aLLended by 26 Camblan people.

1he way ln whlch pro[ecLs have approached Lhe alm of geLLlng people Lo ´teject lCM os pott
of tbelt lJeotlty´ has varled accordlng Lo conLexL. 1he exLenL Lo whlch lCM ls an lmporLanL
parL of people's ldenLlLy ls hlghly varlable, and ofLen relaLes Lo paLLerns of mlgraLlon lnLo Lhe
uk, Lhe poslLlon of 8ML communlLles wlLhln Lhelr wlder soclal and pollLlcal conLexL,
educaLlon of women and glrls, and levels of undersLandlng of lCM. ln some areas, such as
LelcesLer, pro[ecL workers and ÞLL8 basellne daLa showed LhaL Lhere was pre-exlsLlng
re[ecLlon of lCM, probably reflecLlng Lhls communlLy's mlgraLlon Lhrough oLher Luropean
counLrles where Lhere had been lnLervenLlons Lo prevenL lCM. ln oLher areas, Lhe basellne
reporL found LhaL supporL for lCM was ofLen mlxed buL was largely dlfflculL Lo dlscuss
openly. ÞarenLs' declslons Lo perform lCM or noL largely appeared Lo Lake place ln secreL.

´5tteoqtbeoloq tbe volce´ can llkewlse Lake many forms. Þro[ecLs have used performance arL,
conferences, and lnLergeneraLlonal dlalogue Lo provlde opporLunlLles for people Lo speak
ouL abouL lCM boLh wlLhln and ouLslde Lhelr lmmedlaLe communlLles. SLrengLhened volces
are also lmporLanL aL Lhe household level (young women reslsLlng lCM, or men assumlng a
greaLer role ln prevenLlon of lCM). Some pro[ecLs have hosLed lnLer-generaLlonal or mlxed-
eLhnlclLy evenLs Lo reach a wlder audlence and provoke communlLy debaLe. 8WlPS, for
lnsLance, hosLed a ºZero 1olerance Lo lCM" day, as well as a ºMoLhers and uaughLers uay"
(ln collaboraLlon wlLh CSCA). CSCA ln 2012 hosLed a play (developed wlLh parLlclpaLlon from
women affecLed by lCM, see 8ox 3), and Lhls aLLracLed a mlxed audlence where parLlclpanLs
could speak ouL agalnsL lCM.

lnlLlally, pro[ecLs focused on 'volce' ln a qulLe llLeral sense (l.e. women speaklng ouL aL publlc
evenLs), buL subsequenLly pro[ecLs have used a varleLy of oLher ways Lo capLure volce.
8SWAlu, for lnsLance, conducLed a ÞLL8 sLudy, Lhe resulLs of whlch were used Lo sLlmulaLe
33

dlscusslon abouL lCM among affecLed communlLles ln 8lrmlngham more wldely. 1hey also
publlshed a 'volces of Women LeafleL' Lo ralse Lhe proflle of women's groups ln 8lrmlngham
re[ecLlng lCM (see 8ox 7 below). Somall uevelopmenL Servlces (SuS) have also collecLed
sLorles from women affecLed by lCM, Lo hlghllghL and share Lhelr experlences.

8ox 7. Vo|ce of Women Leaf|et, 8SWAID
8SWAlu have developed a leafleL called 'volces of Women' LargeLed aL professlonals worklng wlLh
women affecLed by lCM. 1he leafleL lncludes Lhe followlng pleces of advlce:
• LlsLen Lo our vlews on lCM before passlng [udgemenL
• 1o us, Lhe uk offers us rlghLs whlch we came Lo Lhe uk for, and whlch we value greaLly
• Cur fears are LhaL we'll be seen as chlld abusers lnsLead of as a communlLy Lrylng Lo
overcome Lhe horrlble pracLlce of lCM
• lCM ls a prlvaLe maLLer Lo us and we'd raLher dlscuss lL wlLh someone we feel comforLable
wlLh when Lhe need arlses

AlmosL all pro[ecLs have worked Lo address mlsconcepLlons LhaL lCM has rellglous
[usLlflcaLlons. Þro[ecLs have organlsed open publlc forums Lo dlscuss lCM and rellglon,
lncludlng a mulLl-falLh forum for rellglous leaders, who openly sLaLed Lhelr opposlLlon Lo
lCM ([olnLly organlsed by CSCA and Manor Cardens, see 8ox 4). Þro[ecLs such as SuS
(LelcesLer) and Lhe Afrlca Advocacy loundaLlon (AAl) (London) have worked Lhrough
rellglously-llnked lnformal women's neLworks Lo ralse Lhe lssue of lCM. ln some areas, such
as Lallng, pro[ecL workers (from SCA), were unable Lo flnd rellglous leaders wllllng Lo work
wlLh Lhem, buL Lhe lnlLlaLlve's neLwork approach allowed for Lhe developmenL and sharlng
of maLerlals Lo counLer rellglous [usLlflcaLlons for lCM, wlLhouL havlng Lo rely on rellglous
leaders Lhemselves Lo speak ouL agalnsL Lhe pracLlce.

Many pro[ecLs also engaged wlLh communlLy leaders Lo advocaLe for Lhe need Lo break Lhe
sllence around lCM. 1hey have also soughL Lo develop 'CommunlLy champlons' (ofLen
pro[ecL workers Lhemselves, noL all of whom are from affecLed communlLles, buL many of
whom are, see 8ox 3). Many of Lhe pro[ecLs have also worked wlLh communlLy-based
volunLeers, who have dlssemlnaLed lnformaLlon, helped Lo organlse evenLs, or had a wlder
role as communlLy moblllsers worklng wlLh an empowermenL approach (Lhls lnvolves
bulldlng Lhe skllls and confldence of volunLeers Lhrough Lralnlng, coachlng, and menLorlng,
such LhaL Lhey gradually Lake on more responslblllLles and achleve greaLer lndependence ln
Lhelr work).

Work LargeLlng men has been underLaken Lhrough ouLreach, workshops, and on-slLe supporL
Lo men accompanylng Lhelr parLners Lo access cllnlcal servlces. 1he lnLerlm 8eporL (2012)
reporLed LhaL many groups have found lL challenglng Lo engage wlLh men on lCM, buL by
Lhe end of Þhase Cne, many were uslng more effecLlve meLhods, such as ouLreach Lo places
where men congregaLe, and male ouLreach workers Lo reach men. lL ls expecLed LhaL Lhls
area of work wlll be developed ln Lhe nexL phase of Lhe lnlLlaLlve.



34

Þro[ect Impact
AL basellne, Lhe ÞLL8 daLa lndlcaLed LhaL Lhere was some awareness LhaL lCM was noL a
rellglously condoned pracLlce, buL LhaL Lhere was a lack of clarlLy on Lhls lssue. CSCA's
pro[ecL worker reporLed, º1bey ote stottloq to teollse lt ls oot tbelt tellqloos Joty . yet tbey
Joo´t polte koow bow lt wotks ooJ wby ooJ bow lt ls oot tellqloosly olloweJ. Aootbet
ptoblem ls tbot tbose wbo ote oot Joloq lCM becoose of tellqloos teosoos ote commltteJ to
Joloq tbe ´symbollc lCM´ ooJ some tblok tbot tbls ls o tellqloos Joty.´

1he conference provlded Lo Lhe parLlclpanLs a
clear undersLandlng of Lhe lslamlc perspecLlve on
lCM as well as Lhe opporLunlLy Lo quesLlon
promlnenL lslamlc leaders on Lhe lssue. MosL
parLlclpanLs sald Lhey beneflLed a loL from Lhe
conference, and lL was an unprecedenLed
opporLunlLy Lo meeL such rellglous experLs who
provlded clarlflcaLlon of a longsLandlng
mlspercepLlon. 8r|t|sh Soma|| Commun|ty (8SC)

1he parLlclpanLs dlscussed wheLher lCM was a
rellglous obllgaLlon or noL. MosL women sLaLed
LhaL as Lhey were growlng up, Lhey were led Lo
belleve LhaL lCM was a rellglous obllgaLlon and
Lhls ls Lhe maln reason why Lhey dld noL quesLlon
lL and even promoLed lL and pracLlced lL. CSCA

1he reason why l have declded Lo leave my
daughLer alone ls because l asked a woman from
Lhe mosque who Leaches me Cur'an. She sald
LhaL lL was noL wrlLLen ln Lhe 8ook and Lhls
pracLlce was aLLached Lo my culLure and
LradlLlons, noL Lhe rellglon. GSWG
Many of Lhe pro[ecLs ldenLlfled tellqloos
lJeotlty as a focus area. Several pro[ecL
workers reporLed LhaL clarlflcaLlon on Lhls
lssue Lhrough Lhelr work wlLh rellglous
leaders has dlrecLly led Lo greaLer confldence
amongsL some Lo re[ecL lCM. Cne of Lhe
learnlng evenLs focused on crlLlcal analysls of
Lhe llnks beLween rellglon and rlghLs-based
argumenLs, and pro[ecL workers have grown
vlslbly more confldenL ln dlscusslng Lhls
lssue.

1he ÞLL8 endllne daLa show LhaL Lhere have
been aLLlLudlnal shlfLs ln percepLlons of lCM
as a rellglously-sancLloned pracLlce. Some
pro[ecLs have worked wlLh rellglous
communlLles (ChrlsLlan and Musllm) Lo argue
LhaL lCM ls Lled Lo culLure, and noL rellglon.
MulLl-eLhnlc groups, or mulLl-rellglous
forums, have worked well Lo address Lhese
percepLlons.

Powever, some pro[ecL workers found lL hard Lo locaLe rellglous leaders who would openly
sLaLe LhaL lCM ls noL a rellglous pracLlce. ln some areas, Lhere were reporLs LhaL rellglous
leaders were sLlll supporLlve of less severe forms of lCM, referred Lo as 'Sunnah
13
', and Lhls
resulLed ln unclear messages on lCM. 1here are also doubLs among lCM advocaLes and
funders abouL wheLher Lhls approach can be developed aL a naLlonal level and over Llme.
LngagemenL wlLh rellglous leaders has lacked a focal polnL aL a naLlonal level. Many pro[ecL
workers have noLed LhaL work wlLh falLh leaders ls labour lnLenslve, requlrlng long-Lerm
engagemenL. 8ellglous counLer-argumenLs have also noL worked ln Lackllng Lhose whose
supporL for lCM ls llnked Lo culLural expresslon or herlLage, or ls [usLlfled as a means of
proLecLlng glrls ln a sexually permlsslve socleLy: ´uesplte jtbe soccess of messoqes oo tellqloo
lo coootetloq lCM], mooy lo tbe commoolty temolo lo fovoot of lCM ooJ clolm lt ls pott of
tbelt coltote.´ (CSCA)

13
'Sunnah' ls Lyplcally used Lo descrlbe 1ype 1 or 1ype 4 lCM, buL Lhe Lerm can lnclude more severe
forms.
33


Cne enLry polnL whlch shows promlse ls
Lhrough falLh communlLles' safeguardlng
efforLs. A few pro[ecLs have been
approached by mosques (lncludlng AAl ln
London) Lo speak Lo falLh leaders abouL Lhe
llnks beLween lCM, falLh and safeguardlng.
lL may be LhaL lnLegraLlon of lCM lnLo local
auLhorlLy safeguardlng pollcles has glven
credlblllLy Lo malnsLreamlng lL lnLo falLh-
based safeguardlng efforLs
16
.

ln a poll of 63 people who aLLended workshops
organlsed by Manor Cardens, encouraglngly, 83°
of parLlclpanLs dld noL belleve LhaL lCM was a
rellglous obllgaLlon afLer Lhe workshop.
Powever, almosL a flfLh (17°) of parLlclpanLs
conLlnued Lo belleve LhaL female cuLLlng ls 'good
for Lhe healLh of moLhers and Lhelr bables', and
perhaps surprlslngly, women ln one group (24°)
were more llkely Lhan males (6°) Lo hold Lhls
bellef. 1hese women were also far more llkely
Lhan parLlclpanLs ln Lhe men's group (40° vs.
12°) Lo belleve LhaL cuLLlng prevenLs
promlsculLy. Manor Gardens M&L data

Þro[ecL workers frequenLly reporLed LhaL Lhelr own levels of confldence ln addresslng
supporL for lCM had rlsen. 1hls ls an lmporLanL ouLcome, as Lhe ÞLL8 daLa showed LhaL
reslsLance Lo dlscusslng lCM ls a slgnlflcanL challenge for pro[ecL workers, who ln Lurn have
Lo offer supporL Lo women speaklng ouL agalnsL lCM.

ln some lnsLances, pro[ecL workers have acLed as valued lnLermedlarles beLween
communlLles and healLh agencles, developlng women's confldence Lo access speclallsL care.
Cverall referrals and one-Lo-one sesslons wlLh famllles wlLh daughLers aL rlsk of lCM have
been low, buL ln some cases pro[ecL workers have been approached for advlce, and have
had an opporLunlLy Lo dlssuade parenLs: ´1bete ote coses wbete loJlvlJools come to tbe
ptoject teqotJloq wbetbet ot oot tbey sboolJ petfotm lCM oo tbelt cbllJteo ooJ wbot tbe
lmpllcotloos ote lf tbey Jo.´ (8SCA) Several pro[ecLs have worked Lo address negaLlve
reacLlons Lowards healLh or soclal workers who ask quesLlons abouL parenLs' aLLlLudes
Lowards lCM.

