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MADHAV INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE

BUILDING SCIENCE SESSIONAL

“STUDY OF HERITAGE BUILDING WITH RESPECT TO COMFORT”

Submitted to:Prof. R.K. Pandit

Submitted by:Shalini Gupta B.Arch, v sem AR11031

CONTENTS

Introduction The heritage building as a passive and active climate moderator Case study
 1. GOHAR MAHAL (BHOPAL)  2. GUJARI MAHAL (GWALIOR)  3. The James Pitot House (early nineteenth century)  4. The Gibson House (1859)

Opportunities to Reinstate the Heritage Building as a Passive and Active Climate Moderator Synthesis Conclusion References

The knowledge of architectural designs to create the comfort conditions in the building may be understand well by analyzing the concepts used in the old monuments or heritage buildings. These existing buildings were designed. India lies in its Buildings as these buildings are the mirror of History of India. The concept of energy conservation in buildings is not new but can be seen in our historical monuments. These existing buildings were designed. These buildings have been maintained and some restored to keep the glory India intact as in the past and also provide many lessons in designing for specific climates. developed and constructed to use the natural energy sources or sinks for the particular climatic zone. These buildings have been maintained and some restored to keep the glory India intact as in the past and also provide many lessons in designing for specific climates.INTRODUCTION The knowledge of architectural designs to create the comfort conditions in the building may be understand well by analyzing the concepts used in the old monuments or heritage buildings. The concept of energy conservation in buildings is not new but can be seen in our historical monuments. developed and constructed to use the natural energy sources or sinks for the particular climatic zone. . India lies in its Buildings as these buildings are the mirror of History of India.

moisture buffering. and exterior wall openings. siting. landscape. overall form. The hygrothermal performance of these buildings relied on building materials.The Heritage Building as a Passive and Active Climate Moderator Heritage buildings that predate the development of fourseason climate management systems typically had some inherent capability to moderate external influences on interior conditions. thermal mass. for ventilation and comfort. A key component of the interior conditioning of older buildings was occupant operation of building features—such as doors and windows and their associated devices such as shutters and shades—which moderated the influence of the exterior on the interior while capitalizing on favorable external aspects. horizontal and vertical communication among interior spaces. In these older structures. the building itself was the system for ventilation and human comfort. . such as breezes.

The roof is insulated to approximately RSI-4. The first. located on the Malwa plateau. GOHAR MAHAL (BHOPAL) a. single-glazed metalcasement windows with single-glazed wood-frame storm windows on the interior.4 (R-25). The total floor area is about 650 m2 (not including the basement). b.4° E . A two-storey wing at the rear was added later. a hilly but hot area. Winters are moderately cold with temperature not going below 8oC. Climate of Site- CASE STUDY Bhopal is a city in central India. . All walls are finished with lath and plaster on the interior. The summers are hot and dry and the temperatures soar as high as 40o-48oC. or leaded.and second-story exterior walls are loadbearing solid brick walls (1000-330 mm thick). is a three-story building with an uninsulated full basement. Windows are either single-glazed. Building descriptionThe Gohar Mahal was built in 1818. the third story is enclosed by a wood-frame mansard roof with the sides covered with slate tiles. double-hung wood-frame windows with single-glazed wood-frame storm windows on the exterior. 23.27° N.1. 77.Altitude is 499m above sea level. It rains moderately during the rainy season. Major renovations were carried out in 1922.

Passive Solar Design of Buildings: The energy efficiency in the buildings can be achieved by studying the macro and micro climate of the site. heat.Location of Gohar Mahal is at the lakeside. The two courtyards divide the building in three parts in longitudinal direction and two parts in transverse. noise. C. applying solar passive and bio climatic design features and take advantage of natural resources on site. The building is constructed on the slope of a hill. Landscaping: Landscaping by vegetation is one of the most effective ways of altering micro climate for better conditions. Trees provide buffer to sun.hence there is a road level entry at each floor also one of its part is attached with hill. Therefore the built up area is less at ground floor than first and second floor. air pollution. the main entrance is south-east facing. A few common architecture solar passive design elements are listed below: • Landscaping • Water bodies • Orientation • Site And Site Conditions • Open spaces and built form Assessment of many of our vernacular buildings like Gohar Mahal shows an understanding of PSD and demonstrates how simple it is to incorporate in modern building design. The main entry is towards the lake side in the eastern corner at ground level. .

