Bibliografías Especializadas OET #20

Fragmentación del hábitat y corredores biológicos: una bibliografía anotada
Febrero 2013

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Bibliografías Especializadas OET #20

Fragmentación del hábitat y corredores biológicos: una bibliografía anotada
Febrero 2013

333.13 F751f

Fragmentación del hábitat y corredores biológicos: una bibliografía anotada / Compilado por Gilbert Fuentes González. – 1ª ed – San José, C.R.: Organización para Estudios Tropicales, 2013. 334 p.;3 MB; PDF. (Bibliografías especializadas OET; no.20) ISBN: 978-9930-9445-7-8

1. Fragmentación - Bibliografías. 2. Corredores biológicos Bibliografías. 3. Costa Rica – Bibliografías. I. Gilbert Fuentes González. II. Título. III.Serie.

La OET cuenta con un Sistema de Bibliotecas, conformado por una biblioteca principal ubicada en su oficina central en la Ciudad de la Investigación UCR y una en cada una de las 3 Estaciones Biológicas. La colección total del Sistema de Bibliotecas de la OET esta formada por más de 12 mil volúmenes, 500 tesis, 75 títulos de publicaciones periódicas, 150 libros de cursos de OET y más de 14000 documentos en formato pdf. Le invitamos a visitar nuestra Biblioteca en La Ciudad de la Investigación de la UCR, de lunes a viernes de 8 a.m. a 12 m.d. y de 1 p.m. a 5 p.m. También puede localizarnos en el teléfono (506) 2524-0607, ext. 1260, en http://www.ots.ac.cr y en http://www.facebook.com/OTS.OET. Si quiere recibir información permanente de OET ingrese sus datos en http://www.ots.ac.cr/contactos marcando la casilla de su interés.

Créditos Portada: Carlos Rodríguez Dussán, Departamento de Manejo de Información OET. Compilación: Gilbert Fuentes, Consultor Externo – Manejo de Información OET. Control de Calidad: Susana Aguilar, Biblioteca OET – Manejo de Información OET.

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Bibliografías Especializadas OET #20

Fragmentación del hábitat y corredores biológicos: una bibliografía anotada
Febrero 2013

Presentación Organización para Estudios Tropicales (OET): La Organización para Estudios Tropicales (OET) cree firmemente que el correcto manejo de los datos y la información, es una herramienta indispensable para promover la educación y la investigación en los trópicos y esa es una razón para que desde 1996 utilizando la plataforma de su Biblioteca, haya desarrollado y consolidado la “Bibliografía Nacional en Biología Tropical” (BINABITROP http://www.ots.ac.cr/binabitrop). En la actualidad BINABITROP cuenta con más de 39000 registros de libros, publicaciones periódicas, tesis, monografías, congresos y otros, de los cuales más de 16 mil de estos documentos se ofrecen ya en texto completo. Este es un proyecto único en el país, cuyo objetivo principal es rescatar las publicaciones científicas que tratan sobre Costa Rica, generadas a través de los años tanto dentro como fuera del país para reunirlas en una base de datos disponible al público. De esta forma la OET colabora con aumentar, conservar y difundir conocimientos generados a partir de nuestra riqueza natural y se constituye en una herramienta de consulta obligatoria para investigadores, siendo la temática principal de Biología Tropical y temas afines como: ecología, manejo de recursos naturales, conservación de la biodiversidad, aspectos legales, sociales y económicos, forestales, agroecología. Como un subproducto de BINABITROP, hemos iniciado desde el 2001 la generación de Bibliografías Especializadas que tienen como objetivo, compilar las referencias sobre un tema específico y crear un documento electrónico de libre acceso, que le facilite a los interesados sobre el tema tener en un solo punto la información que requieran y así aumentar y difundir el conocimiento que tenemos de nuestra riqueza natural de una forma más práctica. Fragmentación del hábitat y corredores biológicos: una bibliografía anotada, es nuestra producción 20 de las Bibliografías Especializadas OET, la cual se desarrolla como una solicitud expresa del Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio) para ser utilizada como una herramienta en el desarrollo de un proyecto, pero igual esperamos que este documento sea de interés para la comunidad científica y educativa en general. Esta bibliografía está compuesta por un Índice Publicaciones compuesto por 441 referencias. ser solicitadas por correo electrónico a la referencias que cuentan con un enlace donde formato pdf. de Autores, una Lista de Descriptores, y un Listado de Las referencias cuya localización indica NBINA pueden dirección biblioteca.oet@ots.ac.cr. El texto contiene el lector podrá ver el documento a texto completo en

Susana Aguilar (susana.aguilar@ots.ac.cr) Encargada del Sistema de Bibliotecas Organización para Estudios Tropicales

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Bibliografías Especializadas OET #20

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ÍNDICE DE AUTORES

Acevedo-Mairena, Heiner 351, 352 Acevedo-Mairena, Heiner (ed.) 334 Ackerly, David D 237 Adams, K 407 Aguilar, Gabriel 109, 134, 135, 181 Aguilar-Alfaro, G 053 Aguilar-Barquero, Virginia 380 Aldrich, Preston Rice 021, 044, 049, 057, 060, 063 Aldrich-Wolfe, Laura 022, 169 Alemán-Zelaya, Indalecio 403, 434 Alfaro-Fernández, Juan Diego 053 Allen, M 427 Allen, William 146

177, 202, 203, 209, 216 Almeyda-Zambrano, Angélica M 421 Altrichter-Cateula, Mariana 026, 028, 183 Ankersen, Thomas T 055, 085, 256 014 Anonymous 097 Apsit, Victoria Joan 058, 072, 088, 139, 188 Araneda, X 155 Araya-Fallas, Maríamalia 061, 062, 067 Arcos-Torres, A 236 Arias-Castillo, Elvis 351, 352 Arias-Le Claire, Harold 119, 154, 368 Arnberger, R 102 Aronson, T 407 Arroyo-Mora, J. Pablo Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor 393 Artavia-Zamora, G 175 Aspinall-Murray, William (ed.) 042 Asquith, N.M 148 Aubrecht, Gerhard 436 Aureli, Filippo 393 Avelino, Jacques 411 Avila-Hernández, M.L 173 Aygen, Deniz 137 Baish, S 124 Ballentine, K 102 Baltodano-Fuentes, Adriana 417, 418 Barborak, James R

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081, 351, 352 Barnett, Jacob R 316, 342 Barrantes-Montero, Gilbert 064, 388 Basso, Georgia 430 Bawa, Kamaljit S 019, 068, 189 Beauvais, J.F 111 Bell, K.E 273, 295 Benjamin, Tamara Jo 322, 416 Bennett, Andrew F 221 Benson, W.W 008 Bergman, C 150 Bermúdez-Acuña, Fernando 102 Bernecker-Lücking, Andrea 163 Beyer, Hawthorne L 392 Bezy, M. Bernadette 323

Biamonte, Esteban 388 Bicca-Marques, J.C 217 Bierregaard, R.O., Jr (ed.) 070, 071 Billingham, M.R 228, 271 Bissonette, J.A (ed.) 055 Bjork, Robin D 013, 082, 173, 190 Blair, Mary Elizabeth 398, 401, 402, 428 Boggs, Carol L 165 Boh, Sonja 335 Boinski, Sue 035 Bolaños-Montero, Rafael A 042 Bolaños-Vives, Federico 129, 332 Boni, M.E 237 Bonilla-Carrión, Róger 110, 151 Borgella, Rene, Jr 023, 115, 239

Borgognini-Tarli, S.M 408 Boshier, David H 127, 228, 245, 271 Bourg, N.A 024 Bouroncle-Seoane, Claudia 354, 366, 400 Boza-Loría, Mario Andrés 102, 409 Braatne, J 280 Brenes-Gámez, O.E 272 Brenes-Pérez, Cristian Francisco 373 Brightsmith, Donald J 323 Broadbent, Eben N 421 Brosi, Berry J 317, 340, 350, 360, 420 Brown, L.M 025, 103, 223 Brunsfeld, Steven J 270, 279, 299 Busch, C.B 156

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Bustillo, R 053 Calvo-Alvarado, Julio César 083, 160, 202, 203, 209, 216, 409 Calvo-Obando, Ana Julieta 423, 425 Camargo-García, J.C 140 Camero-Rey, L.A 140 Campera, M 407 Campos-Arce, José Joaquín 353 Canet-Desanti, Lindsay 319, 354, 367, 369, 383, 413, 419 Cárdenas-Carmona, G 195, 234, 257 Carr, Archie III 075, 081 Carr, M.H 084 Carranza-Velázquez, Julieta 065 Carrillo-Jiménez, Eduardo 026, 141, 283 Casanoves, Fernando 431

Cascante-Marín, Alfredo M 027, 029, 073, 098, 143, 258, 259, 339 Castaño-Betancur, Leandro (ed.) 248 Castro-Peinador, Gustavo 424 Castro-Salazar, René 102 Ceballos, Gerardo 332 Cedeño, J.R 129 Cepeda-González, María Fernanda 192, 193 Céspedes-Agüero, Margarita Victoria 275, 353, 355 Céspedes-Castro, Maguil 184, 204, 362 Chacón-Chavarría, Oscar 351, 352 Chacón-Chaverri, Didiher 265 Chacón-León, Mario 222, 233, 330 Chacón-Madrigal, Eduardo J 388 Chain-Guadarrama, Adina

374, 431 Chamberlain, C. Page 360 Chamberlain-Gallegos, Francisco 041 Chang, Elsa 213, 326 Chassot, D (il.) 187 Chassot, Olivier 170, 226, 246, 277, 285, 336, 341, 344, 357, 367, 377, 384, 389, 390, 391, 403, 409, 434 Chassot, Olivier (ed.) 187 Chavarría-Espinoza, María Isabel (comp.) 329 Chavarría-Ñamendi, Francisco José 424 Chavarriaga-Aguirre, Paul 060 Chaverri-Echandi, Priscilla 260 Chaves-Badilla, Oscar M 393 Chaves-Cordero, Gerardo A 129, 332 Chaves-Kiel, Henry

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170 Chazdon, Robin L 017, 311, 383 Chinchilla-Romero, Federico Alfonso 379, 394 Clair, Colleen, Cassady St 337 Clark, Deborah A 050 Collister, Douglas M 412 Colmenares, Angélica 421 Coloma, L.A 129 Conner, J. C. Ross 325 Corella-Rodríguez, Osvaldo 113 Cornelius, J.P 197 Corrales, Lenín 351 Cortés-Ortiz, L 287 Coto-Hidalgo, Mario 351, 352 Coulon, Aurélie 316 Courrau, J.A 164, 172 Cramer, P 076 Criado-Hernández, Juan 390 Cristobal-Azkarate, J 218 Crockett, C.M 051 Cruz-Cuellar, Héctor F 411 Cubero, José 351 Cubero-Moya, José Alberto 422 Daily, Gretchen C 011, 020, 107, 137, 156, 162, 165, 168, 186, 199, 224, 237, 317, 332, 360 Danforth, Elizabeth 333 Daugherty, Howard E 262, 263 Dayanandan, S 068 De Camino-Beck, Tomás 159 de Campos, D.P 157 de Freitas-Pereira, Henrique Miguel Leite 199 de la Cruz-Godoy, Juan Camilo 424 de Leeuw, Hanneke M.H 259, 339 DeClerck, Fabrice A.J 383, 411, 415 DeGama-Blanchet, Holly Noelle 180, 251, 328 Delgado-Rodríguez, Luis Diego 158, 353 den Nijs, Joannes C.M 259, 339 Denslow, Julie Sloan 138 Dhondt, André A 320 Di Stéfano-Gandolfi, José Francisco 065 Diamond, A.W (ed.) 003, 4, 5 Díaz, Ileana I 439 Díaz-Escobar, M 427

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Bibliografías Especializadas OET #20

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Febrero 2013

Díaz-Fajardo, Gerardo Eugenio 438 Dirzo, Rodolfo 421 Dokken, David Jon (ed.) 348 Donati, G 407, 408 Donnelly, Maureen A 273, 427 Driscoll, Laura 421 Duffy, D.C 225 Durán, Guillermo 317 Durham, William H 421 Edwards, P.J 153, 268 Ehrlich, Paul R 011, 020, 107, 137, 165, 168, 332 Ehrlich, Paul R (ed.) 433 Ellis, Susie (ed.) 410 Emerson, L 238

Enríquez-Lenis, Marta Lucía 266, 308 Estrada, Alejandro 244, 269, 286 Estrada-Chavarría, Armando (ed.) 334 Fairweather, K 238 Fariñas-Velázquez, L.E 056 Farris, C.N 105 Fay, J.P 107 Fedigan, Linda M 180, 328 Feinsinger, Peter 264 Feoli-Boraschi, Sergio 426 Ferguson, Bruce G 311 Fernández-Morillo, Maria Teresa 028, 183 Figueroa, Alfredo 336, 384 Finegan, Bryan

157, 158, 234, 257, 270, 278, 279, 282, 284, 294, 299, 310, 311, 322, 353, 354, 355, 356, 381, 383, 400, 413, 416, 431 Flores-Llampa, B 240 Florian-Rivero, Elena M 302, 322, 416 Forero-Molina, A 158 Fournier-Origgi, Luis Alberto 048, 065 Francis, P.A 102 Fu, P 031 Fuchs-Castillo, Eric J 029, 098, 099, 143, 166, 376 Fuller, Tood K 026 Furley, P 276 Gaitán-González, L.B 087 Gallagher, P.B 002 Gallagher, Patrick 421 Gallego-Castillo, B 310

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Febrero 2013

Gámez-Lobo, Rodrigo 077, 102 García, G 053 García-Víquez, Randall 080 Garton, Edward O 278, 281 Gavin, Thomas A 115, 125, 223, 239, 320 Gelabert, Cecilia 424 Gessler, Paul E 278, 284, 381 Ghazoul, Jaboury 128 Gibbs, James P 015 Gilbert, Benjamin 325, 358 Gill, Douglas E 024 Gillespie, T.W 105, 114 Gillies, Cameron Scott 337, 343, 385, 392 Gitay, Habiba (ed.) 348 Glander, Kenneth E 043, 181

Goehring, David M 137, 162 Gómez, René 327, 349 Gómez-Bernal, German Luis 183 Gómez-Figueroa, Patricia 090 González-Jiménez, Eugenio (ed.) 123, 124, 176 González-Quesada, P 032, 068, 100, 101 González-Téllez, Adolfo 403, 434 González-Villalobos, Jorge A 183 González-Zamora, Arturo 393 Gormley, Lorraine Helen L 276 Gormley, Lorraine Helen Lillian 361 Griffith, Daniel M 311 Grijalva, A 105 Groves, C.P 287

Guariguata-Urbano, Manuel R 066, 154, 205 Guariguata-Urbano, Manuel R (ed.) 148, 149 Guerrero-Aguirre, G.F 305 Gutiérrez, Isabel 354 Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A 181 Gutiérrez-Soto, Marco Vinicio 184, 208 Guzmán, S.M 138 Haber, William A 039 Haines, B.L 179 Hall, Pamela 019 Hamann, R.G 055, 085 014 Hamilton, Lawrence S (ed.) 034 Hamrick, James L

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021, 049, 057, 058, 060, 063, 088, 104, 139, 188, 206, 210, 212, 220, 376 Hannah, L 235 Hanson, Thor R 270, 279, 291, 299 Harms, Kyle E 207 Harris, L.D 001, 2, 076, 081 Harriss, R.C 130, 159 Hartshorn, Gary Spencer 016 Harvey, Celia A 117, 232, 233, 234, 244, 257, 267, 269, 278, 281, 286, 311, 314, 322, 327, 330, 349, 356, 416 Helmer, Eileen H 096, 106 Hernández, Blas 232, 327 Hernández-Calderón, José J (ed.) 410 Hernández-Flores, Y 309 Hernández-Soliz, César Augusto 028, 183

Herrera-Fernández, Bernal 351, 352, 353, 354, 355 Herrera-Retana, Javier (ed.) 410 Herrera-Rosales, Heydi Maria 028, 183 Herrerías-Diego, Yvonne 196, 309 Hines, J.J.H 287 Höbinger, Tamara 429 Holbrook, Noel Michele 184, 208 Holl, Karen D 383 Hollenhorst, Steven J 278, 356 Horner-Devine, M.C 165, 219 Howe, Henry F 178 Ibáñez-D., Roberto 129 Ibrahim, Muhammad A 140, 234, 257, 308, 327, 349 Imbach-Bartol, Pablo Andrés 383

Induni-Alfaro, Gustavo 351, 352, 355 James, T 063 Janzen, Daniel H 216 Jiménez, B 183 Jiménez, G 121 Jiménez, Vladimir 246, 285, 357 Jiménez-Hernández, A 255 Jiménez-Hernández, Fabiola 380 Jiménez-Madrigal, Quírico (ed.) 334 Jiménez-Méndez, Mildred 422 Jiménez-Pérez, Ignacio 028, 183 Jiménez-Ramón, Jorge A (ed.) 123, 124, 176 Jiménez-Ruiz, Belkys 028 Johnson, Jerald B 347

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Johnson, Nels 213, 326 Jones, Carissa P 346, 347 Jones, Clara B 069, 201 Jones, F. Andrews 179 Jones, G 154 Jones-Román, G 122, 144 Jost, C.A 315 Juvik, J.O (ed.) 034 Kanninen, Markku 158 Kattan, G.H (ed.) 148 Kattan, ; G.H (ed.) 149 Kavanagh, Kathleen L 278, 282, 294, 356 Keast, Allen 005 Kelm, Detlev H 324 Kirby, Kathryn R 325, 358

410 Kjeldsen, Jørgen Peter 336, 384 Kleinn, Christoph 094 Kochert, Gary 021, 060 Komar, Oliver 311 Kramer, E.A 071, 145 Krausman, P.R (ed.) 055 Kumar, Anjali 345 La Marca, E 129 Lacher, T.E., Jr 083 Lam, N.S.N 030, 167 Lambert, L.D 084 Landmann, Armin 335 Laurance, William F (ed.) 070, 071 Laurence, S.G.W 243 Leandro-Loría, Danilo (ed.) León, M.C 267 Lezama-López, Martín Antonio 389 Lieberman, Diana 359 Lieberman, Milton 359 Lindshield, Stacy M 250, 293 Linsenbardt, Kim 333 Liponi, G.B 408 Lips, Karen R 129 Lobo-Segura, Jorge A 098, 099, 143, 166, 196, 309 López, Marlon 327, 349 López-Arévalo, Hugo Fernando 028, 183 López-Vargas, R 170 Lorion, Christopher M 280 Losada-Prado, Sergio

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405 Lovejoy, Thomas E 006, 102 Lovejoy, Thomas E (ed.) 003, 4, 5 Lovejoy, Thomas E, (eds.) 235 Lovejoy, Thomas E, [ed.] 016 Lovette, Irby J 316 Luckett, Jerimiah 333 Lücking, Robert 163 Machlis, G 102 Mack, Steven A 256 Mackintosh, G (ed.) 002 Madrigal-Castro, E 086 Maes, Jean Michel 232 Maldonado-Ulloa, Tirso 047, 095, 110, 151 Marín, Melissa 390

Marín-Méndez, Walter 065 Mariscal-Pueyo, Teresa 336, 377, 384 Marshall, W 031 Martin, S.G 153 Martínez-Cascante, David 424 Martínez-Garza, C 178 Martínez-Ramos, Miguel 311 Martínez-Salinas, Alejandra 383, 415 Mata-Montero, Erick 102 Matagne, P 111 Matamoros-Delgado, Alonso 080 Matamoros-Hidalgo, Yolanda (ed.) 410 Mateo-Vega, Javier (ed.) 176 Matlock, Robert B., Jr 153, 268 Matuzak, Greg D

323 Mayfield, Margaret M 168, 224, 229, 237, 252 McClearn, Deedra 359 McLeish, M 128 Medina, Arnulfo 232, 327 Meisel, Joe E 253, 261, 404 Melnick, Don J 398, 401, 428 Mena-Araya, Yadira 175 Mendoza-Quijano, Fernando 332 Meyer, J.R 129 Milder, Jeffrey C 383 Millán-Araujo, José Oswaldo 028, 183 Miller, Kenton R 213, 326 Mills, Matthew 360 Mittermeier, R.A 287

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Monahan, B 147 Monge-Arias, Guisselle 170, 226, 246, 277, 285, 336, 341, 344, 357, 367, 377, 384, 389, 390, 391, 403, 409 Monge-Arias, Guisselle (ed.) 187 Monge-Nájera, Julián 090 Montero, J 232 Montero, Jorge 327 Montero-Muñoz, Jorge L 194, 313, 314 Montoya, G.S 309 Moorthy, I 160 Mora, A 065 Mora, C 249 Mora, G 067 Mora-Cerdas, Geisel 028, 183 Mora-Madrigal, M.E 102

Morales, Helda 311 Morera-Beita, Carlos Manuel 395 Morse, Wayde 278 Morse, Wayde Cameron 356 Munguía-Rosas, Miguel Angel 196 Muñoz, A 129 Muñoz-Guerrero, Diego A 269, 286 Murillo-Rodríguez, Fabiana (ed.) 334 Murillo-Rodríguez, Luis Fernando 052 Murrieta-Arévalo, E 303 Musinsky, J 018 Naranjo, E 269, 286 Nason, J.D 058, 088, 139, 149 Newcomer, D.W 307

Newcomer, Quint 430 Ngai, Jacqueline T 325 Nigh, Ronald 311 Nisbett, R.A 043 Nowakowski, Aaron Justin 427 O'Connor, K.A 092 O'Donnell, Sean 345 Occhibove, F 408 Ochoa, E 265 Oduber-Rivera, José 155 Oostermeijer, J. Gerard B 259, 339 Ortiz-Malavasi, Edgar 425 Otero-Jiménez, Beatriz 427 Oviedo-Brenes, Federico 317 Paaby-Hansen, Pia

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351 Pacheco, Jesús 332 Padilla, Clara 409 Palacios-Guevara, Carolina 196 Palminteri, Suzanne 409 Paniagua-Espinoza, Arnoldo 028 Paniagua-Palacios, Wendy Carolina 424 Pelletier, Aimee J.D 325 Pérez, C.I 079 Pérez-García, Oscar 318 Perfecto, Ivette 372 Peters, R, [ed.] 016 Peterson, A. Townsend 093 Peterson, Chris J 179, 440, 441 Pfaff, Alexander S.P 156 Polisar, John 414 Porras-Velázquez, J.P 101 Powell, George V.N 013, 082, 173, 190, 409 Pringle, Catherine M 126 Pruetz, Jill D 333 Pulido-Herrera, Luz Astrid 375 Quan-Rodas, Claudia Lorena 174, 331 Quesada-Avendaño, Mauricio 027, 029, 098, 099, 108, 143, 166, 196, 309 Quesada-Mateo, Carlos A 032, 068, 100, 101 Quigley, Howard 414 Quirós-Quesada, Ligia María 422 Ramey, R.R., II 223 Ramírez-Chávez, J.R 304 Ramírez-Umaña, M 131 Ramos-Bendaña, Zayra S 231, 381, 383 Randolph, Shannon G 421 Rangel-Salazar, José Luis 059 Read, J.M 030, 136, 138, 167 Reaser, J.K 129 Redondo-Brenes, Alvaro 386 Regan, Kevin E 256 Rich, P.M 031 Ricketts, T.H 107, 142 Rivard, Benoit 160, 202, 216 Rivas-Rossi, Marta Eugenia 090 Roberts, Dina L 278, 281, 301 Robertson, D.R 249 Robinson, W. Douglas 432 Rocha-Núñez, Oscar J

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027, 108, 109, 134, 135, 149, 181, 184, 204, 208 Rodríguez-Barrantes, Ruth 116 Rodríguez-Matamoros, Jorge 363 Rodríguez-Pineda, J.M 120 Rodríguez-Solís, Carlos Mario 102 Rogers, D 153 Rogers, Dennis W 404 Rojas, Luis A (comp.) 329 Roldán-Chacón, Carmen Alexa 087 Roman, G 238 Romero, L.M 102 Romero-Gurdián, Alí 411 Romero-Ramírez, Sergio 046, 288 Romo, D 129

Ron, Santiago R 129 Rosales-Meda, Marta Marleny 269, 286 Rosas-Guerrero, Víctor 196 Rosero-Bixby, Luis 110, 151 Rothman, Andrew 378 Roughgarden, J 199 Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Viviana 316, 320 Ruiz-Meléndez, Antonio 336, 344, 377, 384, 389 Rutherford, B.M 263 Rylands, A.B 287 Sáenz-Méndez, Joel Cris 026, 028, 232, 269, 286, 308, 312, 313, 314, 327, 349, 355 Salas, A.W 129 Salas, C 053 Salazar, José Antonio (ed.) 410

Salazar, Karla A.O 196 Salom-Pérez, Roberto 414 Salters, Rosalyn 421 Sánchez-Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo 032, 040, 068, 112, 130, 156, 159, 160, 191, 202, 203, 209, 216 Sánchez-López, Sonia 393 Sánchez-Merlo, Dalia 232, 327 Sánchez-Pérez, Julio E 182 Sánchez-Porras, Ronald E 181 Sánchez-Ulate, Natalie Viviana 424, 437 Sancho-Madriz, E 102 Sandí, Randi F 137 Sandiford, M 271 Sandoval-Vargas, Luis 388 Santivañez-Galarza, J.L

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306 Santos-Barrera, Georgina 332 Scatena, Frederick N (ed.) 034 Schedlbauer, Jessica L 278, 282, 292, 294, 356 Schindler, Stefan 429 Schipper, Gerrit Jan III 283 Schlaepfer, M.A 033, 125, 152, 185, 290 Schlönvoigt, Andrea M 140 Schultz, Jared 421 Schulze, Christian H 370 Scott, J.M 283 Seaman, Benjamin S 370, 429 Sekercioglu, Cagan H 137, 161, 162, 198, 200, 435 Senf, Melissa Joy 364 Sesnie, Steven E 278, 284, 298, 355, 356, 381

Sherry, Thomas W 247, 321, 396, 399, 432 Shih, Tiffany M 317 Sibaja-Morales, Karen Daniela 424 Sierra, Claudine 028, 183 Sigel, Bryan J 247, 300, 321, 396 Sinclair, Fergus L 232, 327, 349 Sirot, L 035 Skole, D.L 130 Smith, Alistair M.S 381 Snow, Allison A 115 Sodhi, Navjot S (ed.) 433 Soto-Muñoz, Gabriela 322, 416 Soto-Pinto, Lorena 311 Soto-Soto, Ricardo 045 Srivastava, Dianne S

358 St Clair, Colleen Cassady 385, 392 Starzomski, Brian M 325 Stevenson, R.D 039 Stiles, F. Gary 003, 4 Stoian, Dietmar 278, 356 Stoner, Kathryn E 196, 242, 309, 393 Storrier, A.L 159 Suárez, Avelino (ed.) 348 Sugiyama, Anna 440, 441 Suni, Sevan S 420 Tabilo-Valdivieso, Elier Lorenzo 028, 183 Tamburini, B 223 Tavares-de Almeida, Roverbal 371 Tejeda-Tellez, Arianna Gisela

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424 Tenorio-Alfaro, L.A 053 Thessler, Sirpa 381 Thiele-Mora, G.M 118 Timm, Robert M 359 Tobar-López, Diego E 227 Tosi-Olin, Joseph A., Jr 037, 078 Townsend, Patricia A 406 Trapnell, Dorset W 210, 212, 220 Traub, B 094 Tucker, N.I.J 244 Turner, I.M 012 Turner, J.R.G 007 Ugalde-Gómez, Jesús 355 Valerio, Luis 344

Valle-Bourrouet, Luisa (ed.) 410 van Breugel, Michiel 311 van Laake, Patrick E 191, 254 Vandermeer, John 372 Vargas-Barrantes, Elida María 181 Vargas-Rojas, Gustavo (ed.) 410 Vargas-Ulate, Gilbert 397 Varley, J.D 102 Vaughan-Dickhaut, Christopher 009, 010, 230 Vázquez-García, J.A 034 Vea, J.J 218 Vega, A (ed.) 074, 075, 076, 077, 078, 079, 080, 081, 082, 083, 084, 085 Vege, S 063 Velásquez-Mazariegos, Sergio

353 Venegas, B 053 Vieglais, D.A 031 Vílchez-Alvarado, Braulio 260 Vílchez-Mendoza, Sergio J 232, 327, 431 Villa-Romero, J.L 132 Villalobos-Vega, Randol 382 Villanueva-Najarro, Cristóbal 327, 349 Villate, Mauricio 419 Villate, Rodrigo 367 von Helversen, Otto 324 von Meijenfeldt, Noemi 339 von Mejenfeldt, Noemi 259 Vorauer, Anton 335 Waits, Lisette P 299

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Walder, Christoph 335 Walker, Sarah 019 Wang, J 031 Watson, D.M 093 Watson, Robert T (ed.) 348 Watt, Allan D 276 Weissenhofer, Anton 429 Werner, Frederick Reuben 171, 338 White, G.M 127 Whitmore, T.C 070

289, 355 Wiesner, Kerstin R 324 Wille, Carlos 087 Wilson, Amy G 412 Wilson, C.L 091 Wilson, Scott 412 Winbeer, Moritz 335 Wishnie, M 311 Wolf, Jan H.D 259, 339 Woltmann, Stefan 321, 387, 399 Wong-Reyes, Grace Woodward, Catherine L 211, 274 Wrbka, Thomas 429 Wright, Pamela 409 Wulfhorst, J.D 356 Young, Bruce E 089, 129, 247, 321, 396 Zaldívar-Ruiz, María Eugenia 181 Zamora-Pereira, Juan Carlos 417, 418 Zeller, Kathy 414 Zwick, P.D 084

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ÍNDICE DE DESCRIPTORES

ABANDONED LAND 096, 106, 117, 178, 237 ABIOTIC FACTORS 345 ABUNDANCE 033, 183, 230, 266, 280, 306, 308, 414 ACCIPITRIDAE 009, 137 ACID PRECIPITATION AND SOIL 129 ACTINOPTERYGII 346, 347 ACTIVITY PATTERNS 026, 141, 393 ACTUAL LAND USE 037 ADAPTATION 217 ADAPTATION IMPACTS 348 ADENOSINE DEAMINASE 181 ADULT MORTALITY 295 ADULTS 180, 251, 315, 328

AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY 030, 091, 096, 106, 113, 123, 136, 138, 167, 176 AFLP 211, 274 AGALYCHNIS 129 AGOUTI 119, 154, 359, 368, 371, 379, 394 AGOUTIDAE 119, 154, 359, 368, 371, 379, 394 AGRICULTURAL COLONIZATION 096, 106 AGRICULTURAL FRONTIER 087 AGRICULTURAL HABITATS 237 AGRICULTURAL LAND 429 AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE 306, 330 AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES 147, 150 AGRICULTURAL STREAM 280 AGRICULTURAL STRUCTURE

301, 375 AGRICULTURE 030, 087, 091, 092, 096, 106, 107, 116, 123, 142, 165, 167, 176, 191, 216, 219, 244, 254 AGRICULTURE AND CATTLE GRAZING 216 AGROECOSYSTEMS 266, 267, 306, 308, 312, 317, 415 AGROFORESTRY 037, 087, 091, 092, 140, 222, 233, 243, 244, 245, 269, 286, 318, 383, 416, 429 AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS 308, 330 ALBIZIA 043 ALFA DIVERSITY 194 ALFAROA 305 ALLELE 019 ALLEY CROPPING 140 ALLIGATORIDAE 009

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ALLOENZYMES 220 ALLOPATRIC MODEL 007 ALLOZYMES 019, 057, 058, 063, 072, 104, 139, 212, 376 ALLUVIAL GALLERY FORESTS 158 ALOUATTA PALLIATA 009, 010, 051, 069, 133, 174, 180, 181, 201, 217, 218, 251, 269, 286, 287, 315, 328, 331, 333, 359, 363, 364, 407, 408 ALPHA DIVERSITY 313, 335 ALTITUDE 345, 431 ALTITUDINAL GRADIENTS 182 ALTITUDINAL MIGRATION 013, 082, 173, 348 AMAZILIA 064, 264, 415 AMAZONA 225, 236, 323, 389 AMEIVA 295, 332 AMISCONDE INITIATIVE 083, 131 AMPHIBIAN DECLINE

129, 235, 295 AMPHIBIANS 033, 045, 116, 125, 129, 152, 185, 235, 273, 290, 295, 332, 427 AMPLIFIED FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM 211, 274 ANACARDIACEAE 043, 128, 133, 188, 197, 206, 441 ANACARDIUM 043, 128, 197 ANADARA 133 ANALYSIS 246, 285, 357 ANANAS 390 ANATOMY 287 ANDIRA 043 ANGUIDAE 332 ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR 122 ANIMAL DISPLACEMENT 221 ANIMAL ECOLOGY 301 ANIMAL FEEDING 140 ANIMAL MIGRATION 001, 301, 333 ANIMAL MOBILITY 261 ANIMAL MOVEMENT 337, 343, 385, 392 ANIMAL POPULATION 097 ANIMAL PROTECTION 225, 236 ANIMAL WELFARE 225, 236 ANNUAL SURVIVAL 412 ANOPHELES 358 ANOURA 335 ANTHODISCUS 133 ANTHROPOGENIC DISTURBANCE 361 ANTHROPOGENIC OVEREXPLOITATION 433 ANTS 162, 253, 261, 345, 361

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ANURANS 125, 129, 152, 185, 235, 273, 290, 295, 427 APIDAE 128, 317, 340, 350, 360, 420 APIS 317 APOCYNACEAE 063, 065, 231 APPARENT SURVIVAL 320 AQUATIC WEEDS 133 AQUIFER 126, 424 ARA 009, 133, 187, 241, 279, 323, 336, 341, 367, 377, 384, 389, 403, 409, 434 ARABLE LAND 130 ARATINGA 064, 323 ARCHILOCHUS 264 ARCIDAE 133 AREA DE CONSERVACION ARENAL HUETAR NORTE 094, 156, 170, 175, 181, 187, 214, 244, 246, 255, 276, 285,

346, 347, 351, 357, 361, 390, 417, 418, 426, 434 AREA DE CONSERVACION ARENAL TILARAN 004, 013, 018, 034, 036, 037, 038, 039, 041, 042, 081, 093, 111, 117, 123, 124, 129, 133, 156, 173, 175, 176, 177, 190, 216, 235, 243, 244, 258, 259, 264, 339, 345, 351, 379, 394, 397, 406, 426, 433 AREA DE CONSERVACION CORDILLERA VOLCANICA CENTRAL 001, 002, 003, 004, 005, 006, 015, 016, 017, 019, 030, 034, 050, 059, 061, 062, 067, 068, 081, 089, 093, 102, 113, 114, 116, 119, 120, 122, 126, 134, 136, 138, 144, 148, 153, 154, 156, 158, 164, 167, 170, 172, 175, 187, 205, 207, 214, 221, 222, 226, 227, 231, 233, 240, 246, 247, 253, 254, 260, 261, 267, 268, 270, 273, 274, 276, 277, 278, 279, 281, 282, 284, 285, 286, 291, 292, 294, 295, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 318, 319, 321, 322, 324, 329, 330, 336, 338, 341, 344, 346, 347, 351, 356, 357, 361, 363, 367, 368, 369, 372, 373, 377, 378, 381, 383, 384, 387, 388, 390, 391, 396, 399, 400, 404, 409, 411, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 422, 424, 427, 432, 437, 438 AREA DE CONSERVACION GUANACASTE 004, 051, 071, 080, 093, 099, 102, 105, 123, 124, 143, 145,

146, 147, 156, 166, 175, 176, 177, 180, 181, 184, 196, 202, 203, 204, 208, 209, 212, 216, 228, 230, 251, 254, 255, 309, 325, 328, 329, 337, 343, 346, 347, 351, 358, 362, 376, 382, 385, 392, 393 AREA DE CONSERVACION LA AMISTAD CARIBE 034, 053, 083, 096, 106, 131, 133, 156, 175, 181, 191, 213, 221, 230, 265, 268, 280, 283, 326, 329, 351, 383, 386, 414 AREA DE CONSERVACION LA AMISTAD PACIFICO 011, 012, 020, 021, 022, 023, 024, 025, 031, 033, 040, 044, 049, 060, 063, 083, 091, 092, 093, 096, 103, 106, 107, 115, 125, 129, 131, 133, 134, 137, 142, 149, 152, 156, 161, 162, 165, 169, 171, 175, 179, 182, 185, 198, 200, 219, 223, 224, 230, 237, 239, 252, 262, 263, 264, 275, 288, 290, 316, 317, 320, 329, 332, 334, 338, 340, 342, 350, 351, 353, 360, 373, 374, 375, 383, 386, 420, 431, 435, 440, 441 AREA DE CONSERVACION MARINA ISLA DEL COCO 175, 351 AREA DE CONSERVACION OSA 004, 007, 008, 026, 031, 035, 045, 047, 081, 086, 095, 110, 121, 133, 141, 151, 156, 160, 175, 183, 196, 224, 229, 230, 237, 252, 256, 275, 319, 335, 351, 353, 369, 370, 371, 374,

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375, 386, 395, 405, 412, 429, 431, 436 AREA DE CONSERVACION PACIFICO CENTRAL 028, 052, 064, 065, 134, 149, 156, 175, 181, 182, 183, 236, 266, 286, 301, 308, 319, 351, 369, 395, 398, 401, 402, 421, 428 AREA DE CONSERVACION TEMPISQUE 003, 004, 040, 043, 046, 057, 058, 069, 072, 073, 088, 098, 104, 105, 118, 123, 124, 128, 133, 134, 139, 147, 149, 156, 174, 175, 176, 177, 181, 192, 193, 194, 195, 201, 203, 209, 210, 212, 216, 220, 228, 232, 234, 242, 257, 271, 286, 313, 319, 323, 331, 346, 347, 351, 359, 369, 376 AREA DE CONSERVACION TORTUGUERO 056, 061, 062, 067, 081, 153, 155, 156, 175, 181, 191, 230, 250, 255, 268, 293, 315, 319, 329, 333, 346, 347, 351, 364, 369, 380, 393, 407, 408, 439 ARECACEAE 017, 024, 229, 380, 400, 429 ARID ZONES 234, 257 ARMY ANTS 253, 261, 345 ARTHROPOD COMMUNITIES 162

ARTHROPODS 007, 008, 011, 020, 039, 045, 107, 116, 128, 133, 137, 142, 161, 162, 165, 192, 193, 205, 219, 227, 229, 232, 244, 253, 261, 272, 276, 309, 317, 318, 325, 340, 345, 350, 358, 360, 361, 375, 411, 420 ARTIBEUS 335 ARTIFICIAL BAT ROOSTS 324 ARTIFICIAL NESTS 061, 062, 067 ASCOMYCOTA 163, 260 ASSESSMENT 177, 202, 203, 209, 238 ASTERACEAE 168, 224, 252 ASTEROGYNE 380, 400 ASTROCARYUM 017 ASTRONIUM 133 ASYNCHRONOUS MIGRATION PATTERNS 264 ATELES 009, 010, 180, 250, 251, 269, 286, 287, 293, 328, 333, 359, 363, 371, 393, 407

ATELOPUS 129 ATMOSPHERIC CARBON 140 ATROPOIDES 332 ATTA INFORMATION SYSTEM 160 AVIAN COMMUNITY 114, 412 AVIAN DIVERSITY 386 AVIAN EXTINCTION 012, 015 AVIAN FRUGIVORES 171, 338 AVICENNIA 064 AVIFAUNA 195, 199, 234, 257, 302, 322, 404 BACTRIS 017, 380 BAGACES (CANTON) 139 BAIRD'S TAPIR 283 BANANA PLANTATIONS

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059, 061, 062, 067, 089, 191, 254 BANANAS 153, 191, 268 BARBILLA SUBCORRIDOR 414 BARRED ANTSHRIKE 343, 392 BARVA (CANTON) 424 BARVA AQUIFER 424 BASELINE 413 BASIC BIOLOGY 141 BASIDIOMYCOTA 411 BASILISCUS 332 BAT COMMUNITY STRUCTURE 242 BATAN (DISTRITO) 153, 268 BATRACHOCHYTRIUM 295 BATS 021, 044, 060, 116, 147, 194, 196, 232, 242, 299, 313, 324, 335, 359

BAYESIAN CLUSTERING 316, 342 BEES 317, 350 BEHAVIOUR 015, 020, 069, 147, 150, 250, 293, 315, 364, 437 BEHAVIOURAL LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY 427 BETA DIVERSITY 194, 313, 381, 431 BIGNONIACEAE 063, 133, 382 BILLIA 379, 394 BINATIONAL CAMPAIGN 336, 341, 377, 384, 389 BIOCLIMATOLOGY 016 BIODIVERSITY 001, 008, 011, 012, 014, 016, 020, 022, 023, 024, 031, 032, 034, 039, 045, 047, 049, 050, 053, 054, 056, 059, 074, 075, 076, 077, 078, 079, 080, 081, 082, 083, 084, 085, 087, 089, 090, 093, 095, 097, 098, 100, 102, 105, 107, 111, 115, 117, 118, 131, 134, 137, 140, 142, 143, 148, 153, 155, 157, 160, 161, 162, 163, 165, 169, 173, 178, 182, 188, 189, 190, 192, 193, 194, 197, 198, 200, 215,

219, 227, 228, 232, 234, 235, 237, 238, 239, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 248, 255, 256, 257, 258, 260, 267, 268, 269, 272, 273, 284, 285, 286, 295, 296, 297, 298, 302, 306, 308, 310, 312, 313, 314, 317, 318, 319, 322, 325, 327, 333, 334, 344, 348, 349, 351, 352, 355, 357, 358, 365, 366, 370, 372, 374, 375, 412, 414, 415, 416, 421, 429, 431, 433, 438 BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION 055, 156, 168, 175, 186, 221, 224, 252, 262, 263, 276, 288, 330, 361, 383, 404, 410 BIODIVERSITY DECLINE 238 BIODIVERSITY INDICATORS 162 BIODIVERSITY INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 102 BIODIVERSITY LOSS 006, 068, 087, 090, 148 BIODIVERSITY PROTECTION 038 BIODIVERSITY SUSTAINING 253 BIOGEGRAPHIC PATTERNS 148 BIOGEOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS 170

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164, 172 BIOGEOGRAPHY 008, 034, 138, 168, 224, 252, 334, 346, 347 BIOGRAPHIES 146 BIOLOGICAL CORRIDORS 001, 002, 003, 014, 018, 026, 031, 036, 037, 038, 041, 042, 045, 046, 048, 052, 053, 054, 055, 056, 074, 075, 076, 077, 078, 079, 080, 081, 082, 083, 084, 085, 086, 087, 090, 102, 111, 117, 121, 123, 124, 131, 132, 133, 140, 141, 150, 155, 156, 157, 170, 175, 176, 182, 187, 190, 200, 213, 214, 215, 221, 226, 230, 231, 238, 243, 246, 248, 255, 262, 263, 265, 272, 275, 277, 283, 285, 288, 296, 297, 303, 304, 305, 307, 319, 326, 329, 333, 335, 336, 337, 341, 343, 344, 351, 354, 355, 356, 357, 365, 367, 369, 370, 371, 373, 377, 378, 381, 383, 384, 385, 389, 390, 391, 392, 409, 413, 414, 415, 418, 419, 421, 422, 423, 425, 426, 429, 430, 436 BIOLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION 008 BIOLOGICAL DYNAMICS 207 BIOLOGICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM 102 BIOLOGICAL FACTORS BIOLOGICAL INDICATORS 011 BIOLOGICAL JUSTIFICATION 170, 246, 277, 285, 344, 357 BIOLOGICAL PRESERVATION 053, 054 BIOLOGICAL RESERVES 013, 126, 156, 175, 213, 326 BIOLOGICAL RESERVES DESIGN 013, 173 BIOLOGY 011, 109 BIOMASS 146 BIOPHILIA 225, 236 BIOPROSPECTING 272 BIOSPHERE RESERVES 083, 131 BIRD COMMUNITY 137, 200, 247, 300, 396 BIRD CONTROL 133 BIRD DIET 137, 200 BIRD DISPERSAL 387, 399 BIRD DISTURBANCE 198 BIRD DIVERSITY 089, 268 BIRD PESTS 133 BIRD POPULATIONS 115 BIRD SPECIES DIVERSITY 024 BIRDING TRAILS 378 BIRDS 003, 004, 005, 009, 010, 012, 013, 015, 023, 024, 025, 045, 059, 061, 062, 064, 067, 082, 086, 089, 093, 103, 114, 115, 116, 133, 137, 150, 153, 171, 173, 187, 190, 195, 198, 199, 200, 223, 225, 232, 234, 236, 239, 241, 243, 247, 253, 257, 264, 266, 268, 279, 281, 300, 301, 302, 306, 308, 316, 320, 321, 322, 323, 336, 337, 338, 341, 342, 343, 348, 367, 370, 371, 377, 378, 384, 385, 386, 387, 388, 389, 392, 396, 399, 403, 404, 405, 409, 412, 415, 416, 432, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438 BIRDWATCHING TOURISM 198 BIXACEAE 382

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BLOOD 025, 223 BOA 332 BOCA RIO SAN CARLOS 187 BOCA TAPADA DE SAN CARLOS 434 BOIDAE 332 BOLITOGLOSSA MINUTULA 129, 332 BOMBACACEAE 099, 166, 196, 228, 240, 245, 271, 274, 309 BOMBACOPSIS 099, 166, 228, 245, 271 BORAGINACEAE 133, 188, 302, 322, 416 BOS 216 BOSCOSA PROJECT 045 BOTANICAL COMPOSITION 086, 116, 118, 158, 233, 242, 244, 327, 334, 349, 374, 431 BOTANISTS 263 BOTHROPS 332

129, 235 BOUNDARIES 255 BOVIDAE 216 BREEDING BIOLOGY 199, 210, 220 BREEDING SITE 434 BREEDING SYSTEMS 098, 143, 149, 188, 189, 258 BRIBRI AMERINDIANS 280 BROMELIACEAE 258, 259, 339, 358, 390 BROMELIAD TANK WATER 325, 358 BROSIMUM ALICASTRUM 305 BROSIMUM 400 BROTOGERIS 323 BUFFER ZONES 041, 054, 074, 075, 076, 077, 078, 079, 080, 081, 082, 083, 084, 085, 090, 111, 118, 131, 132, 155, 213, 326, 371 BUFO 129, 235 BUFONIDAE BURSERA 382 BURSERACEAE 382, 400 BUTEOGALLUS 064 BUTORIDES 064 BUTTERFLIES 011, 020, 165, 219 BUTTERFLY FARMING 272 BUTTERFLY MIGRATIONS 039 CABECAR AMERINDIANS 280 CAECILIIDAE 332 CAIMAN 009 CALIFORNIA TICO DE SARAPIQUI 187 CALLITRICHIDAE 286, 287 CALUROMYS 359 CALYPTROGYNE 380

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CAMPYLOPTERUS 264, CAMPYLORHYNCHUS 337, 343, 385, 392, 435 CAÑAS (CANTON) 128, 134, 149, 192, 193, 194, 195, 232, 234, 257, 286, 313 CANIDAE 359 CANIS 359 CANOPY BIOLOGY 128 CANOPY MICROCLIMATE 259, 339 CANOPY PALMS 017, 431 CANOPY TREES 431 CANTHON 375 CAPTIVITY 225, 236, 241 CAPTURE-MARK-RECAPTURE ANALYSIS 320 CARABIDAE 162 CARAPA

119, 122, 144, 154, 231, 333, 368 CARATE DE PUERTO JIMENEZ 086 CARBON CYCLE 096, 106, 235 CARBON DIOXIDE 235 CARBON SEQUESTRATION 036, 037, 140, 356 CARE OF YOUNG 150 CARIARI (DISTRITO) 181, 191, 250, 293, 315, 333, 364, 380, 393, 407, 408, 439 CARIBBEAN COAST 084 CARNIVORES 009, 010, 116, 121, 141, 230, 283, 371, 414 CAROLLIA 324, 335 CARYOCAR 133 CARYOCARACEAE 133 CARYODAPHNOPSIS 133 CASE STUDIES 131, 265, 272, 308

CASEARIA 043 CASSIA 043 CATALINA 376 CATHARUS 198 CATIE 132, 373, 374, 375, 415, 431 CATOPSIS 258, 259, 339 CATTLE 216 CATTLE FARMING 216 CATTLE PASTURES 171, 185, 338 CATTLE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS 267 CEBIDAE 009, 010, 028, 035, 051, 069, 133, 174, 180, 181, 183, 201, 217, 218, 250, 251, 269, 286, 287, 289, 293, 315, 328, 331, 333, 359, 363, 364, 371, 393, 398, 401, 402, 407, 408, 410, 428 CEBUS

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009, 010, 133, 180, 251, 269, 286, 287, 328, 333, 359, 363, 371, 407 CECROPIACEAE 400 CEDRAL FARM 059, 089 CEDRELA 063, 133, 188, 228, 245 CEIBA 196, 309 CENTRO CIENTIFICO TROPICAL 262, 263 CENTROLENIDAE 129 CENTRONYCTERIS 335 CENTURIO 335 CERRO COPAL CAMARONERA 174, 331 CERRO COPAL OJO DE AGUA 174, 331 CERRO DE LA MUERTE 264 CERRO DE LAS VUELTAS 156, 175 CERRO SAN GIL 164, 172

CERVIDAE 133 CHAMAEDOREA 380 CHANGE IN LAND USE 184, 204, 208, 362 CHANGE OF LANDSCAPE STRUCTURE 094 CHANGES 030, 101, 136, 138, 167 CHANGES IN SPECIES COMPOSITION 189 CHARADRIUS 064 CHECKLISTS 332, 405 CHELONIIDAE 133 CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS 129 CHILAMATE DE SARAPIQUI 187, 417, 418, 437 CHILDREN 377 CHILOPODS 137 CHIRODERMA 335

CHIROPTERA 021, 044, 060, 116, 147, 194, 196, 232, 242, 299, 313, 324, 335, 359 CHIRRACA DE ACOSTA 401, 402, 428 CHLOROSTILBON 264 CHOERONISCUS 335 CHOMES (DISTRITO) 064 CHORDEILES 064 CHRYSOLAMPIS 264 CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS 295 CHYTRIDIOMYCOTINA 295 CICONIIDAE 064 CINGULATA 359 CINNAMOMUM 065 CISSIA, 318 CIUDAD COLON 065, 149