1he ÞLL8 daLa conflrm LhaL many
respondenLs prefer Lo have Lhese klnds of
messages dellvered by lCM pro[ecL workers,
who can dellver Lhem ln culLurally senslLlve
ways.
8SC has recelved Lwo referrals from Soclal
Servlces. Cne relaLlng Lo a chlld proLecLlon order
and Lhe second relaLlng Lo a chlld who was
LhoughL Lo be experlenclng lCM relaLed Lrauma.
8SC provlded pracLlcal advlce Lo Lhe famllles ln
boLh cases. 8SC M&L data

1hls underllnes Lhe lmporLance of pro[ecL workers as culLurally grounded and LrusLed
advocaLes, worklng alongslde sLaLuLory responses Lo prevenL lCM.


16
See for lnsLance ºnewham Chlld ÞroLecLlon Þollcy for Mosques and Madrassahs" (newham Chlldren
and ?oung Þeople's Servlce): ´1bete bos beeo o wlJe mlscooceptloo tbot lCM ls oo lslomlc MooJote.
nowevet, lslomlc scbolots bove oot ootbeotlcoteJ ooy noJltbs tbot bove beeo oseJ to jostlfy lts
exlsteoce. lf ooy membet of stoff become owote of o cbllJ wbo moy be ot tlsk of tbls ptoceJote, tbey
most cootoct c¥l5 os sooo os posslble. lt ls qooJ ptoctlce fot lssoes socb os lCM, fotceJ mottloqes,
Jomestlc vloleoce ooJ lts oJvetse lmpoct oo tbe eotlte fomlly to be JlscosseJ Jotloq ltlJoy setmoos.´
(p.18)
36

key sLakeholder lnLervlews echo Lhese flndlngs. Whereas naLlonal-level sLakeholders Lended
Lo have a narrow vlew of Lhe role of communlLy groups ln prevenLlon, ln some local areas,
parLnershlps beLween local auLhorlLles and C8Cs have been hlghly valued - ofLen when
pro[ecL workers have carrled ouL Lhese lnLermedlary roles, worklng alongslde fronLllne sLaff.
1hese sLakeholders recognlse Lhe need Lo engage communlLles ln communlcaLlng complex
messages around lCM, wlLhouL sLlgmaLlslng and allenaLlng people.

1he lmpacL of work Lhrough communlLy volunLeers has been harder Lo evaluaLe, as pro[ecLs
have Lyplcally noL lncluded monlLorlng of volunLeers ln Lhelr M&L sLraLegy (a
recommendaLlon for fuLure sLages of Lhe lnlLlaLlve). lC8WA8u, 8SC and 8SWAlu have all
applled an empowermenL approach Lo Lhelr work wlLh volunLeers, who Lhen go on Lo hosL
Lhelr own evenLs where people have an opporLunlLy Lo openly re[ecL lCM.

Women ke[ect|ng IGM

Cver Lhe lasL Lhree years Lhe Loplc has been more
wldely spread and has been a focus ln Lhe medla
(1v, news) so lL has become a Lalklng polnL and ls
now someLhlng up for general dlscusslon wlLhouL
much preparaLlon. now boLh men and women
(young people) can Lalk abouL lL more openly.
ICkWAkD

1here has been a slgnlflcanL lncrease ln anLl-lCM
vlews across age groups and eLhnlclLles (ln Lhe
lasL slx monLhs). l meL many women and Lhe
ma[orlLy were adamanL LhaL Lhe pracLlce should
noL be allowed Lo conLlnue. 1hey blame Lhe
conLlnuaLlon of Lhe pracLlce on communlLles noL
accepLlng lL as an lssue. 8|ack Women's nea|th
and Iam||y Support (8WnAIS) - Þro[ect Worker
Notes

Accordlng Lo Lhem, lCM ls noL someLhlng LhaL
could be dlscussed openly wlLhln Lhe famlly or
Lhe communlLy, lL's percelved as a forbldden and
lncredlbly senslLlve sub[ecL. Powever, over Lhe
course of Lhe pro[ecL Lhere has been a masslve
change ln aLLlLude, lL has lncreased women's and
young's glrls' confldence Lo speak ouL. 1hey are
now more wllllng Lo share Lhelr experlences and
sLorles. 8SCA

Pearlng oLher people's experlences ls eye-
openlng- Lhere are so many slmllarlLles... we help
each oLher. 8WInS

lL ls much easler for people Lo dlscuss lCM
ln Lhe flrsL phase of Lhe lnlLlaLlve, pro[ecLs
predomlnanLly focused on work wlLh
women. 8oLh ÞLL8 and pro[ecL monlLorlng
daLa show a percepLlble rlse ln women
re[ecLlng lCM, and ln Lhelr confldence Lo
speak ouL abouL lL, for lnsLance aL publlc
evenLs.

1here ls good evldence LhaL lCM ls now
dlscussed more openly ln some clrcles, and
LhaL Lhls has crysLalllsed Lhe poslLlon LhaL
people Lake on Lhe lssue, ´tbe vety foct tbot
lCM ls beloq tolkeJ oboot ls ptoqtess lo
ltself. lt ls o toboo toplc tbot ls beloq
JlscosseJ lo tbe 5omoll commoolty, lo
Jlffeteot qeoJets, betweeo lmoms ooJ tbe
test of tbe commoolty.´ (CSCA, Þro[ecL
Worker noLes)

1he lmporLance of creaLlng 'safe spaces'
where lCM can be dlscussed by women who
supporL, oppose or are dlrecLly affecLed by
lCM has been hlghllghLed by many pro[ecLs.
Þro[ecL workers explaln LhaL women may noL
have dlscussed Lhe lmpacL of lCM on Lhelr
llves, and LhaL lCM ls a deeply personal and
lnLlmaLe lssue, whlch women may be
relucLanL Lo dlscuss. Powever, Lhese 'safe
spaces' have enabled women Lo 'break Lhe
sllence' around lCM, Lhough senslLlvlLles
37

wlLhouL shylng away and avoldlng as lL ls such a
senslLlve Loplc. ln Lhe beglnnlng of Lhe pro[ecL lL
was an avolded Loplc and seen as rude Lo Lalk
abouL clrcumclslon hoverer over Lhe course of
Lhe pro[ecL Lhere has been a masslve shlfL.
Powever Lhere are sLlll Lhose LhaL wlll walk ouL of
a room where Lhey hear lCM belng dlscussed.
8SCA
remaln (for lnsLance, people are unwllllng Lo
share lnformaLlon abouL where and how
lCM may be Laklng place).

ArgumenLs agalnsL lCM, developed by
pro[ecLs over Lhe course of Lhe lnlLlaLlve,
have maLured and become more confldenL
over Llme.

1hese lnclude uslng a rlghLs-based approach, Lackllng Lhe llnks beLween lCM and concepLs
of sexual purlLy, and Lhe developmenL of 'zero Lolerance' argumenLs (whlch condemn all
Lypes of lCM, lncludlng Lhe leasL severe forms). ln some cases, young women are also
quesLlonlng Lhe hlsLorlcal culLural llnks made beLween lCM, sexual purlLy and
marrlageablllLy, argulng LhaL lCM reduces Lhelr fuLure marrlage prospecLs ln Lhe uk. lor
example, aL workshop and ouLreach sesslons run by 8WPAlS, some communlLy members
felL able Lo speak ouL agalnsL lCM and dlscuss Lhe pracLlce ln relaLlon Lo young women's
sexuallLy: ºwby ls lt so boJ fot womeo to be sexoolly olett? íveo loslJe mottloqe lt ls
scotoeJ. lCM ls Jooe to toke owoy womeo´s feelloqs loJefloltely!´ (lemole qtoop
Jlscossoot, 8wnAl5).

1here ls also now a broad undersLandlng of
whlch groups of women are llkely Lo supporL
lCM or noL. Cpen and sLrongesL supporL for
lCM was reporLed among older women, and
Lhls ls also where Lhe fewesL shlfLs ln supporL
for lCM are found. lor example, 8SC have
found LhaL older women have Lhe mosL
sLrongly held oplnlons abouL lCM, and place
a hlgh value on Lhe lmporLance of culLural
and LradlLlonal pracLlces.
Some women aLLendlng SCA workshops have
spoken ouL agalnsL lCM durlng Lhe forum
• lCM ls ooe of tbe most JeqtoJloq
bomoo tlqbts oboses. l belleve we oll
bove to stooJ oqolost tbls ptoctlce
• lt bos oo cleot beoeflts ooJ lt´s oo
exomple of coltotol botJeo lmplemeoteJ
oo tbese womeo
• lCM lo lts slmplest fotm ls o tottotoos
ooJ opptesslve ptoctlce tbot Jomoqes
tbe femole lJeotlty
(Iema|e part|c|pants |n IGM workshop he|d by
SCA)


MosL of my famlly laugh and are appalled [LhaL l
won'L clrcumclse my daughLers], buL l wlll noL
clrcumclse my daughLers - l made a mlsLake wlLh
my eldesL. 8WnAIS

?oung people are absoluLely agalnsL lCM. My
nlece wenL Lo Somallland wlLh her aunL and her
relaLlves sLarLed Lo make plans Lo clrcumclse Lhe
nlece buL she refused and her moLher who was
noL wlLh her buL ln Lhe uk, called Lhe famlly and
asked Lhem Lo leave her alone lf she dld noL wanL
Lo be clrcumclsed. She came back unharmed buL
Women who have been affecLed by lCM
Lhemselves have also ln some cases become
sLrong advocaLes, Lhough Lhls ls noL always
Lhe case. Women dlrecLly affecLed by lCM
face barrlers ln speaklng openly abouL lCM,
and women who have experlenced lCM and
who are supporLlve of 1ype 1 or 4 lCM have
ofLen presenLed Lhe sLrongesL dlfflculLles for
communlLy advocaLes, ´olJet womeo teoJ to
steet tbe sessloos ooJ tbe sobject mottet lo
tbe Jltectloo tbey llke ooJ tbls ot tlmes coo
38

old people are sLlll holdlng on Lhe pracLlce. CSCA
ÞLLk data
be off pottloq to people wbo ote oew to tbe
sessloos ot eveo oew to tbe ceotte.´

?ounger women who are uk born were ofLen descrlbed as knowlng llLLle abouL lCM
(reflecLlng Lhe Laboo sLaLus of lCM), buL are ofLen mosL wldely engaged and moblllsed by
pro[ecLs Lo re[ecL lCM openly once Lhey flnd ouL abouL lL: ´leople wete omozeJ wltb tbe
pteseototloo of o yoooq qltl (17, ftom 5oJoo) wbo tolkeJ oboot bet expetleoces of lCM
wltboot feelloq sbome. lt ls btove, os lt coo be bostlle´ (8AWSC Þro[ecL Worker's noLes).