in south west direction. daylight and wind. Gohar Mahal in respect to its orientation is perfect. A . Water has a moderating effect on the air temperature of the micro climate. . Hence Ground cooling by earth berming keep the inside temperature much down in summer and moderate in winter .e. the maximum openings are towards the lake side i.there is a dense vegetation around it. Orientation: In solar passive buildings. The building consists of multi-level planning. Main entrance of Gohar Mahal is east facing. shown below the rear view of Gohar Mahal. All the main rooms are towards north side with small openings but attached with large verandahs and courtyards. as the building is built on a small hill with the different levels gradually increasing in height towards the north -east direction. It possesses very high thermal storage capacity much higher than the building materials like Brick. concrete.As Gohar mahal is built towards lake side . which is in contact with earth benefits from huge thermal mass of adjacent ground and is thus not affected by hot and cold climate. orientation is a major design consideration.plants and water body near by help the building to keep cool in summer by evaporation cooling.The long wall is at south side and maximum openings are given at wall that is lake side to capture the prevailing wind in summer. thus offering a vital sink for buildings to dissipate their heat hence the Gohar Mahal part. mainly with regard to solar radiation. stone. location and site conditions: Gohar mahal is located besides Bhopal upper lake.the principle behind this is the earth’s temperature is practically constant after a depth of 2. to get the cool air in and let the hot air out. This makes building much cool in summer. These trees .5m and remains close to the average annual temperature.

This is observed in at the site also. which in turn ventilated the living areas grouped around it. This was the 'air funnel' of the house. Main openings are in the form of courtyards and terraces whereas semi openings are in the form of verandahs in Gohar Mahal.large body of water in the form of lake. They are performing following functions: • The division of buildings into thermal zones with buffer areas such as verandas. hence using courtyard as a space is to act as a thermal buffer. • In Gohar Mahal more space is around the building. There are four courtyards. river. Semi Openings and Built Form: Openings play main part in solar passive buildings. . and fountain has the ability to moderate the air temperatures in the micro climate. size and affluence. One of the openings is a garden called as secret garden which is at back side of the second floor. this provide prevalent and effected crossventilation through a series of openings from the rear/entrance door. The courtyard was the main source of air exchange from inside the built space to the outer free space. Openings. building shape and wall materials and varied across the region depending on location. The success of the cooling principle of courtyards depends on a combination of climate. The central courtyard of a typical traditional house was a very common passive solar device and was often considered the lung of the house. The entrance lobby acted as a wind funnel focusing the incident wind into the courtyard that lay on this air funnel. It takes up heat from the air through evaporation and causes significant cooling especially in hot & dry climate zone. courtyards avoids providing barriers to cross flow ventilation where this is required. two of them divide the building longitudinally in three parts and transversely in two parts. through the central courtyards and out of an opening at the entrance/rear. Water evaporation has a cooling effect in the surroundings.

the flow of air is caused by the pressure of the wind (cross ventilation) or by the buoyancy effect of temperature differences between inside and outside (Stack effect).• To facilitate the moment of cool air into the house. • The main function of verandahs found in Gohar Mahal was to prevent the direct heat and glare of the sun from entering the house. This is analysing that all these verandahs are comparatively cool in summer while hotter in winters. . • The principle of using central courtyards in Gohar Mahal as a means for keeping adjacent rooms cool was based on the pressure difference between cool air and warm air. _ Almost all the ventilators are inclined i. Ventilation and other openings: Ventilation is the exchange of air between the inside of a building and the outside. briefly described below: _ For natural ventilation.e. In Gohar Mahal traditional ways of ventilation to achieve passive cooling was adopted. heavier than warm air. highly elevated at outside and low at inside. sank into the courtyard and replaced the slightly warmer air that had accumulated there during the day and which was unable to escape because the ambient daytime air temperature above the courtyard was warmer. They are all the four sides of courtyards. Cool night time air from high above the courtyard. parapets are built at very low height and also slopes are towards the courtyard. A water sprinkler was placed in the courtyards to cool and humidify the incoming air.