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CIUDAD UNIVERSITARIA RODRIGO FACIO 388 CLARAVIS 064 CLASSIFICATION 351 CLAVICIPITACEAE 260 CLIMATE 008, 046, 071, 086, 123, 145, 176 CLIMATE CHANGE 016, 040, 079, 126, 129, 140, 189, 235, 238, 300, 345, 348, 352, 355, 365, 374, 375, 393, 406, 431, 433 CLIMATIC CONDITIONS 038 CLIMBERS 158 CLOUD 254 CLOUD FOREST ECOLOGY 034 CLOUD FORESTS 034, 096, 106, 235 CLUSIACEAE 021, 044, 049, 060, 274 CNFL 426

COASTAL ZONES 348 COBANO (DISTRITO) 046 COCHLOSPERMUM 382 COCHRANELLA 129 COFFEA 162, 169, 302, 318, 322, 411, 416 COFFEE 162, 169, 302, 318, 322, 411, 416 COFFEE PLANTATIONS 040, 112, 107, 142, 162, 165, 219 COLEOPTERA 137, 162, 192, 193, 229, 232, 276, 361, 375, 411 COLIBRI 264 COLLECTING METHODS 090 COLONIZATION 239

COLUBRIDAE 332 COLUMBIDAE 133, 137 COLUMBINA 064 COMBRETACEAE 064 COMMUNAL TREE NESTING SITE 434 COMMUNITIES 059 COMMUNITY ASSEMBLY 237 COMMUNITY CAPITALS 413 COMMUNITY COMPOSITION 022, 169, 258, 259, 317, 339, 350 COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT 037 COMMUNITY DYNAMICS 239 COMMUNITY ECOLOGY 153, 268

COLOSTETHUS 129 COLOUR PATTERN 007

COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION 132

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COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION 132 COMMUNITY STRUCTURE 358 COMMUNITY WEIGHTED MEAN 400 CONEPATUS CONNECTIVITY 028, 221, 222, 231, 233, 302, 306, 322, 383, 411, 415, 416, 418, 427 CONSEQUENCES 001, 002, 098, 143, 184, 204, 208, 333, 362 CONSERVATION 002, 003, 004, 005, 013, 061, 062, 067, 074, 075, 076, 077, 078, 079, 080, 081, 082, 083, 084, 085, 105, 107, 115, 131, 146, 150, 153, 157, 160, 170, 173, 175, 187, 190, 203, 209, 214, 217, 218, 220, 225, 230, 236, 243, 244, 245, 246, 248, 255, 268, 269, 277, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 295, 296, 297, 315, 317, 329, 332, 336, 341, 346, 347, 348, 357, 365, 377, 384, 388, 389, 406, 418, 435, 436, 439 CONSERVATION AREAS 001, 014, 041, 042, 055, 074, 075, 076, 077, 078, 079, 080, 081, 082, 083, 084, 085, 102, 131, 155, 156, 333

CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 012, 070, 071, 145, 433 CONSERVATION CORRIDORS 074, 075, 076, 077, 078, 079, 080, 081, 082, 083, 084, 085, 131 CONSERVATION EFFORTS 256 CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS 435 CONSERVATION IN HUMANMODIFIED LANDSCAPES 433 CONSERVATION MEASURES 307, 341, 367 CONSERVATION PLANNING AND PRIORITIES 433 CONSERVATION POLICY 032, 100, 101, 284, 298 CONSERVATION PRIORITY AREAS 303 CONSERVATION PROGRAMS 439 CONSERVATION PROJECT 041 CONSERVATION STRATEGY 221 CONTAGION METRIC METHOD

136 CONTINENTAL WATERS 297 CONTINUOUS FORESTS 108 COPAIFERA 133 COPRIS 375 CORAGYPS 064 CORAPIPO 316, 320, 342 CORDIA 043, 133, 188, 302, 322, 416 CORDILLERA DE TALAMANCA 081, 093, 096, 106, 129, 383, 386 CORDILLERA DE TILARAN 036, 037, 038, 111, 190 CORREDOR BIOLOGICO BINACIONAL EL CASTILLOSAN JUAN-LA SELVA 170, 187, 214, 226, 231, 246, 255, 277, 278, 279, 284, 285, 298, 319, 329, 336, 341, 344, 356, 357, 367, 369, 377, 378, 381, 384, 390, 391, 409, 417, 418 CORREDOR BIOLOGICO BOLSON-ORTEGA 319, 369

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CORREDOR BIOLOGICO CERROS DE JESUS 319, 369 CORREDOR BIOLOGICO CERROS DEL ROSARIO 319, 369 CORREDOR BIOLOGICO CHOROTEGA 319, 369 CORREDOR BIOLOGICO CORDILLERA VOLCANICA CENTRAL-TALAMANCA 304, 318, 373 CORREDOR BIOLOGICO DIRIA 319, 369 CORREDOR BIOLOGICO MESOAMERICANO 214, 215, 255, 278, 310, 319, 329, 369, 386 CORREDOR BIOLOGICO MONTEVERDE-GOLFO DE NICOYA 036, 037, 038 CORREDOR BIOLOGICO OSA 319, 369 CORREDOR BIOLOGICO PASO DE LA DANTA 319, 369 CORREDOR BIOLOGICO PENINSULAR 319, 369

CORREDOR BIOLOGICO RIO POTRERO 319, 369 CORREDOR BIOLOGICO SAN JUAN-LA SELVA AREA DE CONSERVACION CORDILLERA VOLCANICA CENTRAL 366 CORREDOR BIOLOGICO TALAMANCA-CARIBE 213, 221, 265, 326 CORREDOR BIOLOGICO TORTUGUERO 319, 329, 369 CORREDOR BIOLOGICO TURRIALBA-JIMENEZ 302, 305, 319, 322, 369 CORREDOR BIOLÓGICO CORDILLERA VOLCANICA CENTRAL-TALAMANCA 303 CORRELATED MATING 134, 135 CORRELATION OF PATERNITY 134 CORRIDOR DESIGN 018, 221 CORRIDOR USE 343, 392 CORRIDORS

001, 002, 074, 075, 076, 077, 078, 079, 080, 081, 082, 083, 084, 085, 131, 221, 261, 333 CORYTOPHANES 332 CORYTOPHANIDAE 332 COST DISTANCE 275, 423, 425 COSTS 079 COTINGIDAE 137, 190 COTO 47 229 COTO BRUS (CANTON) 022, 024, 025, 033, 063, 091, 092, 169, 342 COTO BRUS BIOLOGICAL CORRIDOR 024 COUMA 231 COUNTRYSIDE 317, 350, 420 COUNTRYSIDE BIOGEOGRAPHY 162, 186, 199, 237, 311, 325, 358 COUNTRYSIDE ECOLOGY 335

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COUNTRYSIDE HABITATS 168, 186, 224, 252 COURATARI 133 COVER ASSESSMENT 040, 112 COVER FOREST MAPS 216 CRACIDAE 009, 010, 371 CRAUGASTOR 295 CRAX 009, 010, 371 CREATION PROPOSAL 170, 277, 344 CRICETIDAE 359 CRISTO REY DE SARAPIQUI 187 CRITICAL PATCH SIZE 199 CROCODYLIA 116 CROCODYLUS 009 CROOKED TREE 164, 172 CROP POLLINATION 317

CROPS 123, 130, 176 CROTON 400 CROTOPHAGA 064, 308 CUAJINIQUIL 376 CUCULIDAE 064, 308 CUENCA BAJA RIO TEMPISQUE 210, 212, 220 CUENCA DEL RIO TEMPISQUE 123, 124, 176 CUENCA RIO SAVEGRE 182, 288, 334 CULEX REJECTOR 358 CULICIDAE 358 CULTIVATED LAND HABITAT 201 CULTURAL RESOURCES 164, 172 CULTURE 225, 236 CUNICULIDAE 359

CUPANIA 065 CURCULIONIDAE 229, 411 CUTANEOUS MYCOSIS 295 CYANOCORAX 416 CYNOMETRA 133 DALBERGIA 133 DAMAGE 065 DAMAS DE QUEPOS 401, 402, 428 DAMS 123, 124, 126, 176 DASYPODIDAE 359 DASYPROCTA 119, 154, 359, 368, 371, 379, 394 DASYPROCTIDAE 119, 154, 359, 368, 371, 379, 394 DASYPUS 359 DATA ANALYSIS 009, 216

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DATABASES 031, 032 DEAD TREES 158 DECIDUOUS SEASONAL FORESTS 027, 029, 099, 108 DECISION-MAKING 430 DEFAUNATION 119, 144, 154, 368 DEFORESTATION 006, 009, 010, 020, 027, 030, 031, 032, 035, 036, 037, 038, 040, 047, 061, 062, 063, 064, 067, 068, 069, 070, 071, 091, 092, 095, 096, 106, 108, 110, 112, 130, 136, 138, 145, 148, 151, 159, 160, 167, 168, 174, 182, 187, 189, 191, 197, 201, 203, 209, 216, 224, 225, 235, 236, 237, 241, 252, 254, 260, 265, 278, 280, 301, 314, 325, 331, 336, 341, 356, 367, 377, 384, 389, 403, 414, 421, 434 DEFORESTATION RATES 156, 159 DEGRADED SOILS 117 DEMOGRAPHY 021, 038, 044, 051, 060, 174, 218, 331 DENDROBATES 427

DENDROBATIDAE 427 DENDROCOLAPTES 253 DENDROCOLAPTIDAE 137, 253 DENDROICA 064, 308, 415 DENDROPHIDIUM 332 DEPLETING ACTIVITIES 218, 287 DERMAPTERA 137 DERMOPHIS 332 DESIGN 319, 414 DESIGN OF ECOLOGICAL NETWORKS 275 DESMODUS 324, 335 DEVELOPMENT 185 DEVELOPMENT PLANS 280 DEVELOPMENT POLICY 053, 100, 101, 365

DICHOTOMIUS 375 DIDELPHIDAE 359 DIDELPHIS 359 DIET 051, 323, 371 DIFFERENTIATION 134 DIFFUSION MODELS 199 DIGITAL CARTOGRAPHIC DATABASE 123, 176 DIGITAL MAPPING 068 DIGITAL PROCESSING OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS 123, 176 DILODENDRON 382 DIOECIOUS PLANTS 120 DIPLOGLOSSUS BILOBATUS 332 DIPTERA 137, 358 DIPTEROCARPACEAE 128

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DIPTERYX 119, 122, 144, 154, 270, 279, 291, 299, 368 DIRECT OBSERVATIONS 141 DISCOVERY CHANNEL 263 DISPERSAL 128, 139, 161, 174, 181, 184, 188, 204, 208, 249, 331, 350, 362, 420 DISPERSAL ASSEMBLY 431 DISPERSAL BEHAVIOUR 432 DISPERSAL CHALLENGE 432 DISPERSAL MECHANISM 066 DISPERSED TREES 140 DISPERSER BEHAVIOUR 066 DISPERSION 194, 313, 368, 415 DISPLACEMENT 427 DISPLACEMENT PATTERNS 221 DISTRIBUTION

010, 023, 033, 125, 152, 162, 183, 230, 235, 239, 289, 290 DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS 332 DISTRIBUTION WITHIN HABITAT 358, 385 DISTURBANCE 115, 380 DISTURBED FORESTS 154 DIURNAL ACTIVITY 020 DIVERSITY 258, 266, 306, 313, 314, 317 DIVERSITY INDEX 257 DNA 287 DNA SEQUENCING 103, 223 DOMINANT SPECIES 301 DRAINAGE 046, 123, 159, 176 DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 040, 112 DROUGHT 123, 176, 235 DRUG CONSUMPTION

046 DRY ATMOSPHERIC CARBON 037 DRY DECIDUOUS FOREST 128 DRYAS 227 DUNG BEETLES 192, 193, 232, 375 DUSSIA 133 DYNAMICS 096, 105, 106, 128, 216 DYSDERCUS 309 DYSITHAMNUS 103, 223 EARLY MORTALITY 440 EARTH 153, 268, 430 ECITON 253, 261 ECOAGRICULTURE 383 ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS 381 ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION 038

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ECOLOGICAL CONNECTIVITY 421 ECOLOGICAL DISTURBANCE 030, 158, 163, 167 ECOLOGICAL IMPACT 235 ECOLOGICAL LAND USE CAPABILITY 078 ECOLOGICAL LANDSCAPE 395 ECOLOGICAL MONITORING 355, 391 ECOLOGICAL NICHE 358, 375 ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION 031, 324 ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION 071, 145, 147, 148, 178, 184, 204, 208, 244, 362 ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY 205 ECOLOGY 011, 013, 020, 045, 093, 099, 107, 118, 123, 124, 125, 133, 138, 141, 142, 149, 152, 165, 173, 176, 177, 180, 183, 185, 186, 197, 202, 217, 230, 241, 246, 248, 251, 264, 285, 290, 315, 328, 357, 358, 366, 398, 401, 402, 406, 428

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 024 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 041 ECONOMIC EFFECTS 041 ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY 079 ECONOMIC GROWTH STRATEGY 397 ECONOMIC POLICIES 079 ECONOMIC VALUE 150 ECOPHYSIOLOGY 432 ECOSYSTEM APPROACH 391, 422 ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONING AND SERVICES 433 ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT 284, 298, 365 ECOSYSTEM SERVICES 096, 106, 317, 411 ECOSYSTEMS 015, 090, 147, 150, 161, 164, 172, 215, 235, 237, 238, 244, 273, 295, 319, 334, 351, 355, 414, 417

ECOTOURISM 024, 037, 041, 042, 046, 055, 123, 124, 150, 176, 198, 365, 397, 421 ECOTOURISM IMPACT 036 EDGE EFFECT 118, 125, 152, 158, 185, 261, 282, 290, 292, 294, 366 EDGE EFFECTS 385 EDGE HABITAT 147 EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS 036 EFFECTIVENESS 354, 369, 413 EFFECTS 114, 174, 221, 235, 331 EFFICIENCY 282, 292, 294 EGG INCUBATION 185 EGGS 185 EIRA 359, 371 EL CARMEN DE SIQUIRRES 153, 268 EL NIÑO SOUTHERN OSCILLATION

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040, 112, 235 EL ROBLE DE PUERTO VIEJO DE SARAPIQUI 437 EL ZOTA BIOLOGICAL FIELD STATION 250, 293, 333, 364, 380, 393 ELAEIDOBIUS 229 ELAEIS 229, 429 ELAPIDAE 332 ELECTROPHORETIC MARKERS 174, 181, 331 ELEUTHERODACTYLUS 125, 129, 290, 295 ELEVATION 254 ELVIRA 264 EMBALLONURIDAE 335 EMBERIZIDAE 137, 415, 436 ENDANGERED SPECIES 003, 004, 009, 069, 082, 114, 116, 121, 129, 133, 173, 187, 190, 198, 201, 241, 246, 279, 285, 289, 295, 305, 336, 341, 357, 367, 377, 384, 389, 398,

401, 402, 403, 410, 414, 428, 433, 434 ENDEMISM 436 ENSO 040, 112, 235 ENTEROLOBIUM 057, 058, 072, 088, 104, 109, 134, 135, 139, 149, 188, 206 ENVIRONMENT 045, 110, 151, 213, 326, 365, 397 ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION 159, 216, 233 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 037, 132, 187, 336, 341, 377, 384, 389, 410 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS 087 ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS 374, 431 ENVIRONMENTAL GRADIENT 148 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT 045, 105, 159, 185, 191, 233, 254, 319, 414 ENVIRONMENTAL LAW 014, 055

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 354, 367, 369, 413 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING 045, 161, 198 ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING 079 ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY 079, 248, 351, 365 ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS 255 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 146, 159, 235, 365 ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES 102, 248 ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES 305 EPIDEMICS 129 EPIPHYTE ESTABLISHMENT 259, 339 EPIPHYTIC BROMELIADS 258, 259, 325, 339, 358 EPTESICUS 335 ERETHIZONTIDAE 359

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433 EROSION 036, 038, 040, 112 ERYTHRINA 222, 233, 302, 322, 416 ERYTHROLAMPRUS 332 ESPARZA (CANTON) 266, 301, 308 ESTACION EXPERIMENTAL ENRIQUE JIMENEZ NUÑEZ 181 ESTACION EXPERIMENTAL FORESTAL HORIZONTES 212 ESTERILLOS DE PARRITA 401, 402, 428 EUCOMETIS 103, 223 EUGENIA 043 EUGLOSSA 420 EUGLOSSINE BEES 012, 317, 340, 350, 420 EULAEMA 420 EUPHORBIACEAE 333, 400 EURYSTERNUS 375 EUTERPE 017, 024, 380 EUTOXERES 115 EVAPOTRANSPIRATION 037, 130 EVENNESS 306 EVOLUTION 007, 008, 264, 346, 347, 398, 401, 402, 428 EVOLUTIONARY RADIATION 007 EX SITU GERMINATION 440 EXOTIC SPECIES 065 EXPERIENCE EXCHANGE 304 EXPERIENCE SYSTEMATIZATION 304 EXPLOITATION COMPETITION 099 EXTINCTION RATE 239 EXTINCTION RISK 175, 199 EXTINCTIONS FABACEAE 019, 058, 027, 029, 043, 057, 065, 072, 073, 088, 098, 104, 109, 119, 122, 133, 134, 135, 139, 143, 144, 149, 154, 188, 206, 222, 231, 233, 270, 279, 291, 299, 302, 322, 368, 382, 400, 416 FACILITIES 031 FAECAL ANALYSIS 141 FAGACEAE 382 FARM MANAGEMENT 314, 330 FARM SIZE 341 FARMER DECISION MAKING 092 FARMER MANAGEMENT 244 FARMLAND 036, 038, 318 FARMS 140 FAUNAL DIVERSITY 314, 330 FAUNAL MOVEMENTS 243

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FAUNISTICS 116 FEASIBILITY STUDIES 053 FEEDING 150 FEEDING BEHAVIOUR 345 FEEDING ECOLOGY 408 FEEDING GUILDS 306 FEEDING HABITS 141, 217, 230, 240, 269, 286 FELIDAE 009, 010, 121, 141, 230, 283, 359, 371, 414 FELIS 009, 010, 371 FEMALES 180, 251, 269, 286, 315, 328 FENCEROWS 385, 392 FILA BRUNQUEÑA 395 FILA LAS CRUCES 125, 152, 185, 290 FILA TIGRE 223 FINCA CERROS

183 FINCA EL PROGRESO 380 FINCA LADRILLERA 158 FINCA PANIAGUA 158 FINCA ROJOMACA 158 FIRE 146, 433 FIRE CONTROL 146 FISHERIES 348 FISHERIES PRODUCTION 045 FISHES 249, 280, 346, 347 FLACOURTIACEAE 043 FLOODING 123, 159, 176 FLORISTIC COMPOSITION 334 FLORISTIC PATTERNS 381 FLOW REGULATION 123, 126, 176

FLOWERING 099 FLOWERING ASYNCHRONY 066 FLOWERING DENSITY 019 FLOWERING PHENOLOGY 166, 188, 189 FLUVIAL HYDROSYSTEMS 123, 124, 176 FONAFIFO 312 FOOD CRISIS 372 FOOD LIMITATION 161, 198 FOOD PLANTS 323 FOODS 150 FORAGING 217, 345 FORAGING ECOLOGY 174, 323, 331 FORAGING GUILDS 335 FOREST 244 FOREST BIRDS 023, 114, 239, 343, 392, 435

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FOREST CHANGE 356 FOREST CLEARING 345 FOREST CONSERVATION 047, 048, 091, 092, 095, 096, 101, 106, 235, 256 FOREST CORRIDORS 011 FOREST COVER 031, 100, 101, 177, 194, 202, 203, 209, 313, 314, 322, 416, 425 FOREST DEPENDENCY 415 FOREST DESTRUCTION 009, 010, 241 FOREST DISTRIBUTION 040, 112 FOREST DISTURBANCE 260 FOREST DYNAMICS 148 FOREST ECOLOGY 011, 073, 098, 143, 188, 189, 200, 215 FOREST EDGES 321 FOREST FIRES 116

FOREST FRAGMENT SIZE 180, 251, 328, 440 FOREST FRAGMENTATION PROJECT 207 FOREST GENETICS 197 FOREST HETEROGENEITY 028 FOREST MANAGEMENT 036, 037, 038, 066, 122, 144, 157, 437 FOREST PATCHES 039, 093, 244, 269, 286 FOREST PLANTATIONS 140, 153, 276 FOREST PRESERVATION 034 FOREST PROTECTION 159 FOREST PROXIMITY 168, 224, 252 FOREST RECOVERY 096, 359 FOREST REGENERATION 036, 037, 038, 048, 117 FOREST REMNANTS 059, 071, 089, 145 FOREST RESERVES 175

FOREST RESOURCES 130 FOREST RESTORATION 177, 202, 244, 269, 286, 323, 380 FOREST STRUCTURE 407 FOREST SUCCESSION 171, 258, 259, 260, 338, 339 FOREST TREES 011, 068, 105, 109, 115, 133, 149, 197, 211, 244, 269, 274, 286, 308 FOREST TYPES 158 FOREST UNDERSTORY 207, 400 FORESTATION 110, 151 FORESTED STREAM 280 FORESTRY 161, 150, 197 FORESTRY PRACTICES 150 FORESTRY RESERVES 156 FORESTS 094, 163, 232, 233, 234, 257, 308, 348, 352, 374 FORMICARIIDAE

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103, 137, 223, 301, 385, 387, 435 FORMICIDAE 162, 253, 261, 345, 361 FRACTAL DIMENSION 194, 313 FRAGMENT ISOLATION 180, 251, 328 FRAGMENT SHAPE 313, 314 FRAGMENTATION 011, 021, 060, 061, 063, 067, 092, 094, 239, 240, 275, 313, 314, 322, 423 FRAGMENTED POPULATIONS 211, 274 FRAGSTATS 425 FREEMAN 153, 268 FRESHWATER 126 FRESHWATER ECOLOGY 045 FROGS 033, 125, 129, 273, 290, 295 FRUGIVORES 323 FRUGIVOROUS BATS 324

137 FRUGIVOROUS BIRDS 190 FRUGIVORY 190 FRUIT 013, 173 FRUIT DEVELOPMENT 099 FRUIT PREDATION 309 FRUIT PRODUCTION 120, 135 FRUIT SET 211, 274 FRUIT SIZE 440 FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY 423, 425 FUNCTIONAL DIVERSITY 237 FUNCTIONAL REDUNDANCY 128 FUNCTIONAL RESPONSE 385 FUNDECOR 400 FUNGI 022, 163, 169, 260, 295, 411 FURNARIIDAE GAMALOTILLO DE PURISCAL 401, 402, 428 GAMMA DIVERSITY 194, 313 GANADERIA HURTADO 343, 392 GAP ANALYSIS 148, 231, 303 GAPS 148 GASTROPHRYNE 295 GASTROPODS 133 GAVILAN RESERVE 059, 089 GEITONOGAMY 210 GENDER EQUITY 365 GENE BANKS 178 GENE DISPERSAL 212 GENE FLOW 007, 021, 044, 049, 057, 058, 060, 072, 104, 128, 139, 149, 184, 188, 204, 206, 211, 220, 245, 274, 299, 342, 362, 398, 401, 402, 428

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GENE FREQUENCY 134, 149 GENEALOGY RECONSTRUCTION 044 GENERAL PUBLIC 225, 236 GENERALIZED LINEAR MIXED MODEL 385, 392 GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION 420 GENETIC DIVERSITY 019, 021, 057, 058, 060, 072, 088, 090, 097, 104, 127, 139, 188, 189, 206, 210, 212, 220, 316, 342, 376 GENETIC DRIFT 057, 058, 072, 088, 104, 139, 188, 189, 206 GENETIC EROSION 211, 274 GENETIC ISOLATES 256 GENETIC MARKERS 021, 025, 044, 049, 060, 184, 204, 220, 223, 258, 291, 299, 362 GENETIC POPULATION 025, 223, 258, 387, 399 GENETIC STRUCTURE

021, 044, 049, 057, 058, 060, 072, 104, 115, 127, 139, 149, 188, 206, 212, 228, 245, 271, 342, 376 GENETIC VARIATION 025, 073, 098, 103, 109, 134, 143, 149, 174, 197, 211, 223, 228, 245, 258, 271, 274, 291, 299, 331 GENETICS 258, 287 GEO-SPATIAL ANALYSIS 357 GEOGRAPHICAL DISTANCE 431 GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS 017, 018, 030, 031, 032, 050, 052, 068, 071, 084, 091, 092, 100, 101, 110, 113, 121, 123, 136, 138, 145, 151, 176, 177, 191, 202, 235, 254, 423, 425 GEOGRAPHICAL ISOLATION 410 GEOGRAPHY 046, 249 GEOLOGY 086, 123, 176 GEOMORPHOLOGY 038, 046, 086, 123, 176 GEONOMA 380 GEOPHIS

332 GERMINATION 098, 119, 143, 154, 258, 368, 441 GIS 017, 018, 030, 031, 032, 050, 052, 068, 071, 084, 091, 092, 100, 101, 110, 113, 121, 123, 136, 138, 145, 151, 176, 177, 191, 202, 235, 254, 423, 425 GLIRICIDIA 222, 233 GLOSSOPHAGA 196, 335 GLUCOSE PHOSPHATE ISOMERASE 181 GMELINA 276, 333 GOETHALSIA 222, 233 GOLFITO DE LA CUREÑA DE SARAPIQUI 187 GOLFITO FIELD STATION 031 GOLFO DULCE 436 GRASSLANDS 040, 112, 130, 232 GREATER OSA BIOREGION 256

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GREEN CORRIDOR 111 GREENHOUSE EFFECT 016, 235 GROUND COVER 216 GROUND-DWELLING ARTHROPODS 162 GROUND-TRUTHING 414 GROUNDWATER 126 GROUP COMPOSITION 183, 217, 218, 286 GROUP DIFFERENCES 287 GROUP SIZE 217, 218, 286 GROWTH 258 GUACIMO (CANTON) 061, 062, 067, 153 GUAIACUM 133, 376 GUANACASTE (PROVINCIA) 057, 058, 072, 088, 104, 206 GUAYMI INDIGENOUS RESERVE 024, 371

GUAZUMA 043 GUETTARDA 382 GUILD 266, 308, 318 GUZMANIA 258, 259, 339 GYMNOPHTHALMIDAE 332 GYMNOPITHYS 103, 223 HABIA 436 HABIT 334 HABITAT AND EDGE SELECTION 385 HABITAT AVAILABILITY 331 HABITAT CONNECTIVITY 117, 337, 343, 378, 385, 392 HABITAT CONSERVATION 378 HABITAT DESTRUCTION 009, 010, 153, 159, 163, 187, 189, 198, 241, 268, 336, 341, 367, 377, 384, 389, 403, 433, 434

HABITAT DISTURBANCE 010, 147, 150, 335 HABITAT ELEMENT 325 HABITAT ISLANDS 147 HABITAT ISOLATION 247, 300, 396 HABITAT LOSS 218, 235, 247, 287, 300, 396, 433 HABITAT MANAGEMENT 028 HABITAT MODIFICATION 129 HABITAT PREFERENCE 137, 200, 227, 318, 385 HABITAT PROTECTION 175 HABITAT QUALITY 243 HABITAT SELECTION 010, 174, 331, 343, 392 HABITAT USE 012, 147, 230, 246, 249, 285, 357, 408, 435 HABITAT VIABILITY ASSESSMENT 357 HABITATS

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051, 093, 099, 121, 146, 157, 162, 163, 182, 183, 217, 227, 228, 234, 240, 244, 245, 246, 257, 271, 285, 289, 291, 299, 301, 315, 318, 345, 352, 357, 366, 410, 438 HACIENDA CIRUELAS 228 HACIENDA EL VIEJO 212, 220 HACIENDA LOS INOCENTES 254, 393 HACIENDA MONTE VERDE 139 HACIENDA SAN JOAQUIN 210, 212, 220 HACIENDA SOLIMAR 210, 212, 220 HACIENDAS 123, 176 HARPIA 009 HATCHING 185 HEAT TOLERANCE 261 HEDGING PLANTS 168, 224, 252, 337, 343, 392 HEDGES 140, 195, 227, 232, 233, 234, 244, 257, 267, 306, 327, 349

HELICONIUS 007, 008, 227 HELIOMASTER 264 HEMIGIANGIUM 043 HEMILEIA 411 HEMIPTERA 137, 309 HEMISPHERICAL PHOTOGRAPHY 292, 294 HENICORHINA 103, 223, 301, 437 HERBACEOUS PLANTS 168, 224, 252 HERBIVORES 065, 122, 144, 240 HERMEUPTYCHIA 227, 318 HERPETOFAUNA 273, 295 HERPETOFAUNA CONSERVATION 033 HETEROMYIDAE 359, 379, 394 HETEROMYS 379, 394

HETEROZYGOSITY 019, 258 HIPPOCASTANACEAE 379, 394 HISTORICAL REVIEW 436 HISTORY 041, 123, 176 HISTORY OF ORNITHOLOGY 436 HOME RANGE 026, 141, 230 HORIZONTAL STRUCTURE 158 HORQUETAS DE SARAPIQUI 153, 268, 404 HOTEL BYBLOS 401, 402, 428 HOTEL GAVILAN LODGE 089 HOTEL LA POSADA 401, 402, 428 HOTEL RANCHO CASA GRANDE 401, 402, 428 HOTEL TULEMAR 401, 402, 428 HUMAN ACTIVITY 030, 129, 167, 429 HUMAN INFLUENCE

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126 HUMAN POPULATION 235 HUMAN-DOMINATED LANDSCAPES 168, 224, 252, 404 HUMEDAL DEL TAMBORCITO 187 HUMEDAL LAGUNA MAQUENQUE 187 HUMID FOREST 380 HUMID TROPICS 308 HUMIDITY VARIATION 182 HUMIRIACEAE 133 HUMIRIASTRUM 133 HUMMINGBIRD POLLINATED FLOWERS 210 HUMMINGBIRDS 021, 044, 115, 264 HUNTING 066, 133, 225, 236, 270, 279, 289, 291, 299, 359, 414 HYALINOBATRACHIUM

129 HYDRIC BALANCE 382 HYDROGEOLOGY 123, 176 HYDROLOGIC CONNECTIVITY 126 HYDROLOGICAL NET 123, 176 HYDROLOGY 038, 086, 123, 176 HYDROPOWER POTENTIAL 040, 112 HYERONIMA 333 HYLA 129 HYLIDAE 129 HYLOBATES 286 HYLOCHARIS 264 HYLOCICHLA 281, 301 HYLONYCTERIS 335 HYLOPHYLAX 387

HYMENAEA 043, 206, 382 HYMENOPTERA 128, 137, 162, 253, 261, 317, 340, 345, 350, 360, 361, 420 HYPOTHENEMUS 411 HYPOTHESIS 093 ICTERIDAE 308 ICTERUS 308 IDENTIFYING TRAITS 287 ILLEGAL HUNTING ACTIVITY 421 IMANTODES 332 IMPACT ASSESSMENT 129 INBIO 050, 077, 080, 102, 133, 146, 160, 192, 193, 213, 252, 256, 260, 272, 276, 288, 297, 326, 334, 351, 352, 355, 358, 374, 375, 431 INBREEDING 057, 058, 072, 088, 104, 139, 188, 189, 206, 211, 274 INDICATOR ORGANISMS 310, 355

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INDICATORS 157 INDIGENOUS ORGANISMS 090, 093, 128, 165, 219, 245, 256, 272, 289, 334 INDIGENOUS PEOPLE 365 INDIGENOUS RESERVES 365 INDIVIDUAL ROUTE CHOICE 392 INGA 400 INSECT MIGRATION 039 INSECTIVOROUS BIRDS 137, 161, 198, 200, 437 INSECTIVORY 137, 161, 198, 200, 247, 300, 396, 437 INSECTS 007, 008, 011, 020, 039, 045, 107, 116, 128, 137, 142, 161, 162, 165, 192, 193, 205, 219, 227, 229, 232, 244, 253, 261, 272, 276, 309, 317, 318, 325, 340, 345, 350, 358, 360, 361, 375, 411, 420 INTER-AMERICAL GEOSPATIAL DATA NETWORK 031

INTERANNUAL VARIABILITY 235 INTERFERENCE COMPETITION 099 INTERGROUP RELATIONS 364 INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 255 INTERNATIONAL WATERS 255, 365 INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION 358 INTERSPECIFIC INTERACTIONS 364 INTRODUCED SPECIES 129 INVASION POTENTIAL 065 INVASIVE SPECIES 348, 433 INVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY 137 INVESTMENT 054 IRIARTEA017 IRRIGATION 116, 123, 176

IRRIGATION CHANNELS 123, 176, 201 IRRIGATION DISTRICTS 123, 176 IRRIGATION DRAINWATER 126 IRRIGATION PROJECTS 123, 176 ISLA CHIRA 174, 331 ISLA DAMAS 183 ISLA MURCIELAGOS 228 ISLA NEGRITOS 323 ISLA TORTUGAS 323 ISLAND BIOGEOGRAPHY THEORY 180, 251, 328 ISLANDS 093 ISOLATED REFUGES 007 ISOLATED TREES 195, 222, 233, 234, 244, 257, 269, 286, 385 ISOLATION 249, 350

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244 ISOPODS 137 ISOZYMES 134, 181 IUCN RED LIST 410 JACARANDA 063 JAGUAR 141, 230 JAGUAR-HUMAN CONFLICTS 230 JANZEN-CONNELL HYPOTHESIS 441 JIMENEZ (CANTON) 302, 305, 322, 416 JUGLANDACEAE 133, 305 KISS MODEL 199 LA AMISTAD BIOSPHERE RESERVE 275 LA COLONIA 089 LA FLORIDA DE SIQUIRRES 414 LA FORTUNA DE SAN CARLOS LA GAMBA BIOLOGICAL STATION 335, 370, 429, 436 LA GARITA DE ALAJUELA 134, 149 LA MANAGUA DE QUEPOS 183 LA PACIFICA ECOLOGICAL CENTRE 043, 069, 116, 181, 201 LA PALMA DE PUERTO JIMENEZ 224, 237, 252 LA SELVA BIOLOGICAL STATION 001, 002, 003, 004, 005, 006, 015, 016, 017, 019, 030, 050, 059, 061, 062, 067, 068, 089, 113, 114, 119, 120, 122, 126, 136, 138, 144, 148, 153, 154, 167, 205, 207, 221, 226, 231, 240, 246, 247, 253, 254, 260, 261, 268, 270, 273, 274, 277, 279, 281, 285, 291, 292, 294, 295, 298, 299, 300, 301, 319, 321, 324, 329, 338, 341, 344, 356, 357, 366, 367, 368, 369, 372, 381, 383, 387, 391, 396, 399, 400, 409, 427, 432, 437 LA SELVA INFLUENCE AREA 319, 369, 378 LA SELVA-BRAULIO CARRILLO CORRIDOR 221

LA SUERTE BIOLOGICAL STATION 315, 407, 408 LA VASCONIA 183 LA VIRGEN DE SARAPIQUI 438 LACISTEMA 440 LACISTEMATACEAE 440 LAELIA 210, 212, 220 LAGUNA DEL LAGARTO LODGE 434 LAGUNCULARIA 064 LAMPORNIS 264 LAND ACQUISITION 146 LAND BRIDGE ISLANDS 012 LAND CAPABILITY 047, 095, 216 LAND CLEARING 020 LAND CONSERVATION 307

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LAND COVER 030, 136, 138, 167, 429 LAND COVER CHANGE 159, 421 LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION 381 LAND DEVELOPMENT 191, 254, 430 LAND DISTRIBUTION 087 LAND MANAGEMENT 191, 254, 373 LAND POLICY 191, 254 LAND TENURE 213, 326 LAND USE 030, 031, 040, 041, 046, 047, 053, 068, 092, 095, 096, 106, 110, 112, 113, 118, 123, 130, 136, 138, 140, 150, 151, 156, 159, 167, 170, 176, 177, 187, 191, 202, 213, 214, 246, 254, 277, 278, 283, 285, 289, 301, 308, 312, 326, 336, 341, 344, 351, 352, 353, 357, 359, 373, 377, 384, 389, 411, 421, 424, 427 LAND USE CAPABILITY 037, 042, 123, 176, 216 LAND USE CHANGE 092, 113, 199, 275, 360, 386, 429

LAND USE CHANGE EFFECT 421 LANDOWNER DECISION MAKING 356 LANDOWNERS 150 LANDSAT IMAGERY 096, 106, 160, 203, 209 LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER 030, 040, 091, 096, 100, 101, 106, 112, 123, 136, 138, 160, 167, 176, 203, 209, 381 LANDSCAPE 126, 186, 216, 233, 242, 244, 266, 273, 289, 295, 306, 308, 312, 314, 318, 322, 327, 348, 349, 373, 374, 375, 381, 415, 416, 419, 420, 431 LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS 071, 091, 096, 106, 145 LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION 314, 330 LANDSCAPE CONNECTIVITY 243, 314, 330 LANDSCAPE CONSERVATION 233, 244, 353, 354, 369, 373, 413 LANDSCAPE CONTEXT 317

LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY 091, 092, 096, 097, 106, 146, 222, 232, 233, 244, 269, 275, 286, 303, 314, 317, 330 LANDSCAPE FACTORS 117 LANDSCAPE FRAGMENTATION 001, 002, 003, 004, 005, 006, 007, 008, 009, 010, 011, 012, 013, 015, 016, 017, 019, 020, 021, 022, 023, 024, 025, 027, 028, 029, 030, 031, 032, 033, 034, 035, 039, 040, 043, 044, 047, 048, 049, 050, 051, 057, 058, 059, 060, 061, 062, 063, 064, 065, 066, 067, 068, 069, 070, 071, 072, 073, 081, 082, 084, 085, 088, 089, 090, 091, 092, 093, 094, 095, 096, 097, 098, 099, 100, 101, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 118, 119, 120, 122, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 151, 152, 153, 154, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 171, 172, 173, 174, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 183, 184, 185, 186, 188, 189, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 227, 228, 229, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 244, 245, 247, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 256, 257,

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258, 259, 260, 261, 264, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 273, 274, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 286, 287, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 306, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 338, 339, 340, 342, 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 349, 350, 352, 353, 358, 359, 360, 361, 362, 363, 364, 366, 368, 372, 374, 375, 376, 379, 380, 382, 385, 386, 387, 388, 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407, 408, 410, 411, 412, 416, 417, 418, 420, 424, 425, 427, 428, 429, 431, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439, 440, 441 LANDSCAPE INDICES 094 LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT 417 LANDSCAPE METRICS 030, 138, 429 LANDSCAPE MOSAIC 006, 091, 323 LANDSCAPE PLANNING 284, 298 LANDSCAPE SCALE 305 LANDSCAPE STRUCTURE 267

LARGE-SEED SEELINGS 144 LARVAE 358 LAS ALTURAS BIOLOGICAL STATION 031, 223 LAS CRUCES BIOLOGICAL STATION 004, 011, 012, 020, 021, 023, 024, 031, 033, 044, 049, 060, 103, 107, 115, 125, 137, 142, 161, 162, 165, 179, 198, 200, 219, 223, 224, 237, 239, 252, 275, 290, 316, 317, 320, 332, 338, 340, 350, 360, 420, 435, 440, 441 LAS CRUCES INFLUENCE AREA 152, 185, 316, 320, 332, 342, 360 LAS CUEVAS 183 LAS LOMAS DE SIQUIRRES 414 LAS NUBES DE QUIZARRA 262, 263 LATIFUNDIA 123, 176 LATITUDINAL GRADIENTS 093 LATITUDINAL MIGRATIONS 264

LAURACEAE 065, 133, 163, 179, 379, 394 LECYTHIDACEAE 133, 366 LECYTHIS 133, 366 LEGAL ASPECTS 102 LEGISLATION 248 LENTIC WATER 358 LEOPARDUS 009, 010, 359 LEPIDOBLEPHARIS 295 LEPIDOCOLAPTES 416 LEPIDOPHYMA 332 LEPIDOPTERA 007, 008, 011, 020, 039, 107, 137, 142, 165, 192, 193, 219, 227, 232, 318 LEPTODACTYLIDAE 125, 129, 290 LEPTODEIRA 332 LEPTONYCTERIS 196

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LEUCAENA 228 LIBERIA (CANTON) 212, 337, 343, 385, 392 LICHENES 163 LICHONYCTERIS 335 LIFE CYCLE 185 LIFE ZONES 037, 086, 100, 123, 176 LINE TRANSECT SURVEY 180, 251, 328 LINEAR ELEMENTS 267 LIOMYS 359 LIOPHIS 332 LISSAMPHIBIA 295, 427 LITERATURE REVIEW 436 LITHOBATES 295 LIVE MULCHES 373 LIZARDS

033, 125, 152, 185, 273, 290, 295 LOCAL ATTITUDES 439 LOCAL DECISION MAKING 123, 176 LOCAL KNOWLEDGE 330 LOCAL MANAGEMENT 304 LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS 036, 123, 176 LOCAL POPULATION 212 LOCAL SCALE 305 LOGGING 070, 128, 239 LOGISTIC REGRESSION 114, 305 LONCHOCARPUS 043, 065 LONCHOPHYLLA 335 LONG-TERM STUDIES 295 LOS CUSINGOS NEOTROPICAL BIRD SANCTUARY 262, 263

LOSSES 159 LOWLANDS 301 LUEHEA 382 LYSILOMA 043, 382 MABUYA 332 MACHAERIUM 065 MAGNOLIACEAE 305 MALES 180, 251, 269, 286, 315, 328 MANACUS 415 MANAGED LANDSCAPES 383 MANAGEMENT 123, 124, 132, 150, 164, 172, 176, 230, 319, 354, 369, 414 MANAGEMENT PLAN 086 MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES 304 MANGROVE AVIFAUNA 064 MANGROVES

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064, 348 MANILKARA 043, 382 MANTLED HOWLING MONKEY 051, 069, 133, 174, 180, 181, 201, 217, 218, 251, 315, 328, 331, 333, 363, 364 MAPPING 254 MAPS 113, 216 MARINE AREAS 419 MARINE CORRIDORS 419 MARINE ECOSYSTEMS 348 MARINE RESOURCES 419 MARK-RELEASE-RECAPTURE 023, 115, 239, 404, 412 MARMOSA 359 MASTIGODRYAS 332 MATE GENETIC CORRELATION 109 MATERNAL EFFECT 440 MATING SYSTEMS 019, 063, 098, 134, 143, 166, 184, 204, 220, 245, 258, 271, 362 MATISIA 274 MATRIX 107, 142, 194, 313, 372 MATURE FOREST 258, 259, 339 MEAN PATCH SIZE 096 MEAN TREE SPECIES DENSITY 043 MEASUREMENT 199 MECHANITIS 227 MELANERPES 308 MELASTOMATACEAE 168, 224, 252 MELIACEAE 043, 063, 065, 119, 122, 127, 133, 144, 154, 184, 188, 204, 228, 231, 245, 333, 362, 368 MELOIDOGYNE 411 MELOIDOGYNIDAE 411 MEPHITIDAE 359 MERCEDES DE GUACIMO 268 MESOAMERICAN BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOT 311 MESOAMERICAN BIOLOGICAL CORRIDOR 214, 215, 255, 386 METADATA 031 METAPOPULATION 107, 142, 184, 194, 204, 313, 362 MICROBIAL ECOLOGY 219 MICROBIOLOGY 219 MICROCLIMATE 031, 118 MICROCLIMATE VARIATION 253 MICRONYCTERIS 324, 335 MICROORGANISMS 219 MICROPARASITES 295 MICROSATELLITES

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021, 044, 049, 060, 184, 204, 258, 291, 299, 316, 331, 342, 362, 387, 399 MICRURUS 332 MIGRANT BIRDS 064, 281, 301, 415 MIGRATION 026, 039, 141, 150, 190, 264 MIGRATION ACTIVITY 039 MIGRATION PATTERNS 190, 264 MIGRATORY SPECIES 348 MINAE 133 MINQUARTIA 133 MIONECTES 301, 415 MIRAVALLES GEOTHERMAL FIELD 397 MIST NET TRAPPING 137, 171, 338, 370 MITIGATION IMPACTS 348 MITOCHONDRIAL DNA 025, 181, 212, 223

MITOCHONDRIAL DNA VARIATION 174, 331 MIXED MATING 134, 135 MOBILITY 253 MODEL FOREST 422 MODELS 096, 106, 114, 308, 373 MODIOLUS 133 MODIS 254 MOLECULAR ECOLOGY 401, 402, 428 MOLLUSCS 133 MONITORING 173, 310, 319, 355, 414 MONITORING STRATEGY 164, 172 MONKEYS 009, 010, 051, 069, 133, 174, 180, 181, 201, 217, 218, 250, 251, 269, 286, 287, 315, 328, 331, 333, 359, 363, 364, 371, 393, 407, 408 MONOGAMY 150

MONTANE FORESTS 096, 348 MONTES DE ORO (CANTON) 266, 308 MONTEVERDE CLOUD FOREST RESERVE 004, 013, 018, 034, 036, 037, 038, 039, 041, 042, 111, 117, 129, 173, 177, 190, 235, 243, 244, 258, 259, 264, 339, 345, 379, 394, 406, 433 MONUMENTO NACIONAL GUAYABO 164, 172 MORA 133 MORACEAE 179, 305, 400 MORAN'S I INDEX OF SPATIAL AUTOCORRELATION 136 MORMOOPIDAE 335 MOROCOCCYX 064 MORPHOSPECIES 162 MORTALITY 122 MOTHS 020, 107, 142 MOUNTAIN ECOLOGY

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034 MOVEMENT 147, 281, 301, 385, 392 MOVEMENT PATTERNS 023, 227, 239 MTDNA MARKERS 103, 223, 287 MULLERIAN MIMICRY 007 MULTILOCUS ALLOZYME ANALYSIS 057, 058, 072, 139 MULTINOMIAL LOGISTIC MODEL 096 MULTIPLE PATERNITY 135 MULTIPLE USE TREES 244, 403, 434 MURIDAE 379, 394 MUSA (BANANAS) 153, 191, 268 MUSACEAE 153, 191, 268 MUSONYCTERIS 196 MUSTELIDAE 359, 371 MYIARCHUS

064 MYIODYNASTES 064 MYOTIS 335 MYRISTICACEAE 120, 400 MYRMECIZA 301, 387, 399, 437 MYRMECOPHAGA 009, 359 MYRMECOPHAGIDAE 009, 359 MYROXYLON 133 MYRTACEAE 065 MYTILIDAE 133 NARANJITO DE QUEPOS 183 NASUA 371 NATAL DISPERSAL 199 NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION STRATEGY 102 NATIONAL MONUMENTS 175 NATIONAL OBJECTIVES 365 NATIONAL SYSTEM OF CONSERVATION AREAS 102 NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES 156 NATIVE BEES 317 NATIVE FOREST HABITAT 185 NATIVE HERBACEOUS PLANTS 168, 224, 252 NATIVE SHRUBS 168, 224, 252 NATURAL CAPITAL 248 NATURAL ENVIRONMENT 344 NATURAL FENCES CONSERVATION 028 NATURAL FOREST CHARACTERIZATION 303 NATURAL HISTORY 221 NATURAL HYBRIDS 008

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NATURAL POLLINATION 073, 098, 143 NATURAL REGENERATION 066, 122, 154 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 365 NATURAL RESOURCES 014, 046, 055, 074, 075, 076, 077, 078, 079, 080, 081, 082, 083, 084, 085, 131, 155, 164, 170, 172, 175, 187, 213, 214, 246, 277, 285, 326, 334, 336, 341, 344, 357, 365, 377, 384, 389 NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION 102, 182, 238, 248, 262, 263, 272, 307 NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT 102, 413, 419 NATURAL RESOURCES PROTECTION 030, 136, 138, 167, 226, 344 NATURAL SELECTION 007 NATURE BASED TOURISM 421 NATURE CONSERVATION 001, 011, 014, 045, 056, 091, 092, 110, 118, 123, 124, 142, 151, 155, 156, 157, 158, 162, 165, 175, 176, 188, 189, 219,

226, 227, 233, 327, 333, 344, 349, 351, 354, 365, 369, 410, 413, 415 NATURE RESERVES 045, 114, 156, 175, 319, 373, 414 NATURE TOURISM 042 NECTANDRA 179 NECTARIVORES 196 NECTARIVOROUS BATS 196 NECTRIACEAE 260 NEMATODES 411 NEOMORPHIDAE 064 NEST 403, 434 NEST DESTRUCTION 187, 336, 341, 377, 384 NEST POACHING 236, 241 NEST PREDATION 012, 015, 061, 062, 067, 089, 236, 268, 321, 432 NEST SUCCESS 321

NESTING 403, 434 NESTING AREA 341 NET PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY 037 NETWORK 418 NEUSTICURUS 332 NEW DATA 183 NEW RECORD 434 NICHE ASSEMBLY 431 NICHE PARTITIONING AT MULTIPLE SCALES 358 NICOYA (CANTON) 271 NINIA 332 NOCTILIO 335 NOCTILIONIDAE 335 NOCTURNAL ACTIVITY 020

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117 NOROPS 033, 125, 152, 185, 290, 295, 332 NUCLEIC ACIDS 287 NULL MODELS 237 NYCTOMYS 379, 394 NYMPHALIDAE 007, 008, 227 OCOTEA 163, 379, 394 ODOCOILEUS 133 OIL PALM 229, 429 OLACACEAE 133 OLD-GROWTH FOREST 030, 167 OLIGORYZOMYS 359, 379, 394 ONDULATING TOPOGRAPHY FOREST TYPES 158 ONTHOPHAGUS 375 OPEN POLLINATION 291, 299 OPORORNIS 415 ORCHID BEES 340 ORCHIDACEAE 210, 212, 220 OREOMUNNEA 133, 305 ORGANIC AGRICULTURE 390 ORTHOPTERA 137 ORYZOMYS 359, 379, 394 OSA (DISTRITO) 110, 151 OSA BIOLOGICAL CORRIDOR PROJECT 256 OTS 002, 003, 004, 005, 008, 015, 016, 017, 019, 020, 044, 050, 059, 060, 061, 062, 067, 115, 123, 124, 125, 137, 138, 146, 152, 174, 176, 212, 223, 290, 376, 394 OUTCROSSING RATE 134, 135, 196 OVER-EXPLOITATION 184, 204, 362 OVERSTORY COMPOSITION OVIPOSITIONING 185 OXYBELIS 332 OXYRHOPUS 332 PACHIRA 099, 166, 228, 245, 271 PALATABILITY 007 PALM DIVERSITY 380 PALMA TICA 229 PANGOLA DE SARAPIQUI 187 PANOPSIS 379, 394 PANTHERA 009, 010, 121, 141, 230, 283, 359, 371, 414 PARAMACHAERIUM 133 PARAPATRIC MODEL 007 PARKIA 133 PARQUE INTERNACIONAL LA AMISTAD