1here were many examples ln Lhe ÞLL8 daLa
of older women lnLendlng Lo carry ouL lCM,
buL belng dlssuaded by younger women's
opposlLlon. 1hls flndlng should be aL Lhe
forefronL of Lhe nexL phase of Lhe lnlLlaLlve:
ln some cases, pro[ecLs focused on changlng
aLLlLudes among people who sLrongly
supporL lCM, argulng Lhey hold sway ln
declslon-maklng, whereas focuslng on young
people may be more effecLlve.
?oung people aLLendlng 8SC run workshops
conslsLenLly re[ecL lCM. 1hey engage ln llvely
debaLe abouL Lhe rooL causes of Lhe pracLlce and
are keen Lo pose quesLlons abouL Lhe reasons for
Lhe pracLlce Lo adulLs, especlally Lhelr parenLs
and relaLlves. ConfronLed by Lhe quesLlons of
young people, Lhe adulLs someLlme seem unable
Lo defend Lhe pracLlce, resorLlng Lo Lhe
explanaLlon of culLure. 8SC Þro[ect Worker
notes

º1he older woman lnLer[ecLed, ºSo, you would
llke your elders arresLed, puL ln a forelgn [all?",
Lhe glrl conLlnued, ºl [usL wanL Lhem Lo know lL ls
noL Ck Lo physlcally damage glrls - lL ls noL rlghL,
and lL's worse LhaL Lhey know Lhe effecLs buL do
lL anyway - Allah Leaches us Lo respecL Lhe rlghLs
of everyone: youngers and elders." GSWG
Þro[ect Worker's Notes

l saw a young glrl who couldn'L urlnaLe, because
of Lhe lCM. She was saylng LhaL she haLes her
moLher and l am afrald LhaL my daughLers wlll
haLe me lf l clrcumclse Lhem. SDS ÞLLk Data
ÞLL8 daLa suggesL LhaL declslon-maklng
processes can shlfL lf young women's ablllLy
Lo arLlculaLe Lhelr vlews ls sLrengLhened, and
lf Lhey have Lhe confldence Lo refuLe
argumenLs supporLlng lCM. A more reallsLlc
alm ln Lerms of changlng Lhe aLLlLudes of
older women would be Lo recognlse LhaL Lhe
declslon Lo carry ouL lCM ls noL wlLhln Lhelr
dlrecL sphere of lnfluence, ´Altbooqb l most
soy tbete ote qtoop of people wbo ote oot
teolly oqolost tbe ptoctlce bot tbey
ooJetstooJ lt ls o ctlmlool offeoce, ooJ tbls ls
o blq ptotectloo fot qltls os looq tbey koow
tbelt tlqbts ooJ tbey coo soy oo´ (lC8WA8u
ÞLL8 uaLa).

Work|ng w|th Men

Men and women used Lo see lCM dlfferenLly buL
now ln Lhe uk, Lhey have come Lo see Lhe lssue
as one. l Lhlnk Lhere ls a dlvlde beLween old and
young, as Lhere wlll be a number of old people
who see lCM as normal and parL of Lhe process
of growlng up buL young people llke my son, who
was born ln Lhe uk, laughs when you menLlon
lCM Lo hlm and he wlll say LhaL, º?ou people are
1he basellne reporL provlded only llmlLed
evldence of men's opposlLlon Lo lCM. 1hls ls
now clearer, wlLh lnformaLlon abouL young
men's percepLlon of lCM as an ouLdaLed
pracLlce LhaL ls allen Lo Lhelr own worldvlew
of whaL makes a 'good' woman. ln some
cases, reflecLlng young women's anxleLy,
39

crazy and need Lo go back home and do your
crazy pracLlce Lhere." GSWG ÞLLk Data
havlng a wlfe who had suffered lCM was
expllclLly descrlbed ln negaLlve Lerms.

1he endllne ÞLL8 daLa also provlde examples of older men who have changed Lhelr vlews
and, ln some cases, have even apologlsed Lo Lhelr daughLers for Lhe sufferlng caused by Lhelr
supporL for, or passlve accepLance of, lCM. AL 8SWAlu, Lhe pro[ecL worker has found LhaL
men are lncreaslngly beglnnlng Lo undersLand Lhe healLh lmpacL of lCM because ln Lhe uk,
unllke ln Lhelr home counLles, Lhey are more lnvolved wlLh Lhe process of chlldblrLh. 'l met
mooy meo ot tbe cllolc wbo boJ occompooleJ tbelt pteqooot wlves, tbey wete sbockeJ to
beot bow lCM offects tbe Jellvety of tbe boby ooJ jto leoto oboot] tbe cootlooeJ beoltb
effects of lCM´ (8SWAlu pro[ecL worker).

Some of Lhe pro[ecLs have focused on evenLs durlng whlch mlxed audlences can openly
dlscuss lCM. CSCA's play, for lnsLance, ellclLed supporL from many younger men ln Lhe
audlence, and men accesslng cllnlcal servlces are also reporLed Lo be predomlnanLly agalnsL
Lhe pracLlce: ´1belt bosbooJs belleveJ lt wos oo oot-JoteJ ptoceJote, wblcb tbey tbooqbt
boJ stoppeJ wltb tbelt motbets ooJ woolJ oot be wlllloq to bove tbelt owo Jooqbtets qo
tbtooqb socb polo´ (CSCA). Some pro[ecLs have successfully recrulLed men Lo work as
volunLeers/advocaLes for Lhe pro[ecLs, lncludlng 8SCA, whlch has seven men helplng Lhe
pro[ecL. 1he pro[ecL has also hosLed workshops for men, Lo answer Lhelr quesLlons abouL
lCM.

kema|n|ng Cha||enges

l have had lCM performed on me and l have had
no problems or noLhlng LhaL l cannoL llve wlLh. lf l
had a daughLer l would have carrled ouL lCM on
her and l don'L Lhlnk my husband or famlly would
ob[ecL buL l have sons, whlch ls good as Lhey are
less Lrouble. l know a loL of women ln Lhe
communlLy who have had lCM carrled ouL on
Lhelr daughLers. GSWG - ÞLLk Data
1here ls wlde varlaLlon ln supporL for lCM ln
Lhe dlfferenL seLLlngs where pro[ecLs work.
SLrongesL supporL for lCM was ofLen found
ln areas wlLh a hlgh proporLlon of newly
arrlved mlgranLs (such as LasL London, or
dlspersal areas ouLslde London), or ln areas
where communlLles affecLed by lCM were
relaLlvely lsolaLed from wlder socleLy, such
as Llverpool.

1hese flndlngs echo vlews of key sLakeholders, who argued LhaL lL may be harder Lo change
aLLlLudes ln smaller and more marglnallsed communlLles, where Lhere ls less dlverslLy of
oplnlon, and posslbly more pressure Lo malnLaln culLural LradlLlons. 8alslng Lhe lssue of lCM
may be harder lf Lhere ls a percepLlon LhaL Lhe communlLy's lmage ls already under LhreaL,
as Lhere ls Lhe rlsk of counLer-producLlve sLlgmaLlsaLlon.

Cne group sLlll remalns lnLranslgenL and ls even
upseL LhaL dlscusslon abouL lCM ls Laklng place
and conslder lCM as parL of Somall culLure. 1he
oLher group recognlses LhaL lCM does noL need
Lo be pracLlsed anymore and are happy LhaL Lhls
AlLhough overall, lL has become easler Lo
dlscuss lCM, ln some cases Lhere has been a
concomlLanL rlse ln opposlLlon Lo speaklng
ouL agalnsL lCM. 1hls may be Lhe resulL of
acLual supporL for lCM by Lhose who vlew lL
40

work ls happenlng Lo lncrease people's
awareness of Lhls pracLlce. CSCA Þro[ect worker
notes
as an essenLlal parL of Lhelr culLural ldenLlLy,
or of fear LhaL Lhelr communlLy wlll be
sLlgmaLlsed.

1he rlsks Lo women of speaklng ouL also have Lo be recognlsed. Cne woman supporLed by
8AWSC spoke ouL agalnsL lCM buL had Lo be moved and placed under pollce proLecLlon. ln
Lhls conLexL, alLhough pro[ecLs have successfully supporLed Lhe sLrengLhenlng of volces,
long-Lerm supporL Lo enable women ln parLlcular Lo speak ouL ls needed.

2.4.3 Cutcome 1hree: 1o |ncrease the sk|||s and capac|ty w|th|n affected commun|t|es to
|nf|uence |nd|v|dua|s, groups, and statutory agenc|es

Þro[ect Act|v|t|es
lnlLlaLlve-funded pro[ecLs have exerLed Lhelr lnfluence ln several ways (some of whlch have
been dlscussed prevlously):
• Lncouraglng, Lralnlng and supporLlng communlLy leaders and volunLeers/champlons
Lo speak ouL agalnsL lCM (as dlscussed ln secLlon 2.3.3)
• AdvocaLlng for an lmproved response Lo lCM by sLaLuLory agencles (as dlscussed ln
secLlon 2.3.1)
• 1ralnlng healLh and soclal care professlonals
• ÞromoLlng Lhe malnsLreamlng of lCM lnLo local pollcy and pracLlce

ln some lnsLances, local lCM pollces have resulLed ln pro[ecLs worklng Lo Lraln professlonals
Lhrough Safeguardlng boards, and Lo work wlLh fronLllne professlonals Lo bulld Lhelr
confldence Lo ldenLlfy lCM and respond Lo lL. Many of Lhe groups have worked alongslde
healLh and soclal care professlonals: aL speclallsL lCM cllnlcs, wlLh soclal workers or luvAs,
wlLh sexual healLh leads, and, laLLerly, and ln some areas only, wlLh schools durlng ÞSPL
sesslons. 1hls has also enabled pro[ecL workers Lo geL a good sense of where Lo focus lCM
prevenLlon efforLs, as Lhe proflle of servlce users reflecLs levels of need wlLhln Lhe
communlLy. Some pro[ecLs have also acLed as an lnformaLlon/supporL resource for local
auLhorlLles, for examples, Lhe Manor Cardens Advocacy Þro[ecL ls Lhe maln conLacL llsLed ln
lsllngLon Councll's 'Local Þrovlslon on lCM'.

Several pro[ecLs have worked wlLh mldwlves,
ln some cases on-slLe ln lCM cllnlcal
servlces, Lo provlde counsellng and supporL
and Lo relnforce legal and chlld proLecLlon
awareness. 8SWAlu has sLarLed Lo provlde
Lralnlng on lCM Lo Lralnee mldwlves (ln
8lrmlngham) Lo bulld professlonals'
confldence ln provldlng a senslLlve servlce Lo
women affecLed by lCM. CSWC has also
faclllLaLed awareness-ralslng sesslons for
prlmary healLh care sLaff Lo undersLand Lhe
A shorL evaluaLlon was carrled ouL wlLh 13 PealLh
vlslLors who recelved Lralnlng from Manor
Cardens abouL lCM. AfLer Lhe Lralnlng, 70-83°
of parLlclpanLs reporLed LhaL Lhey had good
undersLandlng of Lhe lCM, a good undersLandlng
of Lhe healLh lmpllcaLlons of lCM, and a good
ablllLy Lo ldenLlfy glrls aL rlsk. 1hls compares Lo
[usL 6° of parLlclpanLs who reporLed good
knowledge ln Lhese areas prlor Lo Lhe Lralnlng.
Manor Gardens M&L keport

ln parLnershlp wlLh Lhe London 8orough of Lallng
41

senslLlvlLles of women affecLed by lCM
accesslng cervlcal screens, and SCA has
helped Lo develop a new Lralnlng course for
sLaLuLory secLor professlonals ln Lallng.


and Lallng CommunlLy and volunLary Servlce,
SCA have helped Lo develop a new course,
'Safeguardlng Chlldren ln lalLh and ulverse
CommunlLles', whlch ls now offered Lo all
professlonals from Lhe sLaLuLory secLor,
volunLary and communlLy cenLres, and falLh
groups ln Lallng. lL covers safeguardlng lssues
relaLed Lo lCM, chlld Lrafflcklng, forced
marrlages and honour based crlme. SCA M&L
keport

Þro[ect Impact
1he mlxed success LhaL groups have had ln Lerms of promoLlng a beLLer response Lo lCM
among sLaLuLory agencles, and malnsLreamlng lCM lnLo local pollcy, has been dlscussed ln
secLlon 2.3.1.