They are perfect to gain direct solar radiation in winter and shades in summer. d. _ Highly elevated small openings keep the room cool. The choice of building material is also important to achieve indoor comfort._ The arch shaped ventilators are highly tapered these are for spot light i. this means selection of building materials which use low energy in their manufacturing. Sun Shades and chajjas : Shades play important role for protecting the building from direct sunlight. _ Numbers of jharokhas are also given for free flow of wind. • Bricks • Stone • Timber • Lime . They are supported on stone cornice. In Gohar Mahal the building materials used are.e. In Gohar Mahal shades of flag stone are provided all the four sides of the building. BUILDING MATERIAL: Choice of building material for the envelope is important to reduce the energy content of the building. lightning the whole room naturally . Generally they are slightly inclined and 900mm wide.

Passive Solar Design of Buildings: The energy efficiency in the buildings can be achieved by studying the macro and micro climate of the site. A small river Swarnrekha flows close to the palace. conical in shape. Climate of SiteGwalior is located at 26.4 km) and an average width of about 300 yards (270 m). This world familiar Gujari Mahal is situated in Gwalior and this far-famed archaeological museum being visited by most tourists.• Sand stone • Jute fabric 2. The hill fort. It has an average elevation of 197 metres.5 miles (2. The major striking spotlight of this museum is the sculpture of Gyraspur Shalabhanjika is sheltered in the Gujari Mahal. .18°E in northern Madhya Pradesh 300 km (186 miles) from Delhi. Building descriptionGujari Mahal Archaeological Museum is a place where you can find the rare and atypical antiquities. the place has wide collection of unique variety sculptures fitting in the 1st Century AD. GUJARI MAHAL (GWALIOR) a. Furthermore. The rock formations in the fort hill and in the Gwalior hill ranges consist of ochreous sandstone. The fort hill (342 feet (104 m) at the highest point) has a length of about 1. Gujari Mahal was built by Raja Mansingh Tomar and he dedicated this Mahal to his Gujar Queen Mrignayani.22°N 78. is built on a solitary hillock. applying solar passive and bio climatic design features . The most striking and prominent feature of Gujari Mahal is the precious stones and jewels in the crown. b. C.

These trees . A large body of water in the form of lake. The central courtyard of a typical traditional house was a very common passive solar device and was often considered the lung of the house. building . Openings. stone. The success of the cooling principle of courtyards depends on a combination of climate. noise. It possesses very high thermal storage capacity much higher than the building materials like Brick. river. The fort has two important parts namely.there is a dense vegetation around it. Trees provide buffer to sun. location and site conditions: Gujari Mahal is located in Gwalior. Main openings are in the form of courtyards and terraces. The long wall is at south side and openings are given at centre. The Palaces were built by Raja Man Singh Tomar. concrete. the main fort and the Palaces (Gujari Mahal and the Man Mandir palace). A few common architecture solar passive design elements are listed below: • Landscaping • Water bodies • Orientation • Site And Site Conditions • Open spaces and built form Landscaping: Landscaping by vegetation is one of the most effective ways of altering micro climate for better conditions.and take advantage of natural resources on site. orientation is a major design consideration. mainly with regard to solar radiation. and fountain has the ability to moderate the air temperatures in the micro climate. There is one courtyard in centre sounded by rooms. air pollution. heat. Orientation: In solar passive buildings. Gujari Mahal in respect to its orientation is perfect. As Gohar mahal is built towards lake side . Main entrance of Gujari Mahal is north east facing and second entrance is from south west. Semi Openings and Built Form: Openings play main part in solar passive buildings. daylight and wind. Water has a moderating effect on the air temperature of the micro climate.plants and water body near by help the building to keep cool in summer by evaporation cooling.