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131, 230, 329, 374, 375, 431 PARQUE NACIONAL BARBILLA 156, 175 PARQUE NACIONAL BARRA HONDA 156, 175 PARQUE NACIONAL BRAULIO CARRILLO 001, 002, 019, 030, 089, 126, 136, 138, 156, 164, 167, 172, 175, 221, 226, 279, 292, 294, 321, 329, 372, 424 PARQUE NACIONAL CAHUITA 156, 175 PARQUE NACIONAL CARARA 134, 156, 175 PARQUE NACIONAL CHIRRIPO 034, 156, 175 PARQUE NACIONAL CORCOVADO 004, 026, 035, 045, 121, 141, 156, 160, 175, 196, 256, 371 PARQUE NACIONAL GUANACASTE 071, 080, 146, 156, 175, 177, 180, 196, 251, 309, 325, 328, 329, 358 PARQUE NACIONAL ISLA DEL COCO 175

PARQUE NACIONAL JUAN CASTRO BLANCO 156, 175, 426 PARQUE NACIONAL MANUEL ANTONIO 156, 175, 183, 286, 401, 402, 421, 428 PARQUE NACIONAL PALO VERDE 003, 004, 057, 058, 072, 073, 088, 098, 104, 105, 118, 156, 174, 175, 177, 212, 228, 242, 331, 376 PARQUE NACIONAL PIEDRAS BLANCAS 121, 156, 175, 335, 370, 371, 374, 375, 429, 431, 436 PARQUE NACIONAL RINCON DE LA VIEJA 080, 156, 175 PARQUE NACIONAL SANTA ROSA 004, 051, 071, 105, 143, 145, 146, 156, 175, 177, 181, 184, 202, 204, 208, 212, 228, 254, 362, 376, 382, 393 PARQUE NACIONAL TAPANTI-MACIZO CERRO DE LA MUERTE 156, 175, 329 PARQUE NACIONAL TORTUGUERO 056, 155, 156, 175, 191, 230, 255 PARQUE NACIONAL VOLCAN ARENAL

156, 175 PARQUE NACIONAL VOLCAN IRAZU 156, 164, 172, 175 PARQUE NACIONAL VOLCAN POAS 034, 156, 164, 172, 175 PARQUE NACIONAL VOLCAN TENORIO 156, 175 PARQUE NACIONAL VOLCAN TURRIALBA 156, 175 PARROTS 133, 225, 236 PARTAMONA 360 PARULIDAE 137, 308, 415 PASEO PANTERA PROJECT 230, 414 PASTURE ABANDONMENT 184, 204, 208, 362 PASTURE REGENERATION 179 PASTURE TREES 049 PASTURES 022, 130, 167, 168, 169, 195, 224, 227, 232, 234, 244, 252, 257, 317, 350, 427

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PATCH SIZE 023, 239, 342 PATCHY HABITAT 059, 089, 250, 293 PATERNITY 220 PATERNITY ANALYSIS 139, 188, 220 PATH OF THE TAPIR BIOLOGICAL CORRIDOR 307, 386, 430 PATTERNS 051, 096, 106 PATTERNS OF FOREST COVER 030, 136, 138, 167 PAVONES 174, 331 PAYMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES 140, 159, 278, 282, 292, 294, 307, 311, 356, 383, 422, 433 PECARI 009, 010, 026, 141, 379, 394 PELAGE 287 PELECYPODA 133 PELTOGYNE 133 PEÑAS BLANCAS

212 PENELOPE 371 PENINSULA DE NICOYA 203, 209 PENINSULA DE OSA 045, 047, 081, 095, 110, 121, 151, 160, 256, 386, 412 PENTACLETHRA 222, 231, 233, 400 PERCEPTION 046 PERIODICITY 020 PEROMYSCUS 379, 394 PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS 365 PERSPECTIVE 107, 142 PESTICIDES 153 PETS 225, 236 PHAETHORNIS 115, 264, 415 PHAROMACHRUS 009, 010, 013, 082, 150, 173, 243

PHENOLOGY 066, 099, 382 PHILODICE 264 PHOEBIS 227 PHOLIDOSTACHYS 380 PHOSPHOGLUCONATA 181 PHOTOSYNTHESIS 235 PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY ACTIVE RADIATION 254 PHYCOMYCETES 022, 169 PHYLETIC DIFFERENCES 287 PHYLLOSTOMIDAE 196, 242, 324, 335 PHYLLOSTOMUS 335 PHYSICAL ASPECTS 386 PHYSICAL FACTORS 345 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 177, 202

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PHYSICAL INTEGRITY OF RIVERS 123, 176 PHYSIOGRAPHY 038 PHYTOGEOGRAPHICAL UNITS 425 PHYTOTELMATA 325 PICIDAE 308 PIERIDAE 227 PILOSA 359 PINEAPPLE 390 PIONEER MATRIX 178 PIPRA 301 PIPRIDAE 137, 301, 316, 320, 342, 415 PIRRIS 183 PITFALL TRAPS 137, 361 PITHECELLOBIUM 019, 027, 029, 043, 073, 098, 143

174, 331 PITILLA BIOLOGICAL STATION 325, 358 PLANNING 132, 319, 351, 414 PLANT ASSOCIATIONS 090 PLANT BREEDING STRUCTURE 188, 189 PLANT COVER 195, 232, 233, 234, 257 PLANT DISPERSAL 235, 243 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 382 PLANT POPULATION 149 PLANT REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS 196, 366 PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS 309 PLANT-ANIMAL RELATIONSHIPS 122, 144 PLANT-POLLINATOR INTERACTIONS 115 PLAYA LAGARTERO PLAYA NANCITE 228 PLETHODONTIDAE 129, 332 PLUMERIA 197 POCOCI (CANTON) 153 POCOSOL DE SAN CARLOS 181 PODOCARPACEAE 133 PODOCARPUS 133 POECILIIDAE 346, 347 POLICIES 079, 087, 230 POLITICAL ASPECTS 386 POLITICAL SCIENCE 248 POLLEN COMPETITION 029, 099 POLLEN DEPOSITION 029, 135 POLLEN DISPERSAL

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021, 044, 057, 058, 060, 072, 104, 139, 149, 188, 206, 220, 245 POLLEN FLOW 029, 210, 220 POLLEN LOADS 115 POLLINATION 098, 128, 143, 188, 189, 220, 229, 317, 350, 366 POLLINATORS 135, 184, 189, 204, 229, 340, 360, 362 POLLINIA 210 POLLUTION 410 POLYADS 135 POLYCHRIDAE 033 POLYCHROTIDAE 125, 152, 185, 290, 332 POLYMORPHISM 019, 063 POLYPLOIDY 258, 291, 299 POPULATION 051, 063, 069, 110, 128, 133, 134, 151, 184, 204, 208, 210, 220, 235, 295, 362, 363

POPULATION BOTTLENECK 025, 223 POPULATION COMPOSITION 438 POPULATION CONNECTIVITY 316, 342 POPULATION DECLINE 129, 185, 341 POPULATION DENSITY 096, 195, 197, 232, 234, 257, 264 POPULATION DISTRIBUTION 197, 375 POPULATION DIVERGENCE 398, 401, 402, 428 POPULATION DYNAMICS 046, 065, 069, 141, 180, 183, 236, 251, 308, 318, 325, 328, 363 POPULATION ECOLOGY 318 POPULATION ESTIMATION 183 POPULATION GENETICS 025, 103, 149, 174, 181, 197, 212, 223, 331, 398, 401, 402, 428 POPULATION GENETICS CONSEQUENCE 174, 212, 331 POPULATION GROWTH 110, 151, 235

POPULATION SINK 185 POPULATION SIZE 019, 183 POPULATION STATUS 183, 289 POPULATION STRUCTURE 220, 258, 259, 273, 295, 301, 339, 342, 438 POPULATION VARIATION 103, 223 POPULATION VIABILITY 199 POROZOL 210, 212, 220 PORTHIDIUM 332 PORTICA DE CARIARI 439 POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES 066 POTENTIAL HABITAT 246, 285, 357 POUROUMA 400 POUTERIA 400 POVERTY 365

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POZO DE AGUA 376 PRATYMISCIUM PLEIOSTACHYUM 133 PRE-COLUMBIAN 123, 176 PRECIPITATION 235 PREDATION 027, 051, 061, 067, 089, 108, 154, 179, 240, 270, 279, 291, 299, 371 PREDATOR SATIATION 379, 394 PREDATORS 015 PREDICTABILITY 115 PREMONTANE RAIN FORESTS 258, 259, 339 PREMONTANE TROPICAL WET FORESTS 394 PRESBYTIS 286 PRESTOEA 380 PRIMARY FORESTS 015, 031, 032, 253, 364

PRIMARY PRODUCTION 235 PRIMATE COMPETITION 364 PRIMATE DENSITY 407, 408 PRIMATE ECOLOGY 174, 331 PRIMAVERA DE CARIARI 439 PRIORIA 133 PRIVATE LANDS 307 PRIVATE RESERVES 307 PROCNIAS 190 PROCYONIDAE 371 PRODUCTION SYSTEMS 140 PRODUCTIVITY 036, 038, 327, 349 PROGENY PERFORMANCE 135 PROGRAMME REVIEW 307 PROJECT PROPOSAL 039

PROPERTY RIGHTS 213, 326 PROPOSAL WRITING 215 PROSTITUTION 046 PROTEACEAE 379, 394 PROTECTED AREAS 002, 036, 037, 038, 046, 054, 055, 056, 068, 074, 075, 076, 077, 078, 079, 080, 081, 082, 083, 084, 085, 086, 090, 111, 118, 123, 126, 131, 132, 159, 160, 164, 172, 175, 176, 215, 226, 230, 235, 256, 262, 263, 296, 297, 319, 329, 344, 351, 353, 354, 355, 369, 413, 414, 415, 419, 426 PROYECTO DE RIEGO ARENAL-TEMPISQUE 123, 176 PROYECTO GEOTERMICO MIRAVALLES 397 PROYECTO HIDROELECTRIOCO REVENTAZON 414 PSEUSTES 332 PSITTACIDAE

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009, 133, 187, 225, 236, 241, 279, 323, 336, 341, 367, 377, 384, 389, 403, 409, 434 PTERONOTUS 335 PTYCOGLOSSUS 332 PUERTO JESUS 174, 331 PUERTO JIMENEZ 224, 229, 237, 252 PUMA 009, 010, 121, 359, 371 PUNTARENAS (CANTON) 052 QUALEA 133, 231 QUARARIBEA 240 QUEBRADA GRANDE 187 QUEBRADA GUACALILLO 183 QUEBRADA LA REINA 183 QUERCUS 382 QUETZAL 009, 010, 013, 082, 150, 173, 243

RABO DE MICO 376 RACE FORMATION 007 RADIATIVE TRANSFER 254 RADIOTELEMETRY 190, 281, 301 RAIN 393 RAIN FOREST ECOLOGY 070 RAIN FOREST MANAGEMENT 070 RAIN FORESTS 011 RAINFOREST BIODIVERSITY GROUP 378 RAINFOREST OF THE AUSTRIANS 436 RAMSAR SITES 255 RANA 129 RANCHING 123, 176, 216 RANGE-SIZE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION

249 RANIDAE 129 RAPID ASSESSMENT 268 RARA AVIS LODGE & RESERVE 372 RARE ALLELES 220 RARE SPECIES 305 RATES 063 REACTION-DIFFUSION PDE 199 REARING 241 REFORESTATION 036, 037, 038, 131, 146, 153, 203, 209, 268, 324, 333, 406 REFUGIO DE VIDA SILVESTRE CERRO DANTAS 424 REFUGIO DE VIDA SILVESTRE JAGUARUNDI 424 REFUGIO NACIONAL DE VIDA SILVESTRE BARRA DEL COLORADO 175, 230, 255

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REFUGIO NACIONAL DE VIDA SILVESTRE CAÑO NEGRO 255 REFUGIO NACIONAL DE VIDA SILVESTRE CURU 323 REFUGIO NACIONAL DE VIDA SILVESTRE GANDOCAMANZANILLO 265 REFUGIO NACIONAL DE VIDA SILVESTRE GOLFITO 375 REFUGIO NACIONAL DE VIDA SILVESTRE LAS CAMELIAS 255 REFUGIO NACIONAL DE VIDA SILVESTRE MIXTO MAQUENQUE 170, 187, 246, 255, 285, 357, 367, 390 REFUGIO NACIONAL DE VIDA SILVESTRE PEJEPERRO 086 REFUGIO PRIVADO DE VIDA SILVESTRE NOGAL 059, 089, 363 REGENERATION 105, 122, 144, 171, 178, 207, 338 REGENWALD DER ÖSTERREICHER 436

REGION CHOROTEGA 177, 216 REGIONAL BIODIVERSITY CONVENTION 085 REGIONAL CONSERVATION 280 REGULATIONS 047, 095, 413 REITHRODONTOMYS 379, 394 RELATIVE ABUNDANCE 371 RELATIVE GROWTH 441 REMNANT TREES 117, 259, 339 REMOTE SENSING 030, 032, 040, 112, 113, 130, 138, 160, 167, 173, 177, 191, 202, 203, 209, 254, 421 REPRODUCTION 039, 064, 073, 098, 099, 143, 258, 259, 339, 366 REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY 057, 058, 063, 068, 072, 073, 088, 098, 104, 108, 109, 139, 143, 149, 184, 188, 189, 197, 204, 206, 208, 362 REPRODUCTIVE ECOLOGY 073, 098, 143

REPRODUCTIVE OUTPUT 099 REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE 099, 166, 211, 274 REPTILES 033, 045, 086, 116, 125, 133, 152, 185, 273, 290, 295, 332 RESERVA BIOLOGICA ALBERTO M. BRENES 156, 175, 426 RESERVA BIOLOGICA HITOYCERERE 156, 175, 265, 329 RESERVA BIOLOGICA LOMAS BARBUDAL 156, 175, 228, 271 RESERVA DE LA BIOSFERA LA AMISTAD 083, 156, 175, 353 RESERVA DE LA NATURALEZA INDIO MAIZ 336, 367, 377, 384 RESERVA FORESTAL DE GRECIA 164, 172 RESERVA FORESTAL GOLFO DULCE 095, 121, 375 RESERVA FORESTAL LA CUREÑA 187

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RESERVA FORESTAL RIO MACHO 096, 106 RESERVA INDIGENA DE BORUCA 405 RESERVA NATURAL ABSOLUTA CABO BLANCO 046, 156, 175, 228, 359 RESIDENT BIRDS 023, 025, 223, 239, 415 RESOURCE AVAILABILITY 174, 331 RESOURCE CONSERVATION 036, 037, 038, 041, 045, 046, 059, 083, 086, 087, 089, 100, 110, 116, 131, 146, 151, 225, 236, 291, 299, 318, 352, 353, 355, 365, 410, 417, 418 RESOURCE DEPLETION 130 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 118, 126 RESOURCE PARTITIONING 358 RESOURCE SELECTION FUNCTION 385 RESTORATION 011, 083, 084, 131, 146, 178 RHADINAEA 332

RHAEBOA 295 RHIZOPHORA 064 RHIZOPHORACEAE 064 RHOGEESSA 335 RHYNCHONYCTERIS 335 RIBERINE FORESTS 123, 176 RICHNESS 266, 306 RINCON DE OSA 007, 008 RIO COLORADO 126 RIO DOS NOVILLOS 268 RIO FRIO 153, 222, 227, 233, 267, 268, 330, 346, 347, 404 RIO FRIO DE SARAPIQUI 286, 306, 438 RIO GRANDE DE TERRABA WATERSHED 040 RIO JESUS DE SAN RAMON 181

RIO NARANJO 028 RIO PARISMINA 268, 346, 347 RIO PARRITA 028 RIO POCOSOL 346, 347 RIO REVENTAZON WATERSHED 422 RIO RINCON WATERSHED 110, 151 RIO SAN JUAN 187, 255, 344 RIO SARAPIQUI 346, 347 RIO TEMPISQUE 123, 124, 176, 346, 347 RIO TORTUGUERO 346, 347 RIO VALERIA 183 RIO ZAPOTE 346, 347 RIPARIAN CORRIDOR UTILIZATION 435 RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEMS 123, 124, 176

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RIPARIAN FORESTS 043, 092, 195, 232, 234, 257, 337, 343 RIPARIAN HABITAT 201 RIPARIAN LINEAR FOREST 370 RIPARIAN VEGETATION 227, 221, 232, 234, 257 RISK ASSESSMENT 191, 254 RIVER FOREST 028 RIVER RESTORATION 123, 176 RIVER SYSTEMS 123, 176 RIVERS 126 ROADS 031 RODENTS 116, 119, 154, 232, 309, 359, 368, 371, 379, 394 ROOSTING ECOLOGY 324 ROSARIO 376 ROUTE CHOICE 343, 392

RUBIACEAE 162, 169, 302, 318, 322, 382, 411, 416 RURAL AREAS 056 RURAL DEVELOPMENT 155 RURAL TOURISM 365 SACCOPTERYX 335 SAGUINUS 287 SAIMIRI 009, 010, 028, 035, 183, 269, 286, 287, 289, 398, 401, 402, 410, 428 SAN CARLOS (CANTON) 276, 361 SAN ISIDRO (CANTON) 424 SAN RAFAEL (CANTON) 424 SAN VITO DE COTO BRUS 332 SANTA BARBARA (CANTON) 424 SANTA CRUZ (CANTON) 181 SANTA ELENA DE PEREZ ZELEDON

262, 263 SANTA RITA 187 SANTIAGO DE SAN RAMON 266, 308 SAPINDACEAE 065, 382 SAPLINGS 207 SAPOTACEAE 043, 133, 382, 400 SARAPIQUI (CANTON) 059, 061, 062, 067, 068, 089, 136, 144, 167, 276, 282, 292, 294, 356, 361, 363, 381 SATELLITE IMAGERY 030, 091, 096, 106, 167, 381 SATYRIDAE 227, 318 SAURIA 033, 125, 152, 185, 290, 295, 332 SCALE 094, 107, 142, 165, 186, 219 SCAPHIODONTOPHIS 332 SCAPTOTRIGONA 360 SCARABAEIDAE 162, 192, 193, 232, 375

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SCATIMUS ERINNYOS 375 SCATTERHOARDING 119, 154, 368 SCINCIDAE 332 SCIURIDAE 309, 359, 371, 379, 394 SCIURUS 309, 359, 371, 379, 394 SCOLYTIDAE 232 SCOTINOMYS 379, 394 SCRUB 030, 167, 195, 232, 234, 257 SEASONAL DIET 141 SEASONAL DRY FORESTS 188, 189 SEASONAL MIGRATION 039 SEASONAL VARIATION 026, 141, 190 SEASONALITY 393 SECONDARY FORESTS 015, 031, 096, 106, 171, 177, 202, 203, 209, 216, 258, 259, 327, 338, 339, 349, 356, 364, 382, 398, 401, 402, 421, 428

027, 179 SEDENTARY SPECIES 103, 223 SEDIMENT 159 SEDIMENT YIELD 159 SEED AVAILABILITY 066 SEED BURIAL 119, 154, 368 SEED DISPERSAL 021, 044, 049, 060, 066, 115, 117, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 154, 171, 258, 259, 324, 338, 339, 368 SEED LONGEVITY 441 SEED PREDATION 309 SEED PREDATORS 379, 394 SEED PRODUCTION 027, 066, 073, 098, 108, 143 SEED RAIN 258, 259, 339 SEED REMOVAL 379, 394 SEED SET 128 SEED SIZE SEED SOURCE 440 SEEDLING DENSITY 270, 291, 299 SEEDLING ESTABLISHMENT 258 SEEDLING RECRUITMENT 258 SEEDLINGS 065, 122 SEEDLINGS REGENERATION 144 SEEDS 019, 027, 098, 108, 109, 119, 122, 135, 143, 154, 368 SELECTIVE LOGGING 066, 119, 154, 368 SELF-COMPATIBILITY 063 SELVA VERDE PRIVATE RESERVE 158, 372 SEMIVARIOGRAMS 207 SERPENTES 116, 244, 332 SETTLEMENT 092 SEX RATIO

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039, 218 SEX-BIASED DISPERSAL 401, 402, 428 SEXUAL SELECTION 135 SHADE COFFEE 302, 318, 322 SHADE PLANTS 244, 269, 286 SHANNON-WIENER INDEX 136 SHARED WATERSHEDS 255 SHELLFISH 133 SHOREA 128 SHOREFISHES 249 SHORT SEQUENCE REPEATS 044 SI-A-PAZ 230, 255, 344 SIBON 332 SIDEROXYLON 133 SIERPE (DISTRITO) 110, 151

SIGMODON 359 SILVICULTURE 047, 048, 095, 096, 106, 235 SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEMS 140, 232, 244, 266, 269, 286, 308, 312 SIMAROUBA 120 SIMAROUBACEAE 120 SINAC 090, 102, 133, 175, 272 SIQUIRRES (CANTON) 191 SITE FACTORS 045, 053, 118, 197, 413 SIZE OF HERDS 141 SKY MOUNTAIN CANOPY TOUR 401, 402, 428 SMALL-SCALE FARMERS 372 SOCIAL BEES 317, 350 SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR 183, 217, 218, 286 SOCIAL CONDITIONS 038

SOCIAL EFFECTS 041 SOCIAL FACTORS 164, 172 SOCIAL ORGANIZATION 069 SOCIOECONOMIC ADVANTAGE 421 SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS 036, 038, 046, 170, 246, 285, 357, 386 SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS 421 SOCRATEA 017, 380 SOIL 031, 042, 046, 086, 123, 176 SOIL CONSERVATION 040, 112 SOIL DEGRADATION 140 SOIL MAPS 042 SOIL RESPIRATION 282, 292, 294 SOLAR RADIATION 254 SOROCEA 179

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SPACING 240 SPATIAL CONSTRAINTS 066 SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION 073, 094, 098, 143 SPATIAL FORAGING 360 SPATIAL HETEROGENEITY 017 SPATIAL MODEL 096, 106 SPATIAL NICHES 358 SPATIAL VARIATION 030, 167, 179, 193, 220 SPECIES ABUNDANCE 421 SPECIES ACCUMULATION CURVE 227 SPECIES COMPOSITION 022, 208, 227, 242, 280, 370, 421 SPECIES CONSERVATION 174, 181, 331 SPECIES DENSITY 180, 251, 328 SPECIES DISAPPEARANCE 129

SPECIES EXTINCTION 012, 020, 105, 114, 178, 198, 273, 289, 295 SPECIES LOSS 070, 432 SPECIES PARTITIONING 358 SPECIES PRESENCE/ABSENCE 180, 251, 328 SPECIES RICHNESS 412 SPECIES SURVIVORSHIP 020 SPHENOMORPHUS 295, 332 SPHIGGURUS 359 SPIDER MONKEY 180, 250, 251, 293, 328, 333, 363 SPILOGALE 359 SPILOTES 332 SPONDIAS 188, 206 SPOROPHILA 415 SQUAMATA 033, 125, 152, 185, 290, 295

SQUIRREL MONKEY 028, 035, 183, 289, 398, 401, 402, 410, 428 STABILITY OF HERDS 141 STABLE ISOTOPES 360 STAKEHOLDERS 213, 326 STAND STRUCTURE 158 STANDARD DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING 030, 136, 138 STANDARDS 354, 369 STATIC MOSAIC MODEL 044 STEMMADENIA 063, 065 STENORRHINA 332 STINGLESS BEES 317, 360 STRATEGIC PLANNING 045 STREAMSIDE 168, 224, 252 STRIGIDAE 137

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STRIGULA 163 STROMBIDAE 133 STROMBUS 133 STRUCTURAL CONNECTIVITY 275, 303, 352, 353, 354, 369, 374, 413, 418, 423, 425, 431 STRUCTURAL CONSERVATION 417, 418 STRYPHNODENDRON 222, 233 STURNIRA 335 SUBSPECIES DIFFERENCES 287 SUBSTRATE TEMPERATURE 253 SUCCESS 128 SUCCESSIONAL GRADIENT 148 SUGAR CANE LAND 040, 112 SURFACE AREA 130, 167 SURUBRES DE SAN MATEO 183

SURVEYS 011, 020, 116, 174, 331 SURVIVAL 020, 185, 199, 253, 281, 301, 404, 441 SUSTAINABILITY 053, 101, 272, 319, 327, 349, 365, 414 SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE 036, 038 SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT 262, 263 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 041, 047, 074, 075, 076, 077, 078, 079, 080, 081, 082, 083, 084, 085, 095, 111, 112, 131, 132, 155, 235, 248, 391, 418, 421 SUSTAINABLE TOURISM 248 SWIETENIA 043, 127, 133, 184, 204, 362 SYMPHONIA 021, 044, 049, 060, 274 SYNECHANTHUS 380 SYNERGISMS 129 SYZIGIUM 065

TABEBUIA 043, 133, 382 TACHIGALI 133 TALAMANCA (CANTON) 053, 191, 265, 280, 283 TALAUMA 305 TAMANDUA 359 TAMNOPHILIDAE 437 TANGARA 198, 416 TANTILLA 332 TAPIRIDAE 009, 010, 246, 283, 285, 357 TAPIRIRA 441 TAPIRUS 009, 010, 246, 283, 285, 357 TARCOLES 149 TAXONOMY 287 TAYASSUIDAE 009, 010, 026, 141, 379, 394 TEACHER TRAINING 102

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258, 259, 339 TECHNIQUES 173 TECTONA 043 TEIIDAE 332 TELEFERICO DEL BOSQUE LLUVIOSO 089 TEMPERATURE 182, 235, 345, 393 TEMPORAL CONSTRAINTS 066 TEMPORAL VARIATION 013, 173, 220 TENURE 031, 038, 053, 123, 176, 289, 341 TERRABA 134, 149 TERRAIN PARAMETERS 254 TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY 185 TERRESTRIAL HABITAT 345 TERRITORIALITY 281, 301 TETRAGASTRIS 400 THAMNOPHILIDAE 137, 301, 337, 343, 385, 392, 399, 435 THAMNOPHILUS 064, 301, 337, 343, 385, 392, 435 THE CENTER FOR CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 031 THEMATIC MAPPER 167 THERMAL BARRIERS 261 THERMAL ECOLOGY 261 THRAUPIDAE 103, 137, 198, 223 THRAUPIS 416 THRYOTHORUS 437 THYROPTERA 335 THYROPTERIDAE 335 TIARIS 415 TILIACEAE 222, 233, 382 TILLANDSIA TIMBER MANAGEMENT 205 TIMBER TREES 140 TIME SERIES 030, 138, 167 TINAMASTE DE PEREZ ZELEDON 223 TINAMIDAE 371 TINAMUS 371 TIRIMBINA RAIN FOREST CENTRE 260 TOADS 129, 235 TONATIA 335 TOPOCLIMATIC MODEL 031 TOPOGRAPHY 031, 182 TOURISM 042, 046, 056, 150, 397 TOURISM DEVELOPMENT 035, 265, 395 TOURISM IMPACT

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046 TRACHOPS 324, 335 TRADE 129 TRANSLOCATION EXPERIMENT 432 TRANSPIRATION 235 TRAPPING TECHNIQUES 137 TRAVEL DISTANCE 218, 315 TREE COVER 266, 308 TRENDS 216, 235 TRICHECHIDAE 009 TRICHECHUS 009 TRICHILIA 065 TRIGONA 128, 360 TRIMETOPON 332 TROCHILIDAE 115, 137, 264, 415 TROGLODYTES 415 TROGLODYTIDAE 103, 137, 223, 301, 337, 343, 385, 392, 415, 435, 437 TROGONIDAE 009, 010, 013, 082, 137, 150, 173, 243 TROPICAL CLOUD FORESTS 406 TROPICAL DECIDUOUS FOREST 105, 178 TROPICAL DEFORESTATION 130, 156 TROPICAL DRY FORESTS 043, 057, 058, 063, 071, 072, 073, 088, 098, 099, 104, 105, 109, 116, 118, 127, 128, 139, 143, 145, 146, 147, 166, 177, 180, 184, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 202, 203, 204, 206, 208, 209, 210, 212, 216, 220, 228, 232, 234, 235, 236, 242, 245, 251, 257, 271, 309, 313, 328, 343, 362, 376, 382, 385, 392 TROPICAL FOREST FRAGMENTS 022 TROPICAL FOREST RESTORATION 178 TROPICAL FORESTS

011, 020, 036, 037, 038, 065, 107, 142, 146, 150, 156, 159, 161, 162, 165, 198, 199, 216, 219, 239, 317, 321, 350, 360, 437 TROPICAL HABITATS 147 TROPICAL LOWLAND RAINFORESTS 407, 408 TROPICAL MOIST FORESTS 168, 177, 224, 252 TROPICAL PLANT COMMUNITIES 237 TROPICAL RAIN FORESTS 005, 006, 007, 011, 012, 015, 017, 019, 025, 026, 030, 050, 059, 063, 068, 089, 096, 097, 103, 105, 106, 107, 110, 114, 115, 119, 120, 122, 129, 130, 136, 137, 138, 141, 142, 151, 153, 154, 158, 163, 165, 167, 170, 178, 187, 200, 205, 207, 214, 219, 223, 225, 231, 235, 240, 246, 256, 260, 261, 267, 268, 270, 273, 277, 279, 284, 285, 291, 292, 294, 295, 298, 299, 301, 325, 333, 336, 341, 344, 356, 357, 358, 366, 368, 371, 377, 381, 384, 387, 399, 400, 432, 438 TROPICAL STREAMS 126 TROPICAL TREES 044

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TROPICAL WET FOREST 340 TURDIDAE 137, 198, 281 TURDUS 198 TURNOVER RATE 239 TURRIALBA (CANTON) 302, 305, 322, 411, 415, 416 TV REPORTS 263 TYLOMYS 379, 394 TYRANNIDAE 137, 200, 301, 415 UNDERGROWTH 059, 103, 115, 211, 223, 274 UNDERSTORY 370, 437 UNDERSTORY BIRD COMMUNITIES 387, 399 UNFRAGMENTED FORESTS 387, 399 UPLAND FOREST 043 URBAN AREAS 130 URBAN DEVELOPMENT

388 UROCYON 359 URODERMA 335 USES 327, 349 UV RADIATION 129 VALLE CENTRAL 388 VALLE DE EL GENERAL 262, 263 VAMPYRESSA 335 VAMPYRODES 335 VAMPYRUM 335 VAN SOMEREN TRAPPING 340 VANISHING SPECIES 129, 295 VANTANEA 133 VARIANTS 181 VARIATION PARTITIONING 431

VASCULAR EPIPHYTE 325, 358 VAZQUEZ DE CORONADO (CANTON) 424 VEGETATION 011, 045, 096, 105, 106, 158, 167, 175, 233, 244, 327, 349, 381 VEGETATION STRUCTURE 137, 208, 268 VENTANA DE OSA 183 VERBENACEAE 064, 276, 333, 366 VERTICAL STRATIFICATION 258 VERY-HUMID MONTANE FOREST DISAPPEARANCE 032 VESICULAR-ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE 022, 169 VESPERTILIONIDAE 335 VICARIANCE 346, 347 VIPERIDAE 332 VIRGIN FORESTS 096, 106, 170, 214, 246, 271, 277, 285, 344, 357

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101, 159 VIROLA 120, 400 VISITOR EXPERIENCES 102 VITEX 366 VOCHYSIA 231, 305 VOCHYSIACEAE 133, 231, 305 VOLATINIA 415 VULNERABILITY 100 WARNING COLORATION 007 WATER CONSERVATION 140 WATER EROSION 159 WATER FLOW 123, 176 WATER MANAGEMENT 123, 159, 176 WATER QUALITY 123, 176 WATER RELATIONS 382 WATER RESOURCES WATER USE 282, 292, 294 WATERSHED MANAGEMENT 040, 112, 123, 159, 176, 426 WATERSHEDS 054, 101, 123, 124, 126, 175, 176 WELFIA 017, 400 WERAUHIA 259, 339 WETLANDS 043, 058, 064, 092, 123, 124, 139, 156, 175, 176, 255 WHITE-FACED CAPUCHIN MONKEY 009, 010, 133, 180, 251, 269, 286, 287, 328, 333, 359, 363, 371, 407 WILD ANIMALS 141, 225, 236 WILD BIRDS 114, 153, 268 WILD FELINES 121, 371 WILDERNESS AREAS WILDLIFE AREAS 010, 074, 075, 076, 077, 078, 079, 080, 081, 082, 083, 084, 085, 131, 132, 272, 351, 353, 354, 369, 413 WILDLIFE BIOLOGY 197 WILDLIFE CONSERVATION 114, 153, 225, 236, 268, 308, 359, 378, 409 WILDLIFE CONTROL 236 WILDLIFE CORRIDORS 055 WILDLIFE HABITATS 225, 236 WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 010, 221, 241, 429 WILDLIFE PROTECTION 005, 028 WILDLIFE REFUGES 086, 175 WILDLIFE SPECIES CONSERVATION 386 WILDLIFE TRADE 152, 225, 236 WILDLIFE/HABITAT RELATIONSHIPS 150 WIND-DISPERSED SEEDS 258 WINDBREAKS 117, 140, 244, 269, 286, 330

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WINTERING NEOTROPICAL MIGRANT BIRDS 064 WITHIN-TREE LOCATION 258 WOMEN'S GROUPS 036 WOOD DENSITY 400 WOOD THRUSH 281, 301 WOODLANDS 047, 095 WOODY PLANTS 011, 140 WOODY REGENERATION 117 WORKING PLANS 052 WORLD BANK 133 WYEOMYIA 358 XANTUSIIDAE 332 XENOPHALLUS 346, 347 ZENAIDA 064, 133

ZONA PROTECTORA CUENCA RIO ABANGARES 040 ZONA PROTECTORA LAS TABLAS 374, 375, 431 ZONA PROTECTORA MIRAVALLES 397 ZONA PROTECTORA TIVIVES 236 ZOOGEOGRAPHY 165, 183, 219, 287, 436 ZYGOPHYLLACEAE 133, 376

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LISTA DE PUBLICACIONES Publicación no.: 001 Special visual presentation. Landscape linkages: the dispersal corridor approach to wildlife conservation [Presentación visual especial. Enlaces del paisaje: el enfoque de corredor de dispersión para la conservación de la vida silvestre] / Harris, L.D. (University of Florida. Department of Wildlife and Range Science, 118 Newins-Ziegler Hall, Box 110430, Gainesville, FL 32611-0430, US). Transactions North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, 53rd US, 1988, p. 595-607. (No abstract). Localización: Biblioteca OET: DOC 624. Publicación no.: 002 New initiatives for wildlife conservation: the need for movement corridors [Nuevas iniciativas para la conservación de la vida silvestre: la necesidad de corredores de movimiento] / Harris, L.D; Gallagher, P.B; Mackintosh, G (ed.). (University of Florida. Department of Wildlife and Range Science, 118 Newins-Ziegler Hall, Box 110430, Gainesville, FL 32611-0430, US). En: In defense of wildlife: preserving communities and corridors Washington, DC: Defenders of Wildlife, 1989. p. 11-33. (No abstract). Localización: Biblioteca OET: S622. Publicación no.: 003 Conservation of forest birds in Costa Rica: problems and perspectives [Conservación de las aves del bosque en Costa Rica: problemas y perspectivas] / Stiles, F. Gary; Diamond, A.W (ed.); Lovejoy, Thomas E (ed.). (Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Departamento de Biología, Ciudad Universitaria, AA-35884, Bogotá, CO <E-mail: fgstiles@unal.edu.co>). Proceedings of a Workshop and Symposium held at the XVIII World Conference of the International Council for Bird Preservation, Kings College, Cambridge, GB, 7-10 August 1982. En: Conservation of tropical forest birds Kings College, Cambridge: International Council for Bird Preservation, 1985. p. 141-168. (ICBP Technical Publication; no. 4). ISBN: 0-946888-05-1. Costa Rica represents something of a special case with respect to bird conservation in the Neotropics: its stable democratic government, literate public, and high standard of living have made it possible for conservation measures to make great strides in the last 15 years. However, some of the very factors that have facilitated these advances will come to pose direct or indirect threats in the coming years; the real question is whether the gains of recent years can be maintained. Threats to the Costa Rican avifauna can be classified into two general sorts: general and specific. The former affect many or all bird species over a considerable area, while the latter affect only certain species - or particular populations of these species. Habitat destruction is the most critical general threat; specific threats include the cage-bird trade, and hunting. Proposed or extant legislation can deal with the specific threats, assuming adequate enforcement (which has not been the case to date), but the situation with respect to the general threats is less clear. Deforestation is not being effectively regulated, and within a relatively short time the future of the avifauna will become synonymous with the future of the country's system of parks and reserves. Most such protected areas were not set aside while taking into account such features of the avifauna as local and altitudinal migrations, and more land is needed in several key areas. However, the real problem will come in protecting the parks and reserves as pressure on the land grows in the coming years. The underlying causes of this problem include uncontrolled population growth and the need to develop an export-based agroeconomy to maintain a high standard of living for this population. The lack

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of ecological and biological input into the decision-making process is an aggregating factor. Perspectives for bird conservation in Costa Rica for the short and long term are discussed. Localización: Biblioteca OET: 333.958 C755c. NBINA-9270. Publicación no.: 004 On the role of birds in the dynamics of neotropical forest [Sobre el papel de las aves en la dinámica del bosque neotropical] / Stiles, F. Gary; Diamond, A.W (ed.); Lovejoy, Thomas E (ed.). (Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Departamento de Biología, Ciudad Universitaria, AA-35884, Bogotá, CO <E-mail: fgstiles@unal.edu.co>). Proceedings of a Workshop and Symposium held at the XVIII World Conference of the International Council for Bird Preservation, King College, Cambridge, GB, 7-10 August 1982. En: Conservation of tropical forest birds Kings College, Cambridge: International Council for Bird Preservation, 1985. p. 49-59. ISBN: 0-946888-05-1. Most of the contributors to this symposium have emphasized that conserving tropical forest avifaunas requires the preservation of sizeable tracts of relatively undisturbed tropical forest. This paper addresses the other side of the coin: in conserving tropical forest ecosystems, how important is the preservation of the forest avifauna? In other words, what biological role(s) do birds play in the dynamics of tropical forest? I shall attempt to answer these questions for Neotropical forests, particularly those of southern Central America, with which I have first-hand experience. It would be most interesting to extend this analysis to the forests of the Old World Tropics. Localización: Biblioteca OET: 333.958 C755c; S1158. Publicación no.: 005 Tropical rainforest avifaunas: an introductory conspectus [Avifaunas del bosque lluvioso tropical: un estudio general introductorio] / Keast, Allen; Diamond, A.W (ed.); Lovejoy, Thomas E (ed.). (Queen's University. Biology Department, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, CA). Proceedings of a Workshop and Symposium at the XVIII World Conference of the International Council for Bird Preservation, Kings College, Cambridge, GB, 7-10 August 1982. En: Conservation of tropical forest birds Kings College, Cambridge: International Council for Bird Preservation, 1985. p. 3-31. ISBN: 0-946888-05-1. Lowland rainforest avifaunas are species-rich, diversified, and often highly specialized. Many groups of birds have obviously had a long history in this habitat. The rainforest habitat extends back to the Eocene, at which time all modern orders were evolving or had evolved. Endemism is high in the different zoogeographic regions, reflecting the disjunct nature of the rainforest blocks. The climatic shifts of the Pleistocene had important effects on the rainforests and their avifaunas. Dry phases led to shrinkage and break-up of the forests. This has been variously evoked as a partial explanation of the modest avifaunas of the African forests compared to the rich ones of Amazonia, where much speciation occurred during the break-up phases. High species diversity is a major feature of the world's lowland rainforests. Various explanations have been advanced for this: the benign and stable tropical climate that permits fine division of niches and great species packing; limited extinction (in the Amazon); the high structural diversity of the habitat; high floristic and food diversity, and a high proportion of rare and specialized species that survive because they make only a negligible impact on resources. It is now obvious that all these, and other factors, are involved, A major feature of rainforest avifaunas is the degree of coevolution and coadaptation shown by birds and plants. The most striking examples of this occur in connection with nectarivory and frugivory, the birds being major pollinators and seeddispersers. In some cases both bird and plant show striking structural adaptations. Rainforest birds are

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closely linked through their annual cycle (breeding, the moult, seasonal diet patterns and movements) with the seasonal climatic cycle. They exhibit many adaptations in connection with this, including protracted breeding and moulting seasons, and small clutch sizes. Rainforest birds thus emerge as highly specialized forms, dependent upon their habitat which is, in some degree, dependent upon them. As one of the world's great natural resources they demand both more research (sound conservation can only be based upon understanding) and a major international effort at conservation. Localización: Biblioteca OET: 333.958 C755c. Publicación no.: 006 A celebration of life on earth [Una celebración de la vida en la tierra] / Lovejoy, Thomas E. (Counselor to the Secretary on Biodiversity and Environmental Affairs, Castle Bldg. 320, Washington, D.C, US <E-mail: tlovejoy@ic.si.edu>). En: Tropical rainforests: diversity and conservation. Almeda, F; Pringle. C.M. (eds.) San Francisco, CA: California Academy of Sciences, 1988. p. 1-12. (California Academy of Sciences Memoir; no. 12). ISBN: 0940228-19-X. The tropical rainforest is where life reaches its fullest expression, where more forms of life are to be found than anywhere else on the globe, and where complex arrangements amongst species are encountered to an unparalleled degree. The ability of the life sciences to contribute to human welfare or, for that matter, the ability of biology as science to understand life on earth adequately, rests in large part on the knowledge waiting to be discovered in tropical forests. Our knowledge of these forests cannot be described as anything more than superficial; yet, at the same time, they are being obliterated at staggering rates. There is, as a consequence, a conservation imperative to protect the great diversity of tropical forest species and ecosystems in a very short time. But given the current ignorance, a conservation network cannot be simply established. Research on topics such as minimum size for reserves must go hand in hand with conservation action. A discussion of the research project on the minimum size problem in Central Amazonia will highlight the urgency of the Zona Protectora project in Costa Rica. Localización: Biblioteca OET: 333.7516 T856t. Publicación no.: 007 How do refuges produce biological diversity? Allopatry y parapatry, extinction and gene flow in mimetic butterflies [¿Cómo los refugios producen diversidad biológica? Alopatría y parapatría, extinción y deriva genética en mariposas miméticas] / Turner, J.R.G. (State University of New York. Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5245, US). Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium of the Association for Tropical Biology, Macuto Beach, Caracas, VE, February 813, 1979. En: Biological diversification in the tropics. Prance, G.T. (ed.) New York: Columbia University Press, 1982. p. 309-335. ISBN: 0-231-04876-9. The allopatric and parapatric models of diversification in the tropical rain forests are not, it is argued, very different. The South American butterfly genus Heliconius has undergone a remarkable evolutionary radiation; we understand the adaptive function of the radiation (muellerian mimicry), the selective forces acting on the characters (normalizing selection), and the genetical outcome of these forces (major multigenic differences between races). It is argued that periods of climatic deterioration in the Quaternary have caused increased rates of race formation, whether or not the forest became split into extremely isolated refuges, and whether or not the process is allopatric or parapatric, because the driving force of race formation is not the stoppage of gene flow but the differential extinction of other

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members of the flora and fauna in the refuge areas. Race formation increases when the forest is fragmented because the effects of extinctions last for longer. Evolution in the color patterns of Heliconius, timed from the dating of the last stadial, is faster than that of the most rapidly evolving proteins, and takes the form of a miniature, rapid adaptive radiation like that normally thought of as characterizing long-term evolution. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S7835. Publicación no.: 008 Alternative models for infrageneric diversification in the humid tropics: tests with passion vine butterflies [Modelos alternativos para la diversificación infragenérica en los trópicos húmedos: pruebas con mariposas de las passifloráceas] / Benson, W.W. (Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro. Faculdade de Farmacia, Centro de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais, Praia Vermelha, Rio de Janeiro ZC-82, BR). Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium of the Association for Tropical Biology, Macuto Beach, Caracas, VE, February 8-13, 1979. En: Biological diversification in the tropics. Prance, G.T. (ed.) New York: Columbia University Press, 1982. p. 608-640. ISBN: 0-231-04876-9. Refuge models have been proposed to explain the "paradox" of the high degree of biological diversification and species richness within forested areas of the American tropics. They are based on the fact that the distributions of forms, subspecies and, to a lesser extent, species of diverse taxa are approximately coincident and on the inference that not long ago the Amazonian forest was broken into isolated forest refuges. There is the basic assumption that allopatric isolation is necessary, and parapatry and presently existing barriers insufficient, to explain the differentiation observed today. Models derived from population biology explaining the same phenomena are based on the fact that neotropical forest landscapes differ greatly among regions and the inference that, due to these differences, divergent selection has directed adaptive evolution along different paths. I present evidence that the population models produce relevant predictions for neotropical heliconiine butterflies, identify situations in which different models produce contrasting predictions, and show that the limited data available tend to support the population model over the refuge model. Integrated studies in ecology, biogeography, and revisionary taxonomy will be necessary to identify and resolve the many unanswered questions of evolutionary importance. The possibilities raised by this report underline the urgency of preserving and studying organisms in natural ecosystems for understanding ecological and evolutionary processes in the tropics. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S7897. Publicación no.: 009 A report on dense forest habitat for endangered species in Costa Rica [Informe sobre hábitat de bosques densos para especies amenazadas en Costa Rica] / Vaughan-Dickhaut, Christopher. (University of Wisconsin-Madison. Department of Wildlife Ecology, Madison, WI 53706, US <E-mail: cvaughan@facstaff.wisc.edu>). Heredia: Universidad Nacional, Departamento de Publicaciones, 1983. 62 p. Existence and loss of dense forest habitat for 28 endangered wildlife species in Costa Rica is quantified and analyzed using vegetation maps, density estimates and insular ecology theory. From 1940 to 1977 species suffered an average 35% destruction of dense forest habitat. A number of species including: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Panthera onca, Trichechus manatus, Haria hapyja and Ara ambigua will probably go extinct in Costa Rica within the next century due to lack of sufficiently large dense forest habitat areas for survival. The importance of protecting large areas of dense forest habitat for

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conserving genetically "viable" wildlife populations is emphasized and key areas are identified for each species. In addition species are ranked as to degree of endangerment using biological parameters. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 995. Publicación no.: 010 Hábitat potencial y su aplicabilidad en la conservación de especies faunísticas en Costa Rica / Vaughan-Dickhaut, Christopher. (University of Wisconsin-Madison. Department of Wildlife Ecology, Madison, WI 53706, US <E-mail: cvaughan@facstaff.wisc.edu>). Contribuciones de la Escuela de Ciencias Ambientales al Primer Congreso Nacional Sobre Conservación de Fauna Silvestre, San José, CR, Julio 14-19, 1980. En: Vaughan-Dickhaut, Christopher; McCoy-Colton, Michael B. (eds.) Heredia: Universidad Nacional, 1981. p. 21-38. (Serie de Ordenación de Fauna Silvestre; no. 3). Con base en la literatura se ha hecho un cálculo de la habitat potencial de especies faunísticas consideradas en vías de extinción en el país y por medio de una encuesta nacional con cazadores y campesinos se ha tratado de comprobar la existencia de estas especies en su hábitat potencial boscosa propuesta. Como resultado se han dividido las especies estudiadas en dos grandes grupos: aquellas que dependen mayormente de hábitats boscosos no alterados para su sobrevivencia y aquellas que se encuentran tanto en hábitats de grandes extensiones (80% o, mayor) como en áreas de bosque secundario y bosques aislados, o sea, en hábitats alterados. Para todas estas especies se puede calcular la cantidad de bosque primario existente en los años 1950, 1961 y 1977 y la tasa de destrucción de hábitat entre estos períodos. Así se determina la cantidad de hábitat boscoso existente en el año 1977 para cada especie y se extrapoló la fecha de eliminación de hábitat boscoso, utilizando para ello una tasa actual de deforestación. Además se determina en términos generales la cantidad de hábitat potencial bajo protección en el año 1977. Al estimarse el hábitat actual y la tasa de pérdida del hábitat de una especie faunística llegamos en forma general al objetivo de este trabajo, cual es el de cuantificar el estado de hábitat potencial de algunas de las especies faunísticas nacionales consideradas en vías de extinción. Desde el punto de vista de hábitat, se llega a conocer en forma general el estado de la especie. Se nota que existen especies que se encuentran casi exclusivamente en áreas boscosas de 80% o mayor cobertura boscosa y otras que se adaptan a áreas alteradas aunque además viven en áreas de grandes extensiones boscosas. Este segundo grupo de especies es más adaptable a cambios de hábitat y aparentemente en menos peligro de extinción por esta razón. Además el hábitat tiene relación directa con la población potencial de la especie, tomando en cuenta que por razones de presión de cacería y factores naturales (enfermedades y depredación, disponibilidad de comida), las densidades pueden ser más altas o bajas entre áreas semejantes, o sea, el hábitat potencial es posiblemente un mejor índice del estado de la especie que el índice de densidad. Para poder llegar a directrices generales de manejo de una especie, y contando con el mapa de hábitat potencial, el primer paso es recomendar protección de la superficie más grande posible de su hábitat. Sin embargo, cada especie tendrá sus necesidades propias y será necesario profundizar en cada caso para determinarlas densidades de las poblaciones en diferentes tipos de hábitat y la ecología de cada especie, con la finalidad de llegar a un manejo racional. Para poder visualizar el proceso descrito en este trabajo, a continuación se presenta un diagrama de flujo que pretende guiar los pasos y la secuencia que se deben tomar en cuenta para llegar a manejar una especie faunística. Funciona en especial para especies en vías de extinción cuyo problema principal es la destrucción o alteración de hábitat (ver figura 5). Después de realizar las etapas 1,2; 3 y 5 uno debe decidir si es necesario estimar la densidad de la población en la zona o zonas donde la manejará. Con respecto a esto, Caughley (1) presenta una excelente discusión acerca de las razones que ayudan a guiar

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esta decisión. Si se decide hacer estimaciones de densidades, hay una variedad de métodos que se puede utilizar (1). Este tipo de información puede servir para comparar el tamaño de la población de un año a otro o entre diferentes regiones para un mismo año. Si se decide no estimar el tamaño de la población, se procede al paso 7 donde se estudia la ecología de la especie, lo que debe incluir: comportamiento, movimientos, territorio, hábitos alimentarios, tasas de natalidad y mortalidad, etc. En el mejor de los casos se puede recopilar mucha de esta información antes de pasar al número 8 el cual contempla esbozar los principios de manejo de la especie y probar estos principios durante un período. A la vez es importante en esta etapa hacer estimaciones de densidad para compararlos mientras que uno practica el manejo de la especie. En. síntesis, para poder definir el estado de una especie considerada en "vías de extinción" es necesario cuantificar su situación en cuanto al tamaño de su población y/o su hábitat en el espacio y tiempo y/o los otros factores que la amenazan. El método que fue empleado con especies faunísticas en Costa.-Rica, suministra datos acerca de la existencia, cantidad, distribución y utilización de hábitat por cada especie estudiada. El modelo que se presenta trata de mostrar la secuencia lógica a emplear en el manejo de una especie faunística en vías de extinción. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 151. Publicación no.: 011 Preservation of biodiversity in small rainforest patches: rapid evaluations using butterfly trapping [Preservación de la biodiversidad en pequeños parches de bosque lluvioso: evaluaciones rápidas utilizando trampeo de mariposas] / Daily, Gretchen C; Ehrlich, Paul R. (Stanford University. Department of Biological Sciences, Center for Conservation Biology, Stanford, CA 943055020, US <E-mail: gdaily@stanford.edu> <E-mail: pre@stanford.edu>). En: Biodiversity and Conservation (ISSN 0960-3115), v. 4, no. 1, p. 35-55. 1995. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-9838.pdf Determining capacity of small forest remnants to support biodiversity is of critical importance, especially in the tropics where high rates of land conversion coincide with extraordinarily high species richness and endemism. Using fruit-baited traps, rapid evaluations were made in 1993 and 1994 of forest butterfly diversity of seven small patches (3-30 ha) and a single remaining large patch (227 ha) of Costa Rica midaltitude moist forest. Results suggest that even recently isolated 20-30 ha fragments of primary forest retain surprisingly depauperate butterfly faunas relative to that supported by the 227 ha patch only 0.51.0 km away. If forest butterflies are an index of diversity of small-bodied organisms in general, preservations of the latter may require unexpectedly large patches. In 1994 a 16 ha botanical garden was surveyed, situated between and contiguous to both the 227 ha patch and an exceptionally speciesrich 25 ha patch. In the garden, adults of many butterfly species associated with forest interior were found, suggesting that even heavily managed systems of largely exotic plants (such as agricultural systems) could be designed to serve as corridors for butterflies and perhaps some other groups of organisms. Implications are discussed for a planned restoration of biotic connections between lowland and montane forests in southern Costa Rica. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S6134. Biblioteca OET: NBINA-9838. Publicación no.: 012 Species loss in fragments of tropical rain forest: A review of the evidence [Pérdida de especies en fragmentos de bosques lluviosos tropicales: revisión de la evidencia] / Turner, I.M. (National University of Singapore. Department of Botany, Singapore 119260, SG). En: Journal of Applied Ecology (ISSN 0021-8901), v. 33, no. 2, p. 200-209. 1996.