1here ls evldence of Lhe lnlLlaLlve-funded groups promoLlng beLLer referral paLhways, for
lnsLance, ln llnklng women affecLed by lCM wlLh communlLy-based supporL servlces and
speclallsL cllnlcal servlces. Þro[ecL workers reporL LhaL lL has been lmporLanL Lo lnclude
healLh professlonals ln Lhe dellvery of healLh sesslons whlch lnLegraLe messages on lCM, as
Lhls moblllses hlgher raLes of parLlclpaLlon, parLlcularly among people who may lnlLlally be
pro-lCM.

She sLarLed by Lelllng Lhe healLh professlonals
abouL Lhe lssues and Lhe need for senslLlvlLy, she
hoped LhaL anoLher person ln Lhe same
predlcamenL would noL feel lsolaLed, ashamed
and [udged by anoLher. 8y Lelllng such a personal
sLory, Lhe volunLeer lnfluenced Lhe aLLlLude of
Lhese healLh professlonals and felL very confldenL
on her reLurnlng, Lelllng everyone aL Lhe cenLre
whaL she had done and how lL had been a
Lrlumph for her. GSWG Mon|tor|ng Data
lronLllne sLaff, such as luvAs, soclal workers,
or lCM cllnlcal speclallsLs, hlghly valued
havlng pro[ecL workers avallable Lo work
wlLh women and famllles affecLed by lCM,
as Lhey could ofLen work ln culLurally
senslLlve ways Lo Lackle supporL for lCM.
1hese klnds of referrals, Lhough hlghly
valued, have generally remalned qulLe low
slnce basellne.

ln some areas ouLslde London, safeguardlng leads were reporLedly relucLanL Lo carry ouL
rouLlne enqulrles ln healLh seLLlngs wlLh women affecLed by lCM wlLh glrl chlldren, for fear
of belng vlewed as 'dlscrlmlnaLory'. ln Lhese slLuaLlons, pro[ecLs face real challenges ln
encouraglng healLh and oLher professlonals Lo acLlvely seek ouL and ldenLlfy glrls aL rlsk.

1here has been some progress ln worklng along wlLh schools, wlLh lC8WA8u conducLlng
awareness-ralslng sesslons ln schools ln Creenwlch aLLended by a LoLal of 360 young people
slnce uecember 2012 (see also 8ox 9 for a summary of Lhelr educaLlonal work ln 8rlsLol).

8ox 9. 1he 'IGM Game' |n Schoo|s
ln 8rlsLol, slx young women members of Lhe 8rlsLol lCM ?ouLh Croup developed an lCM game Lo
ralse awareness of lCM ln local schools. 1o accompany Lhe game, Lhe group wroLe Lhree lesson plans
and developed assoclaLed resources. SevenLeen coples of Lhe game have been dlsLrlbuLed Lo schools
42

ln 8rlsLol, and Lo daLe 148 young people have dlrecLly beneflLed from lL. A LoLal of 63 professlonals
lncludlng school sLaff, healLh professlonals and Lhose worklng ln sexual and domesLlc vlolence have
also been lnLroduced Lo Lhe resource. leedback from Lhe game has been poslLlve:
• ´ooe of oot teocbets ttleJ lt wltb o qtoop of yeot 8 stoJeots, boys ooJ qltls, ooJ lt wos o boqe
soccess!... lt´s footostlc tbot tesootces ote qettloq loto scbools, bovloq ooe ot two
otqoolsotloos wotkloq wltb o qtoop of yoooq people lso´t eoooqb, tbe wotk oeeJs to be
molostteomeJ lf lCM ls to stop.´ 1eacher from a schoo| |n 8r|sto| where the IGM game was
tr|a||ed
• ´l´m lmptesseJ wltb tbe sbeet ptofesslooollsm of tbe tesootce, lt ls socb o swltcbeJ oo qome
ooJ tbot ls wbot qets people tolkloq´ 8r|sto| ÞC1 emp|oyee

8eflecLlng upon Lhelr areas of successes, lC8WA8u's London group commenLed LhaL placlng
lCM ln Lhe wlder conLexL of C8v has been beneflclal parLlcularly when worklng ln schools
where Lhere are a wlde range of young people presenL. 'j1bls sttoteqy] ollows tbe toplc of
lCM to seem less llke o ptoctlce Jooe by ´otbet´ commooltles, ooJ mokes lt mote telotoble´.
Powever, Lhere have been challenges ln accesslng schools: ´Mooy scbools ote stlll besltoot
oboot eoqoqloq wltb tbe lssoe of lCM os tbey feel lt ls too Jlfflcolt ot seosltlve. nowevet,
we bove boJ some soccess lo eotetloq scbools tbtooqb sobjects socb os beoltb ooJ soclol
scbools, ooJ tbtooqb otbet oveooes socb os lotetootloool womeo´s uoy ooJ tbtooqb yoooq
womeo´s qtoops.´


1eachers are worrled abouL Lhelr reacLlon wlLhln
Lhe school. uomesLlc vlolence ls now dlscussed ln
assemblles, buL lCM ls noL lncluded. 1eachers
are dlfflculL - we know who pracLlces Lhese
Lhlngs, buL we don'L wanL klds Lo feel bad abouL
lL. CSCA

CeLLlng lnLo schools was a challenge, and lL was
found LhaL when Lhere ls buy-ln from local
auLhorlLles geLLlng lnLo schools ls less of a
challenge. ICkWAkD
Powever, some pro[ecLs have found schools
Lo be generally unresponslve, and Lhls has
parLly been aLLrlbuLed Lo fear LhaL focus on
lCM may lead Lo sLlgmaLlslng cerLaln
communlLles.

8ecenL changes on ClS1Lu's lnspecLlon
reglme may encourage schools Lo
malnsLream lCM, buL whlle Lhls has been
successful ln some areas (for lnsLance ln
8rlsLol), Lo daLe Lhere has been llLLle
reporLed change ln Lhe areas where Lhe
pro[ecLs work.

2.4.4 Cutcome I|ve: 1o |mprove co-ord|nat|on of act|v|t|es amongst vo|untary and
commun|ty groups and statutory agenc|es work|ng on th|s |ssue

Þro[ect Act|v|t|es
lnlLlaLlve-funded pro[ecLs meL regularly Lhrough 'learnlng evenLs' and cooperaLed ln sub-
groups Lo focus on speclflc aspecLs of lCM prevenLlon. An onllne means of sharlng
lnformaLlon, Lhrough a knowledge gaLeway, was also seL up. lnformaLlon on acLlvlLles of Lhe
Advlsory Croup has also been shared wlLh Lhe funded groups, whlle flndlngs from basellne
and lnLerlm reporLs on Lhe groups' acLlvlLles (lncludlng challenges and barrlers faced along
43

Lhe way) have been shared wlLh Lhe advlsory group. 1he Advlsory Croup has provlded a
forum for sharlng lnformaLlon beLween varlous sLakeholders (mosL of whom operaLlng aL
Lhe naLlonal level, or ln London and 8rlsLol).

Þro[ect Impact
1here ls good evldence LhaL funded pro[ecLs wlLhln Lhe lnlLlaLlve have worked LogeLher Lo
wlden Lhelr lmpacL. 1hls has lncluded [olnL worklng on a lalLh Leaders AgalnsL lCM forum
(led by Manor Cardens and CSCA), a pan-London co-ordlnaLlon forum (led by Manor
Cardens), and a range of smaller [olnL worklng acLlvlLles (for lnsLance, a 'MoLhers and
uaughLers' evenL [olnLly led by CSCA and 8WPAlS). More recenLly, groups ouLslde London
have underLaken vlslLs Lo one anoLher, Lo undersLand how each pro[ecL Lackles sLrong
supporL for lCM as a culLural pracLlce (parLlcularly among older generaLlons).

1he pan-London lCM lorum has been regularly aLLended by local safeguardlng
professlonals, and organlsaLlons such as Lhe nSÞCC and Lhe loundaLlon for Women's PealLh,
8esearch and uevelopmenL. ln addlLlon Lo sharlng learnlng and resources, Lhe lorum has
engaged wlLh naLlonal lssues by preparlng Lwo collecLlve responses Lo governmenL
consulLaLlons on lCM, and by sendlng ouL lobbylng leLLers. Þro[ecL workers reporL LhaL
belng parL of a naLlonal lnlLlaLlve has helped Lhelr pro[ecLs Lo carry more welghL, for
lnsLance, ln advocaLlng for Lhe lncluslon of lCM on local safeguardlng agendas.

Þrobably Lhe blggesL lmpacL would be Lhe
openlng up of dlscusslons and brlnglng lCM on
Lo Lhe agenda.1hls creaLes a sLronger volce for
Lhe campalgn when we have many dlfferenL
groups ln Lhe enLlre uk. Also llnks wlLh oLher
organlsaLlons llke Lhe pollce. lL ls a very
lnLeresLlng plaLform, and sLrengLhens Lhe work
lLself and consolldaLes Lhe pro[ecLs. CSCA M&L
Data
AAl reporLs LhaL Lhelr lnvolvemenL ln Lhe
lCM lnlLlaLlve has ´moJe lt eoslet to pteseot
tbe ptoject to stokebolJets ooJ belpeJ
jlocteose] tecoqoltloo of tbe toplc of lCM´. ln
London ln parLlcular, Lhls has also been
faclllLaLed by Lhe pan-London Chlldren's
Safeguardlng procedures, whlch have puL
added pressure on local boards Lo lnclude
lCM.

ln some cases, good sLraLeglc alllances have been bullL beLween Lhe Advlsory Croup and
pro[ecLs. An example of Lhls ls engagemenL wlLh Lhe MeLropollLan pollce 'Þro[ecL Azure'
Leam, who meL pro[ecL workers aL a learnlng evenL. Slnce Lhen, members of Lhe Þro[ecL
Azure Leam have been lnvlLed Lo aLLend some communlLy evenLs, and have aLLended every
meeLlng of Lhe pan-London lCM lorum. 1he pollce fully recognlse Lhe need for communlLy
engagemenL and for culLurally senslLlve messaglng abouL lCM, and [olnL worklng wlLh Lhe
pro[ecLs ls an area LhaL could be furLher developed ln Lhe nexL phase of Lhe lnlLlaLlve.
lndlvldual pro[ecLs (such as 8AWSC) have also conducLed [olnL pro[ecLs wlLh leadlng
advocaLes who slL on Lhe Advlsory Croup (lncludlng LquallLy nCW and lC8WA8u), whlch
Lhey have credlLed wlLh beLLer responslveness of parLlclpanLs Lo messages around lCM.

As menLloned ln secLlon 2.4, Lhe exLenL Lo whlch evldence and learnlng from funded pro[ecLs
has been communlcaLed Lo Lhe advlsory group and wlder clrcles (lncludlng pollcy makers
and oLher communlLy groups) has Lhus far been llmlLed. SLakeholders requesLed greaLer
44

aLLenLlon be pald Lo Lhls area. 1here ls a need Lo beLLer coordlnaLe local evldence from
funded pro[ecLs (e.g. ldenLlfylng barrlers Lo lCM prevenLlon) such LhaL a naLlonal level
response can be developed, lf requlred. An example of Lhls ls lCM prevenLlon ln schools.
Many pro[ecLs aLLempLed Lo work wlLh schools, buL faced a lack of response from schools
auLhorlLles. 1he recenL lncluslon of lCM prevenLlon ln ClS1Lu's schools lnspecLlon reglme
could poLenLlally encourage schools Lo malnsLream lCM prevenLlon ln educaLlon.

Where Lhere have been dlfferences ln approaches beLween Lhe groups, learnlng evenLs have
been Lhe maln condulL for debaLlng and analyslng Lhese dlfferences, buL fuLure phases of
Lhe lnlLlaLlve could lnclude closer [olnL worklng. LvenLs such as Lhe Cpen Space evenL on
lCM prevenLlon were percelved as belng valuable by boLh key sLakeholders and Lhe
lnlLlaLlve-funded groups, as sLarLlng Lhe dlalogue for a more sLraLeglc response Lo lCM
prevenLlon.


43

3 Conc|us|ons

3.1 Summary of I|nd|ngs
Where communlLy based prevenLlve work ls Laklng place, aLLlLudes Lowards lCM are
changlng: Lhere ls growlng opposlLlon Lo lCM, and growlng supporL for a more
lnLervenLlonlsL sLance Lo be Laken by Lhe uk governmenL ln safeguardlng all women and glrls
from lCM. 1hese changes are Laklng place agalnsL a backdrop of helghLened medla and
pollcy aLLenLlon on lCM.