_ Highly elevated small openings keep the room cool. lightning the whole room naturally .  The principle of using central courtyards in Gohar Mahal as a means for keeping adjacent rooms cool was based on the pressure difference between cool air and warm air and cool night. size and affluence. _ Numbers of jharokhas are also given for free flow of wind. It is a .e. In Gujari Mahal traditional ways of ventilation to achieve passive cooling was adopted.e.  Effected crossventilation through a series of openings from the rear/entrance door. This was the 'air funnel' of the house. briefly described below: _ For natural ventilation. highly elevated at outside and low at inside. _ The arch shaped ventilators are highly tapered these are for spot light i.shape and wall materials and varied across the region depending on location. _ Almost all the ventilators are inclined i. The James Pitot House (early nineteenth century) The James Pitot House in New Orleans—listed on the National Historic Register—is currently the subject of a Getty-funded Conservation Planning Grant. 3. Ventilation and other openings: Ventilation is the exchange of air between the inside of a building and the outside. the flow of air is caused by the pressure of the wind (cross ventilation) or by the buoyancy effect of temperature differences between inside and outside (Stack effect). through the central courtyards and out of an opening at the entrance/rear.

in some instances.traditional two-story Creole cottage interpreted as a furnished historic house museum. and the heated mass of the roof created a nighttime thermosiphon. The second-floor galleries provided protected exterior living spaces. . Deep galleries protect the interior spaces from sun and driving rain. Watson and Henry Associates. chair rails. Watson. Ephemeral and fugitive methods of managing the interior climate. Photo: Penelope S. The house has numerous features to address the hostile New Orleans climate. the importance of which is evidenced by the presence of architectural trim such as baseboards and. The original loose-fit slate roof resisted wind uplift from tropical storms. The attic is no longer a solar-powered passive ventilator. such as curtains and shades hung above the gallery railings to provide privacy and to exclude insects when the galleries were transformed into living spaces in the hot summer months. have long disappeared. cooling the rooms below With the introduction of central air-conditioning into the Pitot House in the late twentieth century. The Pitot House. exhausting room air into the attic through second-floor ceilings constructed from gap-spaced painted boards. the building underwent a variety of changes. and the roof was replaced with tight-fitting composition shingles and roofing felts. and the doors and windows to the galleries must be kept closed to stabilize the conditioned interiors. The house incorporated seasonal operating features (no longer extant). The ventilating ceiling was closed off with attic insulation. such as the gallery curtains shown in a delightful 1830 sketch by Charles-Alexandre Lesueur. Interior spaces are configured for cross-ventilation through multiple doors and windows that open onto the protected galleries.

Since the building has long windowless sidewalls. The Gibson House (1859) The Gibson House in Boston. is interpreted as a furnished historic house museum. At the Gibson House. buoyancydriven ventilation was essential to augment the limited window area provided by the narrow front and rear facades. a National Historic Landmark. stair halls. It has not been fitted with central airconditioning and retains its original three-story-high ventilation and light shaft. light and ventilation shafts. and natural light to interior spaces. the shaft is a functionally sophisticated and architecturally refined feature. thermal energy. and areaways are critical to movement of air. In such cases.Historic American Building Survey drawing of the ventilation of the Pitot House 4. It distributed . These architectural features for interior climate management are typical of a multistory building in an urban context.

heated air to upper floors in winter and exhausted hot air from all floors in summer. historical. The dual mandate to preserve historic building fabric and prevent deterioration or damage to the collections sets the stage for potentially competing or conflicting objectives. which appears to be a replacement for an earlier. In historic buildings. seen from the bathroom. The shaft now terminates in a vented skylight. Building occupants operated the interior window sash on the ventilation shaft according to need. while distributing much-needed natural light to windowless interior spaces and the interior stair hall. The Gibson House ventilation and light shaft viewed from the shaft interiorThe Gibson House ventilation and light shaft with thermometer. the interior environmental management must also address the preservation issues posed by the building itself. as indicated by the thermometer placed by one such window. . presumably operable version. The impacts of centralized systems are compounded in older buildings considered historic by virtue of their architectural. or cultural significance.