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1. A review of the literature shows that in nearly all cases tropical rain forest fragmentation has led to a local loss of species. Isolated fragments suffer reductions in species richness with time after excision from continuous forest, and small fragments often have fewer species recorded for the same effort of observation than large fragments or areas of continuous forest. 2. Birds have been the most frequently studied taxonomic group with respect to the effects of tropical forest fragmentation. 3. The mechanisms of fragmentation-related extinction include the deleterious effects of human disturbance during and after deforestation, the reduction of population sizes, the reduction of immigration rates, forest edge effects, changes in community structure (second- and higher-order effects) and the immigration of exotic species. 4. The relative importance of these mechanisms remains obscure. 5. Animals that are large, sparsely or patchily distributed, or very specialized and intolerant of the vegetation surrounding fragments, are particularly prone to local extinction. 6. The large number of indigenous species that are very sparsely distributed and intolerant of conditions outside the forest make evergreen tropical rain forest particularly susceptible to species loss through fragmentation. 7. Much more research is needed to study what is probably the major threat to global biodiversity. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-789. Biblioteca del BIODOC: 574.5 Jou. Publicación no.: 013 Implications of intratropical migration on reserve design: A case study using Pharomachrus mocinno [Implicaciones de la migración intratropical en el diseño de reservas: estudio de caso utilizando a Pharomachrus mocinno (quetzal)] / Powell, George V.N; Bjork, Robin D. (World Wildlife Fund, 1250 24th Street nw, Washington, D.C. 20037, US <E-mail: powell@wwfus.org> <E-mail: bjorkr@peak.org>). En: Conservation Biology (ISSN 0888-8892), v. 9, no. 2, p. 354-362. 1995. As habitat loss continues, natural protected areas will become islands in human-modified land-scapes; maintenance of functional communities and ecosystems will depend on properly designed protected areas. We demonstrate that incorporating regional habitat linkages that allow for seasonal migrations of intratropical resident species must be a major design criterion for establishing protected areas. Using radiotelemetry, we monitored the seasonal movements of one such migrant, the Resplendent Quetzal (Pharomachrus mocinno), a large, frugivorous bird, one of many tropical residents known to migrate altitudinally within Mesoamerica. Based on three years of data we determined that quetzals followed a complicated local migration that linked four montane life zones. Using this species as an indicator revealed that the configuration of the Monteverde reserve complex in the Tilarán Mountains in westcentral Costa Rica lacked sufficient habitat distribution to conserve montane biodiversity. On the basis of these results, we propose that the three-step process proposed by Soule and Simberloff (1986) for estimating minimum sizes of reserves be amended to include a fourth step: The critical habitats used throughout the annual cycles of target or keystone species must be identified and adequately protected. Natural protected areas can be considered adequately designed only when sufficient area with a full complement of ecologically linked habitats is included. Localización: Biblioteca OET: C. Publicación no.: 014 The Mesoamerican biological corridor [El corredor biológico mesoamericano] / Ankersen, Thomas T; Hamann, R.G. (University of Florida. College of Law, Center for Governmental Responsibility, 230 Bruton Geer, Gainesville, FL 32605-7629, US <E-mail: ankersen@law.ufl.edu> <Email: hamann@law.ufl.edu>)./ Mesoamerican Biodiversity Legal Project / Centro de Derecho Ambiental y de los Recursos Naturales (Costa Rica) / Instituto de Derecho Ambiental y Desarrollo Sostenible

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(Guatemala) / University of Florida. Center for Governmental Responsibility, Gainesville, FL, US. Gainesville, FL: Center for Governmental Responsibility, University of Florida College of Law, 1993. Localización: No disponible. Publicación no.: 015 Avian nest predation in tropical wet forest: an experimental study [Depredación de nidos de aves en un bosque tropical húmedo: un estudio experimental] / Gibbs, James P. (Yale University. School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven, CT 06511, US). En: Oikos (ISSN 0030-1299), v. 60, no. 2, p. 155-161. 1991. I used artificial nests to examine predation on birds' nests in lowland wet forest in La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. My purpose was to assess patterns of latitudinal variation in nest predation intensity and to predict the effects of further fragmentation of this forest on its associated avifauna. Nest loss did not vary among sites or between dry and wet seasons within the primary forest interior during 1988. Nests near forest/second growth edges were destroyed more frequently than nests in the forest's interior. Nest loss near forest/pasture edges, however, was similar to that in the forest interior. Nest loss was higher at five smaller (100 ha) than at three larger forest patches. Predation intensity at this site was comparable to that observed in three similar studies conducted in temperate forests. Comparative data from this site indicate that predation on nests of ground-dwelling birds at Barro Colorado Island, Panama, may be unusually high due to elevated densities of nest predators. High mortality rates of birds' nest previously reported for tropical forests could be artifact of studying birds in disturbed or isolated forests. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S839. LS. PVB. NBINA-6406. Publicación no.: 016 Possible effects of global warming on the biological diversity in tropical forests [Posibles efectos del calentamiento global en la diversidad biológica en bosques tropicales] / Hartshorn, Gary Spencer; Peters, R (ed.); Lovejoy, Thomas E (ed.). (Duke University, Box 90630, Durham, NC 277080630, US <E-mail: ghartsho@duke.edu> <E-mail: tlovejoy@worldbank.org>). En: Global warming and biological diversity New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992. p. 137-146. ISBN: 0300-05930-2. Introduction: Rampant deforestation, the inexorable advance of the agricultural frontier, species extinction, and the conservation of biological diversity are some of the principal problems facing those who would protect tropical forests. Global warming due to the greenhouse effect may also affect the composition and integrity of those few tropical forests that survive well into the next century. Tropical forests not only are the most species-rich ecosystems known on this planet but also are exceedingly complex ecologically. This chapter has three objectives: (1) to highlight briefly the ecological complexity and biological diversity of tropical forests; (2) to review documented effects of historically recent climatic fluctuations on tropical forest communities; and (3) to use these first two components for cautiously exploring possible effects of global warming on the biological diversity in tropical forests. My primary theater of experience is the humid forests of tropical America; hence, I will draw heavily on such well- known sites as the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Barro Colorado Island (BCI) in Panama's Lake Gatún (Leigh et al. 1982, 1990) and the Organization for Tropical Studies' La Selva Biological Station in the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica (Clark 1990). 1 am focusing on mature or oldgrowth forests, with minimal or no direct human disturbance; thus young secondary forests, deforestation, restoration of degraded forest lands, soil fertility, nutrient cycling, and so on are beyond the purview of this chapter.

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Localización: Biblioteca OET: S1214. Publicación no.: 017 Spatial heterogeneity in tropical forest structure: canopy palms as landscape mosaics [Heterogeneidad espacial en la estructura del bosque tropical: las palmas del dosel como mosaicos de paisajes] / Chazdon, Robin L. (University of Connecticut. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, U-43 Storrs, CT 06269, US <E-mail: chazdon@uconnvm.uconn.edu>). En: TREE - Trends in Ecology and Evolution (ISSN 0169-5347), v. 11, no. 1, p. 8-9. 1996. (No abstract). Localización: Biblioteca OET: S2544. LS. NBINA-6399. Publicación no.: 018 Usando un SIG para el diseño de corredores de vida silvestre en Monteverde, Costa Rica / Musinsky, J. En: SIG Natura, v. 2, no. 1, p. 4-5,11-12. 1995. Este artículo describe un método para diseñar corredores de vida silvestre con sistemas de información geográfica (SIG), usando una técnica para identificar las áreas de los hábitats deforestados y restaurar las zonas de hábitats alrededor de bosques existentes. Una ventaja de esta técnica es que identifica los diferentes tipos de hábitat en cuencas deforestadas que podrían ser restaurados. Con esta información la colocación de los corredores de vida silvestre pueden restringirse a áreas que tienen un déficit de un tipo determinado de hábitat compensando la pérdida de recursos críticos, al mismo tiempo minimizando los costos asociados con la restauración de la cobertura vegetal en tierras deforestadas. Mapas de los sitios óptimos para el establecimiento de los corredores, derivados de datos ecológicos, pueden combinarse con estudios o encuestas económicas para evaluar la factibilidad de ubicar los corredores de vida silvestre en áreas específicas. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S2565. Publicación no.: 019 Effect of forest fragmentation on genetic diversity and mating system in a tropical tree, Pithecellobium elegans [Efecto de la fragmentación del bosque sobre la diversidad genética y sistemas de reproducción en un árbol tropical, Pithecellobium elegans] / Hall, Pamela; Walker, Sarah; Bawa, Kamaljit S. (University of Massachusetts. Department of Biology, 100 Morrissey Blvd, Boston, MA 02125-3393, US <E-mail: kamal.bawa@umb.edu>). En: Conservation Biology (ISSN 0888-8892), v. 10, no. 3, p. 757-768. 1996. Genetic diversity, population differentiation, and temporal variation in outcrossing rates were examined for Pithecellobium elegans, a Neotropical rain forest canopy tree. Several forest fragments and a large reserve (1500 ba) were compared for several population genetic parameters. For eight populations sampled on the Atlantic coastal plain of Costa Rica, allozyme heterozygosity (0.13), polymorphism (35%), and effective number of alleles (1.24) were similar to values reported for other tropical tree species that occur at similar densities of less than one individual per hectare. These measures of genetic variation were lowest in populations of the smallest size, farthest from the reserve, and more isolated from other populations. Differentiation among samples collected in small forest fragments and the reserve population accounted for 10% of the total genetic variation observed. There was a positive relationship between the level of differentiation of populations from the reserve population and their distance from the reserve. Though predominantly an annually flowering species, the number of trees in flower at any one time varied from 80% of observed trees to only 6%. Outcrossing rates did not differ for two episodes in which the proportions of flowering trees were 33 % and 80%. But periods of low density of flowering adults resulted in poor seed crops or failure to set fruit for many individuals. Population size at

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many sites will be effectively decreased because of the variation in flowering. Fragmentation of what was once a large, continuous forested area is resulting in genetic erosion of small, isolated populations of Pithecellobium elegans. Localización: Biblioteca OET: C. NBINA-3805. LS. Publicación no.: 020 Nocturnality and species survival [Nocturnidad y sobrevivencia de las especies] / Daily, Gretchen C; Ehrlich, Paul R. (Stanford University. Department of Biological Sciences. Center for Conservation Biology, Stanford, CA 94305-5020, US <E-mail: gdaily@stanford.edu> <E-mail: pre@stanford.edu>). En: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (ISSN 0027-8424), v. 93, no. 21, p. 11709-11712. 1996. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-3971.pdf Surveys of butterfly and moth diversity in tropical forest fragments suggest that nocturnality confers dispersal, and possibly a survival, advantage. The butterfly faunas of smaller fragments were depauperate; in contrast, the species richness of nocturnal moths was similar in all fragments and even in pasture. The lack of correlation between butterfly and moth species richness among fragments (r 2 = 0.005) is best explained by movements of moths at night when ambient conditions in forest and pasture are most similar; butterflies face substantial daytime temperature, humidity, and solar radiation barriers. This interpretation is supported by information on birds, beetles, and bats. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S2764. NBINA-3971. Publicación no.: 021 Microsatellite assessment of gene flow via seed and pollen in fragmented populations of the tropical tree Symphonia globulifera [Evaluación mediante microsatelites del flujo génico a través de las semillas y el polen en poblaciones fragmentadas del árbol tropical Symphonia globulifera] / Aldrich, Preston Rice; Hamrick, James L; Kochert, Gary. (University of Georgia. Botany Department, Athens, GA 30602, US <E-mail: paldrich@dogwood.botany.uga.edu> <E-mail: hamrick@dogwood.botany.uga.edu>). Tropical Diversity Origins, Maintenance, and Conservation. ATB & OTS Symposium and Annual Meeting Abstracts, San José, CR, 15-20 June, 1997. San José: Organization for Tropical Studies, 1997. p. 34. (Abstract only). This study examines the effects of habitat fragmentation on gene flow via seed dispersal (by bats) and pollen dispersal (by hummingbirds) in fragmented populations of the tropical tree Symphonia globulifera. A 38 hectare area of fragmented forest plus plots in the continuous forest at Las Cruces were mapped for this species, and tissue was collected from all adults, saplings, and seedlings in the study area. Three microsatellite markers were developed and employed to examine the genetic effects of fragmentation as manifest in the demographic genetics and patterns of gene flow in the species. It is found that gene flow into patches occurs at a very high rate with pasture adults having much greater fertilities than adults residing within patches. Further, the distribution of fertilities is highly skewed which limits the effectiveness of gene flow to counter drift. Genetic neighborhoods and effective population sizes are calculated and the long-term impact on population dynamics and viability are discussed. Localización: No disponible.

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Publicación no.: 022 Species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in forest fragments and adjacent pastures [Diversidad de especies de hongos micorrízicoarbusculares en fragmentos de bosque y potreros adyacentes] / Aldrich-Wolfe, Laura. (Kansas State University. Division of Biology, Ackert Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506, US <E-mail: law6@ksu.edu>). Tropical Diversity Origins, Maintenance, and Conservation. ATB & OTS Symposium and Annual Meeting Abstracts, San José, CR, 15-20 June, 1997. San José: Organization for Tropical Studies, 1997. p. 34. (Abstract only). Conversion of forest to pasture has been hypothesized to lead to declines in species richness, overall abundance, and relative abundances of mycorrhizal fungi species in pastures relative to forest sites. Evidence for such declines is currently incomplete. In this study, I provide a preliminary estimate of species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi spores for five pairs of forest fragment and adjacent pasture sites in a farming community in Coto Brus, Costa Rica. I determined species diversity of AM fungi spores by both direct assessment of field-collected soil samples and estimates from trap cultures in the greenhouse. Initial results suggest differences in the relative abundances of species of AM fungi between forest fragment and adjacent pasture sites and a higher overall abundance of spores of AM fungi in pasture sites. Localización: No disponible. Publicación no.: 023 Distribution and abundance patterns of forest birds in a fragmented landscape: patch size is not the only factor [Patrones de distribución y abundancia de aves de bosque en un paisaje fragmentado: el tamaño de la parcela no es el único factor] / Borgella, Rene, Jr. (Ithaca College. Department of Biology, CNS 213, Ithaca, NY 14853, US <E-mail: rborgella@ithaca.edu>). Tropical Diversity Origins, Maintenance, and Conservation. ATB & OTS Symposium and Annual Meeting Abstracts, San José, CR, 15-20 June, 1997. San José: Organization for Tropical Studies, 1997. p. 41. (Abstract only). Since 1994, I have been conducting an intensive mark-release-recapture experiment to study the distribution, abundance, and movement patterns of resident forest birds in a system of five small forest fragments (0.3 - 25 ha) and the forest reserve of the Las Cruces Biological Station (LCBS, 245 ha) in Costa Rica; all sites are near each other (90-400 m apart) and are imbedded in a landscape matrix dominated by cattle pasture. This paper discusses the distribution of species and abundance of individuals (5000 captures, ca. 2000 individuals), which were determined principally by forest patch size. More species (97) were captured in the LCBS than at any of the other sites (27-66 species). Most species also had larger estimated population sizes in the larger fragments. However, results suggest that although patch size seems to be an important factor in determining the abundance and distribution of some species, it is not the only factor; some taxa were distributed according to abiotic differences among the sites. Besides the consideration of minimal size constraints, heterogeneity of habitats would also increase species richness. These data suggest that reserves could incorporate several nearby areas of habitat that exhibit some differences in abiotic attributes to increase species richness. Localización: No disponible. Publicación no.: 024 A biological and economic evaluation of the Coto Brus Biological Corridor with special reference to forest bird diversity [Una evaluación biológica y económica del Corredor Biológico de Coto Brus con especial referencia a la diversidad de aves del bosque] / Bourg, N.A; Gill, Douglas E. (University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, US <E-mail: bourg@zool.umd.edu> <E-mail: dg7@umail.umd.edu>). Tropical Diversity Origins, Maintenance, and Conservation. ATB & OTS

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Symposium and Annual Meeting Abstracts, San José, CR, 15-20 June, 1997. San José: Organization for Tropical Studies, 1997. p. 42. (Abstract only). The proposed Coto Brus Biological Corridor would connect the Las Cruces Biological Station forest reserve (LCR) with the Guaymí Indigenous Reserve. I studied resident forest bird populations in forest remnants and the LCR to identify species and guilds to target in corridor planning. Two economic components were also analyzed: 1) visitation to the station, a large portion of which consists of bird enthusiasts, and 2) palm heart production from Euterpe precatoria, a favored food source for frugivorous birds. I conducted point count surveys to determine bird species diversity and species and guild discrepancies between forest fragments and the LCR. A travel-cost analysis was performed on visitation data extracted from the station guestbook. I gathered data on the population structure of Euterpe from a 0.01 hectare sample plot. Moderately abundant species were absent from fragments, and edge points had fewer species and representatives of certain guilds than forest interior points. Estimated consumer surplus by travel-cost analysis = $ 208.00 USD/visitor/year. Seedling palm production was high. I identified eleven bird species and three guilds as corridor planning targets, particularly army ant-following birds. Partial corridor funding could come from visitor fees and sustainable palm management could be incorporated into design strategies. Localización: No disponible. Publicación no.: 025 Genetic population structure of resident birds in mid-elevation tropical rainforest [Estructura genética de la población de aves residentes en un bosque lluvioso tropical de altura media] / Brown, L.M. (Denver Museum of Nature and Science. Department of Zoology, 2001 Colorado Boulevard, Denver, CO 80205, US <E-mail: lauramacbrown@hotmail.com>). Tropical Diversity Origins, Maintenance, and Conservation. ATB & OTS Symposium and Annual Meeting Abstracts, San José, CR, 1520 June, 1997. San José: Organization for Tropical Studies, 1997. p. 43. (Abstract only). To understand the possible effects of forest fragmentation on resident bird populations, I am using indirect means to describe the population structure of several species of forest-dwelling birds in the Coto Brus region of Costa Rica. This is being done through the analysis of patterns of genetic variation within and among populations of several bird species exhibiting different life histories (e.g. obligate understory vs. "edge" species) at three different spatial scales. In a preliminary blood protein survey of nine species using 22 enzyme systems, significant differences in heterozygosity were found for populations of White-ruffed Manakins and Buff-throated Foliage-gleaners between a large forest fragment site and a contiguous forest site. However, no significant differences in heterozygosity were found between sites for the other species due to small sample sizes and a lack of sufficient variation in allozymes. Consequently, I am currently developing techniques to utilize mitochondrial DNA from bird blood as a genetic marker and I am using restriction fragment length polymorphisms to assess genetic variation within and among populations of forest birds. Localización: No disponible. Publicación no.: 026 Home range and activity patterns of white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) in Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica [Rango de distribución y patrones de actividad de los chanchos cariblancos (Tayassu pecari) en el Parque Nacional Corcovado, Costa Rica] / Carrillo-Jiménez, Eduardo; Sáenz-Méndez, Joel Cris; Fuller, Tood K; Altrichter-Cateula, Mariana. (Universidad Nacional. Programa Regional de Maestría en Manejo de Vida Silvestre, Apdo. 1350, Heredia, CR <E-mail: ecarrill@racsa.co.cr> <E-mail: jsaenz@una.ac.cr> <E-mail: tkfuller@forwild.umass.edu> <E-mail:

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mariana_altrichter@redlands.edu>). Tropical Diversity Origins, Maintenance, and Conservation. ATB & OTS Symposium and Annual Meeting Abstracts, San José, CR, 15-20 June, 1997. San José: Organization for Tropical Studies, 1997. p. 45. (Abstract only). White-lipped peccaries (WLP) Tayassu pecari, have disappeared in most of Costa Rica and the rest of Central America, mainly due to the destruction of their habitat and to hunting pressure. Nevertheless, their population dynamics, their role in the tropical forest ecosystem, and the general biology of these species are relatively unknown. In Costa Rica, Corcovado National Park (CNP) is likely to have the largest population of white-lipped peccaries. There is some evidence that WLP perform an annual migration out of CNP boundaries. When this occurs, the local people living around the park take advantage of the potential prey source. We are carrying out research that should indicate what the minimal areas are to maintain healthy populations, and whether it is necessary to create corridors between CNP and other areas to maintain such populations. With this work we planned to: 1) estimate the seasonal variation activity patterns and home range in CNP and 2) determine if WLP herds are migrating outside the CNP. Investigations were initiated in January 1995. Eleven animals have already been captured and marked with a radio-collar. Our current data show us that peccary herds have a monthly home range between 200 and 1800 ha and that they are mainly diurnal. Throughout the first study year, we did not find evidence to support the statement that white-lipped peccary herds which live in CNP lowlands migrate outside the park. Localización: No disponible. Publicación no.: 027 Effects of forest fragmentation on the reproductive output of natural populations of the timber tree, Pithecellobium saman [Efectos de la fragmentación del bosque en éxito reproductivo de poblaciones naturales del árbol maderable, Pithecellobium saman] / Cascante-Marín, Alfredo M; Quesada-Avendaño, Mauricio; Rocha-Núñez, Oscar J. (Museo Nacional de Costa Rica. Departamento de Historia Natural, Apdo 749-1000, San José, CR <E-mail: hnatural@museocostarica.go.cr> <E-mail: mquesada@oikos.unam.mx> <E-mail: ojrocha@biologia.ucr.ac.cr>). Tropical Diversity Origins, Maintenance, and Conservation. ATB & OTS Symposium and Annual Meeting Abstracts, San José, CR, 1520 June, 1997. San José: Organization for Tropical Studies, 1997. p. 46. (Abstract only). Forest fragmentation due to deforestation is one of the major threats of extinction of natural tree populations in the tropics. Several studies have indicated that forest fragmentation may influence the effective population size and viability of natural populations. However, little is known about the impact of fragmentation on the reproductive success of tropical trees. In this study we evaluated the effects of forest fragmentation on seed production, seed abortion, seed predation and seed size in a tropical dry forest tree in Costa Rica. Our results indicate the following: 1) trees in continuous forests produced more seeds per fruit than in fragmented forests; 2) trees in continuous forests abort fewer seeds per fruit than trees in fragmented forests; 3) trees in continuous forests are more likely to be attacked by seed predators; 4) seed size is similar between continuous and fragmented forests but is affected by the number of seeds produced per fruit. Our findings show that the reproductive output of this tropical tree is affected by forest fragmentation and the fitness of this tree is likely to be affected by management practices. Localización: No disponible. Publicación no.: 028 Habitat fragmentation and protection status evaluation of titi monkey (Saimiri oerstedii citrinellus) population in Central Pacific Region, Costa Rica [Evaluación de la segmentación del

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hábitat y estado de protección de la población del mono tití (Saimiri oerstedii citrinellus) en la región Pacífico Central, Costa Rica] / Fernández-Morillo, Maria Teresa; Altrichter-Cateula, Mariana; HernándezSoliz, César Augusto; Herrera-Rosales, Heydi Maria; Jiménez-Ruiz, Belkys; Jiménez-Pérez, Ignacio; LópezArévalo, Hugo Fernando; Millán-Araujo, José Oswaldo; Mora-Cerdas, Geisel; Paniagua-Espinoza, Arnoldo; Sáenz-Méndez, Joel Cris; Sierra, Claudine; Tabilo-Valdivieso, Elier Lorenzo. (Universidad Nacional. Programa Regional en Manejo de Vida Silvestre, Apdo. 1350-3000, Heredia, CR <E-mail: mfernad@una.ac.cr> <E-mail: marianaal@msn.com> <E-mail: mariana_altrichter@redlands.edu> <Email: hherrera@una.ac.cr> <E-mail: ijimenez@una.ac.cr> <E-mail: omillan@una.ac.cr> <E-mail: gmora@una.ac.cr> <E-mail: apaniagu@una.ac.cr> <E-mail: jsaenz@una.ac.cr> <E-mail: clodin@racsa.co.cr> <E-mail: etabilo@una.ac.cr>). Tropical Diversity Origins, Maintenance, and Conservation. ATB & OTS Symposium and Annual Meeting Abstracts, San José, CR, 15-20 June, 1997. San José: Organization for Tropical Studies, 1997. p. 55. (Abstract only). The most endangered primate in Costa Rica is tití monkey, owed to habitat destruction. During 1996, we evaluated the fragmentation forest status and titi distribution between Parrita and Naranjo rivers (Puntarenas, Costa Rica) from 0 to 350 meters high. By photointerpretation and field checking, we studied some forest patches and their surrounding matrix characteristics. We looked for monkey groups in the patches and made 124 interviews to local people. We found monkeys in 26 of 45 studied patches. Their presence was associated with connectivity among patches (P=0.0009) and forest heterogeneity (P=0.025). Distance to Manuel Antonio or the mountains was smaller in patches with monkeys (P=0.005). The multivariate analysis showed that monkeys live in areas with high density of patches, in the biggest ones, far from villages and in forest fragments with high charral percentage in the matrix. The patches distribution map showed that lots of them are out of Central Pacific Conservation Area (ACOPAC). We conclude that monkeys population is more abundant than previously supposed, but out of control landscape changes could affect their future survivorship. We recommend to focus on habitat management, river forest and natural fences conservation, and to include in ACOPAC the most critical patches. Localización: No disponible. Publicación no.: 029 The effect of forest fragmentation on the rate of pollen deposition, pollen competition and pollen-ovule ratio under natural conditions of the tropical dry forest tree, Pithecellobium saman [El efecto de la fragmentación del bosque en la tasa de deposición de polen, competencia por el polen y relación polen-óvulo bajo condiciones naturales de árbolo del bosque seco tropical, Pithecellobium saman] / Fuchs-Castillo, Eric J; Quesada-Avendaño, Mauricio; Cascante-Marín, Alfredo M. (Universidad de Costa Rica. Escuela de Biología, San José, CR <E-mail: efuchs@cariari.ucr.ac.cr> <E-mail: mquesada@oikos.unam.mx> <E-mail: hnatural@museocostarica.go.cr>). Tropical Diversity Origins, Maintenance, and Conservation. ATB & OTS Symposium and Annual Meeting Abstracts, San José, CR, 15-20 June, 1997. San José: Organization for Tropical Studies, 1997. (Abstract only). Disruption of tree populations in natural forests is likely to affect pollination patterns and gene flow of individual trees. Little is known about the impact of fragmentation on the reproductive success of tropical trees. In this study we evaluated the effect of forest fragmentation on pollen deposition, pollen tube growth and pollen ovule ratio under natural conditions. This research was conducted in the tropical dry forests of the Pacific coast in Costa Rica. Our results indicated that the amount of pollen grains and pollen tubes found in the style are greater in trees from continuous

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populations than in isolated trees. Pollen/ovule ratio is greater than one in most flowers styles in both isolated and continuous trees. Pollen competition is more likely to occur within polyads than between polyads. Because this species is self-incompatible, stigma clogging by polyads may potentially occur in self-pollinated flowers. This study shows that the reduction of tree populations affects pollen flow patterns in P. saman. Localización: No disponible. Publicación no.: 030 Land-cover changes in a lowland tropical environment: deforestation, patterns of forest cover, and habitat fragmentation in northeastern Costa Rica [Cambios en la cobertura vegetal en un ambiente tropical de tierras bajas: deforestación, patrones de cobertura del bosque y fragmentación del hábitat en el noreste de Costa Rica] / Read, J.M; Lam, N.S.N. (Syracuse University. Maxwell School, Department of Geography, 144 Eggers Hall, Syracuse, NY 13210, US <E-mail: jaread@maxwell.syr.edu>). Tropical Diversity Origins, Maintenance, and Conservation. ATB & OTS Symposium and Annual Meeting Abstracts, San José, CR, 15-20 June, 1997. San José: Organization for Tropical Studies, 1997. (Abstract only). Changing landscape dynamics in the lowland tropics, resulting from human use of land, leads to uncertainty in rates of deforestation, patterns of forest cover, and degree of habitat fragmentation from local to global scales. These factors can affect the adequacy of areas set aside within a landscape for protection of natural resources. We studied recent changes in land-cover/land-use in the area comprising La Selva Biological Station, the northern sector of Braulio Carrillo National Park, and surrounding heavily-impacted unprotected areas in the Province of Heredia, Costa Rica. Landsat-TM imagery from 1986 and 1993, airphotos, and other secondary data were used to identify, quantify, and map land-cover changes in the study area using standard digital image processing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Changes, dominated by continued deforestation and an increase in the extent of land area in plantation agriculture, have resulted in increased landscape fragmentation. The inaccessibility of large areas of forest, combined with rapid changes in land-cover/land-use within the study area, demonstrate the utility of satellite remote sensing and GIS as conservation management tools. Localización: No disponible. Publicación no.: 031 A GIS database for conservation biology research and management in Costa Rica [Una base de datos de sistemas de información geográfica para investigación de la biología de conservación y manejo en Costa Rica] / Rich, P.M; Vieglais, D.A; Fu, P; Marshall, W; Wang, J. (The University of Kansas. GEMLab-Nichols, 2291 Irving Hill Road, Lawrence, KS 66045, US <E-mail: prich@oz.kbs.ukans.edu>). Tropical Diversity Origins, Maintenance, and Conservation. ATB & OTS Symposium and Annual Meeting Abstracts, San José, CR, 15-20 June, 1997. San José: Organization for Tropical Studies, 1997. (Abstract only). A geographical information system (GIS) database is being developed for research and management in the Brunca Region, Costa Rica, with a focus on the Organization for Tropical Studies Las Cruces Biological Station, the University of Kansas Golfito Field Station, and the Center for Conservation Biology Las Alturas Biological Station. The impetus for the project is to provide the geospatial database for a large-scale "corridor" conservation biology experiment that will test current biological theories concerning habitat fragmentation, biodiversity, and restoration ecology. The project also builds a resource of broad utility for both the research community and the local people. The project involves four components: 1) compilation and evaluation of GIS resources; 2) construction of GIS database of

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core map coverages (topography, land use and ownership, soil, roads, facilities...), forest cover, and microclimate (based on topoclimatic models); 3) analysis of patterns of deforestation to document the historical pattern of deforestation, determine the distribution and extent of remaining primary and secondary forest, and evaluate habitat conditions; and 4) establishment of an internet-based data clearinghouse - providing an on-line catalog of metadata for Costa Rica as part of the Inter-America Geospatial Data Network (IGDN). Localización: No disponible. Publicación no.: 032 Building of a remote sensing data base and a geographic information system to monitor tropical deforestation and habitat fragmentation in Costa Rica [Construcción de una base de datos de percepción remota y sistemas de información geográfica para vigilar la deforestación tropical y la fragmentación del hábitat en Costa Rica] / Sánchez-Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo; Quesada-Mateo, Carlos A; González-Quesada, P. (University of Alberta. Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E3, CA <E-mail: arturo.sanchez@ualberta.ca> <E-mail: cquesada@cariari.ucr.ac.cr> <E-mail: pablog@cariari.ucr.ac.cr>). Tropical Diversity Origins, Maintenance, and Conservation. ATB & OTS Symposium and Annual Meeting Abstracts, San José, CR, 1520 June, 1997. San José: Organization for Tropical Studies, 1997. (Abstract only). The need for an accurate and precise forest cover inventory to quantify the rate and the extent of primary forest loss in Costa Rica is becoming a matter of urgency. This paper focuses on current research efforts carry-on by the Research Center on Sustainable Development of the University of Costa Rica regarding monitoring of deforestation and ecosystem fragmentation in Costa Rica. Two main research lines are presented: 1) Efforts to quantify the extent of primary forest cover in Costa Rica, and 2) Efforts to quantify the degree of habitat fragmentation and which are those life zones more affected. The information is critical to research dealing with biodiversity conservation policies in Costa Rica. Results indicate that the extent of tropical deforestation goes beyond the estimations by Costa Rica's Ministry of Natural Resources. The impacts at the national level have deeper roots when the data indicates the nearly complete disappearance of the very-humid montane-forest, presenting the former important questions and concerns for current conservation policies. Localización: No disponible. Publicación no.: 033 The distribution and abundance of amphibians and reptiles within the fragmented landscape of Las Cruces, Costa Rica [Distribución y abundancia de anfibios y reptiles dentro de un paisaje fragmentado de Las Cruces, Costa Rica] / Schlaepfer, M.A. (Cornell University. Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Mudd Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-2702, US <E-mail: mas50@cornell.edu>). Tropical Diversity Origins, Maintenance, and Conservation. ATB & OTS Symposium and Annual Meeting Abstracts, San José, CR, 15-20 June, 1997. San José: Organization for Tropical Studies, 1997. (Abstract only). In 1996 and 1997 I surveyed amphibians and reptiles in 10 forest fragments (0.02 ha to650 ha) in the vicinity of the Las Cruces Biological Field Station, Coto Brus, Costa Rica. Fragments were surrounded by cattle pastures. I visually surveyed 15m x 15m plots during the day and at night for leaflitter frogs and semi-arboreal lizards. The abundance of frogs correlated primarily with the volume of dry leaf-litter within a plot. The abundance of the most common lizard species (Norops sp.) also correlated primarily with habitat components, such as the amount of vines within a plot, although some species (e.g. Norops polylepis) showed a positive correlation with fragment size and distance to the fragment edges. Implications for the conservation of the herpetofauna are discussed.

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Localización: No disponible. Publicación no.: 034 Cloud forest archipielagos: Preservation of frangmented montane ecosystems in tropical America [Archipiélagos de bosques nubosos: Preservación de ecosistemas montanos fragmentados en la América tropical] / Vázquez-García, J.A; Hamilton, Lawrence S (ed.); Juvik, J.O (ed.); Scatena, Frederick N (ed.). (<E-mail: hamiltonx2@mindspring.com> ). En: Tropical montane cloud forests New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc, 1995. p. 315-332. ISBN: 0387-94323-4. The uniqueness of and relationships among tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) in tropical America discussed here at three different scales should have direct implications in defining priorities and strategies for conservation within the context of island biogeography. I emphasize the importance of establishing regional, provincial, and local archipielago preserves as an approach that can best represent the natural distribution and heterogeneity of TMCFs in northern neotropics. However, further analytical work is recommended to refine our understanding of endemism and relationships among neotropical TMCFs, especially at the local and provincial scale. In addition, the geographical fragmentation and inherent biological interest of TMCFs make them idially suited to conduct relevant evolutionary and biogeographical research. In the meantime, these ecosystems deserve an inmediate but effective protection. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S3085. 574.52642 T856. Publicación no.: 035 Uncertain conservation status of squirrel monkeys in Costa Rica, Saimiri oerstedii oerstedii and Saimiri oerstedii citrinellus [Estado de conservación incierto de los monos tití en Costa Rica, Saimiri oerstedii oerstedii y Saimiri oerstedii citrinellus] / Boinski, Sue; Sirot, L. (University of Florida. Department of Anthropology, 1350 Turlington, Gainesville, FL 32611, US <E-mail: boinski@ufl.edu>). En: Folia Primatologica (ISSN 0015-5713), v. 68, p. 181-193. 1997. Central American squirrel monkeys, Saimiri oerstedii, have never been abundant. This species is apparently extinct in Panama and nearly so in Costa Rica. Less than 4,000 are estimated to survive in Costa Rica. In recent years only a limited number of squirrel monkey troops have been documented outside of two Costa Rica national parks, Parques Nacionales Corcovado and Manuel Antonio. Numerous factors contribute to a pessimistic prognosis for this species, most importantly, the continued deforestation and tourist development with concomitant demands on prime squirrel monkey habitat from hotels, restaurants, roads, and vacation villas in the Pacific Wet Lowland habitat of squirrel monkey. We also highlight features of the natural history of this species most relevant to conservation efforts with the goal of enhancing the success of surveys and maintenance and breeding of captive groups. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S3216. Publicación no.: 036 Monteverde-Gulf of Nicoya biological corridor: Costa Rica [Corredor biológico Monteverde-Golfo de Nicoya: Costa Rica] (Tropical Science Center, P.O. Box 8-3870, 1000 San José, CR)./ Tropical Science Center. USIJI Project Proposal, San José, CR. San José: Tropical Science Center, 1995. 15 p. The proposed project is one of carbon sequestration. The main objectives of the Biological Corridor include: 1) long-term conservation of the Arenal-Monteverde protected area, 2) forest management and regeneration, reforestation and sustainable agriculture, 3) improvement of productivity and reduction

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of erosion on remaining agricultural land, 4) improvement of the socioeconomic and educational status of the residents of the corridor area, 5) empowerment of local organizations and women's groups, 6) further development of low-impact ecotourism. To accomplish these goals this project will establish a biological corridor on the Pacific watershed, between the complex of protected areas of Monteverde and the Gulf of Nicoya in Northwestern Costa Rica. The corridor encompasses morte than 16,000 hectares and contains four ecological life zones and one transitional life zone. Implementation of the Monteverde-Gulf of Nicoya Biological Corridor Project will be carried out in three gegraphically-oriented phases. Phase I corresponds to the area between the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve and the lower part of the San Luis Biological Station, where the Amapala and Guacimal Rivers join. Phase II consists of the area between the limits of Phase I and the Iter-American Highway. Phase III is located between the Inter-American Highway and the Gulf of Nicoya. Localización: Biblioteca Centro Científico Tropical: MONTE 3. Publicación no.: 037 Carbon sequestration by life zone associations in the Monteverde Biological Corridor [Almacenamiento de carbono por asociaciones de zonas de vida en el Corredor Biológico de Monteverde] / Tosi-Olin, Joseph A., Jr. (Tropical Science Center, P.O. Box 8-3870, 1000 San José, CR <Email: jtosi@cct.or.cr>). En: Tropical Science Center. Monteverde-Gulf of Nicoya biological corridor: Costa Rica (USIJI Project Proposal) San José: Tropical Science Center, 1995. p. (s.p.). Estimated cost and carbon benefits have been calculated for lease and acquisition of land for the purpose of forest preservation or regeneration of natural forests on degraded land, as well as operational and maintenance cost of those lands. Cost for the agroforestry, environmental education, community development and ecotourism development of Phase I are not included in the carbon offset portion of the project. Three scenarios are presented. In Scenario 1, 50% of the land is leased and 50% is purchased or under conservation easements. In Scenario 2, 100% of the land is purchased. Scenario 3 contemplates purchasing only 25% of the land. Localización: Biblioteca Centro Científico Tropical: MONTE 3. Publicación no.: 038 Establishment of a biological corridor between the Arenal-Monteverde protected area and the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica [Establecimiento de un corredor biológico entre el área protegida Arenal-Monteverde y el Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica] (Tropical Science Center, P.O. Box 8-3870, 1000 San José, CR)./ TSC/MCS/SLDA/ACA, San José, CR. En: Tropical Science Center. Monteverde-Gulf of Nicoya biological corridor: Costa Rica (USIJI Project Proposal) San José: Tropical Science Center, 1995. p. 1-25. The complex of protected areas in the Arenal-Monteverde Protected Area, located in the Tilarán Mountain Range, covers an extensive area of forest and includes an important variety of habitats. This complex is composed of the Monteverde Cloud Forest Biological Preserve, the Children's International Rainforest, Eternal Forest, S.A., the Manuel Alberto Brenes Biological Reserve and Arenal National Park. The first three of these areas are privately owned, and the latter two are under government jurisdiction. All of the territory in this complex is above 80 m of elevation. Because many species migrate seasonally, they depend on lower-altitude forest fragments as well as the Arenal-Monteverde reserves. Given the lack of economic options for local residents, these lower-altitude areas have been deforested rapidly for agricultural purposes, cattle production and others, even when conditions are unfavorable due to steep terrain or poor soil quality. Deforestation threatens the Arenal watershed, where Costa Rica's largest

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hydroelectric plants are located, while agricultural and pasture production does not reach maximum potential because of soil degradation resulting from he disappearance of forests. Many conservationists and development agents working in the Monteverde area have concluded that the best solution to ecological problems that affect both wildlife and local residents would be the establishment of a biological corridor. The proposed biological corridor is located on the Pacific watershed between the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve and the Gulf of Nicoya in Nortwestern Costa Rica (aprox. 16,000 ha). More specifically, the Corridor limits to NE with the complex of protected areas in the ArenalMonteverde Protected Zone, composed of the Monteverde Cloud Forest Biological Preserve (MVCFP, owned and administered by TSC), The Children's International Rainforest, Eternal Forest S.A., The Manuel Alberto Brenes Biological Reserve and the Arenal National Park. To the SW it limits with the Pacific Ocean. The Corridor would serve to protec and regenerate remnant forests, while also providing tangible benefits for individuals in the community. The main objectives of the Biological Corridor Project are: 1. Long-term conservation of the Arenal-Monteverde protected area. 2. Forest management and regeneration, reforestation and sustainable agriculture. 3. Community development, including formation of grassroots groups, development groups and women's groups. 4. Improvement of the socioeconomic and educational status of the residents of the Corridor area. 5. Scientific research. 6. Further development of ecotourism designed for maximum benefit to local residents and minimal environmental impact. Localización: Biblioteca Centro Científico Tropical: MONTE 3. Publicación no.: 039 Survival of migrant tropical butterflies in fragmented forests [Supervivencia de mariposas tropicales migrantes en bosques fragmentados] / Haber, William A; Stevenson, R.D. (Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166, US <Fax: (506)645-5042> <E-mail: whaber@sol.racsa.co.cr> <E-mail: robert.stevenson@umb.edu>). Monteverde, 1994. 16 p. Migration is a widely recognized but poorly understood phenomenon in the tropics. Species that migrate need special consideration when developing conservation plans because they depend on at least two seasonal habitats and they may rely on resources at stopover sites along the migration path. Haber (1993) has documented the east-west migration of butterflies near Monteverde, Costa Rica. A surprisingly large fraction, approximately 80% (260 species), of the extant Pacific slope and lowland fauna move seasonally to the Atlantic side. Standardized sampling procedures will quantify the magnitude, direction and temporal components of migrants in the Monteverde region. Changes in population levels and local resources of six focal species will be studied along the entire migration route. A comparison of life-history, morphological, and physiological traits will be used to rank habitat specialization and the migration capability of species. Comparisons will also be made between migrants and residents of the dry forest to examine their relative sensitivities to habitat fragmentation. A broad geographic perspective on butterfly migration will be provided by surveys in other parts of Costa Rica. Together, these studies will advance the conservation of tropical invertebrates and increase our ability to identify the unique resource needs of migrant species. Localización: Biblioteca OET: DOC 4507. Biblioteca Centro Científico Tropical: AP3.106. Publicación no.: 040 Assessing land use/cover change in Costa Rica [Evaluación del cambio en el uso de la tierra/cobertura vegetal en Costa Rica] / Sánchez-Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo. (University of Alberta. Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E3, CA <E-mail: arturo.sanchez@ualberta.ca>). Ciudad Universitaria Rodrigo Facio: Universidad de Costa Rica / Centro

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de Investigaciones en Desarrollo Sostenible, 1996. 180 p. (Documento CIEDES; no. 1-97). Dissertation, Ph.D. in Earth Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (USA). The need for accurate estimates of forest cover and forest fragmentation is a critical issue for developing countries such as Costa Rica. Accurate estimates of forest cover can help in several sectors related to the environment and economic development. This dissertation focuses on providing an accurate and precise estimate of forest cover in Costa Rica. The year 1991 was use as a baseline. Landsat Thematic Mapper was the remote sensing sensor used in this analysis. This dissertation concludes that: (1) Twenty-nine percent (¸1,400,000 ha) of the country was under primary forest (80% canopy closure) in 1991. Of the total forest cover, 71% is outside national parks and 29% is protected by the national parks. (2) Forest loss (for scene path 15/row 53) during five years period (1986-1991) was 224,970 ha, and it was estimated that the rate was ¸44,994 ha/yr. (3) Deforestation produced an increase in island fragments during the study period. Between 1986 986 and 1991, the total number of islands between three and 50 ha and 100 ha increased by 524 and 45, respectively. Fifteen new islands with areas greater than 500 ha were created. (4) Results suggest that the extent of tropical deforestation go beyond estimations of total forest loss at the national level. The impacts at the national level have greater roots deeper roots when the data at the life zone level is considered. The results have important implication for biodiversity conservation and restoration, water resource management and climate change. The issue of partial sampling of remote sensing data base was also explored through this dissertation. Partial sampling is important for the definition of sound deforestation monitoring systems in tropical environments. A data set from the Brazilian Amazon was analyzed in order to understand how stratified sampling, using persistence, would improve estimates of tropical deforestation over random sampling. Results show that stratification based on persistence contributes to the reduction of error, regarding estimates of total deforestation, when contrasted against random sampling without stratification (FAO methodology). Results are important to future monitoring programs in Costa Rica and the Central American region. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-5762. Publicación no.: 041 The Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve Chapter [Capítulo de la Reserva de Bosque Nuboso Monteverde] / Chamberlain-Gallegos, Francisco. (Apartado 7572, 1000 San José, CR <E-mail: fchamber@expeditions.co.cr>). Lead First International Session, Cohort II (1993-1995), San José CRJune 10-21, 1993. En: Leadership for Environment and Development Program. The Costa Rica case study San José: Tropical Science Center, 1993. 30 p. A brief description of the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve, Costa Rica, and the history of its development, together with the presentation of a series of conflicts between human traditional production activities and the conservation of the natural resources of the area are stated in the document. Proposed actions to developa biological corridor, a buffer zone and a sustainable development project in Monteverde are presented. A brief presentation of the author's point of view toward the need to reorganize the administration of conservation organizations in a country that is well known for it's conservation efforts, but in the need for an efficient system that can better utilize the scarce resources available for conservation purposes. Localización: No disponible.