Cver Lhe course of Lhe lnlLlaLlve, funded groups have galned clarlLy on where Lhey can
moblllse opposlLlon Lo lCM, and how Lo bulld confldence Lo volce Lhls opposlLlon. lmporLanL
elemenLs of communlLy-based work have been ldenLlfled as:
• Þrovldlng safe spaces Lo Lalk abouL lCM (ln groups or lndlvldually)
• Lmpowerlng communlLy champlons/advocaLes Lo speak ouL abouL lCM, and Lo
acL as LrusLed lnLermedlarles beLween people from affecLed communlLles and
fronLllne servlces
• lncorporaLlng messages abouL lCM lnLo wlder healLh lssues, and uslng a rlghLs-
based approach Lo argue for 'zero Lolerance' of all forms of lCM
• ConfronLlng mlsconcepLlons abouL llnks beLween rellglon and lCM
• Worklng wlLh mlxed groups (eLhnlclLles, ages, genders)
• 1argeLlng efforLs aL younger people

ÞarLlclpanLs have credlLed lnlLlaLlve-funded pro[ecLs wlLh sparklng necessary dlscusslons and
debaLe abouL lCM, ln a culLurally senslLlve and grounded way. Þro[ecLs recognlse Lhe rlsk of
legal messages soundlng punlLlve and LhreaLenlng, and have worked Lo develop wlder
undersLandlng of lCM as a form of chlld abuse. ArgumenLs agalnsL lCM are maLurlng and
becomlng more sophlsLlcaLed: funded groups, parLlcularly Lhose who have worked wlLh
affecLed communlLles over many years, are addresslng Lhe percelved llnks beLween lCM
and conLrol of women's sexuallLy, and developlng 'zero Lolerance' argumenLs.

Þro[ecL workers worklng alongslde Lhe sLaLuLory secLor have been hlghly valued ln Lhe
geographlc areas where sLaLuLory agencles recognlse LhaL Lhere ls a need Lo work
prevenLaLlvely wlLh communlLy-based groups.

A neLwork approach lncludlng group-based learnlng has worked well Lo bulld Lhe confldence
and skllls wlLhln funded pro[ecLs, and Lhey reporL LhaL Lhls has broughL many sLraLeglc
advanLages. 1hey would llke Lo wlden Lhe remlL of Lhe neLwork furLher, Lhrough more
opporLunlLles Lo engage wlLh sLraLeglc leaders, and more concerLed group learnlng.

ln order Lo develop Lhelr communlLy-based work furLher, and Lo ensure fuLure susLalnablllLy
of prevenLlon efforLs, an enabllng local pollcy-maklng envlronmenL ls essenLlal. ulLlmaLely,
Lhe alm should be for C8Cs worklng on lCM Lo be lnvolved ln needs assessmenLs and Lhe
commlsslonlng cycle (as dlrecLed by naLlonal guldance for Plv prevenLlon), and Lo be
engaged wlLh local PealLh and Wellbelng 8oards. 1here ls llmlLed evldence LhaL funded
46

groups have been effecLlve aL pushlng local healLh and soclal care agencles Lowards a wlder
lCM prevenLlon programme when Lhe lssue ls noL already on Lhe local auLhorlLles' agenda.
Croups ouLslde London may need elLher exLra resourclng or more sLraLeglc supporL from Lhe
lnlLlaLlve Lo do so. 1he lnlLlaLlve should monlLor Lhe sLrengLh of local responses Lo lCM and
help pro[ecLs Lo hold local auLhorlLles Lo accounL lf Lhey fall Lo address lCM ln elLher pollcy
maklng or operaLlonallslng pollcles (e.g. allocaLlng resources).

1here ls now consensus LhaL Lhe mosL effecLlve approach Lo lCM prevenLlon requlres
mulLlple sLakeholders aL a local level, malnsLreamlng lCM under vAWC and/or Safeguardlng
sLraLegles, and communlLy groups playlng a role ln prevenLlon. 1he sLraLeglc dlrecLlon of Lhe
lnlLlaLlve, and Lhe Lype of supporL offered Lo lLs pro[ecLs, should be lnfluenced by Lhls model.

Challenges remaln for Lhe pro[ecLs conducLlng communlLy-based work. Some people
conLlnue Lo supporL lCM, whlch Lhey assoclaLe wlLh concepLs of culLural herlLage and
conLrol of women and glrls' sexuallLy. SupporL for less severe forms of lCM (ofLen referred
Lo 'Sunnah') ls sLlll also wldely reporLed. 'Speaklng ouL' wlLhln communlLles sLlll carrles rlsks,
and requlres senslLlvlLy and a long-Lerm approach. Cver Lhe course of Lhe lnlLlaLlve,
governmenL cuL-backs, decenLrallzaLlon and re-organlsaLlon have all lmpacLed on Lhe
sLraLeglc relaLlonshlps LhaL Lhe pro[ecLs have been able Lo make. AlLhough Lhe new
commlsslonlng landscape of Lhe nPS and local auLhorlLles may provlde opporLunlLles for
pro[ecLs, furLher publlc secLor cuLs are llkely Lo lead Lo lncreased compeLlLlon for scarce
resources.

3.2 Imp||cat|ons and kecommendat|ons
A number of dlscusslon polnLs emerge for Lhe sLraLeglc dlrecLlon of Lhe lnlLlaLlve. 1hese have
relevance boLh for Lhe second phase of Lhe lnlLlaLlve, and for a wlder audlence wlLh lnLeresL
ln lCM prevenLlon.

Notloool leoJetsblp
• A range of local and naLlonal agencles are charged wlLh respondlng Lo lCM, wlLh Lhe
rlsk of 'passlng Lhe buck'. A clear naLlonal pollcy on lCM - sLaLlng roles and
responslblllLles - should be a prlorlLy for governmenL, addresslng:
• 1he role of local auLhorlLy leads ln respondlng Lo lCM, lncludlng sLandards
for how local auLhorlLles should engage wlLh communlLy groups Lo respond
Lo local needs.
• MandaLory Lralnlng ln lCM for approprlaLe professlonals.
• Pow Lhe performance of local areas ln response Lo naLlonal guldance wlll be
managed and monlLored.
• AlLhough Lhere ls rlslng awareness of lCM ln naLlonal pollcy clrcles, Lhls needs Lo be
LranslaLed lnLo concreLe acLlons. 1hls musL lnclude fundlng prevenLlon sLraLegles,
and addresslng Lhe demand Lo brlng abouL a prosecuLlon under lCM leglslaLlon.
• A number of promlslng naLlonal lnlLlaLlves have been launched (lncludlng Lhe MulLl-
agency Culdellnes on lCM and PealLh ÞassporL). Powever, aLLenLlon and resources
need Lo be commlLLed Lo lmplemenLaLlon and follow up Lo ensure Lhey have an
47

lmpacL. 8ulldlng sLronger relaLlonshlps wlLh communlLy groups, Lo roll ouL such
lnlLlaLlves, ls recommended.

A co-otJlooteJ, loteqtoteJ, ooJ tesootceJ locol tespoose
• lCM prevenLlon aL a local level needs Lo be co-ordlnaLed and lnLegraLed. vlolence
agalnsL women and glrls and safeguardlng frameworks are boLh useful for Lhls.
MulLlple sLakeholders, lncludlng sLaLuLory agencles and communlLy groups, should
work LogeLher Lo ldenLlfy local needs and lmplemenL approprlaLe prevenLlon
sLraLegles (e.g. Lhrough Lhe local !olnL SLraLeglc needs AssessmenL (!SnA)). A focal
person Lo coordlnaLe and champlon Lhe cause - e.g. from wlLhln mldwlfery servlces
or prlmary care - ls lmporLanL.
• CommunlLy groups can play a cenLral role ln helplng sLaLuLory agencles Lo dellver
Lhelr safeguardlng obllgaLlons ln Lerms of proLecLlng chlldren from lCM. Powever,
Lhey need Lo be:
• SlgnlflcanLly beLLer resourced.
• SupporLed Lo ensure Lhey have Lhe relevanL skllls.
• ConnecLed wlLh local agencles for coordlnaLlon and susLalnablllLy.
• lnvlLed Lo parLlclpaLe meanlngfully ln plannlng and commlsslonlng cycles.
LxlsLlng models ln healLh (e.g. Plv prevenLlon) show how Lhls can be done.
• 1here should be proacLlve aLLempLs Lo reach new arrlvals Lo Lhe uk wlLh lCM
prevenLlon efforLs. CommunlLy groups can also conLrlbuLe Lo Lhls, for lnsLance, by
developlng lnformaLlon abouL lCM Lo lnclude ln packages of supporL Lo new
arrlvals.
• Þrofesslonals should seek supporL and advlce from approprlaLe communlLy groups
Lo help Lhem bulld Lhelr confldence Lo work on lssues relaLed Lo lCM.
• Schools should be encouraged Lo address Lhe lssue of lCM, and should seek ouL
approprlaLe communlLy groups LhaL can help Lhem ralse Lhe lssue senslLlvely.
• CurrenL resourclng for lCM prevenLlon does noL always maLch need. ln Lhe absence
of rellable prevalence daLa, local areas can work wlLh communlLy groups and
analyse exlsLlng daLa Lo see wheLher Lhere are affecLed populaLlons ln Lhelr area,
and declde how besL Lo reach Lhem.
• More could be done Lo develop Lhe poLenLlal role of C8Cs ln dlrecLly prevenLlng
lCM (l.e. ldenLlfylng glrls aL rlsk, worklng wlLh Lhelr famllles), worklng alongslde Lhe
sLaLuLory secLor. 1he naLure of lCM ls LhaL, unllke oLher forms of chlld abuse, Lhere
are ofLen few slgns of a chlld belng aL rlsk, and people may feel more comforLable
approachlng a LrusLed pro[ecL worker wlLh concerns Lhan Lhe pollce or oLher
represenLaLlves of sLaLuLory agencles.

5tteoqtbeoloq commoolty qtoops ooJ tbelt pteveotloo effotts
• AccredlLaLlon for communlLy groups, demonsLraLlng an approprlaLe level of Lralnlng
and quallLy ln Lhelr lCM-relaLed work, would be useful ln Lerms of helplng local
auLhorlLles Lo ldenLlfy groups Lo parLner wlLh on lCM prevenLlon. CuallLy sLandards
for Lhlrd-secLor groups worklng on harmful pracLlces are currenLly belng plloLed by
lmkaan and could be adopLed.
48