If interior moisture vapor loads are high. the environmental management strategy might be source reduction of moisture vapor and liquid.  operating windows and doors to ventilate the building when exterior atmospheric moisture vapor is lower than interior atmospheric moisture vapor.Opportunities to Reinstate the Heritage Building as a Passive and Active Climate Moderator If interior temperatures are unacceptably high.  increasing natural ventilation. Depending on the specifics of the building. this strategy might be implemented through passive and active measures such as:  intercepting and diverting roof and surface water runoff before they are absorbed by wall surfaces and building materials. rather than by introduction of mechanical cooling. the heat gains might be reduced by managing insolation at window openings or heat gain by the wall surfaces. Depending on the specifics of the building.  operating window shutters or shades to reduce insolation. .  selecting exterior wall and roof colors to reduce radiant heat gain. rather than mechanical dehumidification. this strategy might be implemented through passive and active measures such as:  shading the building through placement of landscape plantings.

and promotes sustainable development by conserving the embodied energy in the existing buildings. through: • developing an understanding of the attributes of heritage buildings • considering the options available for the improvement of environmental performance (in particular reducing energy and water consumption) and evaluating whether these measures are appropriate to heritage buildings • i dentifying the main issues which need to be addressed in optimising the performance of heritage buildings. Conserving heritage buildings reduces energy usage associated with demolition. interior elements and systems – and ongoing management and use – need to be considered as part of the conservation process to achieve optimum energy efficiency outcomes. SYNTHESIS . envelope. waste disposal and new construction. Life-cycle analyses of building fabric: structure.To promote environmental and sustainable performance measures for existing heritage buildings without adversely impacting their cultural heritage significance. It is recognised that the retention of heritage buildings has environmental sustainability benefits. Objectives To increase awareness of the contribution of heritage conservation to sustainability.

air-conditioning made the prospect of four-season environmental control a reality. etc.  evaluate new or alternative environmental management strategies in lieu of fourseason mechanical systems for environmental control. That is use of natural energy (sun. The result from above analysis shows that the Gohar Mahal and Gujari Mahal are an example for making solar passive modern building for climate of Bhopal and Gwalior.Conclusion From above observations and analysis this is prove that these both buildings are solar passive and does not require any conventional method for cooling. . humidity. We can reduce the potentially adverse impact of our environmental management strategies if we:  adjust our performance criteria for conservation environments by taking into account the robust qualities and vulnerabilities of the collections against the exterior environmental threats specific to the location.  reduce carbon emissions (and operating costs) without necessarily reinvesting in airconditioning systems by implementing broader criteria for interior environmental control. and fully credit.  account for. and rely on these features rather than on mechanical systems to the extent practical. influencing not only building design but perceptions and technical definitions of occupant comfort. the passive and operable features of the building that can moderate the environment and afford protection for the contents and collections.  improve or enhance the inherent environmental performance qualities of the building envelope.) to conserve conventional energy for achieving thermal comfort refers to comfortable indoor conditions (temperature. air movement) is observed and analyzed in these buildings. wind. In the twentieth century.

REFERENCES 1. Givoni B. 177– 199(1991). Bhopal Weather Information. 4.Dr. 17. Bhopal Travel Tour Guide. Bhopal Weather .htm 10.mapsofindia. Bhopal City in Madhya Pradesh India.Bhopal Climate & Weather. 16(2009)..org/wiki/Gwalior_Fort 12. Fodil Fadli Ma .proceeding of 3rd International Conference On Smart And Sustainable Built Environments (2009).com/Gwalior-Gujari-Mahal-ArchaeologicalMuseum/attraction/12206 . (1) 37-39 (2008). http://en. Performance applicability of passive and low-energy cooling systems.Hussain Al Zoubi . 2.htm 11.mustseeindia. Ali:Energy efficient Design for thermally comforted dwelling units in hot arid zones: Case of vernacular buildings in Jordan ARISER 4.html 14. Hikmat H. 3.publisher Crowood . Magda Sibley Sustainability Lessons From Traditional Buildings In North Africa The Public Bathhouses: “Hammāms” .http://www.pg no. Energy Build. 5. Martin Godfrey Cook.com/gwalior/travel-guide/gujari-mahal. http://en.. Energy Efficiency in Old Houses. Saviana Badarneh . http://www.wikipedia.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gwalior 13.