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Publicación no.: 042 Informe sobre el mapa de capacidad de uso de la tierra en el área del propuesto Corredor Biológico de la Reserva Biológica Bosque Nuboso Monteverde / Bolaños-Montero, Rafael A; Aspinall-Murray, William (ed.). (Tropical Science Center, P.O. Box 8-3870, 1000 San José, CR). En: Performance report on Costa Rica ecological tourism project No. 940-0002.90 San José: Tropical Science Center, 1993. s.p. En el presente informe se indica la metodología aplicada y los principales resultados, obtenidos del mapa de capacidad de uso de la tierra, para el área de la primera fase del Corredor Biológico de la Reserva Bosque Nuboso Monteverde, Costa Rica. Asimismo, se dan algunas conclusiones y recomendaciones derivadas de este estudio. También se aprovechó el trabajo de campo para considerar y recomendar la posibilidad o no, de establecer o desalentar el uso de senderos dentro del Corredor Biológico. El presente mapa, elaborado a una escala de 1:50 000, fue llevado a cabo durante el mes de junio de 1992 en un área de 8 767,8 ha. Este trabajo, financiado con fondos de una donación hecha a la Reserva Bosque Nuboso Monteverde, por la USAID en Washington, forma parte de los estudios básicos requeridos para la planificación y desarrollo de este proyecto del Corredor Biológico. Localización: Biblioteca Centro Científico Tropical: AP3.62. Publicación no.: 043 Community structure and species density in tropical dry forest associations at Hacienda La Pacífica in Guanacaste province, Costa Rica [Estructura de la comunidad y densidad de especies en asociaciones de bosque tropical seco en la Hacienda La Pacífica en la provincia de Guanacaste, Costa Rica] / Glander, Kenneth E; Nisbett, R.A. (Duke University. Duke University Primate Center, 3705-B Erwin Rd, Durham, N.C. 27706, US <E-mail: glander@duke.edu>). En: Brenesia (ISSN 0304-3711), no. 45-46, p. 113-142. 1996. The fragmented tropical dry forests of Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica, exhibit a mosaic character. At Hacienda La Pacífica, two riparian forests and an upland forest island were studied. Marked differences in the family and species composition as well as the species density among communities were found. The west riparian forest contained 103 species with a mean species density of 0.344 per 0.1 ha. The three most important species by ranked density were: Guazuma ulmifolia, Lonchocarpus minimiflorus, and Anacardium excelsum. The upland forest island had 91 species with a mean species density of 1.231 per 0.1 ha. The three most important species by ranked density were: Lonchocarpus minimiflorus, Cordia alliodora, and Guazuma ulmifolia. The east riparian forest had 103 species with a mean density of 0.504 per 0.1 ha. Based upon ranked density, the three most important species were mostly canopy species exhibiting alluvial habits and large size while the upland forest trees were treelet, understory, or subcanopy species exhibiting open country or plateau/flatlands habits. Additional large-crowned emergents such as Andira inermis, Hymenaea courbaril, Manilkara chicle, Pithecellobium sp. and Swietenia macrophylla were found in the gallery forests. Other common species in the upland forest included: Albizia sp., Casearia sp., Cassia emarginata, Lysiloma divaricatum, Tabebuia sp. and Tectona grandis. These associations are comparable to those studied at similar alluvial and extremely dry sites within a 50 km radius of Cañas in Guanacaste Province. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S6979. Publicación no.: 044 Dispersal and the scale of fragmentation in tropical tree populations [La dispersión y la magnitud de la fragmentación en las poblaciones de árboles tropicales] / Aldrich, Preston Rice. (University of Georgia. Botany Department, Athens, GA 30602, US <E-mail:

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paldrich@dogwood.botany.uga.edu>). Athens: University of Georgia, 1997. 93 p. Dissertation, Ph.D, University of Georgia, Botany Department, Athens, GA (USA). Tropical regions are increasingly dominated by mosaics of forest remnants and human-dominated matrices. The impact this has on the population ecology and population genetics of tropical trees is poorly understood at this time. Over the past two decades, allozyme research has begun to unveil the genetic dynamics of tree populations in continuous tropical forest. Similarly, traditional demographic studies have revealed much about ecological processes in continuous forest. Recently, the advent of a new class of genetic marker, hypervariable simple sequence repeats or microsatellites, permits the exploration of a new frontier in tropical tree biology. This includes traditional pursuits of population genetic and demographic concerns, but also a unique combination of the two disciplines. Population genealogies can be reconstructed and used to ascertain habitat-specific patterns of fecundity and survivorship which can be linked to genetic processes to gain detailed insights regarding landscape-level responses of tree populations to forest fragmentation. These data and procedures should prove valuable for landscape management purposes, such as the design of nature reserves, and the enhancement of our basic understanding of biotic interactions in complex environments. Localización: Biblioteca OET: Tesis 251. Publicación no.: 045 Evaluación ecológica rápida. Península de Osa. Costa Rica / Soto-Soto, Ricardo. (Universidad de Costa Rica. Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia (CIMAR), San Pedro de Montes de Oca, CR <E-mail: rsotos@cariari.ucr.ac.cr>). San José: Fundación Neotrópica, 1992. 252 p. A strategy for developing an environmental monitoring program for the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica, is presented. The monitoring program is based on our current understanding of the environmental threats facing the three major ecosystems: tropical rain forest, freshwater rivers, and the marine environment. A major threat to the Peninsula is loss of primary forest due to conversion to other land uses. A monitoring program using permanent sampling stations is proposed. The marine environment is being threatened by sedimentation and over fishing. A monitoring program of permanent transects on selected offshore reefs and an annual survey of fish abundance is proposed. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 390. Biblioteca Luis D. Tinoco: 333.72 E92e. Publicación no.: 046 Percepción de los recursos naturales y de la actividad turística en el distrito de Cóbano, Puntarenas, Costa Rica / Romero-Ramírez, Sergio. San José: Universidad de Costa Rica, 1997. 192 p. Tesis, Licenciatura en Geografía, Universidad de Costa Rica, Escuela de Historia y Geografía, San José (Costa Rica). El presente estudio, que ahonda en los paradigmas de la geografía de la percepción, tuvo como objetivo conocer la percepción de los pobladores del distrito de Cóbano, provincia de Puntarenas, Costa Rica, sobre algunos recursos naturales, tales como suelo, uso de la tierra y paisaje. Se analiza también la percepción sobre la actividad turística en la zona, sus impactos, tanto positivos como negativos, y sobre la Reserva Natural Absoluta Cabo Blanco, emplazada en el extremo sur de la península de Nicoya. Para alcanzar dichos objetivos se llevó a cabo un muestreo intencional de 112 casos (3,56% de la población distrital), durante el mes de febrero de 1995. Los resultados evidenciaron, entre otros aspectos, que no existe una configuración espacial adecuada, por parte de la población estudiada, sobre los atractivos turísticos regionales. A su vez, entre los principales impactos positivos percibidos destacaron la generación de empleo, las mejoras en la electricidad y en el transporte. Los impactos negativos percibidos más importantes fueron el consumo de drogas, la pérdida de valores morales y de

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costumbres y tradiciones y la prostitución. Desde el punto de vista espacial, los pobladores de la zona de estudio perciben algunos sitios como de mayor interés turístico, como aquellos localizados en la zona costera, como Montezuma y Malpaís. Los poblados del interior del distrito no se visualizan como poseedores de atractivos turísticos. La Reserva Natural Absoluta Cabo Blanco obtuvo la cuarta posición como atractivo, además de que los pobladores desconocían los programas de extensión comunal de la misma, aunque percibieron que su existencia era importante para el desarrollo de la región. El estudio demostró que a mayor cercanía de la RNACB mayor concientización sobre su existencia, en tanto que a mayor lejanía el conocimiento de los pobladores era mínimo. La escasa participación de los pobladores de la región para ser absorbidos por la industria turística se expresa en los bajos índices de escolaridad. Los programas desarrollados pr las instituciones estatales no satisfacen las expectativas locales de una mayor calificación para desempeñarse en el sector turístico. Una conclusión trascendente del estudio es que se recomienda la creación de un corredor biológico, que una propiedades privadas con propiedades estatales, bajo medidas de manejo de la vida silvestre adaptadas a las necesidades de las poblaciones locales. Localización: Biblioteca Luis D. Tinoco: Tesis 7146. Publicación no.: 047 Uso de la tierra y fragmentación de bosques. Algunas áreas críticas en el Area de Conservación Osa, Costa Rica / Maldonado-Ulloa, Tirso. (Fundación Neotrópica. Centro de Estudios Ambientales y Políticas, Apdo. 236-10002, San José, CR <E-mail: fneotrop@racsa.co.cr>). Simposio Conservación del Bosque en Costa Rica. Memorias, Heredia CR30-31 Oct. 1997. En: Academia Nacional de Ciencias; Programa Centroamericano de Población (eds.). Conservación del Bosque en Costa Rica San José: Academia Nacional de Ciencias, 1998. p. 28-49. ISBN: 9968-9845-1-5. Este estudio sobre la Península de Osa y algunas áreas críticas, pone énfasis en el uso de la tierra, y en algunas tendencias que se empiezan a manifestar con respecto a la capacidad de uso de esas tierras. La fragmentación de los bosques y la eliminación del bosque es uno de los aspectos más preocupantes. Los mapas aquí presentados dan una visión integrada de lo que está ocurriendo. Lo que pasa en la Península de Osa es un caso de lo que ocurre con los bosques lluviosos tropicales en otras partes del mundo. Localización: Biblioteca OET: 333.7516 C755c. Publicación no.: 048 Fragmentos de bosque y corredores biológicos / Fournier-Origgi, Luis Alberto. (Universidad de Costa Rica. Escuela de Biología, San José, CR). Simposio Conservación del Bosque en Costa Rica. Memorias, Heredia CR30-31 Oct. 1997. En: Conservación del Bosque en Costa Rica. San José: Academia Nacional de Ciencias, 1998, p. 117-130. ISBN: 9968-9845-1-5. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-1987.pdf El propósito de este trabajo es el de analizar la importancia y las limitaciones ecológicas de los fragmentos de bosque, como partes de un sistema de áreas naturales, que en su mayoría están unidos por corredores biológicos o por la acción de agentes polinizadores y de dispersión. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-1987. 333.7516 C755c. Publicación no.: 049 Reproductive dominance of pasture trees in a fragmented tropical forest mosaic [Dominancia reproductiva de árboles de potreros en un mosaico tropical de bosque fragmentado] / Aldrich, Preston Rice; Hamrick, James L. (University of Georgia. Department of Botany, Athens, GA 30602, US <E-mail: aldrich.preston@nmnh.si.edu> <E-mail: hamrick@dogwood.botany.uga.edu>).

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En: Science (ISSN 0036-8075), v. 281, p. 103-105. 1998. Tropical forest fragmentation threatens biodiversity, yet basic information on population responses for mejor groups such as plants is lacking. Hypervariable genetic markers were used to reconstruct a population-level pedigree in fragmented tropical forest for the tree Symphonia globlulifera. Though seedlings occurred only in remnant forest, the pedigree showed that most seedlings had been produced by sequentially fewer adults in pasture, creating a genetic botteneck. The pedigree also implicated shifts in the foraging of animals that disperse pollen and seed in a secondary constriction of the bottleneck. These results suggest that tropical conservation strategies should anticipate complex, cryptic responses to fragmentation. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S3604. NBINA-1937. Publicación no.: 050 Deciphering landscape mosaics of neotropical trees: GIS and systematic sampling provide new views of tropical rainforest diversity [Descifrando los mosaicos del paisaje de árboles neotropicales: Los sistemas de información geográfica y el muestreo sistemático proporcionan nuevos puntos de vista de la diversidad de la selva tropical] / Clark, Deborah A. (Organization for Tropical Studies. La Selva Biological Station, Apdo 676, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 2050, CR <E-mail: daclark@sloth.ots.ac.cr>). En: Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden (ISSN 0026-6493), v. 85, no. 1, p. 18-33. 1998. How are tree species within tropical rainforests distributed at the landscape scale? One research site, the La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica, offers exceptional tools for addressing this question: a documented flora, soil and topographic maps, a reserve-wide grid, and a Geographical Information System (GIS). My colleagues and I have combined these tools with highly replicated systematic sampling over 600 ha of old growth to investigate patterns of forest composition within this lowland tropical wet forest. This approach has revealed features of within-forest heterogeneity in density of the guild of subcanopy and canopy palms between flat terrain and increasingly steep topography; evidence of human harvesting of one palm species from old-growth forest; and evidence suggesting indigenous human activity deep within the reserve (the co-occurrence of a previously unrecognized zone of aluvial soil, buried charcoal, and an avocado tree). These studies have also added 15 tree species to the known flora of this intensively researched forest. Although La Selva's support for such landscape-scale studies is exceptional, even in remote tropical forests it is now possible to systematically sample and georeference information on site variation and species distributions using newly available Global Positioning Systems. Findings can then be cross-referenced with current and future site data, using a GIS. Although such efforts, especially the development of a GIS, require considerable investments of time and expertise, the payoff can be a more robust understanding of the distribution of tree diversity and species abundances over tropical rainforest landscapes. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S3609. NBINA-1897. LC. Publicación no.: 051 Conservation biology of the genus Alouatta [Biología de la conservación del género Alouatta] / Crockett, C.M. (University of Washington. Regional Primate Research Center, Box 357330, Seattle, WA 98195, US <E-mail: crockett@u.washington.edu>). En: International Journal of Primatology (ISSN 0164-0291), v. 19, no. 3, p. 549-578. 1998. As assessed by the IUCN Mace-Lande system, seven (35%) of the 20 Alouatta species and subspecies with adequate data are classified as "threatened," i.e., critically endangered, endangered, or vulnerable (Rylands et al., 1995). This percentage is much lower than the 75 to 100% threatened taxa for, the other

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large-bodied genera: Ateles, Lagothrix, and Brachyteles. Only 5 of the 16 Neotropical genera have lower percentages of threatened taxa than that of Alouatta: Cebuella, Pithecia, Saguinus, Saimiri, and Cebus. The threatened howler taxa occupy small distributions in areas of forest fragmentation. In general, populations are most affected by major habitat disturbance, such as total deforestation and flooding from dam construction, and by human hunters. Facilitated by their ability to exploit folivorous diets in small home ranges, howlers can tolerate considerable habitat fragmentation but not the increased exposure to hunting that may accompany it. Howlers seem particularly vulnerable to yellow fever and bot fly parasitism. Although the former threat may decrease by increasing fragmentation of the habitat, other sorts of parasitism may increase in disturbed habitats. The low genetic variability of the Central American howlers suggests a resistance to inbreeding depression potentially experienced during population bottlenecks. Greater between-population variability may still exist. Although howlers are not readily bred in captivity, they respond well to translocation. Translocation has been successfully achieved for greater than or equal to 4 howler species and is a viable option for introducing new genetic variability into population fragments and repopulating areas from which howlers are extinct. Their pattern of bisexual dispersal facilitates colonization of regenerating habitats, and in suitable, protected habitats they have shown the capacity for strong population recovery. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S3854. Publicación no.: 052 Elaboración de una propuesta de corredores biológicos mediante el uso de un sistema de información geográfica / Murillo-Rodríguez, Luis Fernando. (<E-mail: lmurillo@cct.or.cr> ). Tercer Congreso Forestal Nacional: Unidos por el Desarrollo del Recurso Forestal: Ante el Próximo Milenio: resúmenes de ponencias, San José, CR, 27-29 Ago. 1997. San José: Impresos Belén, p. 291-294. ISBN: 9977-50-026-6. Localización: Biblioteca Conmemorativa Orton: 634.9097286063 C749 1997. Publicación no.: 053 Diagnóstico de prefactibilidad corredor biológico Talamanca-Caribe, Talamanca, Costa Rica; documento técnico / Bustillo, R; Alfaro-Fernández, Juan Diego; Tenorio-Alfaro, L.A; AguilarAlfaro, G; García, G; Salas, C; Venegas, B. (<E-mail: galagui@racsa.co.cr> ). The Nature Conservancy: San José, 1992. 114 p. El diagnóstico de prefactibilidad del corredor biológico Talamanca-Caribe establece como propósito realizar estudios biofísicos y socioeconómicos para sugerir un plan de manejo integral del corredor propuesto, que sirva de conexión entre el Parque Internacional La Amistad en Costa Rica y las áreas protegidas críticas del Caribe tanto en Costa Rica como en Panamá. Asimismo, de consolidar los esfuerzos desplegados por grupos privados y/o comunitarios, e indígenas para recuperar o destinar terrenos para efectos de conservación y desarrollo sostenible. El presente documento plantea un estudio técnico en aspectos tales como: tenencia de la tierra, geografía, biología, geomorfología y aspectos socioculturales. Pretende iniciar una discusión amplia y participativa de todos los sectores en la zona. Localización: Biblioteca Conmemorativa Orton: 333.95097286 D536. Publicación no.: 054 Biodiversity protection and investment needs for the Minimun Conservation System in Costa Rica, San José, 1992. [Protección de la biodiversidad y necesidades de inversión para el Sistema de Conservación mínima en Costa Rica, San José, 1992] 114 p.

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Se presenta un estudio que tuvo por objetivo determinar si el Sistema de Parques Nacionales y Áreas Protegidas contiene ecosistemas viables y representativos y si estos se encuentran protegidos de forma adecuada. El documento describe la metodología de estudio, evaluación de la biodiversidad existente en Costa Rica con referencia a los principales ecosistemas. Se enfocan aspectos institucionales y se conceptualiza el Sistema de Conservación Mínima (MICOSYS) y se definen los perfiles de dicho sistema, donde se destacan la zona de amortiguamiento, los corredores biológicos y un sistema de conservación mínima para Costa Rica. Se analiza el valor económico de los recursos bajo conservación y alternativas de financiamiento. En la segunda parte del trabajo se presentan anexos sobre programas de evaluación de áreas protegidas, mapas de parques nacionales de Costa Rica y el Servicio de Parques Nacionales. Localización: Biblioteca Conmemorativa Orton: 333.95097286 B615. Publicación no.: 055 The Mesoamerican Biological Corridor: legal framework for an integrated system of protected areas [El Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano: sistema legal para un sistema integrado de áreas protegidas] / Ankersen, Thomas T; Hamann, R.G; Bissonette, J.A (ed.); Krausman, P.R (ed.). (University of Florida. College of Law, Center for Governmental Responsibility, 230 Bruton Geer, Gainesville, FL 32605-7629, US <E-mail: ankersen@law.ufl.edu> <E-mail: hamann@law.ufl.edu>). International Wildlife Management Congress, San José CR19-25 Set 1993. En: Integrating people and wildlife for a sustainable future Bethesda, MD: Wildlife Society, 1995. p. 332335. ISBN: 0-933564-12-0. Attention has focused on the prospect of establishing a regional institutional framework to protect and restore a contiguous remnant of the "Mesoamerican Biological Corridor", as an integrated regional system of protected areas. No model of multilateral cooperation in natural resource management on the scale required to achieve the creation of a multinational biological corridor presently exists. Although several options for a legal framework for an integrated protected area system exist, the adoption of an integrated protected areas protocol to the existing regional biodiversity convention appears best suited to the objective of establishing an effective Mesoamerican biological corridor. Localización: Biblioteca OET: 333.9515 I61. Publicación no.: 056 Metodología para la interpretación de Caño Chiquero y del Sendero Natural "La Ceiba" (perteneciente al Corredor Biológico del Parque Nacional Tortuguero de Costa Rica) para uso ecoturístico / Fariñas-Velázquez, L.E. Mercedes de Guácimo: Escuela de Agricultura de la Región Tropical Húmeda, 1995. 62 p. Tesis, Licenciatura en Ingeniería Agronómica, Escuela de Agricultura de la Región Tropical Húmeda, Mercedes de Guácimo (Costa Rica). El Parque Nacional Tortuguero se encuentra en una región que geográficamente se podría considerar como tierras bajas del Caribe de Costa Rica. El objetivo de este proyecto es la interpretación turística de un Caño y un Sendero Natural que pertenecen al "Corredor Biológico" de este importante Parque Nacional. El corredor está bajo la responsabilidad de la Fundación Neotrópica actualmente, pero prontamente pasará a manos del Estado, para que éste continúe garantizando la conservación de la biodiversidad de estas áreas y agregue a las mismas una importancia económica a través del ecoturismo. El corredor biológico permite conectar las 9000 ha que conforman el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Barra del Colorado, con las 18700 ha del Parque Nacional Tortuguero, mediante una franja de 35 km de largo y 10 km de ancho. El corredor pretende contribuir a la protección del bosque tropical húmedo de la región norte del Caribe del país. Se cuenta así, con 7000 ha que hacen realidad este puente biológico, que protege cerca de una tercera parte de las especies declaradas en vías de

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extinción, en Costa Rica. Las ganancias generadas por las áreas protegidas como atracción turística en América Latina y el Caribe son consideradas esenciales para el bienestar económico de muchos países. Aunque las ganancias que deja el turismo no son la única solución para los males económicos de las áreas protegidas, el turismo nunca desaparecerá y continuará aportando una importante fuente de ingresos debido al número creciente de turistas que busca relajamiento, aventuras y realización espiritual en las áreas silvestres, en contacto directo con la naturaleza. Si se desarrolla con cierta sensibilidad ecológica y cultural, el turismo puede contribuir a las economías, tanto de las áreas protegidas, como de las comunidades vecinas. La interpretación turística ambiental involucra la traducción del lenguaje técnico de una ciencia natural o área relacionada, a términos de ideas que los turistas en general, que no son científicos, puedan entender fácilmente. Esto implica utilizar un lenguaje que sea entretenido e interesante para ellos, al mismo tiempo que estimule a una conciencia conservacionista. La primera etapa del proyecto, es la que se presenta en este documento. Constituye la investigación de campo, de identificación de las especies de flora y fauna más comunes e interesantes de la zona a la cual pertenecen el Caño y el Sendero Natural. Además, de la posterior investigación sobre la importancia de estas especies en su medio, y un poco de su historia natural. La información que se logró recolectar en esta etapa será utilizada para elaborar una guía turística sobre el Caño y el Sendero en estudio. El valor que una guía turística le agrega a un recorrido es amplio y significativo, ya que, una persona estará más dispuesta a pagar por visitar un Caño que sabe que ha sido correctamente interpretado, que pagar la misma o similar cantidad de dinero por ir acompañado de un guía de la comunidad o de afuera, que no le brinda esa seguridad o garantía. Además, la compra misma del guía representa un aporte que este mismo turista está haciendo para la superación de la comunidad y por la preservación de los recursos naturales pertenecientes al corredor biológico del Parque Nacional Tortuguero. Las ganancias generadas de la venta de esta guía serán distribuidas entre la gente de la comunidad, que se espera que participen activamente dentro de las siguientes etapas del proyecto, además de que se espera beneficiar a Parques Nacionales (PACTo). En este documento se presenta detalladamente la metodología diseñada para lograr los objetivos de esta primera etapa del proyecto. Como resultado de la investigación se identificaron más de 85 especies de flora y fauna, de las cuales en su mayoría se ha recopilado información bibliográfica y datos interesantes en cuanto a usos potenciales e historia natural. De modo que, se puede considerar que los resultados finales del trabajo de investigación de campo y bibliográfico son bastante completos y demuestran la riqueza de la flora y fauna más común e interesante de Caño Chiquero y del Sendero Natural La Ceiba. Este potencial aumenta el atractivo turístico de la zona en estudio y garantiza el éxito de la misma en este sentido, en un futuro cercano. Localización: Biblioteca Conmemorativa Orton: Thesis F227m. Publicación no.: 057 Temporal variation in the breeding structure of fragmented Enterolobium cyclocarpum [Variación temporal en la estructura reproductiva de Enterolobium cyclocarpum en bosques fragmentados] / Hamrick, James L; Aldrich, Preston Rice. (University of Georgia. Botany Department, Athens, GA 30602, US <E-mail: hamrick@dogwood.botany.uga.edu> <E-mail: paldrich@dogwood.botany.uga.edu>). The Association for Tropical Biology & Annual Meeting of the American Institute of Biological Sciences. Abstracts, Baltimore, MD, US, August 2-6, 1998. Baltimore, MD: ATB/AIBS, p. 13. (Abstract only). Seeds within fruits of many mimosoid legumes are usually the progeny of a single pollen donor (i.e. full sibs). Multilocus allozyme analyses of such full-sib progeny arrays allow the identification

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of the pollen donor's multilocus genotype. The analysis of several pods per tree provides a means of estimating the number of pollen donors contributing to the fruit crop of each maternal individual. Fragment populations of Enterolobium cyclocarpum located in NW Costa Rica were analyzed for 13 polymorphic allozyme loci to determine the number of pollen donors per tree, rates of gene flow into the fragments, and spatial areas from which pollen was contributed to each fragment. Trees within fragments separated by a few kilometers had different pools of pollen donors but some pollen donors were shared. Significant heterogeneity in pollen donor pools was also observed among trees within fragments and among years. Trees producing substantial seed crops in generally poor fruiting years had fewer pollen donors than the same trees had in good fruiting years. Localización: Este es el resumen completo. Publicación no.: 058 Genetic consequences of fragmentation in a Costa Rican dry forest tree species [Consecuencias genéticas de la fragmentación de árboles costarricenses del bosque seco] / Apsit, Victoria Joan; Hamrick, James L; Nason, J.D. (University of Missouri-St. Louis. Department of Biology, 8001 Natural Bridge Rd, St. Louis, MO 63121-4499, US <E-mail: hamrick@dogwood.botany.uga.edu> <E-mail: jnason@iastate.edu>). The Association for Tropical Biology & Annual Meeting of the American Institute of Biological Sciences. Abstracts, Baltimore, MD, US, August 2-6, 1998, p. 15. (Abstract only). The reproductive dynamics of small, remnant populations left in the aftermath of land development are likely to differ from those of large, continuous populations. Comparisons of population parameters such as genetic diversity and structure, as well as pollen flow, between populations of adults established prior to fragmentation and their post-fragmentation progeny make it possible to examine the effects of disturbance on the current reproductive dynamics of individuals established when landscapes were different. We employee allozyme markers to examine these effects over two reproductive episodes in remnant populations (N = 335) of Enterolobium cyclocarpum, a dominant tree species commonly found throughout highly disturbed areas of Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica. Moreover, direct estimates of effective population sizes and rates of pollen immigration allowed predictions of the effects of genetic drift and inbreeding on the genetic composition of future generations of these fragment populations. Comparisons of the genetic structure of adult populations (Gst = 0.058) to pollen gametes in 1994 and 1995 (Gst = 0.053 and 0.115), respectively) suggest an increased genetic differentiation of pollen gametes compared to adults in 1995. Pollen immigration (m) remains substantial at distances of 1 km and fairly equivalent gamete production in both years produced only moderate reductions in Ne relative to census population sizes. Direct estimates of mand Nev allowed us to predict moderate effects of fenetic drift and inbreeding on the genetic composition of future population (Nevm = 0.55 - 1.79) and (Fst = 0.114 - 0.311) even in a worst case scenario (N = 3). The information gained from such analyses will be an important component for the effective future management and the development of conservation strategies for tropical tree species in fragmented landscapes. Localización: No disponible. Publicación no.: 059 Diversidad de aves de sotobosque asociadas a plantaciones de banano en Costa Rica [Understory forest bird diversity associated to banana plantations in northeastern Costa Rica] / Rangel-Salazar, José Luis. Heredia: Universidad Nacional, 1995. 76 p. Tesis, Mag. Sc, Universidad Nacional, Programa Regional en Manejo de Vida Silvestre para Mesoamérica y El Caribe, Heredia (Costa Rica).

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I conducted a research and conservation project, from January to October 1995, in the banana zone from northeastern Costa Rica. I evaluated the understory forest bird communities in two forest remnants enclosed by banana plantations (Gavilan and Nogal) and two sites in or near natural protected areas (La Selva and Cedral). I also carried out conservation activities and produced educational material realted to bird conservation. In a sample effort of 5608 net/hours, I made 1343 captures of 91 bird species belonging to 13 trophic guilds. I found significant differences on species and individual bird abundance; diversity (H) and evenness; and the species and individual migrants' ratios (P¾0.05). Migrant bird species represented an important proportion of the total avifauna (24.4%). The four sites not showed consistent diferences in diversity (N2) and abundance of species and individuals of trophic guilds as well (P¾0.05). I did not find evidence that selected variables affected the understory forest bird communities evaluated. Within 100 capture samples, I recorded 68 species and 12 trophic guilds. Net/hours were different between sites and seasons (P¾0.05). The major levels of species richness, diversity (N2), and trophic guild diversity were found at Gavilan. The higher ratios of species number into 100 captures over the total species per site were found at Gavilan and Cedral. Rarity was represented by 25 species and species with only one individual were higher than close of two individuals (P¾0.05). I calculated a bird biomass of 557.7 g/km² and the biomass average per site was positive related to the species average into the 100 capture samples (b=24.83); P=0.0125). Body mass distributions strongly differed between sites and seasons ((P≤0.05). Six bird morphometric variables were strongly related to body mass (P≤0.05). No selected habitat variable influenced in the species richness, diversity or biomass estimated with 100 captures. "Fly, Color and Song from Caribbean" was the subject that evolved the conservation activities. I carried out two major workshops to celebrate the International Migratory Bird Day 1995 and the World Bird Watch 1995. One hundred and twenty children, 15 teacher and 30 workers from the banana farms attended the workshops. I produced two Children's Coloring Book, one handbook of Environmental Activities or Teachers, one EducationalPhotographic Mural, and one Slide Show called "Diversity and Conservation of the Caribbean Birds". With the information gathered, I established that understory forest bird communities from patchy forests surrounded and associated with banana plantations, are still diverse. The forest remnants are important to the conservation of the regional biodiversity from the Caribbean Slope. The 100 captures method proves to be a good resource to evaluate the understory bird communities, particularly in the dry season. The conservation activities in the banana zone are fundamental to promote the conservation of biodiversity in the region, especially those patchy forests. Conservation activities should foment that the biodiversity of the zone is a historic asset, and its preservation relies on forest size, habitat heterogeneity, and changes into the natural communities and populations structure. Finally, I emphasize that habitat fragmentation is not the sole conservation species question, but also concerns the natural and social systems. Localización: Biblioteca OET: Tesis 243. Publicación no.: 060 Microsatellite analysis of demographic genetic structure in fragmented populations of the tropical tree Symphonia globulifera [Análisis por microsatélites de la estructura genética demográfica en poblaciones fragmentadas del árbol tropical Symphonia globulifera] / Aldrich, Preston Rice; Hamrick, James L; Chavarriaga-Aguirre, Paul; Kochert, Gary. (University of Georgia. Botany Department, Athens, GA 30602, US <E-mail: paldrich@dogwood.botany.uga.edu> <E-mail: hamrick@dogwood.botany.uga.edu>). En: Molecular Ecology (ISSN 0962-1083), v. 7, p. 933-944. 1998.

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Fragmentación del hábitat y corredores biológicos: una bibliografía anotada
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We developed genetic markers for three microsatellite loci in the tropical tree Symphonia globulifera and used them to examine the demographic genetic consequences of fragmentation. High levels of genetic variation were revealed in samples of adults, saplings, and seedlings. The more-variable loci exhibited less stability in allelic composition across sites and stages. The number of alleles per hectare (ha) of forest was similar when continuous forest plots were compared to plots from fragmented forest for all three stages. This pattern also held for the number of unique multilocus adult and sapling genotypes, but the number of unique seedling genotypes per ha of fragmented forest greatly exceeded expectations based on continuous forest data, probably due to the concentration of seeds into remnant forest patches by foraging bats. Significant inbreeding and genetic differentiation were most often associated with the fragmented forest and the seedlings. Finally, principal component analysis reaffirmed that a bottleneck, acting in concert with pre-existing genetic structure in the adults, had led to enhanced and rapid divergence in the seedlings following deforestation, a result that is of central interest for landscape management. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S4015. Publicación no.: 061 Depredación de nidadas artificiales en fragmentos de bosque rodeados por monocultivos de banano / Araya-Fallas, Maríamalia. San José: Universidad de Costa Rica, 1998. 130 p. Tesis, Mag. Sc, Universidad de Costa Rica, Sistema de Estudios de Posgrado, Programa Regional de Posgrado en Biología, San José (Costa Rica). La fragmentación de hábitat, esto es, la división de un bosque continuo en pequeños fragmentos separados por tierra destinada a otro uso, crea una serie de cambios que afectan los hábitats naturales. El fragmento o remanente se ve influenciado por el efecto de borde y efectos de aislamiento, que repercuten directamente en la estructura y dinámica de la biota existente. La depredación de nidadas de aves aumenta en los fragmentos porque los animales del sitio se refugian en los parches remanentes y aumentan sus poblaciones al no existir depredadores grandes, y además, otros depredadores visitarán estos sitios con más frecuencia y ejercerán una presión más fuerte sobre los individuos reproductores. Estas presiones de depredación han seleccionado para una variedad en estrategias de anidación. Sin embargo, la depredación de nidadas es la causa primaria de mortalidad en muchas especies. Este estudio analiza la depredación de nidadas artificiales en bosque extenso, fragmentos de bosque y franjas riparias rodeadas de monocultivo de banano, tomando en cuenta variables de distancia al borde, altura del nido y época de anidación en ocho sitios de la vertiente Atlántica de Costa Rica. Además, determina los depredadores de nidadas artificiales de aves, su comportamiento de forrajeo y la tasa de depredación en bosque extenso, fragmentos de bosque y franjas riparias, utilizando las mismas variables (altura de nido, distancia al borde y tiempo de anidación). Seleccioné tres fragmentos continuos, tres franjas riparias y dos sitios de bosque continuo en la zona Atlántica de Costa Rica, y a ellos les evalué la tasa de depredación de huevos artificiales. En cada sitio establecí tres transectos (un transecto en las franjas riparias): borde, medio e interior, separados cada uno por 50 m. En cada uno coloqué 28 nidos, para un total de 84 nidos por sitios. Coloqué los nidos alternando arriba y abajo, y derecha e izquierda, para obtener una densidad de 1.27 nidos/1000 m². La mitad de los nidos tenían dos huevos de codorniz (HH, para determinar la tasa de depredación) y el resto, uno de codorniz y uno de plasticina (BP, para determinar los depredadores de las nidadas). Revisé los nidos cada cuatro días por un período de 16 días. Hice tres repeticiones entre abril y setiembre de 1996. La depredación total fue del 70.97%, y mayor en los nidos con huevos de plasticina que en los de dos huevos de codorniz. La supervivencia diaria fue mayor en los sitios de bosque extenso; los demás sitios presentaron una supervivencia diaria

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baja. El efecto de la altura fue significativo en los sitios de bosque extenso, donde depredaron más los nidos cercanos al suelo, y en un fragmento, donde depredaron mayormente los nidos altos. No encontré mayor depredación en el transecto de borde comparado con los otros; sin embargo, un sitio de bosque extenso presentó mayor depredación en el transecto de medio y un fragmento en el transecto de interior. Al comparar solamente el transecto de borde entre todos los sitios, éste presenta un patrón similar al de supervivencia diaria, siendo mayor en los sitios de bosque extenso y teniendo los demás, valores muy bajos. El efecto del tiempo no presenta un patrón claro entre períodos. Identifiqué las impresiones de los dientes de los depredadores dejadas en los huevos de plasticina por medio de una clave de impresiones realizadas con animales en cautiverio y con cráneos. Encontré tres grupos de depredadores: aves, reptiles y mamíferos. Este último grupo fue el depredador predominante a lo largo del experimento. Dentro de los mamíferos, los roedores prefieren el bosque extenso, los fragmentos de bosque son mayormente depredados por monos, y las franjas riparias por aves y marsupiales. En general, las aves prefirieron depredar los nidos más alejados del suelo y los marsupiales prefirieron aquellos cercanos al suelo. Además, no hubo diferencias en la depredación según la distancia al borde. Los depredadores comieron los nidos compuestos de un huevo de codorniz y uno de plasticina a una tasa similar a través del tiempo. Observé diferentes comportamientos de manipulación de los huevos de plasticina y codorniz. Ellos involucran el uso de las manos, colmillos, uñas, etc; y varían entre grupos de depredadores. Los depredadores, tanto los residentes como los foráneos se ven favorecidos por los bordes. Las condiciones intrínsecas de los hábitats, y en particular la matriz de banano puede estar influyendo en estos depredadores, así como en los movimientos y migraciones de las aves. Esto último tiene relevancia a nivel genético, en los procesos de endogamia y de extinción de especies. Los fragmentos, así como las franjas riparias, cobran mayor importancia al ser remanentes de la vegetación y ayudan a mantener la diversidad del sitio y la estabilidad de las poblaciones de aves. Localización: Biblioteca OET: Tesis 275. Publicación no.: 062 Depredación de nidadas artificiales de aves en fragmentos de bosque, franjas riparias y bosque extenso en la zona Atlántica de Costa Rica / Araya-Fallas, Maríamalia. En: Depredación de nidadas artificiales en fragmentos de bosque rodeados por monocultivos de banano San José: Universidad de Costa Rica, 1998. p. 7-55. Tesis, Mag. Sc, Universidad de Costa Rica, Sistema de Estudios de Posgrado, Programa Regional de Posgrado en Biología, San José (Costa Rica). La actividad humana ha propiciado una serie de cambios que afectan los hábitats naturales. Un ejemplo de ello es la fragmentación de hábitat, la división de un bosque continuo en pequeños fragmentos separados por tierra destinada a otro uso. El remanente sufre cambios como el efecto de borde y efectos de aislamiento, que repercuten directamente en la estructura y dinámica de la biota existente. La depredación de nidadas de aves aumenta porque los animales del sitio se refugian en los parches remanentes y aumentan sus poblaciones al no existir depredadores grandes, y además, otros depredadores visitarán estos sitios con más frecuencia y ejercerán una presión más fuerte sobre los individuos reproductores. Este estudio analiza la depredación de nidadas artificiales en bosque extensos, fragmentos de bosque y franjas riparias rodeadas de monocultivo de banano, tomando en cuenta variables de distancia al borde, altura del nido y época de anidación en ocho sitios de la vertiente Atlántica de Costa Rica. Seleccioné tres fragmentos continuos, tres franjas riparias y dos sitios de bosque continuo a los que les evalué la tasa de depredación de huevos artificiales. En cada sitio establecí tres transectos (un transecto en las franjas riparias): borde, medio e interior, separados cada uno por 50 m. En cada uno coloqué 28 nidos, para un total de 84 nidos por sitio. Coloqué los nidos alternando arriba y

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abajo, y derecha e izquierda, para obtener una densidad de 0.00127 nidos/m². La mitad de los nidos tenían dos huevos de codorniz y el resto, uno de codorniz y uno de plasticina. Revisé los nidos cada cuatro días por un período de 16 días. Hice tres repeticiones entre abril y setiembre de 1996. La depredación total fue del 70.97%, y mayor en los nidos con huevos de plasticina que en los de dos huevos de codorniz. La supervivencia diaria fue mayor en los sitios de bosque extenso, los demás sitios presentaron una supervivencia diaria baja. El efecto de la altura fue significativo en los sitios de bosque extenso, donde depredaron más los nidos cercanos al suelo, y en un fragmento, donde depredaron mayormente en los nidos altos. No encontré mayor depredacíón en el transecto de borde comparado con los otros, sin embargo un sitio de bosque extenso presentó mayor depredación en el transecto de medio y un fragmento en el transecto de interior. Al comparar solamente la depredación en el transecto de borde entre todos los sitios, éste presenta un patrón similar al de supervivencia diaria, siendo mayor en los sitios de bosque extenso y teniendo los demás, valores muy bajos. El efecto del tiempo no presenta un patrón claro entre períodos. Los depredadores, tanto los residentes como los foráneos se ven favorecidos por los bordes. Además, las condiciones particulares de los hábitats pueden estar influyendo en los resultados. Al mismo tiempo, la matriz de banano puede estar influyendo en estos depredadores, así como en los movimientos y migraciones de las aves. Los fragmentos, así como las franjas riparias cobran importancia al ser remanentes de la vegetación y que pueden estar ayudando a mantener la diversidad del nido. Localización: Biblioteca OET: Tesis 275. Publicación no.: 063 Mating systems of three tropical dry forest tree species [Sistemas de reproducción de tres especies de árboles del bosque tropical seco] / James, T; Vege, S; Aldrich, Preston Rice; Hamrick, James L. (University of Georgia. Department of Botany & Genetics, Athens GA 30602, US <E-mail: paldrich@dogwood.botany.uga.edu> <E-mail: hamrick@dogwood.botany.uga.edu>). En: Biotropica (ISSN 0006-3606), v. 30, no. 4, p. 587-594. 1998. Polymorphic allozyme loci were used to estimate outcrossing rates for three tree species from a disturbed dry forest in southern Costa Rica. Estimates of the multilocus outcrossing rates of Cedrela odorata and Jacaranda copaia were 0.969 and 0.982, respectively, and suggest that these species may be self-incompatible. The subcanopy tree Stemmadenia donnell-smithii also demonstrated little selffertilization based on an estimated outcrossing rate of 0.896. Significant heterogeneity in pollen allele frequencies among maternal trees was detected for at least two enzyme loci for each species. A test of correlated mating between progeny of S. donnell-smithii revealed that all seeds within a fruit were singly sired. In addition, the low estimates of biparental inbreeding and significant differences in pollen and ovule allele frequencies for this species suggest that gene how into the sampled forest fragment may occur. The implications of deforestation on the mating systems of these tropical tree taxa are discussed. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S5379. Publicación no.: 064 Reproductive activity of birds in a mangrove in Northwest Costa Rica [Actividad reproductiva de pájaros en un manglar en el noroeste de Costa Rica] / Barrantes-Montero, Gilbert. (Universidad de Costa Rica. Escuela de Biología, Museo de Zoología, 2060 San José, CR <E-mail: gbarrantes@biologia.ucr.ac.cr>). En: Revista de Biología Tropical (ISSN 0034-7744), v. 46, no. 4, p. 1163-1166. 1998.

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La riqueza avifaunística en los manglares es relativamente alta contrastando con su pobre diversidad florística. Durante 18 meses (julio 1986 a diciembre 1987) visité por ocho días cada dos semanas un área de manglar de 200 hectáreas en Chomes, noroeste de Costa Rica. En estas visitas cuantifiqué la actividad reproductiva de las especies residentes de este manglar. El 55% de las 69 aves terrestres residentes se reproducen en el manglar. Probablemente el número de especies, así como el número de individuos que se reproducen en este ecosistema se ha incrementado con la destrucción de los bosques originales que cubrían las tierras circundantes. La destrucción de los bosques aledaños así como la del mismo manglar, incrementa el riesgo de extinción local de aquellas especies que utilizan este ecosistema como su hábitat primario, incluyendo a Amazilia boucardi, una especie endémica a los manglares de Costa Rica y cuyo límite norte de distribución es precisamente Chomes. Localización: Biblioteca OET: R. Publicación no.: 065 Potencial invasor de Syzigium jambos (Myrtaceae) en fragmentos boscosos: El caso de Ciudad Colón, Costa Rica [Invasive potential of Syzigium jambos (Myrtaceae) in forest fragments: the case of Ciudad Colón, Costa Rica] / Di Stéfano-Gandolfi, José Francisco; Fournier-Origgi, Luis Alberto; Carranza-Velázquez, Julieta; Marín-Méndez, Walter; Mora, A. (Universidad de Costa Rica. Escuela de Biología, San José, CR <E-mail: jdistefano@biologia.ucr.ac.cr> <E-mail: julietac@biologia.ucr.ac.cr> <E-mail: wmarin@biologia.ucr.ac.cr>). En: Revista de Biología Tropical (ISSN 0034-7744), v. 46, no. 3, p. 567-573. 1998. Syzigium jambos is a multiple use species native to Southeast Asia that has been introduced in many countries of the world. Similar to some other exotics, it has the potential to become naturalized and invade natural ecosystems. In Costa Rica, it has been observed in several small preserves. A sample of 48 quadrats of 0.6 m of radius, in one hectare fragment (with a 30 year-old secondary humid Premontane forest) had a density of 4.9 seedlings and 0.16 saplings per m². Higher densities were observed near the base of the adult trees (N=3) and on the biggest of the trees investigated. Growth rates of the seedlings and saplings was very low: less than 10.5 and 0.25 cm/year in height and basal diameter, respectively. In general, the plants had low levels (30%) of relative damage by herbivores, and fungi (one identified as a Puccinia psidii Wint.) on their leaves, although a significant increase was detected by the end of the wet season and beginning of the dry season. Small white epiphyllic liquens were abundant on mature leaves. Apparently the species is very flexible as little mechanical damage was observed. Localización: Biblioteca OET: R. Publicación no.: 066 Consideraciones ecológicas sobre la regeneración natural aplicada al manejo forestal / Guariguata-Urbano, Manuel R. (Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE). Unidad de Manejo de Bosques Naturales, Turrialba, CR <E-mail: mguarigu@catie.ac.cr>). Turrialba: CATIE, 1998. 27 p. (Serie Técnica. Informe Técnico / CATIE; no. 304). ISBN: 9977-57-316-6. This paper discusses the main ecological factors that influence tree recruitment in neotropical moistand wet forests within the context of timber management based on selective logging. It is proposed that setting aside protection areas in managed forests as a way to preserve ecological processes may not be sufficient to ensure sustainable levels of natural regeneration, and that a thorough understanding and application of tree seed ecology can help to refine management prescriptions. A review is provided on critical aspects of tree reproductive biology, seed production and dispersal, spatial and temporal constraints on seed availability, disperser behavior, and the potential consequences of hunting and forest fragmentation on tree regeneration. All these issues are discussed in light of their implications for

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biological sustainability in selectively-logged forests. Tree seed production can be influenced by selective removal of neighbors of the same species due to insufficient pollen transfer, flowering asynchrony, and sexual system. Aerial seed coverage can be affected by spatio-temporal limitations to seed dispersal, dispersal mechanism, and size-dependent levels of seed production at the species level. Studies of vertebrate-disperser behavior and tree seed deposition in logged forests are scarce, and warrant further attention in order to refine our understanding on the dependency of vertebrate fauna for sustained timber production. Although much remains to be learned on tree seed ecology in neotropical logged forests, the baseline information presented here may offer a starting point for developing ecological criteria for seed tree retention. Furthermore, it may contribute to improving ecologically-based management prescriptions in order to enhance or at least maintain sufficient levels of natural regeneration without the need to rely on artificial regeneration methods. Most of the information presented here is not new and mostly derives from protected sites, but it may have a good potential for its applicability in managed, neotropical forests. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 764. Publicación no.: 067 Depredación de nidadas de aves en fragmentos de bosque rodeados de un monocultivo de banano / Mora, G; Araya-Fallas, Maríamalia. (Universidad de Costa Rica. Escuela de Biología, San José, CR). En: Memoria. Jornadas de Investigación 1997 San José: Universidad de Costa Rica, Vicerrectoría de Investigación, 1997. p. 44. (Abstract only). Uno de los principales efectos de las actividades humanas sobre el ambiente natural es la división del bosque continuo en pequeños fragmentos separados por tierra destinada a otro uso. El efecto de borde y efectos de aislamiento resultantes repercuten directamente en la estructura y dinámica de la biota existente. Por ejemplo, se espera que los animales se refugien en los parches remanentes y que los depredadores visiten estos sitios con más frecuencia y ejerzan una presión más fuerte sobre los individuos reproductores. En este estudio evaluamos los efectos de la fragmentación y el cambio en el uso de la tierra, por monocultivos bananeros, sobre el éxito reproductivo de la comunidad de aves remanente en parches de bosque de la zona Atlántica de Costa Rica. Seleccionamos tres fragmentos continuos, tres fragmentos riparios y dos sitios de bosque continuo en los que evaluamos experimentalmente la tasa de depredación de huevos y la comparamos con la depredación natural y con la abundancia de depredadores (aves y mamíferos) en los sitios. En cada fragmento situamos nidos artificiales con huevos de codorniz y huevos de plasticina para estudiar la depredación y los depredadores. La información obtenida es valiosa para comprender los procesos de fragmentación y su impacto en las aves y predecir el futuro de las poblaciones de aves reproductoras en estos sitios. Localización: No disponible. Publicación no.: 068 Protected areas and conservation of biodiversity in the tropics [Áreas protegidas y conservación de la biodiversidad en los trópicos] / Sánchez-Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo; Quesada-Mateo, Carlos A; González-Quesada, P; Dayanandan, S; Bawa, Kamaljit S. (University of Alberta. Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E3, CA <E-mail: arturo.sanchez@ualberta.ca> <E-mail: cquesada@cariari.ucr.ac.cr> <E-mail: pablog@cariari.ucr.ac.cr> <E-mail: kamal.bawa@umb.edu>). En: Conservation Biology (ISSN 0888-8892), v. 13, no. 2, p. 407-411. 1999.