• Worklng wlLh volunLeers requlres careful resourclng, ln Lerms of Lralnlng, monlLorlng
and supporLlng Lhem, parLlcularly Lo ensure LhaL Lhey are meeLlng Lhelr safeguardlng
obllgaLlons.
• Þerlodlc re-engagemenL wlLh rellglous leaders wlll be requlred Lo ensure Lhe
lmporLanL messages LhaL Lhey have communlcaLed remaln relevanL and fresh. lL ls
recommended LhaL pro[ecLs worklng wlLh rellglous leaders focus on uslng female
soclal neLworks/scholars wlLhln rellglous lnsLlLuLlons, and make beLLer use of
exlsLlng resources developed Lhrough Lhe lnlLlaLlve LhaL counLer bellefs LhaL lCM ls
a rellglously condoned pracLlce.
• All pro[ecL workers and volunLeers should be provlded wlLh approprlaLe Lralnlng so
LhaL Lhey can effecLlvely supporL safeguardlng agencles ln Lhe conLexL of lCM-
relaLed work.
• 8ulldlng on Lhe success of worklng alongslde healLh and soclal care professlonals Lo
supporL women and famllles affecLed by lCM, pro[ecLs should conslder how Lhey
can wlden Lhls sphere of lnfluence (e.g. worklng wlLh CÞs wlLh an lnLeresL ln sexual
and reproducLlve healLh).
• Whlle Lhe lCM lnlLlaLlve has provlded valuable fundlng, key sLakeholders vlewed
currenL levels of fundlng for prevenLlon as Loo low. 1he lnlLlaLlve could conslder
supporLlng pro[ecLs Lo advocaLe for more resourclng (e.g. from Lhe Pome Cfflce,
CCCs, PealLh and Wellbelng 8oards), parLlcularly ouLslde London.
• AccounLablllLy mechanlsms ouLslde London: ln London, Lhe pan-London
Safeguardlng board can acL as an accounLablllLy mechanlsm ln Lerms of persuadlng
Local AuLhorlLles Lo respond Lo lCM. Croups ln less dlverse seLLlngs should be
supporLed Lo neLwork more wldely, for lncreased confldence and skllls, or Lo [oln
forces wlLh oLher groups ln Lhelr area for a sLronger volce.
• 8roadenlng Lhe naLlonal advocacy scene: pro[ecL workers do noL currenLly have
hlgh-level naLlonal vlslblllLy as advocaLes, and a small number of organlsaLlons
domlnaLe Lhe (London-cenLrlc) naLlonal advocacy scene. 1here ls an appeLlLe among
oLher groups Lo be lncluded ln dlscusslons aL naLlonal level (whlch ln Lurn wlll
sLrengLhen Lhelr moLlvaLlon and develop Lhelr advocacy skllls, whlch Lhey can Lake
back Lo Lhelr home Lowns), and Lhere ls a need for Lhe naLlonal debaLe Lo hear more
volces from around Lhe uk.
• 1he lnlLlaLlve and lLs funded pro[ecLs need Lo clear abouL when Lhey should be
advocaLlng for a naLlonal response (e.g. for naLlonal-level guldellnes) and when Lhey
should be lobbylng aL a local level. WlLh Lhe currenL locallsm agenda, naLlonal
agencles may be lncreaslngly llkely Lo refer lssues back Lo Lhe local level (e.g. PealLh
and Wellbelng boards, or CCCs). Some pro[ecLs wlll need exLra supporL Lo lobby aL a
local level, as Lhey do noL all have skllls ln pollcy advocacy, nor Lhe Llme and
resources Lo conducL exLenslve lobbylng.
• ConslderaLlon needs Lo be glven Lo LxlL SLraLegles/susLalnablllLy: AlLhough anoLher
Lwo Lo Lhree years' worLh of fundlng has been asslgned, Lhe need for long-Lerm
approaches for lCM prevenLlon ls clear.


49

4 Annexes

Annex 1. Þro[ect Summar|es
1hls secLlon summarlses pro[ecLs acLlvlLles and progress over Lhe whole lnlLlaLlve, wlLh
currenL challenges, based on Lhelr reporLs Lo CpLlons uk.


1. Afr|ca Advocacy Ioundat|on (AAI), London

Act|v|t|es:
• CommunlLy champlons (Len women) supporLlng ouLreach and workshop acLlvlLles.
• Workshops Lo ralse awareness abouL healLh, confldence bulldlng and leadershlp
skllls.
• Weekly counselllng and supporL sesslons for women affecLed by lCM, and provlslon
of supporL around referrals Lo nPS.
• Annual young people's Lrlp wlLh a focus on lnLergeneraLlonal relaLlons.
• MonLhly 'slsLers' clrcles' meeLlngs wlLh women ln Mosques.
• Cn-golng work wlLh Musllm leaders from Slerra Leone, lvory CoasL, Somalla and
nlgerlan communlLles.
• Cn-golng dlssemlnaLlon of lnformaLlon maLerlals.
• ÞarLnershlp worklng wlLh LambeLh Councll wlLh a focus on vAWC.
• Cn-golng lnLeragency work (e.g. wlLh Afrlcan-led communlLy organlsaLlons, vlcLlm
supporL (LambeLh/SouLhwark)).

Þrogress:
• lncreased awareness amongsL women LhaL lCM ls noL a rellglous buL a culLural
pracLlce.
• Women are more wllllng Lo share Lhelr sLorles whlch bullds a sense of shared
experlence.
• 8ellglous leaders are more wllllng Lo dlscuss lCM and re[ecL Lhe pracLlce openly.
• ?oung people are very confldenL ln re[ecLlng lCM.
• ÞuLLlng lCM on Lhe 'vlolence AgalnsL Women' and Clrls' agenda ln LambeLh.
• Worklng wlLh 'slsLers' clrcles' ln local mosques.
• 1ralnlng of lCM communlLy champlons Lo work more wldely ln local communlLles.

Cha||enges:
• Lngaglng men, and keeplng men acLlvely lnvolved ln lCM work beyond workshops.
• Cn-golng bellef LhaL Lype one (Sunnah) ls accepLable and less harmful.
• SLruggllng Lo bulld worklng relaLlonshlps wlLh local sLaLuLory organlsaLlons ln
SouLhwark and Lewlsham.
• Lngaglng ChrlsLlan falLh communlLles.


30

2. 8|rm|ngham and So||hu|| Women's A|d (8SWAID), 8|rm|ngham

Act|v|t|es:
• SupporLlng work aL Afrlcan Well Women's cllnlc and one-Lo-one referrals wlLh 192
women.
• Worklng wlLh slx communlLy champlons from Culnea, Somalla and uganda, Lo Lraln
Lhem on vlolence agalnsL women, and reachlng ouL Lo wlder communlLles uslng
communlLy evenLs.
• ÞroducLlon of 'volces of women' leafleL.
• Cn-golng parLnershlp worklng Lhrough mulLl-agency worklng group (8lrmlngham
agalnsL lCM - 8AlCM).
• CrganlsaLlon of evenLs (Lhree) wlLh 8AlCM, whlch have reached ouL Lo a wlde range
of fronLllne professlonals across Lhe sLaLuLory and volunLary secLors, aLLracLlng
around 70 people Lo each evenL.
• 1ralnlng of professlonals (flve groups), lncludlng mulLl-agency group represenLaLlves
(Lwo sesslons, lncludlng mldwlves, CÞs, houslng workers and soclal workers) and
Mldwlves (Lhree sesslons).
• MonLhly group-based awareness ralslng wlLh flve women's and young person's
groups.
• Men's awareness ralslng evenL, creaLed by worklng wlLh a male communlLy
champlon.
• Sourclng addlLlonal fundlng for furLher pro[ecL acLlvlLles Lo ralse awareness of Lhe
law, healLh effecLs and consequences of lCM, Lo empower women Lo re[ecL lCM.

Þrogress:
• lor Lhe flrsL Llme, men are beglnnlng Lo ldenLlfy Lhe healLh lmpacL of lCM on Lhelr
wlves, due Lo greaLer lnvolvemenL ln chlldblrLh.
• 8ecrulLmenL of communlLy champlons Lo underLake awareness ralslng work ln
communlLles.
• lncreaslng numbers of women wllllng Lo re[ecL lCM.
• 'volces of women' leafleL provldlng wrlLLen case sLudles of women re[ecLlng lCM
wlll be dlssemlnaLed nexL year (2014).
• lramlng lCM wlLhln Lhe domesLlc vlolence, chlld proLecLlon and human rlghLs
dlscourse.
• Accessed exLra fundlng from oLher organlsaLlons Lo supporL on-golng lCM work.
• Advocacy wlLh lnLer-agency groups, lncludlng lmplemenLaLlon of lCM AcLlon plan,
and developmenL of lCM sLrand of Lhe vlolence AgalnsL Women SLraLegy.
• ueveloplng new llnks wlLh new communlLy groups ln Lhe local area.
• uellvered workshop aL Lhe naLlonal Women's Alu lederaLlon conference ln !uly
2012.

Cha||enges:
• ÞerslsLenL bellef LhaL Lype one (Sunnah) ls prescrlbed by rellglous Leachlng.
• Þressure Lo dlsband Lhe Afrlcan Well Women's cllnlc.
31



3. 8AWSC, Wa|es

Act|v|t|es:
• Cn-golng dlsLrlbuLlon of lnformaLlon maLerlals and advocacy pack for healLh
professlonals.
• Speaklng aL conferences Lo ralse awareness of Lhe pro[ecL (e.g. Cardlff Women's Ald
conference, Welsh 8efugee Safe Cuardlng Conference).
• 1ralnlng Lralnee mldwlves sLudylng ln Lhelr Lhlrd year aL Cardlff unlverslLy.
• Cn-golng producLlon of anoLher advocacy bookleL almed aL dlfferenL local auLhorlLy
servlce provlders.
• Cn-golng Lralnlng and supporL Lo Len communlLy advocaLes who were Lralned by
8AWSC Lo underLake ouLreach work.
• Convene lCM SLakeholders' lorum Lo conLlnue parLnershlp worklng, and wlden
parLners lnvolved.
• CommunlLy workshops wlLh women, men and young people from pracLlclng
communlLles (e.g. from Somalla, ?emen, LrlLrea, and Sudan).
• Cne-Lo-one supporL Lo famllles wlLh aL-rlsk daughLers, alongslde soclal servlces.
• Cn-golng work wlLh rellglous leaders.
• Cn-golng work wlLh oLher Lhlrd secLor parLners (e.g. Cardlff MeLropollLan unlverslLy,
Wales naLlonal 1heaLre, Chlldren ln Wales, Þubllc healLh unlverslLy of Wales, MLWn
Cymru).

Þrogress:
• 1ralnlng of Lhlrd year mldwlves ln lCM lssues.
• Wldenlng Lhe membershlp of Lhe lCM sLakeholders' forum ln Wales.
• ÞarLnershlp worklng (e.g. wlLh Cardlff MeLropollLan unlverslLy, Wales naLlonal
1heaLre) Lo broaden reach and lmpacL of lCM pro[ecL.
• Worklng Lhrough women ln Lhe communlLy as advocaLes Lo broaden soclal neLworks
and engage new women ln awareness ralslng acLlvlLles.
• CreaLlon of a Sudanese youLh-wrlLLen play called '1he PalrcuL', performed aL Lhe blg
'cuL lL ouL' evenL.
• Work wlLh famllles ldenLlfled by soclal servlces as havlng glrls aL rlsk from lCM.
• ln Lhe process of bulldlng relaLlonshlps wlLh Lhree youLh groups.
• 8roadened Lhe range of eLhnlclLy groups lnvolved ln Lhe work.

Cha||enges
• Calnlng access Lo schools.
• Lngaglng Somall and ?emenl men ln lCM work.
• need a cllnlc ln Wales LhaL can deal wlLh lCM relaLed healLh problems.
• Pard Lo engage wlLh lmams who sLaLe LhaL lCM does noL exlsL ln Lhelr communlLles.
• Lack of resources Lo provlde chlldcare for women aLLendlng evenLs.

32

4. 8|ack Women's nea|th and Iam||y Support (8WnAIS), London

Act|v|t|es:
• CommunlLy awareness-ralslng workshops wlLh communlLy members.
• Workshops wlLh professlonals (e.g. Lralnee mldwlves, school nurses, young person's
advlce cenLre).
• 1ralned young communlLy advocaLes Lo supporL on-golng ouLreach work.
• Cn-golng parLnershlp worklng wlLh Afrlcan lamlly Servlces (1ower PamleLs), nPS
Packney maLernlLy servlces, and safeguardlng boards (1ower PamleLs, Packney).
• Crganlsed MoLher's and uaughLer's evenL wlLh CSCA, wlLh a focus on
lnLergeneraLlonal dlalogue.
• Work wlLh parenLs Lhrough ÞarenLs AssoclaLlons ln schools wlLh hlgh numbers of
puplls from affecLed communlLles.
• Crganlsed 'LeL's abandon lCM' evenL durlng 8lack PlsLory MonLh.
• Cn-golng producLlon and dlsLrlbuLlon of lnformaLlon leafleLs.
• Cn-golng provlslon of supporL Lo women affecLed by lCM (e.g. referrals Lo nPS, face
Lo face meeLlngs).
• Cn-golng work wlLh rellglous leaders and scholars (e.g. Madrassa Leachers).
• use of 'Cosslp board' aL evenLs.

Þrogress:
• SlgnlflcanL lncrease ln anLl-lCM vlews across age and eLhnlc groups.
• 8epeaLed lnsLances of women speaklng ouL agalnsL lCM ln communlLles.
• Worklng wlLh communlLy advocaLes Lo ldenLlfy and work wlLh new communlLy
groups and organlsaLlons ln newham.
• Crganlsed Lhe 'LeL's abandon lCM' and 'moLhers and daughLers' evenLs, boLh of
whlch enabled reflecLlve cross-generaLlonal dlalogue.
• lncreaslng knowledge amongsL professlonals rouLlnely worklng wlLh lCM affecLed
communlLles (Chlldren's cenLres, CÞs, soclal workers).
• lncreaslng communlLy awareness of lllegallLy of lCM ln Lhe uk.