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We compared deforestation rates and the extent of fragmentation inside and outside protected areas in the Sarapiquí region of Costa Rica. We determined deforestation rates using remotely sensed images with supervised classification. We georeferenced the processes images and then transformed them to vector format for final mapping and parameter quantification. The deforestation rate in protected areas was low and declined sharply from 0.56% annually between 1976 and 1986 to 0.16% from 1991 to 1995. Outside the protected areas, the rate decreased from 3.6% in 1976-1986 to 2.8% in 1986-1991, but it increased again to 3.2% in 1991-1995. Fragmentation outside the protected areas increased considerably: the number of patches increased from 537 in 1976 to 1231 in 1996, while during the same period the average size of patches decreased from 0.95 to 0.25 km². Forest landscapes in the Sarapiquí region are likely to lose considerable biodiversity because of the past forest loss and fragmentation even without further increases in deforestation and fragmentation. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S4709. NBINA-3812. LC. Publicación no.: 069 Howler subgroups as homeostatic mechanisms in disturbed habitats [Subgrupos de monos congo como mecanismos homeostáticos en hábitats desequilibrados] / Jones, Clara B. (Fayetteville State University. Department of Psychology, 1200 Murchison Road, Fayetteville, NC 283014298, US <E-mail: cbjones@uncfsu.edu>). En: Neotropical Primates (ISSN 1413-4705), v. 3, no. 1, p. 7-9. 1995. The size and composisition of groups may have important consequences for the survival and fecundity of organisms. A subgroup may be defined as a unit (1) of a demographic group whose functions may be similar to or different from the functions of demographic groups. Subgroup sizes of one demographic group of mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata Gray) in tropical dry forests were sampled using ad libitum methods over an 18-month period in 1976 and 1977 at La Pacifica Ecological Centre, Cañas, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. The resulting distribution was analyzed. Only adults were counted (N = 18). Figure 1 shows the subgroup sizes and their frequency (mean = 4.46 ± 1.99, N = 120). The coefficient of dispersion is 0.89, representing a repulsed (or overdispersed) distribution with more observations at the center of the distribution than at the extremes and with variance smaller than one would expect by chance alone, suggesting an optimal subgroup size. La Pacifica is a disturbed area, including significant deforestation, habitat fragmentation, and selective cutting where the howler population may be maintained by immigration (i.e. metapopulation effects). Howlers have thrived at this site where no other monkey species reside. Mantled howlers are listed as "endangered" in the United States Endangered Species Act, primarily due to habitat destruction in areas outside of Costa Rica. La Pacifica may be viewed as a conservation experiment where mantled howlers show no apparent signs of local extinction. Local extinctions of fragmented populations are common, and it will be important to conduct continuing studies of the La Pacifica metapopulation to document changes as disturbance continues, especially the flexibility of howler behavior, social organization, and population dynamics. This note proposes that patterns of subgrouping in mantled howlers indicate homeostasis in response to environmental heterogeneity which may maximize the opportunities for success of these monkeys in disturbed and managed areas. Animals with similar characteristics (e.g., Ateles and Cebus) may also employ subgrouping as a flexible homeostatic response. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S4607. Publicación no.: 070 Tropical forest disturbance, disappearance, and species loss [Perturbación de los bosques tropicales, la desaparición y la pérdida de especies] / Whitmore, T.C; Laurance, William F (ed.);

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Bierregaard, R.O., Jr (ed.). (Cambridge University. Department of Geography, Downing Place, Cambridge CB2 3EN, GB). En: Tropical forest remnants: ecology, management, and conservation of fragmented communities. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1997. p. 3-12. ISBN: 0-226-46898-4. In recent decades there have been several attempts to assess tropical deforestation. At a global scale, a thorough assessment is a gigantic task that requires huge resources. It is necessary to have robust, clear definitions of what is meant by deforestation and of the different kinds of forest, as well as the capacity to glean for one moment in time the extent of forest cover throughout the Tropics. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), with its network of national contacts, has made two assessments. The first of these was for 1980 and the second for 1990. The second assessment is used here as the best overview we have of the amount of tropical forest recently remaining, and of the rate of forest loss during the decade from 1981 to 1990. Notes on my interpretation of FAO's data are given in appendix 1.1. Localización: Biblioteca OET: 577.34 T856. Publicación no.: 071 Measuring landscape changes in remnant tropical dry forests [Medición de los cambios de paisaje en remanentes de bosques secos tropicales] / Kramer, E.A; Laurance, William F (ed.); Bierregaard, R.O., Jr (ed.). (University of Georgia. Institute of Ecology, Athens, GA 30602, US). En: Tropical forest remnants: ecology, management, and conservation of fragmented communities. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1997. p. 386-399. ISBN: 0-226-46898-4. Tropical dry forest is the most endangered habitat in Central America, currently reduced to less than 1% of its original extent. In Costa Rica, the entire area of dry forests was cut over by 1961. These figures illustrate the urgent need for conservation of remaining dry forest fragments and the importance of establishing techniques for restoration of this habitat. Unfortunately, much of the literature about tropical ecosystems and their management pertains to either rainforest or savanna systems; dry forests have been studied much less frequently. Tropical dry forests occur in frost-free areas where the mean annual temperature is higher than 17°C and where mean annual rainfall ranges from 250 to 2,000 mm. An additional feature of tropical dry forest area is that mean annual potential evapotranspiration (PET) exceeds mean annual precipitation, whereas in wet tropical forest areas the reverse is true. Because of this difference, the factors controlling secondary succession in dry forests differ from those in wet forests. Dry forests are strongly water-limited, with harsh environmental conditions occurring over at least six months of the year, wet forests are mostly nutrient-limited, with species establishment strongly influenced by competition. These differences affect the rates and mechanisms of secondary forest establishment. The effect of forest fragmentation on biodiversity is the primary concern of many studies of forest remnants. Fragmentation commonly results in small forest remnants embedded in a matrix of agriculture, secondary vegetation, and degraded land. Few studies, however, have examined the interactions of remnant forest patches with the matrix, or vice versa. This chapter describes the use of geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing to aid in the management of forest recovery. The general goal of this study is a measure, and to predict, how vegetation responds to changing land management prictices at the landscape scale. In the tropical dry forest areas within Guanacaste National Park in northwestern Costa Rica, land use has changed from extensive agriculture to habitat protection and management for forest recovery. Specific management options range from allowing natural patch spread and coalescence to intensive forest plantings. The results presented in this chapter focus on the

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Fragmentación del hábitat y corredores biológicos: una bibliografía anotada
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development of vegetation databases and measurements of vegetation change over an eight-year period, from 1979 to 1985. Localización: Biblioteca OET: 577.34 T856. Publicación no.: 072 Fragmentation and pollen movement in a Costa Rican dry forest tree species [Fragmentación y movimiento del polen en árboles costarricenses del bosque seco] / Apsit, Victoria Joan (University of Missouri-St. Louis. Department of Biology, 8001 Natural Bridge Rd, St. Louis, MO 631214499, US). Athens GA: University of Georgia, 1998. 122 p. Dissertation, Ph.D, University of Gorgia, Botany Department, Athens, GA (USA). Loss of natural habitat due to the development of once forested areas has left a mosaic of forest fragments and isolated trees within a matrix of open pasture and agricultural fields. Such habitat fragmentation may be detrimental to the genetic diversity, ecology, and community level interactions of once continuously distributed species. Since fragmentation will affect the distribution of most plant and animal species, the reproductive dynamics of small remnant populations are likely to differ from those of large, continuous populations. Comparisons of population parameters such as genetic diversity and structure, as well as pollen flow, between populations of adult established prior to fragmentation and their post-fragmentation progeny make it possible to examine the effects of disturbance on the current reproductive dynamics of individuals established when landscapes were different. This study employed allozyme genetic markers to examine these effects on remnant populations of Enterolobium cyclocarpum, a dominant tree species commonly found throughout highly disturbed areas of Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica. Moreover, direct estimates of effective population sizes and rates of pollen immigration allowed predictions of the effects of genetic drift and inbreeding on the genetic composition of future generations of these fragment populations. The information gained from such analyses will be an important component for the effective future management and the development of conservation strategies for tropical tree species in fragmented landscapes. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-8340. Publicación no.: 073 Efecto de la fragmentación del bosque seco sobre el éxito reproductivo de una especie de árbol maderable: Samanea saman (Mimosaceae) / Cascante-Marín, Alfredo M. (Museo Nacional de Costa Rica. Departamento de Historia Natural, Apdo 749-1000, San José, CR <E-mail: hnatural@museocostarica.go.cr>). San José: Universidad de Costa Rica, 1999. 87 p. Tesis, Mag. Sc, Universidad de Costa Rica, Programa de Estudios de Posgrado en Biología, San José (Costa Rica). En este documento se presentan los resultados del estudio del efecto de la fragmentación del bosque seco sobre el éxito reproductivo del árbol Pithecellobium saman (Fabaceae/Mim.) en Costa Rica. Este trabajo constituye uno de los primeros estudios en evaluar el fenómeno de la fragmentación de bosques sobre la reproducción de una especie de árbol tropical. El aspecto novedoso del presente estudio consiste en considerar diferentes aspectos de la reproducción de la especie con el propósito de tener un panorama más amplio del efecto de la fragmentación sobre la reproducción y viabilidad de la progenie. En el diseño experimental se incluyeron dos tratamientos principales: árboles creciendo en poblaciones continuas y árboles aislados o en pequeños remanentes boscosos (1 ha). Los aspectos reproductivos considerados fueron: 1. Polinización natural (deposición de polen y cantidad de tubos polínicos en el estilo). 2. Producción de semillas por fruto (total de semillas, semillas abortadas, depredadas y semillas viables por fruto). 3. Parámetros genéticos (heterocigosidad promedio, tasa de exocruzamiento y correlación de parentesco de la progenie). 4. Parámetros de vigor de la progenie (germinación y

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sobrevivencia de las plántulas, peso de las semillas, días para la emergencia de la primera hoja, altura de las plántulas, número de hojas, área foliar, biomasa seca radical y aérea, y número de nódulos en la raíz). En el estudio de la polinización natural se analizó una muestra de 1.016 estilos (530 de árboles en bosques continuos y 486 de árboles aislados) no encontrándose diferencias significativas en el grado de deposición de polen sobre los estigmas de árboles en ambos tratamientos. En los árboles de poblaciones continuas el número de tubos polínicos en el estilo fue mayor que en árboles aislados, además, el porcentaje de flores con una mayor cantidad de tubos polínicos en sus estilos que óvulos en el ovario fue mayor en árboles de poblaciones continuas. Lo anterior sugiere que en árboles de poblaciones continuas se presenta una mayor competencia de polen, lo que ha sido relacionado con la calidad de la progenie producida. Por otra parte, la presencia de un menor número de tubos polínicos desarrollándose en los estilos de árboles aislados puede deberse a problemas de autoincompatibilidad de la especie debido a una mayor deposición de polen propio dentro del mismo individuo (geitonogamia) o a la calidad genética de los donadores de polen. En la producción de semillas por fruto se analizó una muestra de 1.575 frutos (946 de árboles de poblaciones continuas y 629 de árboles aislados) y se encontró que los árboles en poblaciones continuas producen más semillas por fruto que los árboles aislados. La reducción de aproximadamente un 6% que sufren los árboles aislados con respecto a los árboles de poblaciones continuas puede tener importantes implicaciones en la cosecha total de semillas de un árbol aislado. Además, el número de semillas depredadas por fruto en árboles aislados fue menor que en poblaciones continuas, probablemente debido a la reducción o eliminación de las poblaciones de depredadores en los remanentes boscosos. El número de semillas abonadas y semillas viables por fruto no mostró diferencias significativas entre ambos tratamientos. En el análisis genético, por medio de la técnica de electroforesis en almidón de extractos de proteínas, se obtuvieron cuatro sistemas enzimáticos que presentaron buena resolución e interpretabilidad: ICD, EST, PGD y PGM. Se utilizó una muestra de 212 semillas provenientes de 20 árboles maternos (10 individuos por tratamiento). Se determinó que tanto los árboles en poblaciones continuas como los árboles aislados son aparentemente 100% exógamos, no obstante, la variación en los datos por efecto del tamaño de muestra y el número de loci estudiados no permiten tener un resultado conclusivo al respecto. La variabilidad genética no difirió entre ambos tratamientos y es similar a la informada para otras especies arbóreas neotropicales. El coeficiente de correlación de parentesco de la progenie fue mayor en poblaciones continuas, y a pesar de la variación mostrada, este resultado sugiere que los árboles en esa condición reciben polen preferentemente de un solo donador o de unos pocos individuos genéticamente emparentados. En cambio, en los árboles aislados el flujo de polen parece ser más aleatorio en cuanto a su procedencia. En el estudio de los parámetros de vigor de la progenie se utilizó una muestra inicial de 1.960 semilas para las pruebas de invernadero, provenientes de 14 árboles de poblaciones continuas y 10 árboles aislados. Se encontró que la fragmentación afectó la germinación en árboles aislados, los cuales sufrieron una reducción cercana al 15% con respecto a árboles de poblaciones continuas. La sobrevivencia no difirió significativamente entre los tratamientos pero se mantuvo la tendencia original al inicio de la germinación y al cabo de los 45 días del estudio la progenie inicial de los árboles aislados se había reducido casi en un 50%. La fragmentación afectó, además, el desarrollo de área foliar y la acumulación de biomasa en la progenie de árboles aislados lo cual puede afectar el establecimiento y regeneración de la especie en los remanentes boscosos. En conclusión, la fragmentación del bosque seco en nuestro país ha afectado el éxito reproductivo de los árboles de Samanea saman que se encuentran aislados o en pequeños reductos boscosos (1 ha), en cuanto a los parámetros de polinización natural y vigor de la progenie antes mencionados.

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Fragmentación del hábitat y corredores biológicos: una bibliografía anotada
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Localización: Biblioteca OET: Tesis 313. Publicación no.: 074 Corredores Conservacionistas en la Región Centroamericana [Conservation Corridors in the Central American Region] / Vega, A (ed.). Memorias de una Conferencia Regional auspiciada por el Proyecto Paseo Pantera, Heredia, CR, 17-20 Set. 1993. Gainesville, FL: Tropical Research and Development, Inc, 1994. 431 p. This proceedings volume includes all presentations for which formal papers were submitted by speakers. The six initial papers define the general context for conservation and sustainable development efforts in Central America. Next come a group of country-specific reports, whose function during the conference and as part of this document is to present to the audience the status of protected areas systems in Central America. Next there are a series of five papers that illustrate the benefits of the use of corridors, in Central America as well as in other parts of the world. The final five papers discuss methodological approaches on how to establish corridors. At the end of the document there is a brief list of conclusions and recommendations provided by conference participants and a list of conference participants. Localización: Biblioteca del Programa de Conservación para el Desarrollo del INBio: PCD399. Publicación no.: 075 Sovereignty and mutualism: the political ecology of the Central American biotic corridor [Soberanía y mutualismo: la ecología política del Corredor Biótico Centroamericano] / Carr, Archie III; Vega, A (ed.). (Wildlife Conservation Society, 4424 NW 13th St., Suite A-2. Gainesville, FL 32609 US). Memorias de una Conferencia Regional auspiciada por el Proyecto Paseo Pantera, Heredia, CR, 17-20 Set. 1993. En: Corredores Conservacionistas en la Región Centroamericana Gainesville, FL: Tropical Research and Development, Inc, 1994. p. 11-21. The number of species harbored in the diverse habitats of Central America is believed to be in the millions, including lower plants and animals. The responsibility of a society or a state to protect such a variety of species can most effectively be fulfilled by protected-area designation and management. For biological reasons, it is generally true that larger parks are better than smaller parks for species conservation purposes. The opportunity to establish large or extensive protected areas is passing rapidly. Today the landscape of a typical Central American country contains a number of scattered, small natural habitats -some protected, some not. Fortunately, this dispersed sample of vulnerable habitat "islands" is usually bounded along international borders by large tracts of natural areas-tracts that continue unbroken into neighboring countries. Where expansion of small protected areas is not a possibility, contemporary theories supporting biological corridors suggest an alternative, hopeful strategy. National campaigns to link large and small protected areas together with corridors would, with great certainty, improve the survival prospects of species within countries. If national corridor networks are a priority within each country of Central America, inevitably these networks would include the very large blocks of forest along the borders. The neighboring park systems would become united. Owing to the geography of the landmass-a narrow, elongate isthmus-7 independent national corridor programs would result, very nearly, in a contiguous Central American biotic corridor. Any campaign to protect the remaining natural areas of Central America would be in the direct national, economic, and social interest of the countries involved. Aside from providing for species survival, parks and protected areas, supported by corridor systems, preserve the basic ecological functions - the natural "infrastructure"necessary for the economic development o every country in the region. Wildland conservation in

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Central America will call for unprecedented "plurinational" cooperation. The Central American Commission on Environment and Development (CCAD) appears to be the appropriate forum to fos such cooperation. The Central American Biodiversity Treaty, calling for a Central American Biotic Corridor, is the existing, remarkable international instrument necessary to bring about the promise of restored land and new economic progress in the region. Localización: Biblioteca del Programa de Conservación para el Desarrollo del INBio: PCD399. Publicación no.: 076 Parks and biodiversity preserves as islands: lessons from historical biogeography and limited trend analysis [Parques y reservas de la biodiversidad como islas: lecciones de la biogeografía histórica y el análisis limitado de tendencias] / Harris, L.D; Cramer, P; Vega, A (ed.). (University of Florida. Department of Wildlife and Range Science, 118 Newins-Ziegler Hall, Box 110430, Gainesville, FL 32611-0430, US). Memorias de una Conferencia Regional auspiciada por el Proyecto Paseo Pantera, Heredia, CR, 17-20 Set. 1993. En: Corredores Conservacionistas en la Región Centroamericana Gainesville, FL: Tropical Research and Development, Inc, 1994. p. 22-32. Island biogeography principles can be applied to the conservation of fauna and flora in today's preserves. Parks the world over have become islands in a sea of human civilization. Without connectivity between these parks, opportunities for colonization and migration are greatly reduced. As a result, species become isolated and more prone to extinction. Most isolated North American parks have been losing native species since the day those parks were created. Mount Rainier National Park in Washington state contains less than 50 percent of its historical mammals, and the Everglades National Park complex in Florida has lost at least 15 species of wildlife. If the total area of all of Costa Rica's parks and preserves is not as big as the Everglades Park complex, how can these parks withstand the crush of humans in the future? Sole adding more parcels of land to parks does not work. We must also protect and promote ecological functions. This can be facilitated through a system of corridors and landscape linkages. First, we must connect that park and preserve areas that are obvious. Connecting a series of parks in this manner across Central America is the vision of Paseo Pantera. The width of these linkages must be measured in hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers, depending on the function of the corridor. Underpasses along roadways need to be installed so wildlife are no killed as they attempt to cross roads. There needs to be the creation of low impact buffer zones outside reserve boundaries. Ultimately, preserving biodiversity and processes will involve education educating landowners and the general public so they accept and defend these parks and consider them a necessity to their wellbeing. Through these and other landscape level efforts, we envision Paseo Pantera becoming a reality. Localización: Biblioteca del Programa de Conservación para el Desarrollo del INBio: PCD399. Publicación no.: 077 Wild biodiversity as a resource for intellectual and economic development: INBio's pilot project in Costa Rica [La biodiversidad silvestre como un recurso para el desarrollo intelectual y económico: el proyecto piloto del INBio en Costa Rica] / Gámez-Lobo, Rodrigo; Vega, A (ed.). (Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio), Apdo. 22-3100, Santo Domingo de Heredia, CR <E-mail: rgamez@inbio.ac.cr>). Memorias de una Conferencia Regional auspiciada por el Proyecto Paseo Pantera, Heredia, CR, 17-20 Set. 1993. En: Corredores Conservacionistas en la Región Centroamericana Gainesville, FL: Tropical Research and Development, Inc, 1994. p. 33-42.

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Fragmentación del hábitat y corredores biológicos: una bibliografía anotada
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Costa Rica's Program of biodiversity conservation is founded on the premise that the best way to save biological diversity is to utilize it in a sustainable and nondestructive way, for intellectual, spiritual, and economic ends. Our country needs this new model of development that improves the quality of life of our society while at the same time conserving life in all its forms. Strategically, three successive steps with a high degree of overlap are required in order to realize the economic and intellectual potential of biodiversity. The first step is to save representative samples of biodiversity present in the national territory. In Costa Rica this is being consolidated through the creation of the National System of Conservation Areas, which is hoped will comprise close to 25 percent of the nation's territory. The second step is to learn what biodiversity exists in wild areas. The third step is to put this knowledge to work for Costa Rican society. INBio, the National Institute of Biodiversity, was established with the specific purpose of helping carry out these last two steps. To accomplish its mission, INBio has established four different but intimately linked institutional components. The Biodiversity Inventory Directorate is responsible for learning what species exist and where they are in the conservation areas. The Information Management Directorate organizes and manages all information generated by the inventory in a way that can be made available in a suitable format for different types of uses and users. The Biodiversity Prospecting Directorate develops projects directed at systematic searches for natural products of economic and industrial use that contribute to demonstrating the economic value of biodiversity and that generate funding necessary for its conservation and management. The Social Outreach Directorate is in charge of organizing and managing information so it will be easily accessible to all users. It facilitates and promotes utilization of information by diverse sectors of society such as the government, educators, students, foresters, tourists, and agronomists. INBio is thus evolving as an information management organization that strengthens the role of wildlands biodiversity in Costa Rican society and national development as required by the Convention on Biological Diversity. Localización: Biblioteca del Programa de Conservación para el Desarrollo del INBio: PCD399. Publicación no.: 078 Áreas protegidas y el desarrollo de corredores en el contexto de la capacidad de uso de la tierra / Tosi-Olin, Joseph A., Jr; Vega, A (ed.). (Centro Científico Tropical, Apdo. 8-3870, San José, CR <E-mail: jtosi@cct.or.cr>). Memorias de una Conferencia Regional auspiciada por el Proyecto Paseo Pantera, Heredia, CR, 17-20 Set. 1993. En: Corredores Conservacionistas en la Región Centroamericana Gainesville, FL: Tropical Research and Development, Inc, 1994. p. 43-57. Corridors between protected areas are similar in concept to buffer zones that border such areas. In the American tropics, most protected areas occupy lands unsuited to private economic exploitation, and lands lying between them which would serve as corridors for the movement of wildlife usually include a mosaic of localized sites ecologically unsuited to such use and usually under some sort of forest cover. If these sites alone could be maintained in an essentially wild, or unused state, then the corridor would probably function effectively as a series of small and large islands which would provide for safe movement. Delineation of these sites prior to programming their protection can best be achieved by mapping land use capability in the proposed corridor area. This paper covers the principles and practical application of a new method of ecological land use capability based upon the Life Zone System of World Ecological Classification (Holdridge). Localización: Biblioteca del Programa de Conservación para el Desarrollo del INBio: PCD399.

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Publicación no.: 079 El desarrollo sostenible como factor de mejoramiento económico / Pérez, C.I; Vega, A (ed.). (INCAE. Programa de Recursos Naturales, Apdo. 960-4050, Alajuela, CR). Memorias de una Conferencia Regional auspiciada por el Proyecto Paseo Pantera, Heredia, CR, 17-20 Set. 1993. En: Corredores Conservacionistas en la Región Centroamericana Gainesville FL: Tropical Research and Development, Inc, 1994. p. 58-73. Principal global problems that must be faced are analyzed, and the challenge of reconciling society's social and economic development needs and aspirations is reviewed. Examples of global environmental deterioration and their major causes are presented. These include uncontrolled global population growth, deforestation, soil erosion, inequalities in land distribution, the dismal living conditions of a majority of the world's population, global warming and the consequences of climate change, the loss of the ozone layer, and the exponential growth in generation of waste products. To reverse these tendencies, proposed solutions to environmental problems must not prevent economic growth, but rather must involve an improved development model that finds solutions to poverty and generates growth. This model must regard improved human welfare, adoption of appropriate technologies, proper valuation of resources with prices based on their scarcity, and the rational utilization of natural resources based on experience, popular wisdom, and local tradition. Sustainable development must involve augmented production levels and economic diversification to satisfy increasing demand, while maintaining the integrity of productive ecosystems. Environmental accounting requires inclusion of social welfare concerns in economic thinking to promote long-term development through an approach to economics that reduces the emphasis on immediate gain in favor of sustainable improvements in welfare. Some priority actions that would permit sustainable development in a country or region are: providing guaranteed access and fair participation in resource management to communities and individuals; improving the interchange of information, practical know-how, and technology; promoting wider societal participation in conservation and development matters; improving stewardship of the environment at a community level; and establishing more efficient local administrative agencies. Different mechanisms for funding sustainable development are outlined. The annual cost of all measures that need to be taken to ensure sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean is estimated at million, a figure that is broken down into a number of specific components. A final conclusion is that policies oriented toward improving economic efficiency and environmental planning are complementary, and good environmental policy is also good economic policy. Localización: Biblioteca del Programa de Conservación para el Desarrollo del INBio: PCD399. Publicación no.: 080 Informe de país: Costa Rica / García-Víquez, Randall; Matamoros-Delgado, Alonso; Vega, A (ed.). (Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, P.O. Box 22-3100, Santo Domingo de Heredia, CR <Email: rgarcia@inbio.ac.cr> <E-mail: amatamor@inbio.ac.cr>). Memorias de una Conferencia Regional auspiciada por el Proyecto Paseo Pantera, Heredia, CR, 17-20 Set. 1993. En: Corredores Conservacionistas en la Región Centroamericana Gainesville, FL: Tropical Research and Development, Inc, 1994. p. 100-112. The Costa Rican system of protected areas consists of 74 units that cover approximately 21 percent of the country and are administered by the Ministry of Natural Resources, Energy and Mines. Studies to date indicate that the geographic distribution of protected areas is roughly that needed to guarantee the conservation of major ecosystems and species of special concern, such as endemics. However, only national parks and biological reserves, which cover 12 percent of the country and are managed by the National Park Service, are capable of maintaining their present levels of biodiversity over the long term.

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In these areas most lands are state owned and there is adequate institutional presence to control ongoing activities. The other protected areas, although legally established, have a much weaker level of institutional presence and most properties are privately owned, which further weakens biological conservation efforts. The Costa Rican protected areas system contains 19 of the 20 ecological life zones and 46 of the 53 major vegetation types defined for the country. Information regarding marine ecosystems is lacking, due to limited research, but there are still more than 300,000 ha. of marine area included in the reserve system. Due to accelerated deforestation since 1960, the system of protected areas has played a key role in conserving representative samples of the country's ecosystems. This has kept the list of endangered species small, and as the biological inventory produced by the National Institute of Biodiversity progresses, it is getting smaller. As one example, as of June 1993, populations of 209 of the 215 species of particular interest (rare, threatened, or endangered) reported for the country is known to be represented in the protected area system. There are relatively precise reports available on the status of Costa Rica's biodiversity, such as the National Biodiversity Study. Projects are also underway to further increase understanding and information on the country's biota, such as the national biodiversity inventory and a complete biotic inventory of one protected area. Neither type of study currently exists for any tropical country. Available studies and information confirmed the need to consolidate the national network of protected wildlands through a national system of conservation areas, a new concept in reserve administration. In this new system the responsibility for managing conservation areas has been decentralized and given to area administrators, and greater involvement by adjacent communities is encouraged. As a result of this process, studies have been carried out at a national level, and more specifically for each of the conservation areas, to determine the need for creating biological corridors to ensure the greatest possible long-term biodiversity conservation. Currently many actions recommended in these studies are being implemented, such as the connection between Rincón de la Vieja National Park and the Guanacaste National Park inside the Guanacaste Conservation Area. It is clear that the establishment of biological corridors is just one of many actions required to consolidate the national system of conservation areas. These include strengthening the legal and financial frameworks for the system and increasing available human resources. The hope is to convert the protected areas system into a strong, proactive element in support of national economic development, since the only way to save biodiversity will be by putting it to work for society through the provision of economic, social, and spiritual benefits. Localización: Biblioteca del Programa de Conservación para el Desarrollo del INBio: PCD399. Publicación no.: 081 Recomendaciones para la consolidación territorial y conectividad de las áreas protegidas de Costa Rica / Barborak, James R; Carr, Archie III; Harris, L.D; Vega, A (ed.). (Wildlife Conservation Society, 4424 NW 13th St., Suite A-2, Gainesville, FL 32609, US). Memorias de una Conferencia Regional auspiciada por el Proyecto Paseo Pantera, Heredia, CR, 17-20 Set. 1993. En: Corredores Conservacionistas en la Región Centroamericana Gainesville, FL: Tropical Research and Development, Inc, 1994. p. 113-134. Results of a report to the Costa Rican government on improving connectivity and ecological coverage of Costa Rican conservation areas are presented. The study goal is to reduce negative effects of habitat fragmentation and ecological isolation on the biodiversity of the country's park system. It was sponsored by the Paseo Pantera Project of the Wildlife Conservation Society and the Caribbean Conservation Corporation with funding from the U.S. Agency for International Development, the World Wildlife Fund, and the Costa Rican National Parks Foundation. It forms part of efforts to link and improve management

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of the chain of Mesoamerican protected areas. The study recommends modest expansion of Costa Rica's national park system and growing private reserve network. Enlargement of parks in the Osa, Talamanca, Central Cordillera, Arenal, and Tortuguero Conservation Areas is proposed. This would link small nearby parks, include underrepresented ecological life zones, and expand the total size of each conservation area core. This would improve chances for long term survival of species requiring large blocks of pristine habitat, and preserve altitudinal corridors to protect species that undertake vertical migrations. Most expansions would also increase protection of important watersheds and ecotourism destinations, and would protect biodiversity in case of altitudinal shifts in life zones due to global warming. Innovative financial mechanisms for funding land acquisition and managing the expanded Park system are also presented. They include carbon offsets and the internalization of the costs of producing water for domestic use, irrigation, and hydropower generation, since most recommended Park expansions are within catchments for water development projects. The report also recommends mechanisms for augmenting the role of private lands in protecting biodiversity. These mechanisms include expanding fiscal incentives and technical assistance to landowners and tribes who maintain natural forests outside parks for sustainable harvest of forest products, and creating similar incentives for private, nonextractive reserves, as well as for landowners who restore forest cover on the 20 percent of Costa Rica in degraded pastures. It is also recommended that there be stricter enforcement of regulations regarding the maintenance of forests that are along the streams and rivers. Critical areas for promoting such measures are described, particularly in the partially deforested gaps between the major conservation areas and in life zones and altitudinal belts that are underrepresented in the national park system. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S11535. Publicación no.: 082 Altitudinal migrations and habitat linkages in montane environments of Costa Rica: A call for the design of altitudinal corridors [Migraciones altitudinales y los vínculos de hábitat en ambientes montanos de Costa Rica: Un llamado para el diseño de corredores altitudinales] / Powell, George V.N; Bjork, Robin D; Vega, A (ed.). (World Wildlife Fund, 1250 24th Street nw, Washington, D.C. 20037, US <E-mail: powell@wwfus.org> <E-mail: bjorkr@peak.org>). Memorias de una Conferencia Regional auspiciada por el Proyecto Paseo Pantera, Heredia, CR, 17-20 Set. 1993. En: Corredores Conservacionistas en la Región Centroamericana Gainesville, FL: Tropical Research and Development, Inc, 1994. p. 238-259. Human population growth in the Neotropics threatens to precipitate the greatest loss of biodiversity in the planet's history unless sufficient, properly designed, protected natural areas are established. Here we assess the design of protected natural areas (national parks, biological reserves, and private reserves) in montane regions of Costa Rica with respect to their capacity to protect Montane birds that are altitudinal migrants. Toward this end, we monitored seasonal movements of Resplendent Quetzals (Pharomachrus mocinno) and found they followed a complicated local migration that biologically linked a diverse array of Montane habitats or life zones. Using the quetzal as an indicator, we assessed the adequacy of protection provided for altitudinal migrants by the four complexes of protected natural areas in the Guanacaste, Tilarán, Central, and Talamanca mountain ranges of Costa Rica. Our results demonstrate that the reserve complexes are uneven in their protection of montane life zones used by altitudinal migrants and that none of them adequately protects the complete array of habitats required by these species. For example, while 1,578 square kilometers of the Lower Montane Rain Forest Life Zone (46 percent of this habitat in Costa Rica), which is the quetzals' primary breeding habitat, are

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protected, protection of habitats used by the species during the remainder of the year is variable. The Atlantic slope habitat they use, Premontane Rain Forest Life Zone, is also relatively well protected (1,038 square kilometers or 46 percent in Costa Rica) but habitats used on the Pacific slope are severely inadequate with only 41 hectares of the Lower Montane Wet and 51 hectares of the Premontane Wet Forest Life Zones (4 percent and I percent, respectively, in Costa Rica) protected. Based on these results it is apparent that additional habitat must be conserved or the quetzal and other species with seasonal altitudinal migrations will face severe population declines or local extinctions. To correct these deficiencies, we propose that altitudinal corridor zones be established in conjunction with each reserve complex. Within these corridor zones, top priority should be placed on purchasing the small amounts of these habitats that still remain in larger blocks. Where large blocks do not exist, a network of interconnecting forest corridors should be established in the agricultural landscapes through an array of activities combining limited land purchases with cooperative agreements, conservation easements, and leases with the landowners. We propose reforestation with native species in the proposed corridors to close breaks and to develop small-scale sustainable sources of forest products that can satisfy domestic needs of landowners. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S11536. Publicación no.: 083 The AMISCONDE Initiative: restoration, conservation, and development in the La Amistad buffer zone [La iniciativa AMISCONDE: restauración, conservacion y desarrollo en la zona de amortiguamiento La Amistad] / Lacher, T.E., Jr; Calvo-Alvarado, Julio César; Vega, A (ed.). (Clemson University. Archbold Tropical Research Center, Clemson, SC 29634-1019, US <E-mail: jucalvo@itcr.ac.cr>). Memorias de una Conferencia Regional auspiciada por el Proyecto Paseo Pantera, Heredia, CR, 17-20 Set. 1993. En: Corredores Conservacionistas en la Región Centroamericana Gainesville, FL: Tropical Research and Development, Inc, 1994. p. 315-322. The AMISCONDE Initiative is a five-year pilot project in sustainable development located in the buffer zone of the La Amistad Biosphere Reserve, which spans the border between Costa Rica and Panama. The central theme of the project is that local communities must benefit economically from projects of conservation and environmental restoration if they are to support these efforts politically and if the efforts are to succeed over the long term. The site selection process required the evaluation of site suitability by a team of Costa Rican experts. Sites were evaluated based upon a suite of biophysical, socioeconomic, cultural, and institutional characteristics. Five potential sites were selected for Costa Rica. Based upon an evaluation of site characteristics by the assessment team, the San Jerónimo-Zapotal site was selected. This site is a 6,000 ha watershed located in the buffer zone of the La Amistad Biosphere Reserve near the southern border of Parque Nacional Chimpó. There are 170 families located in the area. There are several research and development objectives in the initiative: (1) cattle removal and stock/pasture improvement; (2) forest restoration and reforestation with native species; (3) introduction of suitable crops with market potential; (4) lending, subsidies, and other incentives to facilitate community involvement; (5) community infrastructure and organizational development; (6) scholarships for education and training opportunities; and (7) scientific research on forest restoration/regeneration, faunal recovery, and agricultural production. We will summarize the site selection process and progress to date on the implementation of the initiative in San Jerónimo-Zapotal. Localización: Biblioteca del Programa de Conservación para el Desarrollo del INBio: PCD399.

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Publicación no.: 084 Mapping of biological corridor potential in Central America / Carr, M.H; Lambert, L.D; Zwick, P.D; Vega, A (ed.). (University of Florida. Department of Landscape Architecture, 224 Architecture Building, Gainesville, FL 32611, US). Memorias de una Conferencia Regional auspiciada por el Proyecto Paseo Pantera, Heredia, CR, 17-20 Set. 1993. En: Corredores Conservacionistas en la Región Centroamericana Gainesville, FL: Tropical Research and Development, Inc, 1994. p. 383-393. The University of Florida received a $15,000 grant from the Paseo Pantera Consortium, a partnership between the Caribbean Conservation Corporation and the New York Zoological Society/Wildlife Conservation Society. With funds from the Regional Office of Central American Programs, U.S. Agency for International Development, the University was asked to develop a pilot geographic information system (GIS) project to explore the potential for development of a biological corridor or network of corridors stretching between Colombia and Mexico. Biological corridors have been recommended by many researchers as a way to overcome the negative effects associated with landscape patches (Forman 1986, Harris 1991, Soulé 1991). The negative effects of patches were identified in the seminal work on island biogeography by MacArthur and Wilson (1967). Corridor connections between protected areas are seen as a way to preserve important recolonization opportunities and expand the range available to flora and fauna. As a result, they are a tool for preservation of biological diversity from the micro, genetic level to the macro, landscape level. The study included an investigation into the availability of regional information and possible analysis methodologies. Team members were from the Department of Landscape Architecture and Urban and Regional Planning in the College of Architecture and the Department of Civil Engineering in the College of Engineering. The project team established that there are numerous existing GIS projects and programs in Central America but that most of them to date are focused on national or local endeavors. Therefore a significant challenge to the project was securing regional data or national data with classifications comparable across national boundaries and throughout the regions. Using available regional data, a two-phase analysis was conducted to determine corridor potential and feasibility. The results are very preliminary and subject to change with the addition of new criteria, but the general trend indicate the areas with the highest potential for a continuous corridor are on the Caribbean side of the Central American isthmus. Localización: Biblioteca del Programa de Conservación para el Desarrollo del INBio: PCD399. Publicación no.: 085 The Mesoamerican Biological Corridor: The legal framework for an integrated regional system of protected areas [El Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano: El marco legal para un sistema integrado regional de áreas protegidas] / Ankersen, Thomas T; Hamann, R.G; Vega, A (ed.). (University of Florida. College of Law, Center for Governmental Responsibility, 230 Bruton Geer, Gainesville, FL 32605-7629, US <E-mail: ankersen@law.ufl.edu> <E-mail: hamann@law.ufl.edu>). Memorias de una Conferencia Regional auspiciada por el Proyecto Paseo Pantera, Heredia, CR, 17-20 Set. 1993. En: Corredores Conservacionistas en la Región Centroamericana Gainesville, FL: Tropical Research and Development, Inc, 1994. p. 394-401. Recent attention has focused on the prospect of establishing a regional institutional framework within which to protect and restore a contiguous remnant of the "Mesoamerican biological corridor" as an integrated regional system of protected areas. No model presently exists of multilateral cooperation in natural resource management on the scale required to achieve the creation of a multinational biological corridor. Although several options for a legal framework for an integrated protected area system exist,

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the adoption of an integrated protected areas protocol to the existing regional biodiversity convention appears best suited to the objective of establishing an effective Mesoamerican biological corridor. Localización: Biblioteca del Programa de Conservación para el Desarrollo del INBio: PCD399. Publicación no.: 086 Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Pejeperro, Carate, Puntarenas: Plan de manejo / Madrigal-Castro, E. (Acuacultura Tropical, S.A., Apartado Postal 291-1300, San José, CR), 1996. 23 p. El señor Trinidad Bellanero Sánchez, muy preocupado por la deforestación y la extracción irracional de los recursos naturales de la Península de Osa, decició someter al Régimen de Refugio de Vida Silvestre sus propiedades ubicadas en Carate del Distrito de Puerto Jiménez de Golfito, que miden un poco más de 250 ha. Uno de los requisitos indispensables para la declaratoria oficial de Area Protegida, es la presentación, aprobación e implementación de un Plan de Manejo, que permita, tanto a los propietarios como a los administradores, conocer las actividades, cronogramas, proyectos y programas a ejecutar en dicha área por un período determinado. En este documento se resumen las recomendaciones para la administración en el cercano, mediano y largo plazo, bajo los principios de la conservación y sostenibilidad. La propuesta de protección de esta área silvestre, permite consolidar la protección integral de los recursos naturales de la zona, ya que es un reducto de bosque primario y secundario en recuperación, convirtiéndose en un corredor biológico importante entre el Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Copano, El Humedal Pejeperrito, la Reserva Forestal Golfo Dulce y el Parque Nacional Corcovado. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 258. Publicación no.: 087 Incrementando la compatibilidad entre la agricultura y la biodiversidad, recomendaciones políticas: El informe final para el CAPAS componente 2.3 / Wille, Carlos; RoldánChacón, Carmen Alexa; Gaitán-González, L.B. (Rainforest Alliance, Apdo. 138-2150, Moravia, CR <E-mail: cwille@racsa.co.cr>). Guatemala: PROARCA / CAPAS, 1998. 125 p. Las economías centroamericanas dependen de la agricultura y muchos de sus habitantes son finqueros. La agricultura - finqueros y ganaderos en conjunto - es simplemente la domesticación y manipulación de la biodiversidad; dependen de ella, en su forma silvestre, para híbridos improvisados y para servicios como la polinización, enriquecimiento de suelos y control de pestes. Así mismo, la agricultura es la principal amenaza de la biodiversidad. Las fincas reemplazan un rico mosaico natural de especies con muy pocas de ellas bajo control, convirtiendo los bosques en campos y las sabanas en desiertos. Adicionalmente, las fincas contaminan los ríos y las aguas costeras, contaminan el ambiente con agroquímicos, invitan a las personas a colonizar las áreas naturales, causando así la erosión de suelos, el drenaje de cuencas, el trato de la vida silvestre como pestes, consume la mayoría de agua fresca disponible, bloquea los ríos con represas y reduce la biodiversidad en muchas otras formas. El principal objetivo de este proyecto, de PROARCA/CAPAS, fue identificar las políticas agrícolas que tienen impactos, tanto negativos como positivos, en la biodiversidad; para formular unas cuantas y concretas recomendaciones a aquellos que desarrollan e implementan las políticas. Buscamos aquellas recomendaciones que pueden reforzarse basándose en la experiencia en la región. Hablamos con la máxima cantidad posible de personas de distintos sectores, incluyendo conservacionistas, científicos, agentes representantes gubernamentales, líderes comunitarios y por supuesto con los mismos finqueros. En años recientes hemos empezado a utilizar el término biodiversidad para recordarnos a nosotros mismos que hay más en juego en las tierras silvestres que jaguares, tucanes y mariposas. Dependemos de toda la compleja red de vida, de los ecosistemas y de todas sus especies, de las

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interacciones entre los seres vivientes, de los ciclos de vida y de la cambiante historia de evolución escrita en los genes. Los finqueros entienden el valor de los bienes genéticos porque conocen de semillas e híbridos. Los banqueros, los políticos y los agentes gubernamentales que guían, controlan y financian la agricultura, necesitan constantemente mayor información acerca de los efectos de sus políticas en la biodiversidad. Existe una comprensión creciente de que la agricultura no puede separarse de la naturaleza y que, de hecho, las fincas más exitosas y sostenibles son aquellas que involucran a la naturaleza como su aliada. Es posible obtener siembras en sistemas con bajo impacto y altamente productivas. Nuevas herramientas como la biotecnología y las técnicas tradicionales como agroforestería y otras policultivos pueden combinarse para crear una "revolución verde" moderna que puede alimentar a una creciente población humana sin destruir la base de la vida. La política agrícola está, a menudo, basada en ideas fuera de contexto, modelos fallidos e información falsa. Está generalmente diseñada para servir intereses especiales y frecuentemente corre en contra tanto a necesidades del finquero como a los objetivos del conservacionista. La distorsión de políticas que agravan la destrucción de la biodiversidad también tienden a ser económicamente ineficientes, entonces las políticas enmarcadas pueden mejorar la estabilidad de los finqueros y al mismo tiempo reduce los impactos en la biodiversidad. En nuestra investigación encontramos que las amenazas agrícolas hacia la biodiversidad pueden agruparse en tres categorías 1. Pérdida de hábitat. 2. Políticas agrarias contraproducentes y autodestructivas. 3. La información sobre prácticas agrícolas sostenibles no llega a los agricultores que más lo necesitan, ni en el campo ni a los encargados de formular las políticas agropecuarias. Los gobiernos, las ONGs y las instituciones de investigación han propuesto muchas políticas para hacer que la agricultura sea ecológicamente menos dañina y más productiva. En respuesta a las tres categorías anteriormente mencionadas, la mayoría de las políticas recomendadas pueden agruparse bajo los siguientes títulos: 1. Promover el uso apropiado de tierras. 2. Desarrollar e implementar políticas de mercado que estimulen una agricultura sostenible, fundamentada en la integración de la realidad social, ecológica y económica. 3. Facilitar el flujo de información agroecológica y mejorar los sistemas de comunicación. Seleccionamos 20 recomendaciones que la mayoría de expertos creen las más importantes. La mayor parte de las sugerencias pueden realizarse si los gobiernos tienen la determinación de hacer de la agricultura una actividad más eficiente y sostenible. En muchos casos, las ONGs son los actores principales, no los gobiernos. En éstos los gobiernos deberían de buscar maneras de mantener y apoyar a las ONGs. En todos los casos los mismos finqueros deben involucrarse en el diseño, examinación e implementación de los políticas de turno. Mientras terminábamos esta investigación, Centroamérica y México estaban sufriendo uno de los peores desastres ecológicos en la historia: los agricultores y ganaderos, usando prácticas tradicionales, pero mal guiadas, quemaron millones de hectáreas durante una sequía cíclica agravada por el fenómeno de El Niño. Inmensas áreas de hábitat precioso y tierras silvestres se perdieron. Después de este trágico recordatorio, nadie puede dudar de la importancia ni de la urgencia de la implementación de mejores prácticas y de la necesaria obtención de información para los finqueros. Durante este trabajo hemos encontrado muchos ejemplos de excelentes prácticas agrícolas y proyectos prometedores en Centroamérica. Si éstos estuviesen apoyados por políticas igualmente progresivas, esta región podría llegar a ser un modelo global de una nueva revolución verde, probando así que la conservación de la biodiversidad y la producción agrícola comparten los mismos retos y el mismo futuro. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 254.

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Publicación no.: 088 Estimating pollen flow and effective population sizes of fragmented Enterolobium cyclocarpum populations in Costa Rica [Estimando el flujo de polen y tamaños efectivos de población en poblaciones fragmentadas de Enterolobium cyclocarpum en Costa Rica] / Apsit, Victoria Joan; Hamrick, James L; Nason, J.D. (University of Missouri-St. Louis. Department of Biology, 8001 Natural Bridge Rd, St. Louis, MO 63121-4499, US <E-mail: hamrick@dogwood.botany.uga.edu> <E-mail: jnason@iastate.edu>). International Botanical Congress. XVI, St Louis, MO, US, 1-7 August 1999, p. 234 St Louis, MO: International Botanical Congress, 1999. (Abstract only). Pollen immigration and equivalent relative gamete production may retard loss of heterozygosity and offset negative effects of genetic drift on the future genetic composition of small, extinction-prone populations. Through allozyme analyses, we examined levels of genetic diversity, mating system, pollen immigration (m), and effective population sizes (Ne) in six small (N=3-35), spatially isolated populations of E. cyclocarpum in Guanacaste, NW Costa Rica. Moderate levels of genetic diversity and high outcrossing rate estimates suggest inbreeding is not a problem. Pollen immigration is substantial and the fairly equivalent gamete production produced only moderate reduction in Ne relative to census population sizes. Direct estimates of m and Ne allowed us to predict moderate effects of genetic drift on the probability of fixation in future populations. Publicación no.: 089 La importancia de los fragmentos forestales en el mantenimiento de la diversidad ornitológica / Young, Bruce E. (NatureServe, 1101 Wilson Blvd, 15th Floor, Arlington, VA, 22209, US <Email: bruce_young@natureserve.org>). Arlington, VA: The Nature Conservancy, 1999. 13 p. Estudios previos efectuados por José Luis Rangel (Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica) han demostrado que los fragmentos forestales remanentes en áreas agrícolas bananeras albergan altos niveles de diversidad ornitológica Sin embargo, los experimentos con nidos artificiales realizados por Mariamalia Araya (Universidad de Costa Rica) sugieren que la depredación de nidos puede ser más intensa en fragmentos forestales que en los bosques intactos. Si las aves habitan los fragmentos pero no pueden reproducirse con éxito suficiente para reemplazar sus poblaciones, estos fragmentos sirven sólo como receptores poblacionales y no juegan un papel vital en el mantenimiento de la diversidad. En 1997 comenzamos a abordar esta cuestión comparando qué tan exitosa era la anidación de aves entre (a) dos fragmentos forestales rodeados de plantaciones de banano y (b) un bosque intacto (Estación Biológica La Selva) en Costa Rica. Encontramos que, en general, el éxito de anidación en todos los sitios estudiados fue bajo debido principalmente a la depredación y que no existía diferencia entre La Selva y los fragmentos forestales: en términos del éxito en la anidación de aves, dichos fragmentos no resultaron ser peor que una área bien protegido como es La Selva. Para extender la generalidad del estudio, repetimos nuestras observaciones en 1998 agregando otros dos fragmentos forestales y un sitio de estudio adicional dentro de un bosque intacto. La meta de este estudio fue determinar el éxito de anidación de aves en (a) fragmentos forestales rodeados de plantaciones de banano y (b) bosque lluvioso maduro en estado intacto. A continuación nos preguntamos si el éxito de anidación en tales circunstancias tiende a ser suficiente para la sustentabilidad de estas poblaciones. Localización: Biblioteca OET: DOC 4885. LS. Publicación no.: 090 Biodiversidad tropical / Monge-Nájera, Julián; Gómez-Figueroa, Patricia; RivasRossi, Marta Eugenia. (Universidad de Costa Rica. Revista de Biología Tropical, San José, CR <E-mail: julianm@cariari.ucr.ac.cr> <E-mail: udidacti@arenal.uned.ac.cr> <E-mail: martari@hotmail.com>). San José: EUNED, 1998. 332 p. ISBN: 9968-31-013-1.

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En esta obra los autores plantean, de una manera clara y en términos sencillos, la complejidad de la diversidad desde sus bases genéticas en la estructura celular de los organismos, hasta las múltiples relaciones bióticas que se dan en el ecosistema tropical. Se analizan también las causas que condicionan la gran diversidad del trópico húmedo, en particular la de Costa Rica, una de las más altas en el mundo; a la vez que se hace hincapié en el hecho de que los ecosistemas tropicales son relativamente frágiles y de que es necesario actuar con cautela y conocimiento cuando se hace uso de ellos. El libro muestra, además, que el tema de la diversidad no es estrictamente académico, sino que está estrechamente ligado al desarrollo integral del hombre y que, en la medida en que este conocimiento se acreciente, se estará en mejor capacidad de utilizar racionalmente el ambiente, pues de esto depende el futuro de la humanidad. Localización: Biblioteca OET: 574.5 M743b. Publicación no.: 091 A comparative analysis of tropical forest fragmentation patterns using aerial photograph interpretation and satellite image processing techniques [Un análisis comparativo de los patrones de fragmentación de los bosques tropicales mediante la interpretación de fotografía aérea y las técnicas de procesamiento de imágenes de satélite] / Wilson, C.L. Ithaca, N.Y: Cornell University, 1998. Thesis, M.Sc, Cornell University, Faculty of the Graduate School, Ithaca, N.Y. (USA). The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which high-resolution satellite imagery can be used for the discrimination of fine-scale tropical forest fragmentation patterns in southern Costa Rica. Aerial photographs were used as the standard for comparison. Research methods included field surveys, satellite image processing, aerial photograph interpretation, and landscape pattern analysis. Much of the data were managed, analyzed, and displayed within a geographic information system (GIS). A supervised forest/non-forest classification was performed on a Landsat Thematic Mapper image (30meter spatial resolution) using training data based on extensive field surveys and air photo analysis. Three study sites were selected from the air photos (1:60,000 scale) for comparison purposes, and forest/non-forest maps were created using aerial photograph interpretation and GIS techniques. The minimum mapping unit for both the satellite image processing and the air photo interpretation was one hectare. The three study areas were extracted from the classified satellite image, vectorized, and exported as Arc/Info coverages to the GIS database. Within the geographic information system, the air photo and satellite forest patches were analyzed and compared using a pattern analysis program. The variables used for this comparison included total forest area, total number of forest patches, forest patch area, forest patch perimeter, and forest patch shape. The general results of the comparison between the satellite image and aerial photo forest patch patterns are summarized as follows: (1) Total forest area in each of the study sites was substantially underestimated using satellite imagery. (2) The total number of forest patches was underestimated using satellite imagery in all three study sites, with substantial differences in two of the three sites. (3) For the forest patches detected by both techniques, there were significant differences in area estimates in all three sites, and significant differences in perimeter and shape estimates in two of the three sites. On average, when there was a significant difference between the air photo and satellite image estimates, the satellite image analysis underestimated patch area, perimeter, and the complexity of patch shape. (4) Of the patches detected by both techniques that had similar areas, satellite image analysis overestimated patch perimeter, and satellite shape estimates were more complex than the air photo estimates. (5) There were substantially more satellite image omission than commission errors. (6) The average area and shape of patches associated with satellite omission and commission errors was 3.1 hectares and 1.6, respectively. (7) The

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satellite image omission and commission errors appear to be due to classification errors related to the spatial resolution of the imagery, as well as spectral confusion between land-cover classes. The substantial differences between aerial photo and satellite image techniques for the estimation of forest fragmentation patterns indicated by this study have implications for deforestation and forest fragmentation estimates at local, regional, and global scales that are based on satellite imagery. Deforestation estimates derived from satellite imagery which underestimate forest area and omit forest patches that are actually present in the landscape will influence forest patch management plans and the areas chosen for concentrated forest conservation efforts. Localización: Biblioteca OET: Tesis 322. LC. Publicación no.: 092 Riparian land use and riparian land use change in a rural community in Costa Rica [Uso de la tierra ribereña y el cambio de uso del suelo ribereño en una comunidad rural de Costa Rica] / O'Connor, K.A. Ithaca, N.Y: Cornell University, 1998. 132 p. Thesis, M.Sc, Cornell University, Faculty of the Graduate School, Ithaca, N.Y. (USA). As large scale land use conversions continue to consume and fragment unbroken tracts of primary tropical forests, the preservation of forest patches is becoming increasingly critical to the maintenance of many of the ecological benefits once provided by the continuous forest. Riparian forests, because they are the most common type of forest fragment in the subhumid tropics and provide unique benefits due to their location at the land-water interface, will assume a critical role in regional. conservation strategies in the future. The integration of riparian forests into effective conservation strategies will require an understanding of how households use the riparian zone and what motivates their land use choices, particularly their decisions to conserve streamside forests. I investigated riparian land use and riparian land use change in a rural farming community in Costa Rica, a nation in which riparian forest conservation is legally mandated. The average parcel size in the community was approximately 5 hectares. My research focused on the following areas of inquiry: (1) determining how households used the riparian zone; (2) identifying the major motivations behind household land use decisions; (3) determining how riparian land use had changed over time; (4) identifying the motivations behind any changes in riparian land use; (5) understanding households' concerns about the riparian issues; and (6) recommending strategies for improving riparian protection in Costa Rica. To address these multidisciplinary questions, my research combined qualitative and quantitative data collected through open-ended interviews with farmers, analysis of aerial photographs and direct observations made during field visits. Results demonstrated that although riparian forest conservation failed to meet the legal requirements, all interviewees believed that maintaining streamside forest was beneficial, and most maintained riparian forest on their properties. Forest was the most common riparian land use, followed by tacotal (young second growth, often used as fallow for beans). Factors positively associated with riparian forest conservation included: household wealth (which appeared to be related to participation in off-farm employment); absence of cattle on the farm; and the number of motivations that influenced household conservation decisions. Although the riparian, protection law was minimally enforced and legal knowledge appeared unrelated to riparian forest conservation, the law was used occasionally to support community norms by farmers who invoked the threat of legal action to deter neighbors from clearing forest illegally. My findings suggest that riparian protection would be improved by creating economic opportunities for small farmers through the enhancement of off-farm employment opportunities and the expansion of intensive export crops in non- riparian portions of the farms. An effective riparian protection strategy also would need to address problems associated with

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cattle grazing. My findings indicate that riparian conservation strategies should focus on motivating conservation behaviors rather than merely educating people about legal requirements or the benefits of forest maintenance. Participatory methods that established linkages between farmers, government officials, researchers and nongovernmental organizations could be used to devise site specific strategies to overcome barriers to conservation. To achieve a higher level of protection at the national level, remote sensing could be used to identify and prioritize areas for management intervention. Finally, simplification of the riparian protection law could improve both compliance and enforcement. Localización: Biblioteca OET: Tesis 321. LC. Publicación no.: 093 Determinants of diversity in a naturally fragmented landscape: humid montane forest avifaunas of Mesoamerica [Factores determinantes de la diversidad en un paisaje naturalmente fragmentado: avifaunas de bosques montanos húmedos de Mesoamérica] / Watson, D.M; Peterson, A. Townsend. (Charles Sturt University, Johnstone Center, Bathurst, NSW 2795, AU <E-mail: dwatson@csu.edu.au> <E-mail: vergil@ukans.edu>). En: Ecography (ISSN 0906-7590), v. 22, no. 5, p. 582-589. 1999. We used a published data set summarizing avifaunas of 31 montane patches of humid forest in Mesoamerica to analyze avian distributions with respect to site characteristics. This forest type was originally widespread in the lowlands, and became restricted to mountains during Pleistocene climatic changes. Hierarchical partitioning, a recently developed regression procedure, was used to examine independent factor effects. Total species richness, richness of Mesoamerican endemic species, richness of narrowly endemic species, and richness of habitat specialists were considered separately, each analyzed at three spatial scales. For total richness and Mesoamerican endemics, regional-level variables, notably latitude, were most influential. Narrow endemics exhibited more complex patterns, driven by foci both in western Mexico and in Costa Rica and western Panama. Historical factors are suggested to have contributed to this latitudinal pattern, such that the isthmuses of Tehuantepec and Panama acted as barriers to range expansion and peninsular effects catalyzed speciation, elevating numbers of endemic species. In contrast to many anthropogenic fragmentation studies, area and other local-scale patch attributes had little influence on avifaunas. This discrepancy may be related to fundamental differences in spatial and temporal scaling, with patterns uncovered herein more indicative of long-term community processes. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S8056. Publicación no.: 094 Zur erfassung von Flachenfragmentierung und struktureller Diversitat [Measuring fragmentation and structural diversity] / Traub, B; Kleinn, Christoph. (Schnee und Landschaft (WSL). Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt fur Wald Zurcherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf, CH <E-mail: berthold.traub@wsl.ch> <E-mail: ckleinn@gwdg.de>). En: Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt (ISSN 0015-8003), v. 118, no. 1, p. 39-50. 1999. Structural diversity is an important landscape characteristic, which is also difficult to measure. It cannot be measured directly but is described by indices, based upon measurable attributes such as number, size, shape and edge-length of individual areas and distance between areas. Using a sample map (a forest cover map of an area in northern Costa Rica, dated 1992) the study analyses four principal properties of indices: their ability to differentiate between obviously different structures, mutual statistical independence, scale invariance and the possibility to estimate them from samples. The indices LPI, LSI and MSI proved to be suitable for an analysis of spatial structure. The fractal indices MPFD and

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DLFD showed less ability to differentiate between different structures. Unbiased sample-based estimates (using square windows of the entire map) were found to be feasible only for indices which are composed of components which can be estimated without bias themselves (absolute area, length of edge). The fractal area/perimeter dimension also provided good estimates in the sampling study. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S6384. Publicación no.: 095 Uso de la tierra y fragmentación de bosques. Algunas áreas críticas en el Área de Conservación Osa, Costa Rica / Maldonado-Ulloa, Tirso. (Fundación Neotrópica. Centro de Estudios Ambientales y Políticas, Apdo. 236-10002, San José, CR <E-mail: fneotrop@racsa.co.cr>). San José: Fundación Neotrópica, 1997. 71 p. Este estudio sobre la Península de Osa y algunas áreas críticas, pone énfasis en el uso de la tierra, y en algunas tendencias que se empiezan a manifestar con respecto a la capacidad de uso de esas tierras. La fragmentación de los bosques y la eliminación del bosque es uno de los aspectos más preocupantes. Los mapas aquí presentados dan una visión integrada de lo que está ocurriendo. Lo que pasa en la Península de Osa es un caso de lo que ocurre con los bosques lluviosos tropicales en otras partes del mundo. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 402 CRO. LC. LS. Publicación no.: 096 The landscape ecology of secondary tropical forest in montane Costa Rica [Ecología del paisaje del bosque tropical secundario montano en Costa Rica] / Helmer, Eileen H. (USDA Forest Service. International Institute of Tropical Forestry, P.O. Box 25000, Río Piedras, PR 00928-5000, PR <E-mail: ehelmer/iitf@fs.fed.us>). Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, 1999. 106 p. Dissertation, Ph.D, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330 (USA). Previous difficulties mapping tropical forest successional stage with satellite imagery may be one of the reasons why little is known about, what socioeconomic and biophysical factors control tropical secondary forest pattern over landscapes. Additional remote sensing challenges occur in regions with steep topography, because the spectral responses of land covers vary with sun illumination angle and type of ecological zone. Using reference data from field observations and aerial photos, I used multidate, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery to develop a classification scheme that identified secondary forests, agricultural lands and old-growth forests using the TM Tasseled Cap indices. The montane tropical study area was located in the Talamanca Mountain Range in southern Costa Rica. The Kappa accuracy for this classification was 83%. I also examined temporal patterns of spectral responses for various land covers and whether using digital data from multiple decades improved classification accuracy. Secondly, I characterized landscape pattern of the three main land-use/land-cover (LULC) classes of agriculture, secondary forest and old-growth forest. I also developed statistical models to identify landscape level controls on secondary forest spatial patterns. A matrix of agriculture dominated the landscape at lower elevations, while old growth dominated higher elevations. Logistic models of the relationships between LULC and biophysical and socioeconomic explanatory variables included landscape variables developed from the LULC map. Model results revealed that the probability of secondary forest occurrence, relative to agriculture, increased at higher elevation, on steeper slopes, further from roads, where population density was lower, and in forest reserve as opposed to unprotected lands. The directions of these relationships were the same as those that predicted oldgrowth forest relative to agriculture. All else equal, the theory of rent or utility maximization seemed to regulate secondary forest occurrence. Secondary forest occurred most abundantly at the edges between old-growth forest and agriculture that was intensive in its spatial continuity. Although secondary forest

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was strongly associated with a certain amount of nearby agriculture, it was more strongly associated with old-growth forest, providing evidence that tropical secondary forest is dependent on the landscape structure of remnant forest. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-8349. Publicación no.: 097 Forest fragmentation may threaten genetic diversity [La fragmentación del bosque puede amenazar la diversidad genética] / Anonymous. En: BioScience (ISSN 0006-3568), v. 48, no. 9, p. 784. 1998. Discusses scientific information regarding fragmentation. Suggestion that forest fragmentation may threaten genetic diversity and reduce the stability of animal populations; One possible effect of fragmentation; Mention of the study in the July 3, 1998, 'Science' by Preston Aldrich and James Hamrick; Study by Theirry Boulinier in the June 23, 1998, 'Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.' Describes two effects of fragmentation on the population structure of a canopy tree whose red, bisexual flowers are pollinated by hummingbirds and whose seeds are dispersed by bats. The forest fragmentation may threaten biological diversity in the region. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S7829. Publicación no.: 098 Efecto de la fragmentación del bosque sobre el éxito reproductivo de Samanea saman (Mimosaceae), una especie arborescente del bosque seco de Costa Rica / Cascante-Marín, Alfredo M; Quesada-Avendaño, Mauricio; Lobo-Segura, Jorge A; Fuchs-Castillo, Eric J. (Museo Nacional de Costa Rica. Departamento de Historia Natural, Apdo 749-1000, San José, CR <E-mail: hnatural@museocostarica.go.cr> <E-mail: mquesada@oikos.unam.mx> <E-mail: jlobo@biologia.ucr.ac.cr> <E-mail: efuchs@cariari.ucr.ac.cr>). En: Memoria. Jornadas de Investigación 1999 San José: Universidad de Costa Rica, Vicerrectoría de Investigación, 1999. p. 47-48. (Abstract only). La fragmentación de los bosques naturales es un fenómeno de gran magnitud y representa uno de los obstáculos mayores en la conservación a largo plazo de las poblaciones de plantas. La fragmentación puede afectar el éxito reproductivo y la viabilidad futura de las poblaciones de plantas, en particular de la flora arborescente. El propósito de este trabajo es evaluar el efecto de la fragmentación del bosque sobre el éxito reproductivo de un árbol tropical, Pithecellobium saman. En el diseño experimental se contemplaron dos tratamientos: I-Arboles en poblaciones continuas (hábitat no fragmentado) y 2- Arboles aislados o en pequeños remanentes de bosque (1 ha) (hábitat fragmentado). Los aspectos reproductivos considerados fueron: A- Polinización natural, B- Producción de semillas por fruto, C- Parámetros genéticos, utilizando la técnica de electroforesis enzimática, y D- Parámetros de vigor de la progenie. De acuerdo con nuestros resultados, la fragmentación parece no haber afectado la deposición natural de polen en la condición de árboles aislados. No obstante, en árboles de poblaciones continuas se desarrollan un mayor número de tubos polínicos en los estilos y la probabilidad de que se presente competencia de polen es mayor. En poblaciones continuas se desarrollan más semillas por fruto, pero estas sufren mayor depredación que en árboles aislados, La progenie proveniente de árboles aislados tiene una probabilidad menor de germinar, además, desarrollan menor área foliar y acumulan menor cantidad de biomasa que la progenie de poblaciones continuas. Estos resultados tienen importantes implicaciones en cuanto al manejo de pequeñas reservas y a la explotación de los bosques tropicales en general. Localización: No disponible.

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Publicación no.: 099 Efecto del aislamiento espacial y fenológico sobre el éxito reproductivo y la estructura genética del pochote: Pachira quinata [Bombacopsis quinata] (Bombacaceae) / FuchsCastillo, Eric J; Lobo-Segura, Jorge A; Quesada-Avendaño, Mauricio. (Universidad de Costa Rica. Centro de Investigación en Biología Celular y Molecular (CIBCM) y Escuela de Biología, San José, CR <E-mail: efuchs@cariari.ucr.ac.cr> <E-mail: jlobo@biologia.ucr.ac.cr> <E-mail: mquesada@oikos.unam.mx>). En: Memoria. Jornadas de Investigación 1999 San José: Universidad de Costa Rica, Vicerrectoría de Investigación, 1999. p. 49. (Abstract only). La fragmentación del bosque natural es un fenómeno generalizado en los países tropicales. Una parte considerable de las poblaciones remanentes de árboles tropicales se encuentran ahora, en fragmentos de bosque o aislados en potreros o cultivos agrícolas. Este fenómeno afecta la reproducción y la estructura genética de los árboles al modificar las condiciones demográficas y ecológicas del hábitat original. Sin embargo, el aislamiento reproductivo de un individuo depende tanto del tamaño de población como de la sincronía de su floración. Por esta razón, se propone estudiar el efecto del aislamiento espacial y fenológico en el éxito reproductivo y la estructura genética de una especie maderable del bosque seco: Pachira quinata [Bombacopsis quinata] (Pochote). Con este fin, se analizó la fenología y el éxito reproductivo de árboles en poblaciones continuas y árboles aislados, en el Area de Conservación Guanacaste. Se determinó la producción de flores y frutos por individuo durante la época reproductiva, para un total de 90 árboles. Se recolectaron frutos diferenciando entre aquellos que fueron iniciados durante el principio, época intermedia o final de la floración, con el fin de analizar el efecto de la sincronía de floración sobre la diversidad genética del polen recibido a través del análisis de isoenzimas. Resultados preliminares muestran que la proporción fruto por flor y la producción de semillas no se vieron afectados por el grado de aislamiento de los árboles. Sin embargo, las flores que son polinizadas, probablemente por murciélagos, durante el pico de floración producen frutos con más semillas viables. Localización: No disponible. Publicación no.: 100 Vulnerabilidad de la biodiversidad en Costa Rica en función de la fragmentación del bosque y grado de representatividad y conservación por zona de vida / Quesada-Mateo, Carlos A; González-Quesada, P. (Universidad de Costa Rica. Centro de Investigaciones en Desarrollo Sostenible (CIEDES), San José, CR <E-mail: cquesada@cariari.ucr.ac.cr> <E-mail: pablog@cariari.ucr.ac.cr>). En: Memoria. Jornadas de Investigación 1999 San José: Universidad de Costa Rica, Vicerrectoría de Investigación, 1999. p. 123-124. (Abstract only). El CIEDES y el Centro Científico Tropical finalizaron, en abril de 1988 un estudio financiado por FONAFIFO para evaluar el cambio en la cobertura forestal de Costa Rica entre 1986/87 y 1996/97. El estudio se efectuó con utilización de imágenes de satélite LandSat T.M. y el uso de Sistemas de Información Geográfica. Mediante la adquisición de tres nuevas imágenes de satélite, el CIEDES logró actualizar la información de la cobertura forestal y reducir el porcentaje de nubosidad, con el fin de ampliar un proyecto de elaboración de mapas temáticos de cobertura forestal por Zona de Vida, según el sistema de clasificación del Dr. L. Holdridge. Los resultados del estudio cuantifican: el cambio de la cobertura forestal, su nivel de conservación y el grado de fragmentación forestal, expresado éste, mediante una distribución de frecuencias, que consideran el tamaño de las islas o parches de bosque existentes. Este estudio permite valorar el grado de representatividad, protección y vulnerabilidad de cada zona de vida, en momentos en que el debate nacional e internacional enfatiza la importancia y

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urgencia de la conservación de la diversidad biológica. Además, la información obtenida pretende dar a conocer la necesidad de replantear algunos mitos y de redefinir algunas políticas de conservación y desarrollo, a fin de mejorar la representatividad de los ecosistemas, disminuir su vulnerabilidad y evitar la pérdida de opciones para al establecimiento de futuros corredores biológicos y turísticos. Localización: No disponible. Publicación no.: 101 Cambios de cobertura forestal y fragmentación de bosques en relación con las principales cuencas hidrográficas de Costa Rica / Porras-Velázquez, J.P; Quesada-Mateo, Carlos A; González-Quesada, P. (Universidad de Costa Rica. Centro de Investigaciones en Desarrollo Sostenible (CIEDES), San José, CR <E-mail: cquesada@cariari.ucr.ac.cr> <E-mail: pablog@cariari.ucr.ac.cr>). En: Memoria. Jornadas de Investigación 1999 San José: Universidad de Costa Rica, Vicerrectoría de Investigación, 1999. p. 124. (Abstract only). El CIEDES y el Centro Científico Tropical completaron, en Abril de 1998, un estudio financiado por FONAFIFO para evaluar el cambio en la cobertura forestal de Costa Rica durante el período comprendido entre 1986/87 y 1996/97, se utiliza imágenes de satélite LandSat T.M. y Sistemas de Información Geográfica. Recientemente, el CIEDES adquirió tres nuevas imágenes de satélite para actualizar la información de la cobertura forestal y reducir el porcentaje de nubosidad. Reconociendo la relevancia del recurso hídrico en el país y su creciente deterioro, decidió valorar la situación forestal en 16 de las principales cuencas de Costa Rica. Los resultados de esta investigación cuantifican, para las cuencas seleccionadas: el cambio de la cobertura forestal entre 1986/87 y 1996/97, el estado de conservación de los bosques por categoría de área protegida y el grado de fragmentación forestal, expresado mediante una distribución de frecuencias en función del tamaño de las islas de bosque existentes. Este estudio es fundamental para valorar el grado de protección o vulnerabilidad de ciertas cuencas estratégicas de Costa Rica, en momentos en que la comunidad científica internacional ha alertado sobre la crisis del agua en el siglo XXI. Adicionalmente, la información obtenida será de gran utilidad para orientar y replantear las políticas y la toma de decisiones en materia de conservación y desarrollo, a partir de un enfoque integral de sostenibilidad, que incluya el ordenamiento territorial y el manejo apropiado de los recursos hídricos del país. Localización: No disponible. Publicación no.: 102/ Meeting of Costa Ricans National System of Conservation Areas (SINAC) and the United States National Park Service (USNPS) at the National Biodiversity Institute (INBio) on the Occasion of President Clinton's Visit to Costa Rica. Lovejoy, Thomas E; Mora-Madrigal, M.E; RodríguezSolís, Carlos Mario; Varley, J.D; Boza-Loría, Mario Andrés; Castro-Salazar, René; Arnberger, R; Machlis, G; Gámez-Lobo, Rodrigo; Mata-Montero, Erick; Francis, P.A; Romero, L.M; Bermúdez-Acuña, Fernando; Sancho-Madriz, E; Ballentine, K. (Counselor to the Secretary on Biodiversity and Environmental Affairs, Castle Bldg. 320, Washington, D.C, US <E-mail: tlovejoy@worldbank.org> <E-mail: crsolis@icafe.go.cr> <E-mail: john_varley@nps.org> <E-mail: ecoamerica@amnet.co.cr> <E-mail: rob_arnberger@nps.gov> <E-mail: gmachlis@uidaho.edu> <E-mail: rgamez@inbio.ac.cr> <E-mail: emata@inbio.ac.cr>). Proceedings Document, May 9-10, 1997. Santo Domingo de Heredia: INBio, 1997, 67 p. Within the framework of President Clinton's visit to Costa Rica this past May, an activity was organized to provide an opportunity for USNPS and SINAC to identify actions and reestablish a model for cooperation, in the search for a more constructive dialogue and a more active exchange of ideas, with a special focus on shared educational and scientific issues and interests. This joint meeting, for leading

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representatives from the U.S. National Park Service and Costa Rica´s National System of Conservation Areas, was held on May 9-10, 1997 at the National Biodiversity Institute (INBio) headquarters in Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica. This compendium presents an overview of the meetings activities, including basic information concerning the participants and program, as well as full transcriptions of each presentation given over the two-day event. TABLE OF CONTENTS: Opening Words by Luis Rojas. Technical introduction to the Meeting of Costa Rica's National System of Conservation Areas (SINAC) and the United States National Park Service (USNPS) by Thomas Lovejoy. Institutional Development of Costa Rica´s National System of Conservation Areas by María Elena Mora. Legal Aspects of Costa Rica's National System of Conservation Areas by Carlos Manuel Rodríguez. 125 Years of Natural Resources Preservation and Management: The Challenge of Yellowstone by John D. Varley. Biological Corridors in Mesoamerica by Mario A. Boza Loría. Valuation of Biodiversity and Environmental Services and Products by René Castro Salazar. Valuing the Priceless: Parks, Communities and Economics by Robert Arnberger. Cooperative Ecosystem Studies Units by Gary Machlis. Costa Rica's National Biodiversity Conservation Strategy: Save, know, use by Rodrigo Gámez Lobo. Conceptual Framework for Biodiversity Information Management: BIMS and GIS by Erick Mata. Introduction to INBio's Inventory Process and Collections by Carlos Mario Rodríguez. Biological Inventory in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park by Philip A. Francis. The Guanacaste Conservation Area's Biological Education Program in the Field by Luz María Romero. Central Volcanic Mountain Range Conservation Area Teacher Training by Fernando Bermúdez. INBio's Biodiversity Education Program by Elvira Sancho. United States Parks as Classrooms by Karen Ballentine. Improving Visitor Experiences in National Parks: Applied Technical Assistance from the Social Sciences by Gary Machlis. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 311. Publicación no.: 103 Population genetic structure of understory birds in a fragmented tropical rainforest [Estructura genética poblacional de aves del sotobosque en un bosque lluvioso tropical fragmentado] / Brown, L.M. (Denver Museum of Nature and Science. Department of Zoology, 2001 Colorado Boulevard, Denver, CO 80205, US <E-mail: lauramacbrown@hotmail.com>). Ithaca, N.Y: Cornell University, 2000. 105 p. Dissertation, Ph.D, Cornell University, Faculty of the Graduate School, Ithaca, N.Y. (USA). There is increasing evidence that tropical avian taxa are older and more geographically subdivided than most temperate avian species. I review what is known from published studies and present a comparative analysis of mtDNA differentiation in tropical and temperate birds. For temperate North American birds, about 40% of the species examined show geographic variation in mtDNA and most is associated with a biogeographic barrier rather than isolation-by-distance. In contrast, among populations of tropical species400 km apart the mean divergence (Dxy) was more than twice that of temperate birds. No correlation was found between divergence and log geographic distance for temperate birds whereas there was a significant positive correlation for tropicalspecies. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the increased differentiation in tropical birds is a consequence of their sedentrary, ecologically specialized life history. The current worldwide concern about tropical deforestation raises the issue of sustainability of avian populations in isolated forest fragments. I address this issue by: 1) using mtDNA sequence variation to infer aspects of the population structure of four species of understory birds from four sites in souther Costa Rican rainforest, and 2) determining whether forest fragmentation that has occurred in the last 50 years has had an effect on the amount of within-population variation for the species in question. High levels of between-population

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differentiation (Dxy) were found over a relatively small geographic scale (130 km) for Henicorhina leucosticta, Gymnopithys leucaspis, and Eucometis penicillata, suggesting that these species are highly sedentary and exhibit strong female philopatry. No mtDNA variation was found in Dysithamnus mentalis. In all three of the polymorphic species there was a trend of decreasing mtDNA nucleotide diversity (A) in populations isolated by forest fragmentation as compared to populations in conguous, primary forest. No significant correlation was found between the number of individuals sampled from a population and nucleotide diversity ()A) values for that population indicating that he levels of nucleotide diversity were independent of sample size. These results indicate that sedentary species in isolated forest fragments are susceptible to a loss of genetic variability over a relatively short period of time. Localización: Biblioteca OET: Tesis 338. NBINA-8073. Publicación no.: 104 Temporal variation in gene flow rates into fragmented tropical tree populations [Variación temporal las tasas de flujo genético dentro de poblaciones fragmentadas de árboles tropicales] / Hamrick, James L. (University of Georgia. Departments of Botany and Genetics, Athens, GA 30602, US <E-mail: hamrick@dogwood.botany.uga.edu>). International Botanical Congress. XVI, St Louis, MO, US, 1-7 August 1999. St. Louis, MO: International Botanical Congress, 1999. (Abstract only). Allozyme loci were used to describe the breeding structure of fragmented populations of Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae), a dominant tree of the seasonally dry tropical forests of Costa Rica. Several reproductive events were analyzed. Due to the presence of full-sibs within individual fruits, the exact multilocus genotype of each pollen parent could be inferred. Comparisons of pollen donor pools made among trees within sites and, among years indicated that most trees received pollen from large numbers of pollen parents. Trees within clusters tended to have fewer pollen donors while isolated trees experienced more pollen donors. The similarity of pollen donor pools ranged widely among trees within individual sites and among years for individual trees. Rates of gene flow averaged approximately 60%. Localización: No disponible. Publicación no.: 105 Diversity, composition, and structure of tropical dry forests in Central America [Diversidad, composición y estructura de los bosques secos tropicales en Centroamérica] / Gillespie, T.W; Grijalva, A; Farris, C.N. (University of South Florida. Department of Geography, 140 Seventh Avenue South, St Petersburg, FL 33701, US <E-mail: tgillesp@bayflash.stpt.usf.edu> <E-mail: tg@geog.ucla.edu>). En: Plant Ecology (ISSN 1385-0237), v. 147, no. 1, p. 37-47. 2000. Tropical dry forests have been reduced to less than 0.1% of their original expanse on the Pacific side of Central America and are considered by some to be the most endangered ecosystem in the lowland tropics. Plots 1000 m² were established in seven tropical dry forests in Costa Rica and Nicaragua in order to compare levels of species richness to other Neotropical dry forest sites and to identify environmental variables associated with species richness and abundance. A total of 204 species and 1484 individuals greater than or equal to 2.5 cm were encountered. Santa Rosa National Park was the richest site with the highest family (33), genera (69), and species (75) diversity of all sites. Species richness and forest structure were significantly different between sites. Fabaceae was the dominant tree and shrub family at most sites, but no species was repeatably dominant based on number of stems in all fragments of tropical dry forest. Central American dry forests had similar species richness when compared to other Neotropical forests. There was no correlation between forest cover within reserves, or precipitation and

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plant species richness. There was a significant correlation between anthropogenic disturbance (intensity and frequency of fire, wood collection, grazing) and total species richness, tree and shrub species richness, and liana abundance. These results suggest controlling levels on anthropogenic disturbance within reserves should be a high priority for resource managers in Central America. Further research in forest fragments which examine individual and a combination of disturbance agents would help clarify the importance of anthropogenic disturbance on species richness and abundance. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S5854. NBINA-5190. Publicación no.: 106 The landscape ecology of tropical secondary forest in montane Costa Rica [La ecología del paisaje del bosque secundario tropical montano en Costa Rica] / Helmer, Eileen H. (USDA Forest Service. International Institute of Tropical Forestry, P.O. Box 25000, Río Piedras, PR 00928-5000, PR <E-mail: ehelmer/iitf@fs.fed.us>). En: Ecosystems (ISSN 1432-9840), v. 3, no. 1, p. 98-114. 2000. Multinomial logistic models of land use/land cover in montane Costa Rica and landscape pattern analysis showed that relative to agriculture, secondary forest occurred closer to old-growth forest, further from roads, in forest reserves, and at higher elevations. Collinearity between explanatory variables yielded simple multivariate models; proportion of surrounding old growth predicted secondary forest most accurately. An old-growth matrix [mean patch size (MPS) 24.5 ha], located mainly within protected areas, dominated elevations greater than 2500 m. A matrix of agriculture (MPS 23.5 ha), with smaller patches (approximately 9 ha) of secondary forest and old growth, dominated elevations from 1500 to 2500 m. Combining secondary forest with old growth decreased forest parch number and increased MPS from 7.3 to 37.1 ha. I concluded that: (a) secondary forest pattern is nonrandom, so ancillary data will aid its mapping with satellite imagery. The variables elevation, agriculture distance, road distance, and population density distinguished secondary forest from old growth with 74% accuracy; (b) socioeconomic and biological forces probably interact to create these secondary forest patterns; and (c) the strong association between secondary forest and old growth supports the concept that tropical forest recovery depends on the landscape structure of remnant forest. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S5845. NBINA-7106. Publicación no.: 107 Countryside biogeography of moths in a fragmented landscape: biodiversity in native and agricultural habitats [Biogeografía de paisaje de polillas en un paisaje fragmentado: biodiversidad en hábitats nativos y agrícolas] / Ricketts, T.H; Daily, Gretchen C; Ehrlich, Paul R; Fay, J.P. (World Wildlife Fund, Conservation Science Program, 1250 24th St NW, Washington, DC 20037, US <Email: taylor.ricketts@wwfus.org> <E-mail: gdaily@stanford.edu> <E-mail: pre@stanford.edu>). En: Conservation Biology (ISSN 0888-8892), v. 15, no. 2, p. 378-388. 2001. Studies of fragmented landscapes, especially in the tropics, have focused traditionally on the native fragments themselves, ignoring species distributions in surrounding agricultural or other humandominated areas. We sampled moth species richness within a 227-ha forest fragment and in four surrounding agricultural habitats (coffee, shade coffee, pasture, and mixed farms) in southern Costa Rica. We found no significant difference in moth species richness or abundance among agricultural habitats; however, agricultural sites near ( 1 km) the forest fragment had significantly higher richness and abundance than sites far ( 3.5 km) from the fragment. In addition, species composition differed significantly between distance classes (but not among agricultural habitats), with near sites more similar to forest than far sites. These results suggest that (1) different agricultural production regimes in this

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region may offer similar habitat elements and thus may not differ substantially in their capacities to support native moth populations and (2) that the majority of moths may utilize both native and agricultural habitats and move frequently between them, forming "halos" of relatively high species richness and abundance around forest fragments. Correlations between species richness and the amount of nearby forest cover, measured over circles of various radii around the sites, suggest that halos extend approximately 1.0-1.4 km from the forest edge. The extent of these halos likely differs among taxa and may influence their abilities to survive in fragmented landscapes. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S6251. NBINA-4876. Publicación no.: 108 The effects of forest fragmentation on the rates of pollen deposition and seed production in natural populations of timber trees of the tropical dry forest [Efectos de la fragmentación del bosque en la tasa de deposición del polen y en la producción de semilla en poblaciones naturales de árboles maderables del bosque seco tropical] / Rocha-Núñez, Oscar J; QuesadaAvendaño, Mauricio. (Universidad de Costa Rica. Escuela de Biología, San Pedro de Montes de Oca, CR <E-mail: ojrocha@biologia.ucr.ac.cr> <E-mail: mquesada@oikos.unam.mx>). Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America jointly with The Nature Conservancy. "Changing ecosystems: natural and human influences". Abstracts, Albuquerque, NM, US, 10-14 August, 1997. En: Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America (ISSN 0012-9623), Suppl. v. 78, no. 4, p. 32. 1997. (Abstract only). Forest fragmentation due to deforestation is one of the major threats of extinction of natural tree populations in the tropics. Several studies have indicated that forest fragmentation may influence the effective population size and viability of natural populations. However, little is known about the impact of fragmentation on the reproductive success of tropical trees. In a series of studies we have evaluated the effects of forest fragmentation on pollen deposition after natural pollination, seed production, seed abortion and seed predation in tropical dry forest trees in Costa Rica. Our results indicate the following: 1) In both fragmented and continuous forests, the flowers that develop into fruits contain more pollen grains on their stigmas than flowers that did not develop fruit; 2) flowers that produced fruit received more pollen in continuous forest than in fragmented forests; 3) trees in continuous forests produced more seeds per fruit but seeds were more likely to be attacked by bruchid beetles than in fragmented forests; 4) trees in continuous forests aborted fewer seeds per fruit than trees in fragmented forests. Our findings show that the viability of tropical trees is affected by forest fragmentation and that basic information concerning tree reproductive biology is needed before any forest-management strategies are implemented. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S6859. Publicación no.: 109 The impacts of forest fragmentation on the reproductive biology of tropical dry forest trees: lessons extremely isolated individuals [Los impactos de la fragmentación del bosque sobre la biología reproductiva de las especies forestales del bosque tropicales seco: lecciones de individuos extremadamente aislados] / Rocha-Núñez, Oscar J; Aguilar, G. (Universidad de Costa Rica. Escuela de Biología, San Pedro de Montes de Oca, CR <E-mail: ojrocha@biologia.ucr.ac.cr>). XVI International Botanical Congress. Abstracts, St. Louis, MO, US, August 1-7, 1999, p. 544. (Abstract only).We studied the effects of forest fragmentation on the reproductive biology of the Guanacaste tree [Enterolobium cyclocarpum] in the dry forests of Costa Rica. We compared the rates of pollen deposition onto the stigma, fruit set seed production per fruit, out-crossing rates and progeny vigor among trees from continuous forest with trees left in pastures. Isolated trees were less likely to

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produce fruits and produced less seeds per fruit than trees from continuous forest. We did not find significant difference in out-crossing rates, but progeny from isolated trees tend to have lower values for the correlation of paternity. The progeny of isolated trees are less vigorous than progeny of trees in continuous forest. The role of selective abortion of fruits and seeds on the regulation of progeny vigor is discussed. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S6861. Publicación no.: 110 Bosque y población en la Península de Osa [Forest and population at Península de Osa, Costa Rica] / Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Maldonado-Ulloa, Tirso; Bonilla-Carrión, Róger. (Universidad de Costa Rica. Escuela de Estadística, Programa Centroamericano de Población, San José, CR <E-mail: lrosero@ccp.ucr.ac.cr> <E-mail: fneotrop@sol.racsa.co.cr>). Seminario Internacional "La población del istmo al fin del milenio". Memoria, Jacó CROct. 20-22, 1999. , 1999. 22 p. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-5305.pdf Esta ponencia enfoca un tema central para la conservación del ambiente: el grado en que el rápido crecimiento de la población amenaza la conservación del bosque en la Península de Osa uno de los últimos bosques lluviosos tropicales de la vertiente Pacífica de América Central. La ponencia relaciona en un sistema de información geográfica (SIG) datos geocodificados de censos de población con información de uso de la tierra proveniente de imágenes de satélite y fotografías aéreas. Se analizan tres procesos: forestación reforestación y fragmentación en el período 1980-1995, y se identifican relaciones con los potenciales de población derivados del censo de 1984 en las que se controlan efectos de terceras variables como caminos, lluvias, distancia al borde de bosque, grado de protección, y otros. Entre 1980 y 1995 se taló el 16% del bosque de la península, y se fraccionó un 3% adicional. Al mismo tiempo tuvo lugar un proceso de reforestación, que incluye plantaciones de melina, en el 32% del área en pastos o cultivos. Se identificaron fuertes y significativas asociaciones entre potencial de población en 1984 y los procesos de deforestación, reforestación y fragmentación. Por ejemplo, la probabilidad de deforestación es nula en áreas despobladas, aumenta a 31% en áreas con entre 25 y 49 hogares viviendas potenciales y a 52% en áreas con más de 50 agricultores. Análogamente, la probabilidad de reforestación disminuye de 100% a 23% y a 25% en las tres categorías anteriores. La probabilidad de fragmentación por su parte es nula en áreas sin presión demográfica pero alcanza el 21% donde hay un potencial de más de 50 viviendas. Este tipo de asociaciones persisten en el análisis de regresión múltiple: la elasticidad del número de viviendas en los chances de deforestación es de 0,63, (por cada 1% de aumento en el número de viviendas el chance de deforestación se incrementa en 0,63%), así como de -0,37% en los chances de reforestación y de 1% en los de fragmentación. La ponencia finalmente hace una valoración del riesgo de deforestación en 1995-2010, con base en datos poblacionales más recientes e identifica las zonas geográficas de la Península con riesgo alto y medio de perder el bosque debido a la presión poblacional. Estas áreas incluyen la gran mayoría de los bosques que no son parte del Parque Nacional Corcovado y representan casi la mitad del bosque actual de la península (14% riesgo alto y 33% riesgo intermedio). Destacan por su magnitud y alto riesgo de desaparecer los bosques, de la cuenca del río Rincón al Norte de la península. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S6871. NBINA-5305. Publicación no.: 111 Le concept de corridor vert et le développement durable au Costa Rica [The concept of green corridor and sustainable development in Costa Rica] / Beauvais, J.F; Matagne, P. (71, Grand'Rue, 16110 La Rochefoucauld, FR).

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En: Annales de Géographie (ISSN 0003-4010), no. 605, p. 5-20. 1999. Costa Rica has numerous protected reserves, as many islands of wildlife; however biodiversity can't be maintained in these isolated areas. The concept of green corridor comes from the necessity to create a communication between two protected areas. A group of two reserves, as a whole entity linked by a corridor surrounded with a buffer zone, is the basic unit. From this unit, one or several corridors can be linked to other units to make a network. The purpose is to restore the ecosystems in their genuine working order while allowing for the development of human activities. The testing project takes place in Monteverde, north west of Costa Rica. The original name of this area comes from a Quaker community that settled there in the fifties. At the moment, a network of institutions and associations is launching different schemes for sustainable development. These programmes involve local people in the fields of architecture, education, agriculture, administration of protected areas, ecotourism. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S6964. Publicación no.: 112 Land use and cover change in Costa Rica: A geographic perspective [Uso de la tierra y cambio en la cubierta vegetal en Costa Rica: Una perspectiva geográfica] / Sánchez-Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo. (University of Alberta. Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E3, CA <E-mail: arturo.sanchez@ualberta.ca>). En: Quantifying sustainable development: the future of tropical economies. Hall, C.A.S; León-Pérez, C; Leclerc, G. (eds.) San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2000. p. 473-501. ISBN: 0-12-318860-1. The objective of this chapter is to review the past studies of LUCC in Costa Rica and compare them with estimates based on interpretation of Landsat thematic mapper (TM) satellite images. I will examine overall trends of deforestation as well as trends in important components of land use. Developing countries are beginning to invest in systematic studies of land use and land cover change (LUCC) in order to guide development, assess environmental damage, and examine compliance or noncompliance with international treaties. Costa Rica has one of the most comprehensive resource inventory programs for doing so, and the success and failures of Costa Rica can be used to generate better surveys elsewhere. Tropical deforestation has been reported as Costa Rica's most important LUCC issue (TSC, 1982; Sader and Joyce, 1988). Land use/cover trends in Costa Rica reflect the expansion of the agricultural and urban frontiers in a country associated with a high rate (2.5% per year) of population growth. The FAC) (1990) reported that the deforestation rate of Costa Rica was 2.9% per year in the late 1980s, the fifth highest in the world. H. Leonard (1987) estimated that Costa Rica's deforestation rate was even higher, 3.9% per year for much of the period 1950- 1984. Sader and Joyce (1988) found that deforestation between 1940 and 1983 resulted in the loss of 50% of the 1940 level of primary forest cover, defined as relatively undisturbed forest with an upper canopy covering more than 80% of the surface area. Some authors suggest that the loss of forests will have a damaging impact on Costa Rica's economy because landscape modifications result in the loss of biodiversity and scenic values, increase erosion and reservoir siltation, and result in loss of agricultural topsoil (Quesada-Mateo, 1990; Solorzano et al., 1991). Quesada-Mateo, in a comprehensive review of the environmental state of Costa Rica, concluded that deforestation is one of the most important causes of environmental degradation in Costa Rica. He identified the primary causes of deforestation as: (1) expansion of the agricultural frontier into critical and fragile forested areas, and (2) urban expansion. The Tropical Science Center (TSC) reported that 17% of the country was experiencing erosional processes caused by humans, that 24% of the country's surface was eroded due to LUCC processes, and that Costa Rica was losing an estimated 680 million tons of soil per year (TSC, 1982). They concluded that this erosion, which continues to occur in both the Pacific and the Atlantic

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watersheds, is jeopardizing Costa Rica's future agricultural productivity and its water resources infrastructure, and restricting future options for development, Therefore understanding the driving forces of LUCC and their impacts on natural and managed systems is critical for development, sustainable or not, in Costa Rica. Costa Rica has taken important steps toward protecting representative areas of valuable natural and scenic habitats. Currently, 29% of Costa Rica's territory is under some degree of protection (Sánchez-Azofeifa et al., 1998). Costa Rica's protected areas encompass more than 70 sites, including national parks, biological reserves, wildlife refuges, protected zones, and forest reserves (Umatia and Brandon, 1992). There is serious concern, however, about how land is managed outside national parks. Ramírez and Maldonado (1988) concluded that although a good national park system is in place, LUCC trends outside of the protected areas are unsustainable. Their 1988 report concluded that the continued expansion of the agricultural and cattle frontier, illegal deforestation, and squatter settlements are having serious detrimental impacts on the country's natural resource base. In addition, Sánchez-Azofeifa et al. (1998) suggested that although the relative value of natural reserves tended to curb deforestation, that deforestation rates were still high in the buffer zones around the parks and in areas without protection (see also Chapter 19). Localización: Biblioteca OET: 338.92797286 Q1. Publicación no.: 113 Elaboración de un mapa histórico del cambio de uso del suelo en la Estación Biológica La Selva, Puerto Viejo de Sarapiquí, Heredia / Corella-Rodríguez, Osvaldo. Cartago: Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, 2001. 52 p. Informe de Práctica de Especialidad, Bachiller en Ingeniería Forestal, Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Ingeniería Forestal, Cartago (Costa Rica). Se creó un mapa de uso de la tierra en la Estación Biológica La Selva, mediante el uso de las principales herramientas tecnológicas que presenta el Laboratorio de Sistemas de Información Geográfica, así como la identificación y verificación en el campo. Con esto se pretende poder responder la pregunta de ¿cuál ha sido el cambio de uso de la tierra en la Estación Biológica La Selva?, ¿cuáles han sido las principales razones de este cambio? y determinar cómo ha influido esto en su uso actual y cómo el establecimiento de la Estación ha disminuido la fragmentación del bosque. Se prepararon 5 mapas de uso del suelo de la Estación, desde 1971 hasta el 2000; este último mapa presenta una recopilación de toda la información presente en mapas anteriores, se pudo demostrar que mediante la utilización de un análisis de textura de la imagen de satélite IKONOS y utilizando la metodología detallada, no se pudo diferenciar entre bosques primarios y secundarios, por lo cual se recomienda realizar más investigaciones de nuevas variables en este campo, para poder utilizar la información contenida en esta imagen. Además se encontró que la clasificación entre bosque primario y secundario, utilizando las bandas multiespectrales es de un 75,84% de precisión general y utilizando una banda extra de textura con una ventana de análisis de 31 x 31 pixeles de precisión, fue de 75,93%. Se demostró que el aporte de la banda de textura no fue significativo. Localización: Biblioteca OET: Tesis 367. Publicación no.: 114 Application of extinction and conservation theories for forest birds in Nicaragua [Aplicación de teorías de extinción y conservación de aves de bosque de Nicaragua] / Gillespie, T.W. (University of South Florida. Department of Geography, 140 Seventh Avenue South, St Petersburg, FL 33701, US <E-mail: tgillesp@bayflash.stpt.usf.edu> <E-mail: tg@geog.ucla.edu>). En: Conservation Biology (ISSN 0888-8892), v. 15, no. 3, p. 699-709. 2001.