Cha||enges
• Lack of convlcLlons and prosecuLlons sofLens Lhe lmpacL of leglslaLlon.
• Pard Lo engage schools and Leachers ln lCM work.
• CerLaln groups of communlLy members who are very reslsLanL Lo lCM awareness
work, lncludlng regular groups of new arrlvals lnLo newham.


S. 8o|ton So||dar|ty Commun|ty Assoc|at|on (8SCA), 8o|ton

Act|v|t|es:
• Cn-golng work wlLh Somall rellglous leaders ln workshop seLLlngs.
• CommunlLy workshops wlLh men, women and younger women.
33

• CollaboraLlve work wlLh '8olLon aL home' and lLs women only 'safe house', carrylng
ouL Lwo sesslons per monLh wlLh eLhnlc mlnorlLy women.
• Þrovlslon of 'drop ln' cenLre faclllLles Lwo days per week for women affecLed by
lCM, as well as oLher eLhnlc mlnorlLy refugee groups.
• Awareness ralslng workshops wlLh healLh professlonals (mldwlves, school nurses,
CÞs).
• Cn-golng dlsLrlbuLlon of lnformaLlon leafleLs and prlnLlng of posLers.
• Cn-golng dlsLrlbuLlon of lnformaLlon packs Lo parLner organlsaLlons.
• Cn-golng aLLendance aL sLeerlng group meeLlngs ln Lhe CreaLer ManchesLer reglon.

Þrogress:
• lncreaslng lnLeracLlon wlLh men ln workshops, and more men seem wllllng Lo Lalk Lo
oLher men abouL lCM.
• ?oung women and glrls are more and more wllllng Lo speak ouL and re[ecL lCM
whlch Lhey percelve as abuslve.
• lncreaslng worklng relaLlonshlps wlLh nPS 8olLon, 8olLon councll, Lhe CreaLer
ManchesLer lCM forum, and Lhlrd secLor organlsaLlons.
• Lnhanced awareness LhaL lCM ls lllegal.

Cha||enges
• Þersuadlng older men Lo change Lhelr bellefs on why lCM ls lmporLanL (l.e. women's
purlLy).
• Cn-golng percepLlons LhaL Lype one (Sunnah) ls a rellglous obllgaLlon.
• ConservaLlve vlews amongsL communlLy members who vlew dlscusslon abouL lCM
as slgnlfylng LhaL someone ls becomlng 'WesLernlsed'.


6. 8r|t|sh Soma|| Commun|ty (8SC), London

Act|v|t|es:
• Awareness ralslng workshops for young people, mlxed audlences (young and old
women), and wlLh dlfferenL eLhnlc groups (e.g. Sudanese, Somall, LLhloplan) and
work wlLh rellglous leaders.
• Cn-golng dlsLrlbuLlon of leafleLs and posLers LhroughouL Lhe communlLy.
• ALLendlng local sLaLuLory forum meeLlngs (e.g. Safeguardlng 8oard, 8oyal lree
PosplLal LquallLy Access 8oard).
• Local neLworklng wlLh rellglous organlsaLlons (e.g. London CenLral Mosque and
lslamlc CenLre, Musllm Councll of 8rlLaln, WhlLechapel Mosque).
• Local neLworklng wlLh Lhlrd secLor organlsaLlons (e.g. klngs CaLe CommunlLy CenLre,
WesL PampsLead Women's CenLre, Sudan Women's AssoclaLlon).
• Awareness ralslng workshops and developmenL of lCM prevenLlon wlLh young
people, lncludlng young men.
• SLeerlng Croup meeLlngs
• lCM semlnar Lo deslgnaLed safeguardlng sLaff ln schools
34

• Clrls Conference Lo dlscuss empowerlng women and glrls
• 1ralned Len volunLeers (flve young people and flve women) Lo ralse peers'
confldence, lnfluence, and speak ouL agalnsL lCM, as well as asslsL Lhe pro[ecL
worker.
• ÞarLlclpaLlng acLlvely ln Lhe endllne ÞLL8 research.
• lCM semlnar Lo Camden professlonals worklng wlLh chlldren

Þrogress:
• ?ounger people more wllllng Lo re[ecL lCM and Lake parL ln llvely debaLes durlng
workshops.
• More mlddle-aged women declarlng LhaL Lhey would noL clrcumclse Lhelr own
daughLers.
• Peld a 8ellglous conference where rellglous leaders and scholars provlded
clarlflcaLlon of longsLandlng rellglous mlsconcepLlons.
• ÞarLnershlp worklng wlLh a wlde range of local communlLy-based organlsaLlons,
local auLhorlLy servlces, nPS and safeguardlng boards.
• 8educlng slgnlflcanLly sLlgma aLLached Lo non-lCM pracLlclng people ln Lhe
communlLy, and reduced Lhe exLenL Lo whlch lCM ls seen as a Laboo sub[ecL
• lncreased confldence Lo re[ecL lCM by glrls and mosL women

Cha||enges:
• Worklng wlLh older people and Lrylng Lo lessen Lhe effecL of rellglous and culLural
values whlch supporL lCM.
• Worklng wlLh men Lo overcome apaLhy and a percepLlon LhaL lCM ls a woman's
lssue.
• no fundlng for pro[ecL Lo conLlnue afLer March 2013


7. ICkWAkD, London, Manchester, 8r|sto|, M|dd|esbrough

Act|v|t|es:
• ÞrevenLlon of lCM uslng an empowermenL approach wlLh young women ln four
locaLlons: London, ManchesLer, 8rlsLol and Mlddlesbrough.
• 1ranslLlon of young women ln youLh group Lo becomlng youLh advocaLes, helplng Lo
faclllLaLe communlLy workshops and oLher youLh programmes.
• uevelopmenL of youLh frlendly advocacy maLerlals (lncludlng: '16 Ways Lo help end
lCM', 'lAC bookleL' and 'lnformaLlon servlces and supporL gulde' (ready Lo be
prlnLed ln Summer 2013).
• uellvery of 'Lmpowered' - a peer menLorlng/educaLlon programme dellvered over
slx sesslons focusslng on lCM, asserLlveness, self-defence, menLal and sexual healLh
- ln 8renL and Parlngey.
• uellvery of 'CreaLlve' - a youLh-led programme on creaLlve campalgnlng wlLh
sesslons focused on leadershlp, lCM and ldenLlLy.
• ?ouLh groups ln CreaLer ManchesLer, 8rlsLol and London.
33

• Awareness ralslng workshops wlLh young people aL school (Lhree London schools)
and ln unlverslLles (e.g. Leeds, Cxford and Warwlck)
• CommunlLy awareness evenLs (e.g. launch of lCM game ln 8rlsLol, phoLography,
poeLry and dance evenLs ln London).
• Soclal medla campalgnlng, Lhrough lacebook and 1wlLLer.
• lCM onllne forum Lo lnform, campalgn and share lnformaLlon ln 8ochdale.
• Annual youLh forum whlch brlngs youLh advocaLes from all Lhe clLles LogeLher for
Lralnlng and sharlng learnlng.

Þrogress:
• ÞroducLlon and use of Lhe lCM game as a dlscusslon Lool wlLh young people ln
8rlsLol.
• Lnhanced youLh leadershlp ln youLh-led peer menLorlng/educaLlon programmes
called 'Lmpowered and CreaLlve'.
• ÞubllcaLlon of Lwo youLh-frlendly lCM resources.
• 8urgeonlng follower-base aL lacebook and LwlLLer accounLs.
• ÞoslLlonlng lCM wlLhln broader 'gender-based vlolence' lssues allows Lhe Loplc of
lCM Lo seem less of a pracLlce done by 'oLher' communlLles, and more relaLable Lo
dally llfe.
• 8ecrulLmenL of young men Lo 8ochdale's youLh group.

Cha||enges:
• Lngaglng and worklng wlLh young men ln lCM work.
• 8eLalnlng youLh advocaLes who can lead qulLe LranslenL llfesLyles, Laklng Lhem away
from Lhe organlsaLlon.
• Calnlng access Lo work ln schools, parLlcularly prlmary schools


8. Granby Soma|| Women's Group (GSWG), L|verpoo|

Act|v|t|es:
• MonLhly awareness ralslng workshops wlLh older women (aged 30-60) and young
women (aged 14-17 years).
• Awareness ralslng workshops wlLh men.
• Annual evenL - a C&A sesslon led by young women, focuslng on lnLer-generaLlonal
communlcaLlon.
• MonLhly one-Lo-one drop ln sesslons Lo supporL women affecLed by lCM.
• Cn-golng parLnershlp worklng wlLh nPS lCM healLh worker, nPS soclal excluslon
Leam, pollce communlLy llalson offlcer.
• Member of paLlenL parLlclpaLlon boards of Lwo local healLh cenLres, Lo ralse
awareness of senslLlve healLh care for women affecLed by lCM.

Þrogress:
36

• lncreaslng occurrence of women saylng LhaL Lhey wlll noL pracLlce lCM on Lhelr
daughLers.
• Women more wllllng Lo dlscuss Lhelr personal experlences of lCM.
• ?ounger women more able Lo ask quesLlons abouL why lCM ls sLlll pracLlced.
• ulscusslon of lCM amongsL oLher healLh lssues enables a dlfflculL Loplc Lo be
broached more senslLlvely.
• ÞroducLlon of llLeraLure by younger women.

Cha||enges:
• Calnlng access Lo sLaLuLory organlsaLlons ln Llverpool.
• ulfflculLy ln engaglng wlLh lslamlc leaders from dlfferenL eLhnlc groups.
• ulfflculLy engaglng men ln lCM work.
• Local hosplLals are noL able Lo deal wlLh lCM relaLed healLh problems.
• ConservaLlve culLural vlews LhaL lCM ls sLlll a poslLlve way Lo conLrol women ln
socleLy.
• ulfflculLy ln conLrolllng older women ln groups who volce pro-lCM oplnlons qulLe
domlnanLly.

9. Manor Gardens Centre, London
Act|v|t|es:
• Work wlLh communlLy advocaLes from Lhe Somall, kurdlsh, Arablc and LrlLrean
communlLles, Lo broaden and enhance access Lo hard Lo reach groups.
• Worklng ln parLnershlp wlLh WhlLLlngLon PosplLal Afrlcan Well Woman Cllnlc Lo
faclllLaLe access Lo speclallsL servlces
• lnLegraLlon of lCM prevenLlon and healLh messages.
• lnnovaLlve ouLreach acLlvlLles Lo reach people ln communlLy meeLlng places.
• CommunlLy awareness ralslng workshops wlLh men and women.
• Workshops wlLh healLh professlonals lncludlng healLh vlslLors, soclal workers and
famlly key workers and a chlldren's cenLre.
• Campalgnlng Lo malnsLream lCM as a chlld proLecLlon lssue aL local and naLlonal
level
• Member of Parmful 1radlLlonal ÞracLlces Croup, lsllngLon Councll
• Cne-Lo-one advocacy and supporL sesslons wlLh women affecLed by lCM.
• CoordlnaLlon of Lhe 'lCM lorum' for London-based groups who are worklng on
lCM, Lo lmprove coordlnaLlon.
• SeLLlng up Lhe 8ellglous Leaders worklng group and organlslng Lhe conference 'lalLh
agalnsL lCM', lncludlng producLlon and dlssemlnaLlon of assoclaLed maLerlals.
• PosLlng launch of Lhe MulLl-agency CovernmenL Culdellnes on lCM
• Worklng ln schools as parL of uomesLlc vlolence Lralnlng Lo Lraln puplls on lCM

Þrogress:
• 1ackllng ldeas of rellglous [usLlflcaLlon for lCM ln publlc forums.
• Worklng wlLh communlLy advocaLes Lo dellver lnLegraLed messages addresslng lCM,
lncludlng Lhe healLh lmpacLs of Lhe pracLlce.
37

• new engagemenL wlLh hard Lo reach communlLles (e.g. LrlLrean women and men)
uslng lnnovaLlve approaches, worklng ln spaces whlch are famlllar Lo parLlcular
communlLles.
• 1ralnlng fronLllne professlonals on lCM and safeguardlng, lncludlng Leachers, healLh
vlslLors, and chlldren's cenLre workers.
• 1ralnlng healLh vlslLors Lo broaden ouLreach Lo women noL engaglng ln communlLy
groups.

Cha||enges:
• Lack of fundlng Lo recrulL and Lraln new communlLy advocaLes, or spend Llme
worklng wlLh rellglous leaders.
• Pard Lo access local schools.


10. Ccean Soma|| Commun|ty Assoc|at|on (CSCA), London

Act|v|t|es:
• ÞarLlclpaLory developmenL of a fllm - 'MuLed Cry' - on lCM and lLs effecLs, shown
Lhrough communlLy evenLs Lo mlxed audlences (men and women), based on Lhe
volces of women affecLed by lCM.
• Cn-golng work wlLh 13 communlLy advocaLes.
• CommunlLy evenLs aL Somall Week (e.g. lnLergeneraLlonal dlscusslon around Lhe
play).
• Awareness ralslng workshops wlLh older women and women of mlxed ages.
• Chlld proLecLlon Lralnlng sesslons wlLh Soclal Servlces and Lhe Afrlcan lamlly unlL ln
1ower PamleLs.
• Somall fllm nlghLs Lo aLLracL young people and oLhers who do noL normally engage
ln evenLs whlch are lCM-relaLed.
• Work wlLh lslamlc leaders Lhrough Lhe rellglous leaders' forum Lo ralse awareness of
anLl-lCM rellglous sLance.

Þrogress:
• Lnhanced awareness of Lhe negaLlve healLh effecLs of lCM.
• Wlder re[ecLlon of lCM Lhrough publlc forums, lncludlng durlng screenlngs of Lhe
lCM fllm 'MuLed Cry'.
• lncreased awareness LhaL lCM ls noL a rellglous pracLlce, based largely on clear,
conclse messages presenLed by rellglous leaders ln Lhe play, 'MuLed Cry'.
• Chlld proLecLlon Lralnlng sesslons wlLh 1ower PamleLs' soclal servlces and Afrlca
famlly unlLs.
• More open dlscusslon abouL lCM across genders, and beLween rellglous leaders and
communlLy members.
• lncreaslngly common for women Lo declare LhaL Lhey wlll noL clrcumclse Lhelr
daughLers.

38

Cha||enges:
• ÞerslsLenL bellef among older generaLlons LhaL Lype one (Sunnah) ls noL harmful.
• Lngaglng older women ln work LhaL ls anLl-lCM.
• Calnlng access Lo schools.
• lamllles have more presslng problems Lhan lCM, such as need Lo generaLe lncomes
and overcome household poverLy.
• Lack of flnanclal resources lnhlblLs Lhe amounL of Llme LhaL can be spenL on lCM
work.


11. Soma|| Deve|opment Serv|ces (SDS), Le|cester

Act|v|t|es:
• Worklng wlLh communlLy advocaLes who are lnvolved ln ouLreach work Lo ralse
awareness of Lhe harms and effecLs of lCM, and of Lhe law and servlces for women
affecLed by lCM.
• Awareness ralslng workshops wlLh women, young people and men.
• Cn-golng dlsLrlbuLlon of brochures and leafleLs.
• Cn-golng work wlLh rellglous leaders and scholars aL flve local Somall mosques Lo
ralse awareness LhaL lCM ls noL a rellglously condoned pracLlce.
• lnvolvemenL ln local Safeguardlng lorum.
• Cn-golng parLnershlp worklng wlLh LelcesLershlre nPS LrusL, nSÞCC 8alk 8asha
pro[ecL, LelcesLershlre Chlldren and ?oung Þeople's forum, uomesLlc vlolence
forum, Plghflelds Chlldren and ?oung Þeople 1rusL and LelcesLershlre AluS SupporL
Servlces.
• lnformal weekly one-Lo-one conversaLlons wlLh women aLLendlng SuS cenLre.
• 1ralnlngs for professlonals worklng wlLh Lhe affecLed communlLy.
• Clvlng presenLaLlons abouL lCM Lo MulLl-agency lorums.
• Clvlng safeguardlng Lralnlngs Lo Somall parenLs.
• ueveloplng lnformaLlon maLerlals for schools.
• ÞarLlclpaLlng regularly ln meeLlngs of dlfferenL forums and organlsaLlons.
• ulssemlnaLlon evenL abouL Lhe pro[ecL aLLended by more Lhan 130 women.
• ConducLlng a small survey (parLlclpaLed ln by more Lhan 30 persons) regardlng how
Lhe Somall communlLy ln LelcesLer sees lCM and lf lL ls pracLlsed ln LelcesLer.

Þrogress:
• Þrovldlng referrals and supporL for women affecLed by lCM Lo access care.
• lncreased awareness of healLh effecLs of lCM, and Lhe lllegallLy of lCM ln Lhe uk.
• lncreased occurrences of women campalgnlng agalnsL and re[ecLlng lCM.
• Worklng collaboraLlvely wlLh healLh professlonals ln communlLy workshops wlLh
women.
• Sharlng lnformaLlon and experLlse wlLh oLher organlsaLlons.
• lncreased Lhe number of women who are aware of LhaL lCM ls noL a rellglous
pracLlce.
39

• ln Lhe process of bulldlng relaLlonshlp wlLh dlfferenL schools.

Cha||enges:
• lnLergeneraLlonal dlalogue beLween younger and older generaLlons ln Lhe local area.
• ulfflculLy engaglng schools and colleges ln lCM work.


12. Southa|| Commun|ty A|||ance (SCA), London

Act|v|t|es:
• Medla evenLs lncludlng lnvolvemenL ln an 'AcLlon Women's 8adlo show', and a 1v
show on unlversal 1v (Somall channel)
• CreaLlon of a soclal neLworklng slLe and medla plaLform (lacebook).
• Cn-golng work wlLh volunLary secLor organlsaLlons (e.g. SouLhall 8lack SlsLers, AnLl-
Lrlballsm movemenL, Somall Women's neLwork).
• Worklng wlLh Leachers and parenLs Lhrough school falrs and coffee mornlngs.
• Cn-golng lnvolvemenL ln local Safeguardlng board, and ln Lralnlng fronLllne sLaff on
awareness of lCM.
• Cn-golng dlssemlnaLlon of promoLlonal maLerlals.
• 1ralned young people as communlLy ouLreach volunLeers Lo asslsL work.

Þrogress:
• Worklng wlLh Lallng Councll (Lhrough membershlp of Lallng Safeguardlng 8oard and
lLs subgroup on falLh and dlverslLy) and persuadlng Lhem Lo prlorlLlse work LhaL
promoLes anLl-lCM messages.
• Worklng wlLh oLher Lhlrd secLor organlsaLlons. lncreased awareness of Lhe healLh
rlsks and lllegallLy of lCM ln local communlLles.
• ?ounger women, and moLhers aged 30-30, are lncreaslngly wllllng Lo speak ouL and
re[ecL lCM.

Cha||enges:
• ulfflculLy engaglng older males ln lCM work.
• Pard Lo work wlLh lslamlc leaders locally.



60

!""#$ &' (#)*#+, -. /#*"+.01#2 (#)*#+, -. 345"6#

1hls Lable summarlses flndlngs from Lhe ÞLL8 daLa collecLed by mosL of Lhe pro[ecLs, ln Lerms of bellefs LhaL can be supporLed Lo sLrengLhen lCM
opposlLlon ('bellefs Lo relnforce' ln pro[ecL acLlvlLles and messaglng', and bellefs LhaL underpln supporL for lCM (bellefs LhaL pro[ecLs should alm Lo change).

7,,8# (#)*#+ -. 0#*"+.01# (#)*#+ -. 145"6# 79:)*15-*.", +.0 +.18, .+ *"-#0;#"-*.", <=#> -506#- 60.8:?




PealLh
1here are no healLh beneflLs from
lCM
lCM does noL resulL ln healLh problems Messaglng ls requlred on:

• lncreased emphasls on percelved llnks beLween lCM and culLural
ldenLlLy (all)
• AfflrmaLlve messages LhaL lCM does noL desLroy culLural ldenLlLy (all)
• ConLlnuaLlon of messages opposlng lCM by rellglous leaders (all)
• 'Zero beneflLs' from lCM (all)
• 1he healLh beneflLs of no lCM (all)
• Clrls can become 'good women' wlLhouL lCM (focus on parenLs and
grandparenLs)
• Men do noL deslre a fuLure wlfe Lo have had lCM (focus on parenLs
and grandparenLs)
• negaLlve lmpacL of lCM on relaLlonshlps (young men and women)
• lCM wlll lead Lo prosecuLlon (all)
• lCM ls a human rlghLs lssue (all)
• AfflrmaLlve gender-based messages (young women and parenLs)

CommunlcaLlon avenues:
• CommunlLy organlsaLlons and workers
• 8ellglous and communlLy leaders
• Þeer Lo peer
• Male role models
• CrandparenL role models
lCM resulLs ln llfe-long challenges
Lo physlcal and emoLlonal well-
belng
Less severe forms of lCM do noL cause
healLh problems
lL ls good Lo seek help for lCM-
relaLed problems
Women musL suffer ln sllence
SpeclallsL servlces exlsL and can
help
lCM-relaLed problems are a 'normal' parL
of women's llfe






Cender
lCM ls a form of conLrol over
women
lCM ls an approprlaLe ways of conLrolllng
women's sexual behavlour
Clrls can become 'good' women
wlLhouL lCM
A woman wlll noL be 'marrlageable' lf she ls
noL clrcumclsed
?oung men do noL wanL
clrcumclsed women as wlves
Men wlll noL wanL Lo marry an
unclrcumclsed woman
Men of all ages are opposed Lo
lCM
Men vlew lCM as a 'women's lssue' and
are dlslnLeresLed ln lCM
?oung marrled women and men
have a rlghL Lo en[oy Lhelr marrled
sexual llves

Men have no parL Lo play ln opposlng lCM



CulLural ldenLlLy ls noL dependenL
on lCM



61

7,,8# (#)*#+ -. 0#*"+.01# (#)*#+ -. 145"6# 79:)*15-*.", +.0 +.18, .+ *"-#0;#"-*.", <=#> -506#- 60.8:?
CulLural ldenLlLy lL ls accepLable Lo challenge
LradlLlon
SLopplng lCM ls an aLLempL Lo desLroy
lndlvlduals' culLural ldenLlLy
• Servlce provlders (CÞs, PosplLals, Soclal Servlces, Well-woman cllnlcs
eLc.)
• need Lo work wlLh less well-supporLed (ln Lerms of communlLy
organlsaLlons) eLhnlc groups e.g. LLhloplan and Camblan communlLles

Messages should be provlded ln a range of formaLs: verbal, wrlLLen leafleLs,
plays, group meeLlngs, mass medla eLc.

Servlce lssues:
• need for furLher educaLlon of servlce provlders
• ulssemlnaLlon on lnformaLlon abouL referral servlces and lCM
speclallsL healLh workers
• need Lo lncrease male healLh pracLlLloners awareness of women's
embarrassmenL
• need for more speclallsL pracLlLloners e.g. lCM repalr and speclallsL
mldwlves


A woman can be a good x
(eLhnlclLy) woman wlLhouL lCM


8ellglon
lCM goes agalnsL rellglous
Leachlngs
1he 'Sunnah' form of lCM ls accepLable
8ellglous leaders oppose lCM Women's rellglous ldenLlLy ls condlLlonal
on Lhe 'Sunnah' form of lCM.



Puman rlghLs
lCM ls an abuse of human rlghLs

SLopplng lCM proLecLs women, glrls and
chlldren
Women have Lhe rlghL Lo make
declslons abouL Lhelr own bodles
lCM ls vlcLlmlsaLlon of women,
glrls and chlldren
ÞarenLs have Lhe rlghL Lo proLecL
Lhelr chlldren


uk leglslaLlon

LeglslaLlon exlsLs and penalLles are
severe
lL ls noL posslble for Lhe CovernmenL Lo
know lf someone has carrled ouL lCM on a
uk resldenL ln Lhe uk or overseas
1he CovernmenL wlll noL prosecuLe
lndlvlduals