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An increasing number of empirical studies have been done on the effects of tropical forest fragmentation on avian communities, but few researchers have applied these theories to assess the vulnerability of birds in poorly researched countries such as Nicaragua. I used a logistic regression to determine which natural-history characteristics were most important in predicting a list of threatened birds known to occur in Nicaragua. The best model included five macroecological variables (body weight, habitat specificity, trophic group, forest preference, and biogeography within Nicaragua). I used this model to generate predicted probabilities of extinction for all forest birds in Nicaragua. The predicted probability of extinction from the best model ranked 63% of the extinction-prone birds from La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica, and 59% of the extinction-prone birds from Barro Colorado Island, Panama, in the first quartile of all forest birds recorded in Nicaragua. This method provides a first-order approximation of which species deserve global and national priorities for conservation. The central and Atlantic regions of Nicaragua deserve high priority for conservation at a global scale, whereas the Atlantic region deserves the highest priority for conservation at a national scale. The Nicaraguan Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment has done an adequate job of identifying areas for conservation based on the proportion of decreed nature reserves in each biogeographic region and the distribution of forest birds with a high predicted probability of extinction. Forest birds in central Nicaragua, however, may currently be the most vulnerable to local extinction because of low forest cover within decreed reserves. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S7175. NBINA-3801. Publicación no.: 115 Species richness and pollen loads of hummingbirds using forest fragments in southern Costa Rica [Riqueza en especies y cargas de polen de colibríes que utilizan fragmentos de bosques en el sur de Costa Rica] / Borgella, Rene, Jr; Snow, Allison A; Gavin, Thomas A. (Ithaca College. Department of Biology, CNS 213, Ithaca, NY 14853, US <E-mail: rborgella@ithaca.edu> <E-mail: tag1@cornell.edu>). En: Biotropica (ISSN 0006-3606), v. 33, no. 1, p. 90-109. 2001. In many areas of the humid tropics, relatively small patches of forest are the habitat most commonly available for forest-dwelling organisms. To assess resident hummingbird use of forest fragments near the Las Cruces Biological Station in southwestern Costa Rica, we mist-netted birds in five fragments (0.320 ha; ca 1300 m elev.) and the station's 226-ha forest preserve (ca 900-1280 m elev.). From January 1994 through mid-March 1999, we recorded 1069 captures of 21 hummingbird species during 49,900 net hours. Species richness, diversity indices, and capture rates increased asymptotically with patch size, as expected. We captured 16 hummingbird species in both tile largest Fragment (20 ha) and in the nearby forest preserve. Non forest hummingbirds did not occur more frequently in the fragments than in the preserve, and all fragments supported a mixture of forest-interior and canopy-dwelling hummingbird species, along with a diverse group of hummingbird-pollinated planes. Phaethornis guy was common at all sites and visited > 13 plant species in the fragments during the 1998 dry season (based on analyses of pollen collected from the birds' heads). In contrast, Eutoxeres aquila was found at only the largest three sites (10, 20, and 226 ha) and carried pollen from only one plant species during the 1998 dry season. Lampornis castaneoventris, a high-elevation hummingbird species, was far more common in the fragments than in the preserve, while three species typically found at lower elevations were rare in the fragments and common in the preserve. These distribution patterns could be influenced by local climatic differences because the fragments are higher and receive more cloud mist and annual precipitation than the preserve. Our data show that pollen loads on hummingbird species vary, and this

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has implications for gene flow among hummingbird-pollinated plants. Although our results are consistent with previous reports that hummingbird species may be less affected by deforestation than insectivorous avian species such as army ant followers, it is important to note that from the perspective of the generics and demographics of hummingbird-pollinated plants, the important issue is whether appropriate pollinator species are able to move plant propagules among subpopulations of plants in fragmented landscapes. We conclude that the biodiversity of tropical forest fragments as small as 10 to 20 ha is high enough to warrant long-term preservation of these areas, especially if they are located near larger tracts of forest. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S7269. NBINA-4871. Publicación no.: 116 Caracterización florística y faunística de los remanentes del bosque tropical seco de la Hacienda La Pacífica, Cañas, Guanacaste, Costa Rica [Floristic and faunistic characterization of tropical dry forest remnants in Hacienda La Pacífica, Cañas, Guanacaste, Costa Rica] / RodríguezBarrantes, Ruth. (Organización para Estudios Tropicales, Apdo. 676-2050, San Pedro de Montes de Oca, CR). Heredia, 1999. 74 p. Tesis, Licenciatura en Biología Tropical, Universidad Nacional, Escuela de Ciencias Biológicas, Heredia (Costa Rica). El presente estudio se llevó a cabo en las áreas boscosas y agrícolas de la Hacienda La Pacífica, Cañas, Guanacaste; desde mayo de 1995 hasta mayo de 1996, para caracterizar el bosque tropical seco de la Hacienda por medio de inventarios de la flora y la fauna del área. Para realizar los inventarios se hicieron varios recorridos a través de los senderos establecidos y de manera complementaria se hicieron algunos viajes en lancha por el Río Corobicí. En los senderos se establecieron sitios permanentes, que fueron visitados una vez por semana para hacer los inventarios y para hacer observaciones sobre la fenología del bosque. La riqueza florística se identificó in situ y en otros casos se realizó la colecta del material para su posterior identificación en el Museo Nacional. Para la riqueza faunística se consideró las especies observadas, escuchadas o ambas y cuando correspondió, se hizo registro de rastros como huellas y restos óseos, madrigueras y sitios de descanso; además se tomó en cuenta los reportes de animales atropellados en la carretera y animales en cautiverio. Se identificaron 268 especies de plantas, pertenecientes a 75 familias, donde 31 especies son exóticas, correspondiendo en su mayoría a especies introducidas con fines ornamentales y 3 especies de importancia forestal, debio a su rápido crecimiento. Además, se encontraron 5 de las especies maderables consideradas en peligro de extinción. Para la fauna se reportó un total de 58 especies de mamíferos, de los cuales 29 especies correspondió a murciélagos. De esta rica mastofauna, 5 de las especies identificadas se consideran amenazadas o con poblaciones reducidas y 7 especies reportadas en peligro de extinción. La avifauna identificada correspondió a un total de 168 especies, dentro de las que se determinó que la mayoría son especies residentes permanente (129 especies) y 39 especies son migratorias latitudinales y altitudinales. Dentro de la avifauna identificada se encontraron 2 especies consideradas en peligro de extinción y 9 especies declaradas amenazadas o con poblaciones reducidas. Para la herpetofauna se identificaron 23 especies, de las cuales 7 correspondieron a anfibios y 16 reptiles. Del total de la herpetofauna 5 especies se encuentran en peligro de extinción. Para el grupo de artrópodos se identificaron 8 órdenes con 35 familias. Localización: Biblioteca OET: Tesis 373. Publicación no.: 117 Colonization of agricultural windbreaks by forest trees: Effects of connectivity and remnant trees [Colonización de rompvientos agrícolas por árboles forestales: Efectos de la

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conectividad y árboles remanentes] / Harvey, Celia A. (Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Dr, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22202, US <E-mail: c.harvey@conservation.org>). En: Ecological Applications (ISSN 1051-0761), v. 10, no. 6, p. 1762-1773. 2000. Planted agricultural windbreaks may provide habitat for forest tree species and facilitate forest regeneration within the agricultural landscape, if the windbreaks are colonized by forest trees. In order to examine the potential for windbreaks to foster forest regeneration, I surveyed the understories of 51 windbreaks in Monteverde, Costa Rica, for forest tree seedlings. The windbreaks had been planted 5-6 yr earlier. Ninety-one forest tree species (including both primary and secondary forest species) were found in the windbreaks; however, many of the species occurred in low densities. The mean density of forest tree seedlings in the windbreaks was 2.14 seedlings/m². Landscape factors appeared to have important effects on tree recruitment patterns. Windbreaks that were connected to forest had significantly higher densities of forest tree seedlings and greater numbers of forest tree species in their understories than windbreaks that were not connected to forest. In particular, connected windbreaks had higher densities and more species of bird-dispersed trees than non-connected windbreaks. These differences probably reflect the greater activity of frugivorous birds within connected windbreaks and the resulting higher input of forest tree seeds. Windbreaks with remnant forest trees had significantly higher densities of forest tree seedlings of other species and more forest tree species than windbreaks lacking remnant trees. By serving as habitats for forest tree species, windbreaks may contribute to the maintenance of forest trees within agricultural landscapes and serve as tools for forest restoration in the tropics. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S8771. NBINA-8621. Publicación no.: 118 Efecto de borde sobre la diversidad vegetal del Parque Nacional Palo Verde, Costa Rica [Edge effect of the plant diversity in Palo Verde National Park, Costa Rica] / Thiele-Mora, G.M. Turrialba: CATIE, 2000. 100 p. Tesis, Mag. Sc., Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza, Programa de Educación para el Desarrollo y la Conservación, Turrialba (Costa Rica). Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-4023.pdf El Parque Nacional Palo Verde preserva una muestra importante de bosque tropical seco fragmentado, donde las especies de árboles presentes se encuentran dispersas o formando bloques aleatorios, y las especies raras se encuentran más agrupadas que las demás (Hubbell 1979), lo cual indica la fragilidad de este bosque. El problema consiste en que las áreas protegidas están aisladas entre sí, rodeadas en su mayoría por propiedades privadas que tienen diferentes usos de la tierra (McCoy et al. 1995), los cuales afectan en diferentes modos la calidad del ambiente y con ello a los organismos que se desean preservar dentro de las áreas protegidas. La fragmentación del hábitat produce el llamado efecto de borde, con lo cual las poblaciones de animales y plantas no solamente se ven reducidas y subdivididas, sino expuestas en forma creciente a los cambios ecológicos inducidos por los bordes (Wilcove et al. 1986, Kadmon y Pulliam. 1993). Es razonable esperar que los gradientes microclimáticos de los bordes de bosque afecten un amplio rango de especies forestales y lleven a un correspondiente gradiente de abundancia de determinadas especies (Matlack 1994). En Palo Verde se encontró que para el bosque adyacente a los pastizales dedicados al engorde de ganado (cuyo borde estaba orientado al norte), la distancia a la que se dio la inflexión de la curva fue de 45 m, a partir de este punto no se estableció la estabilidad esperada pero se dieron variaciones y un comportamiento opuesto. En ese mismo Parque Nacional en otro bosque que estaba adyacente a los sembradíos de arroz (con el borde orientado hacia el este) la distancia fue de 35 m. Las diferencias se deben a vanos factores, la orientación de los bordes, el uso de

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la tierra, el efecto del viento (Stoutjesdijk y Barkman 1992, Matlack 1993, Murcia 1995, Bennett 1999) y su efecto sobre el microclima (Geiger 1973, Rosenberg et al. 1983, Chen et al. 1992, Stoutjesdijik y Barkman 1992, Lowman y Nadkarni 1995, Murcia 1995, Laurance 1997) y la estructura y composición de cada bosque. Las variables vegetales afectadas por el efecto de borde, fueron diferentes en cada bosque muestreado, para el adyacente a los pastizales, se determinaron cambios en la cantidad de individuos, en el diámetro a la altura del pecho (dap) promedio y sobre la diversidad vegetal de especies con un dap 2,5 cm. Para el bosque adyacente al cultivo del arroz solamente se dieron cambios en la cantidad de individuos, además fue en el este bosque que se observó la presencia de claros en el sector afectado por el borde. Para proteger la diversidad de las áreas protegidas debe establecerse una adecuada zonificación, donde se desarrollen procesos científicos para determinar el tamaño de la zona de amortiguamiento, cuyo fin es proteger a las especies dentro del área protegida, de la competencia y efecto de los cambios en los usos de la tierra provocados por el hombre. Lo que debe hacerse es implementar un plan de acción donde las propiedades vecinas a las áreas protegidas, dediquen una porción de su tierra, la que está limitando con el área protegida, a programas de reforestación o que dejen que opere la sucesión secundaria, para crear una zona de amortiguamiento, que pertenecerá al propietario de la tierra y que deberá tener igual ancho que la distancia a la cual llega el efecto de borde. Con el fin de impedir que el efecto de borde tenga efectos sobre la diversidad vegetal de área protegida. Localización: Biblioteca OET: Tesis 375. NBINA-4023. Biblioteca Conmemorativa Orton: Thesis T431. Publicación no.: 119 Remoción y germinación de semillas de Dipteryx panamensis y Carapa guianensis en bosques fragmentados de Sarapiquí, Costa Rica [Removal and germination of Dipteryx panamensis and Carapa guianensis in fragmented forests of Sarapiquí, Costa Rica] / Arias-Le Claire, Harold. (CATIE. Area de Manejo y Conservación de Bosques y Biodiversidad, 7170 Turrialba, CR <E-mail: lecythiscr@yahoo.com>). En: Revista Forestal Centroamericana (ISSN 1021-0164), no. 34, p. 42-46. 2001. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-9214.pdf Seed removal and germination of Dipteryx panamensis and Carapa guianensis were evaluated in three forest fragments under forest management and at La Selva Biological Station. Seed removal was evaluated in two treatments were used caged and un-caged. We found high seed removal percentages of D. panamensis in the four sites as well as in both treatments. However seed predation was lower in La Selva caged treatment than in the three fragmented forests, probably due to high abundances of small rodents in these sites. For C. guianensis seed removal was high in all sites only in un-caged approach, may be some evidences of agoutis (Dasyprocta punctata, middle size rodent) action. Germination was evaluated under two treatments: unburied and artificially buried seeds (treatment that simulates scatter hoarding action of agoutis). Dipteryx germination showed no variation between treatments, since Carapa buried seeds germination was higher than unburied. In brief, the results suggest that a successful regeneration starting from seeds in D. panamensis, not only depends on scatter hoarding rodents, probably relies also in other agents in fragmented areas. The results for C. guianensis suggest that agoutis have an extremely important role in the regeneration process of this tree. Protect or increase connectivity in fragmented landscapes seems necessary to conserve populations of middle-size mammals, additionally contributing to timber sustainability of large-seed species like C. guianensis and D. panamensis. Localización: Biblioteca OET: R. NBINA-9214.

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Publicación no.: 120 Producción de frutos de Virola koschnyi Warb. y Simarouba amara Aubl., en un paisaje fragmentado de la zona Norte de Costa Rica [Fruit production of two dioecious tree species, Virola koschnyi and Simarouba amara, in a landscape fragments north of Costa Rica] / Rodríguez-Pineda, J.M. (CATIE. Area de Manejo y Conservación de Bosques y Biodiversidad, 7170 Turrialba, CR <E-mail: engide@utp.edu.co>). En: Revista Forestal Centroamericana (ISSN 1021-0164), no. 34, p. 52-56. 2001. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-14952.pdf The production of fruits of two dioecious species, Virola koschnyi and Simarouba amara was evaluated in tropical rain forests fragments in northeastern Costa Rica. To determine fruit production traps were used placed under the crown of female tree. It was predicted that differences would exist in the production of fruits from both species when comparing trees in fragments with continuous forest. However, no evidence was found that the production of fruits diminished in fragments forests, comparatively with continuous forest for both species. Localización: Biblioteca OET: R. Biblioteca OET: NBINA-14952. Publicación no.: 121 Propuesta metodológica para el diseño y validación de corredores biológicos en Costa Rica [Proposal of a method to design and validate biological corridors in Costa Rica] / Jiménez, G. (Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Unidad de Ecología y Sistemática, Bogotá, D.C., CO <E-mail: gljr65@hotmail.com>). En: Revista Forestal Centroamericana (ISSN 1021-0164), no. 34, p. 73-79. 2001. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-6847.pdf Biological corridors, inside the Osa Peninsula of Costa Rica are essential for the movement of wildcats and their prey. Currently populations of species mentioned here, are threatened by forest fragmentation, loss of habitat and constant conflict with humans. The methodology considered three main elements: 1) Evaluation of habitat use by wildlife; 2) Use of a Geographical Information System (GIS) to define corridor boundaries (pathways between habitat quality ranks); 3) Management regulations using the corridor as part of the landscape. Maps show that available habitat areas of "excellent" and "good" habitat quality features were reduced for the species Panthera onca and Puma concolor, and their conflict areas were more extensive; these factor likely pushed the wildcats to move in to heavily altered environments. In order to consider the feasibility of these designs, zones inside GDFR should have a mosaic of habitats available with a minimum width of 1 kilometer for wildlife. These zones should not simply be belts or continuous forest, but should be done as an excluding (protection) management practice in those areas identified as corridor pathways. Localización: Biblioteca OET: R. NBINA-6847. Publicación no.: 122 Regeneración temprana de Dipteryx panamensis y Carapa guianensis en tres bosques fragmentados de la Zona Norte de Costa Rica [Early regeneration of Dipteryx panamensis and Carapa guianensis in three fragmented forests of the Northern zone of Costa Rica] / Jones-Román, G. (CATIE. Area de Manejo y Conservación de Bosques y Biodiversidad, 7170 Turrialba, CR <E-mail: dipteryxcr@yahoo.com>). En: Revista Forestal Centroamericana (ISSN 1021-0164), no. 34, p. 80-83. 2001. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-14949.pdf In four forests of Sarapiquí, in the northern zone of Costa Rica, mammals' impact on seedlings survival of Dipteryx panamensis and Carapa guianensis was evaluated under two exclusion treatments. Starke,

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Rojomaca and Paniagua are forest fragments selectively logged and prone to hunting. On the contrary, the Biological Station La Selva is the last connected and protected forest from hunting in the zone. Results indicate that La Selva, besides its complex mammal community did not show higher seedling mortality than the forest patches. Most likely, carnivore species control herbivorous populations, or there may be a higher availability of food resources, releasing pressure on seedlings. Seeds bound to seedlings of both species were more attractive to mammals, but this preference did not produce a high seedling mortality, especially in the case of C. guianensis. High seedling mortality, presumably caused by mammals, suggests that herbivorous can exert a strong pressure on timber species. In short seedling survival of large-seed species is undergoing some changes in fragmented forests, and the effect of mammals should not be underestimated. In conclusion, it seems reasonable to include some considerations about plant-herbivore interaction in management and conservation strategies for the studied species. Additionally, connectivity among forest patches could be a key action in order to maintain populations of herbivorous predators. Localización: Biblioteca OET: R. Biblioteca OET: NBINA-14949. Publicación no.: 123 La cuenca del Río Tempisque: perspectivas para un manejo integrado [Perspectives for the integrated management of the Tempisque river basin, Costa Rica] / JiménezRamón, Jorge A (ed.); González-Jiménez, Eugenio (ed.). (Organización para Estudios Tropicales, Apdo. 676-2050, San Pedro de Montes de Oca, CR <E-mail: jjimenez@ots.ac.cr> <E-mail: egonza@ots.ac.cr>). San José: Organización para Estudios Tropicales, 2001. 135 p. ISBN: 9968-9717-4-X. Introducción: La cuenca del Tempisque es uno de los paisajes más hermosos de nuestro país. La diversidad de ambientes es impresionante, desde los bosques nubosos en las cumbres de los volcanes hasta los pantanos y manglares en las partes bajas de la cuenca. Esta región posee también una importancia especial por la relevancia de las actividades que ahí se generan. El turismo, el cultivo de peces y las plantaciones de caña y arroz brindan prosperidad y empleos a la región. Además, la herencia cultural de la región es una de las más ricas del país. La amplia mezcla cultural desarrollada a partir del siglo XVI, ha generado una fuerte identidad propia y un variado folklore popular. Durante las últimas décadas, la proliferación de megaproyectos turísticos y de infraestructura productiva han producido impactos importantes en los sistemas naturales de la región y al mismo tiempo han recibido impactos de procesos naturales que, como las inundaciones y la sequía, limitan el desarrolo productivo tradicional. Las obras de infraestructura para controlar las inundaciones de la zona y la desmedida extracción de aguas superficiales y subterráneas para riego amenazan la integridad ecológica de la región. El manejo del agua en esta cuenca es por lo tanto uno de los aspectos de mayor relevancia. Del adecuado manejo de este recurso depende la producción y el desarrollo de la región. La búsqueda de un equilibrio apropiado entre los requisitos de los sistemas productivos (en riego y protección de inundaciones) y las necesidades hídricas de los sistemas ecológicos de la región (en inundaciones periódicas y flujos permanentes) es uno de los retos más difíciles que enfrenta esta región. El camino a seguir parece ser la integración de ambos sectores en un manejo integral de la cuenca. La oportunidad de hacer de esta cuenca un ejemplo integrado depende de los pasos que se tomen en los próximos años. Esta publicación resume las discusiones y presentaciones realizadas durante dos talleres organizados en la Estación Biológica de Palo Verde durante el año 2000. Muchas de las discusiones se centraron alrededor del tema agua, eje central de cualquier plan de manejo de esta cuenca. El impacto del megaproyecto de riego del SENARA, el impacto potencial de represas y diques, la desmedida extracción de agua, la descoordinación institucional y la escasa participación comunal se discuten en los siguientes capítulos. Esperamos que

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estas discusiones contribuyan a iniciar un proceso político-social que culmine en la implementación de un manejo integrado de esta importante cuenca. El país no puede darse el lujo de postergar un proceso tan importante como éste. Localización: Biblioteca OET: 333.917 C965c. Publicación no.: 124 Preservando la integridad ecológica de la cuenca del Río Tempisque / Baish, S; Jiménez-Ramón, Jorge A (ed.); González-Jiménez, Eugenio (ed.). (The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment, 1001 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Suite 735S, Washington, DC 20004, US <E-mail: baish@heinzctr.org>). En: La cuenca del Río Tempisque: perspectivas para un manejo integrado (Perspectives for the integrated management of the Tempisque river basin, Costa Rica) San José: Organización para Estudios Tropicales, 2001. p. 102-105. ISBN: 9968-9717-4-X. Alrededor del mundo, la demanda por recursos hídricos está aumentando, lo cual ejerce tremendas presiones sobre los ecosistemas acuáticos. El actual debate sobre la cuenca del Río Tempisque no está ajeno a estos temas. Aunque el Río y su cuenca son recursos valiosos que deben ser administrados para maximizar la calidad de vida de los habitantes de la zona, el enfoque tradicional ingenieril para controlar el agua (ej. represas y otras estructuras) no es siempre la mejor solución a largo plazo. Los ríos con libre circulación proveen una amplia gama de funciones ecológicas que son críticas para las especies nativas, las comunidades locales y la economía regional. Hoy en día existe un creciente reconocimiento de que se debe alcanzar un balance ecológicamente saludable entre cultura y naturaleza, para que la sociedad sea sustentable. La cuenca del Río Tempisque, el sistema hidrológico más extenso de Costa Rica, provee actualmente una variedad de bienes y servicios ecológicos "gratuitos" a la región Guanacasteca. Para las cerca de 170 000 personas que viven en esta cuenca, ésta proporciona agua para consumo humano, irrigación, generación eléctrica, pesca, actividades agroindustriales y actividades recreativas. El valor monetario de estos bienes y servicios, aunque difíciles de cuantificar, es indudablemente grande. La importancia de este tipo de recursos es desafortunadamente a menudo ignorada hasta que estos son degradados y la calidad de vida y la economía en las áreas circundantes son reducidas substancialmente. Específicamente, el Río Tempisque y sus humedales: Proveen hábitat y corredores para la vida silvestre, incluyendo las pesquerías comerciales y deportiva. Transporta y recicla nutrimentos y sedimentos que mantienen humedales y zonas estuarinas; purifica y provee agua; recarga las aguas subterráneas; provee de suelo aluvial a las planicies; atenúa la inundación y minimiza los daños por inundación absorbiendo la energía en sus meandros, pantanos y planicies de inundación y acumulando agua y sedimentos por un período de tiempo; aumenta y mantiene los flujos de agua; provee de recreación a las comunidades locales; provee oportunidades para ecoturismo. Localización: Biblioteca OET: 333.917 C965c. Publicación no.: 125 Edge effects on lizards and frogs in tropical forest fragments [Efectos de borde sobre lagartijas y ranas en fragmentos de bosque tropical] / Schlaepfer, M.A; Gavin, Thomas A. (Cornell University. Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Mudd Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-2702, US <E-mail: mas50@cornell.edu> <E-mail: tag1@cornell.edu>). En: Conservation Biology (ISSN 0888-8892), v. 15, no. 4, p. 1079-1090. 2001. We investigated whether forest-pasture edges affect the distribution of an assemblage of small vertebrate ectotherms in a consistent and predictable manner. We describe the abundance and distribution of two species of anoline lizards (Norops) and five species of leaf-litter frogs

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(Eleutherodactylus) along the edges and in the interiors of nine forest fragments near Las Cruces. Costa Rica. Over 4 months, we surveyed 44 pairs of plots by visual encounter. In each pair of plots, one was immediately adjacent to the pasture and the second was within the forest "interior." Both plots of a pair were searched simultaneously. This block design controlled for the effects of weather, topography, and searcher ability. The distribution of all species was highly variable with respect to edges. Only two species of frogs, Eleutherodactylus podiciferus and E. cruentus, were significantly more abundant in interior plots than in edge plots, although not consistently so. Both species of Norops lizards were more abundant along forest edges during the dry season. Both Norops species and several Eleutherodactylus species, however, appeared to become more abundant in the forest interior after the onset of the wet season, suggesting a seasonal edge effect. In Norops polylepis, the most abundant anole, rates of ectoparasitism were lower along edges than in forest interiors. The magnitude of the edge effect on any one species was not influenced by the size of fragments or by the distance of the interior plot from the nearest edge. We believe that edge effects should not be defined by the distance to which they are detected. Rather, they should be viewed as highly dynamic in space and time; taxa appear to respond to different components of edge effects according to their particular biological requirements. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S7270. NBINA-8509. Publicación no.: 126 Hydrologic connectivity and the management of biological reserves: A global perspective [Conectividad hidrológica y el manejo de las reservas biológicas: una visión global] / Pringle, Catherine M. (University of Georgia. Institute of Ecology, 711 Biological Sciences Bldg, Athens, GA 30602-2602, US <E-mail: cpringle@uga.edu>). En: Ecological Applications (ISSN 1051-0761), v. 11, no. 4, p. 981-998. 2001. Increasingly, biological reserves throughout the world are threatened by cumulative alterations in hydrologic connectivity within the greater landscape. Hydrologic connectivity is used here in an ecological sense to refer to water-mediated transfer of matter, energy, and/or organisms within or between elements of the hydrologic cycle. Obvious human influences that alter this property include dams, associated flow regulation, groundwater extraction, and water diversion, all of which can result in a cascade of events in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Even disturbances well outside the boundaries of reserves can have profound effects on the biological integrity of these "protected" areas. Factors such as nutrient and toxic pollution and the spread of normative species are perpetuated by hydrologic connectivity, and their effects can be exacerbated by changes in this property. Hydrological alterations are now affecting reserves through increasingly broad feedback loops, ranging from overdrawn aquifers to atmospheric deposition and global climate change. Such alterations are often beyond the direct control of managers because they lie outside reserve boundaries, and data on hydrologic connection between reserves and surrounding landscapes are scant. The subject of water has also been typically excluded from the literature pertaining to both theoretical and practical aspects of reserve size, isolation, and design. This results, in part, from early management strategies developed when the landscape matrix outside of reserves was not excessively fragmented, and when awareness of hydrologic connectivity was in its infancy. The location of a given reserve within a watershed, relative to regional aquifers and wind and precipitation patterns, can play a key role in its response to human disturbance transmitted through the hydrologic cycle. To illustrate this point, I discuss reserves of varying sizes from diverse regions throughout the world. Reserves located in middle and lower watersheds often suffer direct hydrologic alterations that cause severe habitat modification and exacerbate the effects of pollution. In contrast, reserves in upper watersheds may have intact physical

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habitat and contain important source populations of some native biota, yet hydrologic disturbances in lower watersheds may cause extirpation of migratory species, cascading trophic effects, and genetic isolation. Worldwide, 7% of land area is either strictly or partially protected, and many reserves are in danger of becoming population ''sinks'' for wildlife if we do not develop a more predictive understanding of how they are affected by hydrologic alterations that originate outside of their boundaries. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S7332. NBINA-3836. Publicación no.: 127 Fragmentation in Central American dry forests: genetic impacts on Swietenia humilis (Meliaceae) [Fragmentación en los bosques secos centroamericanos: impactos genéticos en Swietenia humilis (Meliaceae)] / White, G.M; Boshier, David H. (Scottish Crop Research Institute. Department of Cell & Molecular Genetics, Dundee DD2 5DA, Scotland, GB <E-mail: david.boshier@plantsciences.oxford.uk>). En: Genetics, Demography and Viability of Fragmented Populations. Young, A.G; Clarke, G.M. (eds.). New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000. p. 293-311. (Conservation Biology Series; v. 4). ISBN: 0521-79421-8. Localización: No disponible. Publicación no.: 128 Reproductive ecology of tropical forest trees in logged and fragmented habitats in Thailand and Costa Rica [Ecología reproductiva de árboles del bosque tropical en hábitats talados y fragmentados en Tailandia y Costa Rica] / Ghazoul, Jaboury; McLeish, M. (University of London. Imperial College of Science Technology & Medicine, TH Huxley School Environmental Earth Sciences & Engineering, Silwood Pk, Ascot SL5 7PY, Berks, GB <E-mail: j.ghazoul@ic.ac.uk>). En: Plant Ecology (ISSN 1385-0237), v. 153, no. 1/2, p. 335-345. 2001. Invertebrates mediate several important ecological processes, including pollination and seed predation, and events that affect invertebrate diversity or behaviour can potentially disrupt forest regeneration processes. This study investigates the impact of logging in Thailand and forest fragmentation in Costa Rica on the pollination and seed production of two self-incompatible forest trees. Logging in a dry deciduous dipterocarp forest in Thailand resulted in reduced densities of the common dipterocarp tree Shorea siamensis and variably isolated individual trees. The number of flower visits to S. siamensis by pollinating Trigona bees was not affected by logging disturbance. However, pollinators did spend longer periods of time foraging in the canopies of isolated trees which were more prevalent in logged areas where tree density had been reduced. Consequently, at the logged site few cross-pollinations were effected and fruit set of S. siamensis was considerably lower than at nearby unlogged sites where distances between flowering conspecifics were smaller. Reduced fruit set has long-term implications for the recovery of S. siamensis populations in disturbed areas, and local population genetic structure is likely to be affected as reduced outcrossing rates among trees in disturbed regions results in relatively inbred seed. In Costa Rica forest fragmentation has restricted the once widespread tree Anacardium excelsum to forest patches located in an agriculturally-dominated landscape. As with S. siamensis, the abundance of pollinators, also Trigona bees, in the canopies of A. excelsum was largely unaffected by fragment size. Nevertheless, pollination success and seed production was positively correlated with fragment size. We propose that small bees rarely move between forest fragments and gene exchange through pollination occurs predominantly among trees within fragments and, together with likely low genetic variability in small fragments, that this contributes to the observed reduced fertilisation and

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seed set of A. excelsum. Thus increased tree isolation tree through selective logging or habitat fragmentation by forest clearance can result in reduced seed set due to changes in the foraging patterns of poorly mobile pollinators. Even if population sizes of the pollinators are maintained following environmental perturbation, this study shows that disturbance may disrupt pollination processes through changes in pollinator foraging behaviour. More attention needs to be focussed on changes in the behaviour of species involved in key ecological interactions following disturbance events in tropical forests. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-35. Publicación no.: 129 Population declines and priorities for amphibian conservation in Latin America [Disminuciones de la población y prioridades para la conservación de anfibios en Latinoamérica] / Young, Bruce E; Lips, Karen R; Reaser, J.K; Ibáñez-D., Roberto; Salas, A.W; Cedeño, J.R; Coloma, L.A; Ron, Santiago R; La Marca, E; Meyer, J.R; Muñoz, A; Bolaños-Vives, Federico; Chaves-Cordero, Gerardo A; Romo, D. (NatureServe, 1101 Wilson Blvd, 15th Floor, Arlington, VA, 22209, US <E-mail: bruce_young@natureserve.org> <E-mail: dbmcd@uwyo.edu> <E-mail: bolanosv@biologia.ucr.ac.cr>). En: Conservation Biology (ISSN 0888-8892), v. 15, no. 5, p. 1213-1223. 2001. Although dramatic amphibian population declines have been reported worldwide, our understanding of the extent of the declines in Latin America, where amphibian diversity is high, is limited to a few welldocumented studies. To better understand the geographic extent of declines, their possible causes, and the measures needed to improve Latin American scientists' ability to research the phenomenon and make effective management recommendations, we convened three regional workshops with 88 Latin American herpetologists and conservationists. Population declines are widespread in Latin America. At least 13 countries have experienced declines, and in 40 cases species are now thought to be extinct or extirpated in a country where they once occurred. Declines or extinctions have affected 30 genera and nine families of amphibians, Most declines have occurred in remote highlands, above 500 m in elevation in Central America and above 1000 m in the Andes. Most documented declines occurred in the 1980s. Of the possible causes studied to date, climate change appears to be important at one site and chytrid fungal disease has been identified at sites in three countries. Although many monitoring studies are currently underway in a variety of habitats, most studies are recent and of short duration. In a signed resolution, workshop participants called for greater collaboration and communication among scientists working in Latin America to understand the geographic extent of population declines and the distribution of possible causal factors. In situ conservation is important to protect habitats, but captiverearing programs for species subject to imminent extinction are also needed. Better understanding of the taxonomy and natural history of amphibians and more funding for research and monitoring are critical to developing a scientific basis for management action to arrest and reverse population declines. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S7559. NBINA-4755. Publicación no.: 130 Deforestation in Costa Rica: A quantitative analysis using remote sensing imagery [Deforestación en Costa Rica: Un análisis cuantitativo utilizando imágenes de satélite] / SánchezAzofeifa, Gerardo Arturo; Harriss, R.C; Skole, D.L. (University of Alberta. Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E3, CA <E-mail: arturo.sanchez@ualberta.ca>). En: Biotropica (ISSN 0006-3606), v. 33, no. 3, p. 378-384. 2001. Accurate estimates of forest cover and forest fragmentation are critical for developing countries such as Costa Rica, which holds four to five percent of the world's plant and bird species. We estimated forest

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cover for Costa Rica using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper satellite scenes acquired between 1986 and 1991. In 1991, 29 percent (ca 14,000 km²) of the land cover of Costa Rica was closed forest cover; of that forested area, ca 30 percent is protected by national conservation policies. Forest loss in a study area representing ca 50 percent of Costa Mca's territory during a five-year period (1986-1991) was 2250 km², and the estimated deforestation rate was ca 450 km²/yr, or ca 4.2 percent/yr, of remaining forest cover. Forests are almost completely eliminated from the Tropical Moist Forest and Premontane Moist Forest life zones, and the level of fragmentation of remaining forests may be more advanced than previously thought. Localización: Biblioteca OET: B. NBINA-1075. Publicación no.: 131 El proyecto binacional AMISCONDE. Manejo y conservación de zonas de amortiguamiento en la Reserva de la Biósfera La Amistad, Costa Rica - Panamá / Ramírez-Umaña, M. (AMISCONDE, Apdo. Postal 8-3870, 1000 San José, CR <Fax: (506)253-2649>). Primer Congreso Latinoamericano de Parques Nacionales y Otras Áreas Protegidas. Ponencias, Santa Marta CO21-28 de mayo de 1997. , 1997. p. 161. AMISCONDE es un proyecto de desarrollo sostenible y conservación de la biodiversidad, desarrollado en 2 cuencas hidrográficas de la zona de amortiguamiento de la vertiente pacífica de la Reserva de la Biósfera La Amistad en Costa Rica y Panamá. Hay un sitio de proyecto en cada país. Es ejecutado por dos agencias ambientales privadas (El Centro Científico Tropical en Costa Rica y la Fundación para el Desarrollo Sostenible en Panamá), en asociación con Conservación Internacional, la Universidad de Texas A&M y corporaciones extranjeras (McDonalds, Coca Cola, Sony, etc). El área total del proyecto es de 15,000 ha en ambos países, abarcando aproximadamente 12 comunidades rurales agrícolas. Se inició en 1992 y finalizará a principios de 1998. Su foco de acción comprende la agricultura y agroforestería sostenible, el desarrollo económico rural, educación ambiental, fortalecimiento de las comunidades locales por medio de la auto-gestión, la conservación de las áreas núcleo de la Reserva de la Biósfera (Parques Nacionales Chirripó en Costa Rica, Parque Nacional Volcán Barú y Parque Internacional La Amistad en Panamá), la reforestación para la protección de cuencas y plantaciones comerciales. Se han reforestado varios cientos de hectáreas comercialmente, se han protegido miles de hectáreas que se hayan en etapa de regeneración natural, cientos de hectáreas se hayan bajo modalidades de conservación de suelos, sistemas agroforestales, se logró controlar los incendios forestales a través de la acción comunal de grupos y brigadas comunitarias, se integraron curricula educativos ambientales a toda la población estudiantil, se estructuraron pequeñas empresas ambientales, como grupos de agricultores que comercializan directamente sus productos, grupos de jóvenes capacitados en la producción de árboles forestales y grupos de mujeres en la producción de árboles frutales que no sólo suministran las necesidades para las labores del proyecto, sino que suplen necesidades regionales de arbolitos. Igualmente, se trabaja con agencias de gobierno en ambos países como los Ministerios de Agricultura, de Ambiente, de Educación para lograr, a través de la coordinación, maximizar las acciones comunes de estas agencias y el proyecto. Se ha dado finalmente una profunda apropiación comunitaria del proyecto, en que los grupos organizados han tomado gradualmente la responsabilidad en el manejo de componentes del proyecto (ejemplo: educación ambiental, control de fuegos, sistema de créditos, mercadeo de productos). Actualmente se está enfatizando en el papel de los grupos organizados comunales para la continuación de las actividades y la capacitación en el manejo de recursos, una vez que el proyecto finalice en 1998. Localización: Biblioteca OET: MAST-31.

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Publicación no.: 132 Adaptación y validación de metodologías de planificación / Villa-Romero, J.L. (Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza. Programa Manejo Integrado de Recursos Naturales, Turrialba, CR <Fax: (506)5561533>). Primer Congreso Latinoamericano de Parques Nacionales y Otras Areas Protegidas. Ponencias, Santa Marta CO21-28 de mayo de 1997. , 1997. p. 215. Para la adaptación y validación de las metodologías de planificación de áreas protegidas, en el CATIE se han tomado en cuenta los siguientes principios: 1. La conservación es una actividad de desarrollo. 2. Los vecinos y todos los usuarios son importantes. 3. La agenda de desarrollo debe ampliarse. 4. Las interacciones del sistema demandan que la planificación sea integrada. Estos principios nos han llevado a probar métodos de planificación que consideran a las áreas protegidas como unidades de régimen especial que sustentan el desarrollo, donde se procura la activa participación de los vecinos, usuarios y sectores interesados en cualquier aspecto del manejo; y donde se contemplan aspectos físicos, sociales y culturales de las poblaciones en general. Todo esto es un marco donde prima la flexibilidad y la capacidad de adaptación a las circunstancias locales. El análisis situacional permite objetivamente ubicar a las áreas protegidas en su entorno físico, político, social y cultural (situación inicial), para proyectarlas como unidades que sustentan el desarrollo regional. Con este enfoque se pretende: 1. Abordar el nivel conceptual, donde la situación conflictiva propia de la relación sociedad-naturaleza determina la situación-objetivo de los planes. 2. Abordar el nivel de planificación integral, para enfrentar los problemas que surgen de la falta de integración de la variable ambiental en los planes de desarrollo. 3. Abordar el nivel de diseño del plan, por su relación con los problemas que surgen de la aplicación de conceptos, principios y formas de planificación. En este proceso se han desarrollado, validado y aplicado enfoques metodológicos para: 1. La determinación de áreas (o situaciones) críticas para el manejo. 2. El ordenamiento y manejo de actividades productivas en áreas protegidas. 3. El diseño, establecimiento y manejo de zonas de amortiguamiento y corredores biológicos. Localización: Biblioteca OET: MAST-31. Publicación no.: 133 Temas prioritarios para estudios ecológicos / INBIO / SINAC / Banco Mundial, San José, CR. San José: Programa Conjunto INBio-SINAC Proyecto "Desarrollo de Recursos de Biodiversidad", 2000. (GEF/BM/TF; no. 028324). Desde junio de 1998, el Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio) en conjunto con el Sistema Nacional de Áreas de Conservación (SINAC) ejecutan el proyecto "Desarrollo de Recursos de Biodiversidad" financiado por el Fondo Global para el Ambiente (GEF) a través del Banco Internacional para la Reconstrucción y el Desarrollo (BM). Este proyecto tiene como objetivo demostrar que al adquirir más conocimiento e información acerca de especies particulares, se aumenta el valor de las mismas, así como las posibilidades de mercadeo de los servicios de la biodiversidad. Dentro del componente "Usos Sostenibles de la Biodiversidad", el proyecto contempla el apoyo para la realización de una serie de estudios ecológicos en cada una de las Áreas de Conservación involucradas (Tempisque, Arenal-Tilarán, Amistad Caribe, Amistad Pacífico y Osa). El enfoque de los estudios es sobre especies seleccionadas para obtener un mayor conocimiento sobre la ecología de especies de particular importancia o interés para el desarrollo de bases científicas para su conservación y manejo de sistemas bióticos. A través de los estudios ecológicos se busca obtener un mayor conocimiento sobre historia natural de especies consideradas como amenazadas o en peligro de extinción y de otras raras o de particular importancia; información ecológica de especies para la toma de decisiones respecto al manejo de áreas protegidas; apoyo al diseño de proyectos de conservación y uso sostenible de la biodiversidad mediante la

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incorporación de mejor y mayor información ecológica de las especies y sistemas bióticos; y contribuir en el desarrollo de indicadores biológicos para la determinación de los impactos de uso de recursos naturales y desarrollo de proyectos. Durante 1998 y 1999 se han puesto en ejecución más de 16 estudios ecológicos en las cinco Áreas de Conservación. En una revisión realizada al proyecto, en noviembre de 1999, se concluyó que se requería tener una mejor claridad sobre las necesidades de información ecológica más urgentes por parte de las Áreas de Conservación, que permitiera que los estudios impactaran más y mejor, en la toma de decisiones sobre el manejo de los recursos de biodiversidad. Con base en lo anterior, se acordó que durante el primer trimestre del año 2000, se organizaría un encuentro en cada Área de Conservación, con la finalidad de elaborar una lista de temas prioritarios para realizar estudios ecológicos. Dicho encuentro tendría participación de funcionarios de las Áreas de Conservación, INBio e investigadores invitados. Este documento presenta un resumen de los principales resultados alcanzados en los cinco encuentros realizados. Objetivos de los Encuentros: 1) Elaborar un portafolio (lista de temas prioritarios con términos de referencia) sobre prioridades para desarrollar estudios ecológicos en respuesta a necesidades específicas del Área de Conservación. 2) Desarrollar una estrategia para acercar e integrar instituciones de investigación, investigadores, estudiantes nacionales e internacionales para que desarrollen los estudios identificados. En este documento se presentan los temas prioritarios para la realización de estudios ecológicos identificados en cada Área de Conservación. Incluye información básica como problemas a resolver, resultados esperados y recomendaciones de instancias e investigadores que pueden realizar el estudio. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 415. Publicación no.: 134 Variation in the breeding behavior of the dry forest tree Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Guanacaste) in Costa Rica [Variación en el comportamiento reproductivo del árbol del bosque seco Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Guanacaste) en Costa Rica] / Rocha-Núñez, Oscar J; Aguilar, G. (Universidad de Costa Rica. Escuela de Biología, San Pedro de Montes de Oca, CR <E-mail: ojrocha@biologia.ucr.ac.cr>). En: American Journal of Botany (ISSN 0002-9122), v. 88, no. 9, p. 1600-1606. 2001. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-54.pdf We studied the breeding systems of four populations of Enterolobium cyclocarpum (guanacaste, earpod tree) in Costa Rica. Multilocus stimates of the outcrossing rate indicate that E. cyclocarpum is a predominant outcrossing species (t(m) ranged between 0.881 and 0.901) and biparental inbreeding is low (range between 0.058 and 0.079). Overall, our analyses showed significant differences in the gene frequencies between pollen and ovules and significant differences in pollen gene frequencies between the four populations. We also found significant differences in the pollen gene frequencies calculated for single trees in the same population. Outcrossing rates and pollen gene frequencies varied in two consecutive years in two populations of E. cyclocarpum. The correlated mating model revealed that there are differences in the correlation of paternity between populations and years. These findings indicate that there is variation in the average number of trees that father the seed crop of each tree and/or that some fathers are overrepresented in the seed crop of each tree. The implication of these findings for the development of strategies for conservation and management of this species are discussed. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-54.

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Publicación no.: 135 Reproductive biology of the dry forest tree Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Guanacaste) in Costa Rica: A comparison between trees left in pastures and trees in continuous forest [Biología reproductiva del árbol del bosque seco Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Guanacaste) en Costa Rica: Una comparación entre árboles en potreros y árboles en bosques continuos] / Rocha-Núñez, Oscar J; Aguilar, G. (Universidad de Costa Rica. Escuela de Biología, San Pedro de Montes de Oca, CR <E-mail: ojrocha@biologia.ucr.ac.cr>). En: American Journal of Botany (ISSN 0002-9122), v. 88, no. 9, p. 1607-1614. 2001. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-55.pdf We compared the rate of pollen deposition, the likelihood of fruit production, the number of seeds per fruit, the outcrossing rate, and the progeny vigor of the tropical dry forest tree Enterolobium cyclocarpum for individuals in pastures vs. individuals in continuous forest. We found that flowers from trees growing in continuous forests were more likely to have pollen deposited on their stigmas than flowers from trees in pastures (52.1 vs. 32.3%, respectively). We also found that trees from continuous forests were almost six times more likely to set fruits and produce more seeds per fruit than trees in pastures. Morever, progeny from trees in continuous forests were, on average, more vigorous than the progeny from trees in pastures, as indicated by 12 of 16 indicators of plant vigor. However, there was no significant difference in the multilocus estimate of the outcrossing rate between the two groups of trees (tm = 1.00 and 0.99 for trees from continuous forest and trees from pastures, respectively). But there are differences in the correlation of paternity between the progeny of the two groups, where the progeny from trees in pastures showed a lower correlation of paternity than progeny of trees from continuous forests (r(p) = 0.104 and r(p) = 0.189, respectively). We argue that the mechanisms that regulate progeny vigor are disrupted in trees from pastures. We discuss the implications of these findings for the conservation of E. cyclocarpum. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-55. Publicación no.: 136 Land-cover change detection for the tropics using remote sensing and geographic information systems [Detección de la cobertura vegetal para los trópicos utilizando sensores remotos y sistemas de información geográfica] / Read, J.M. (Syracuse University. Department of Geography, Syracuse, NY 13244, US <E-mail: jaread@maxwell.syr.edu>). Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University and A&M College, 1999. 191 p. ISBN: 0-599-54876-2. Dissertation, Ph.D., The Louisiana State University and A&M College, Graduate School, Baton Rouge, LA (USA). Changing land-cover in the tropics is a central issue in global change research. This dissertation used Landsat-TM data to examine processes of land- use and land-cover changes for a lowland tropical site in Sarapiquí, Costa Rica. Performances of selected image-processing methods to detect and identify landcover changes were evaluated. A land-cover time-series from 1960 to 1996 for the site was generated using maps derived from aerial photographs and Landsat-TM classifications. Changes in land-cover from 1986 to 1996 were evaluated using standard landscape indices, and interpreted in terms of their historical context. Dominant changes in the site during this decade included the breakup of extensive cattle ranches for large-scale plantation enterprises and small-scale farming. Colonization processes, improvements in access, and changes in export markets were identified as the major driving forces of change. Evaluation of change-detection methods revealed that post classification comparison performed significantly better than image differencing algorithms tested. Selection of a suitable changedetection method can be aided through examination of the individual bond statistics for the specific area and problem in question. The univariate bond differencing technique has potential for

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identification of 'hot spots' of change using Landsat-TM data. Spatial pattern-recognition techniques to characterize complexity of Landsat-TM data were evaluated. Fractal dimension calculated using the triangular prism surface area method, and Moran's I index of spatial autocorrelation, clearly distinguished different land-cover types. Shannon's diversity index and the contagion metric were not found to be useful in characterizing the images. The use of fractal dimension, in conjunction with standard non-spatial descriptive band statistics, are seen as having great potential in characterizing unclassified remotely sensed data based on differences in land-cover types. These statistics could be further developed for rapid environmental monitoring. Localización: Biblioteca OET: Tesis 385. NBINA-5686. Publicación no.: 137 Disappearance of insectivorous birds from tropical forest fragments [Desaparición de aves insectívoras de fragmentos de bosques tropicales] / Sekercioglu, Cagan H; Ehrlich, Paul R; Daily, Gretchen C; Aygen, Deniz; Goehring, David M; Sandí, Randi F. (Stanford University. Department of Biological Sciences, Center for Conservation Biology, Stanford CA 94305-5020, US <E-mail: cagan@stanford.edu> <E-mail: pre@stanford.edu> <E-mail: gdaily@stanford.edu> <E-mail: dgoehrin@princeton.edu>). En: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (ISSN 0027-8424), v. 99, no. 1, p. 263-267. 2002. Determining the impact of forest disturbance and fragmentation on tropical biotas is a central goal of conservation biology. Among tropical forest birds, understory insectivores are particularly sensitive to habitat disturbance and fragmentation, despite their relatively small sizes and freedom from hunting pressure. Why these birds are especially vulnerable to fragmentation is not known. Our data indicate that the best determinant of the persistence of understory insectivorous birds in small fragments is the ability to disperse through deforested countryside habitats. This finding contradicts our initial hypothesis that the decline of insectivorous birds in forest fragments is caused by impoverished invertebrate prey base in fragments. Although we observed significantly fewer insectivorous birds in smaller fragments, extensive sampling of invertebrate communities (106,082 individuals) and avian diets (of 735 birds) revealed no important differences between large and small fragments. Neither habitat specificity nor drier fragment microclimates seemed critical. Bird species that were less affected by forest fragmentation were, in general, those that used the deforested countryside more, and we suggest that the key to their conservation will be found there. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S7678. NBINA-6740. Publicación no.: 138 Documenting land cover history of a humid tropical environment in northeastern Costa Rica using time-series remotely sensed data [Documentando la historia de la cubierta vegetal de un ambiente húmedo tropical en el noreste de Costa Rica utilizando series temporales de datos de teleobservación] / Read, J.M; Denslow, Julie Sloan; Guzmán, S.M. (Syracuse University. Department of Geography, Syracuse, NY 13244, US <E-mail: jaread@maxwell.syr.edu>). En: GIS and remote sensing applications in biogeography and ecology. Millington, A.C; Walsh, S.J; Osborne, P.E. (eds.) Boston, MS: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. p. 69-89. ISBN: 0-7923-7454-1. A time-series of aerial photography and Landsat TM data were compiled for an area of the Caribbean lowlands of northeastern Costa Rica from 1960-1996. Geo-referenced, ground-based information was collected in 1996 and 1997. Changes in land cover were mapped and landscape fragmentation was examined using landscape pattern metrics. By 1996 the area was characterized by a complex mosaic of

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forests. pastures, and crop lands of different ages and disturbance histories. The most important forces driving land use changes were colonization, infrastructure development, and changes in export markets, but the spatial patterns of land use change were determined by the physical landscape. In terms of longterm forest health and conservation, there are three considerations: (1) whilst forests remain an important component of the unprotected landscape in the region, and deforestation rates have declined, the forests are highly fragmented and the area exposed to edge effects is high: (2) the secondary forests in the area are young and transient in nature; and (3) never cleared forests are in good condition, but they are susceptible to disturbance in the future. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S7698. Publicación no.: 139 Breeding population size of a fragmented population of a Costa Rican dry forest tree species [Tamaño de la población reproductiva de una población fragmentada de árboles forestales de un bosque seco costarricense] / Apsit, Victoria Joan; Hamrick, James L; Nason, J.D. (University of Missouri-St. Louis. Department of Biology, 8001 Natural Bridge Rd, St. Louis, MO 63121-4499, US <Email: hamrick@dogwood.botany.uga.edu> <E-mail: jnason@iastate.edu>). En: Journal of Heredity (ISSN 0022-1503), v. 92, no. 5, p. 415-420. 2001. Pollen immigration can offset the effects of genetic drift and inbreeding in small populations. To understand the genetic consequences of forest fragmentation, estimates of pollen flow into remnant fragments are essential. Such estimates are straightforward for plants with singly sired, multiseeded fruits, since the pollen donor genotype for each fruit can be unambiguously reconstructed through fullsib genealogical analyses. Allozyme analyses were used to estimate pollen donor numbers from the progeny of fruits of the tropical dry forest tree Enterolobium cyclocarpum in a small (9.8 ha) fragmented population (N = 11) over three reproductive seasons (1994, 1995, and 1996). These analyses indicate that each tree receives pollen from many pollen donors. When data are pooled for the site, estimated maximum pollen donor pool sizes in all years exceed the number of individuals (56) in the 227 ha study area. Although unidentified pollen donors may be located as close as 250 m to the study trees, the number of unidentified pollen donors indicates that individuals in this forest fragment are part of a large network of reproductively active individuals. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-112. Publicación no.: 140 Agroforestería y sistemas de producción animal en América Central / Camero-Rey, L.A; Camargo-García, J.C; Ibrahim, Muhammad A; Schlönvoigt, Andrea M. (CATIE. Area de Sistemas Agroforestales y Manejo de Cuencas Hidrográficas, Apdo. Postal 7170, Turrialba, CR <E-mail: acamero@catie.ac.cr> <E-mail: jupipe@utp.edu.co> <E-mail: mibrahim@catie.ac.cr> <E-mail: andrea_schlonvoigt@yahoo.de>). Seminario Intensificación de la Ganadería en Centroamérica: Beneficios Económicos y Ambientales, Turrialba CR24-26 May. 1999. En: Intensificación de la ganadería en Centroamérica: beneficios económicos y ambientales. PomaredaBenel, C; Steinfeld, H. (eds.) Turrialba: CATIE / FAO / SIDE, 2000. p. 177-198. (No abstract). Localización: Biblioteca OET: 333.7414 I61. Publicación no.: 141 Ecology and conservation of white-lipped peccaries and jaguars in Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica [Ecología y conservación de los chanchos cariblancos y jaguares en el Parque Nacional Corcovado, Costa Rica] / Carrillo-Jiménez, Eduardo. (Universidad Nacional. Programa Regional en Manejo de Vida Silvestre, Apdo. 1350-3000, Heredia, CR <E-mail: maltrich@una.ac.cr> <E-mail:

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ecarrill@racsa.co.cr>). Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts, 2000. 228 p. ISBN: 0-599-64590-3. Dissertation, Ph.D., University of Massachusetts, Graduate School, Amherst, MA (USA). The movements, activity patterns, habitat use, and range size of 36 (25F:11M) radio-marked whitelipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari), all members of a single herd, were monitored in relation to seasonal fruit availability in part of Corcovado National Park (CNP) during 1996-1998. Fruit availability varied seasonally and by forest type: peccaries more frequently used Primary forest during February-May (medium fruit abundance), Secondary and Coastal forest during June-September (high fruit) and Yolillal (swamp forest) during October-January (low fruit). Annually the peccaries ranged over about 40 km², but use of the area shifted seasonally and was significantly less when fruit was most abundant. Peccary movements are likely reduced and thus density likely increases in areas where the interspersion of seasonally important habitats is high. The spatial and temporal movements of jaguars (Panthera onca ) were monitored in relation to the distribution of nesting marine turtles and white-lipped peccaries in part of CNP during 1996- 1998. One radio-marked adult female jaguar was monitored for 3 years to assess home range location and size, activity patterns, and food habits. Jaguar tracks also were recorded on 5-km beach surveys for nesting turtles, on 20-km forest trail transects, and when following 36 radiomarked adult peccaries that lived as part of a single herd. Jaguars regularly ate turtles and peccaries, but spent more time on the beach during last quarter and new moon (LQ/NM) phases when turtles were more abundant. Jaguar home range size did not vary by season or year, but was more restricted during LQ/NM phases, as well. Jaguars were more nocturnal during LQ/NM phases (turtles nested only at night), and more diurnal otherwise (peccaries were diurnal). An "El Niño" weather event was reflected in lower abundance of nesting turtles at all phases of the moon, and increased activity of jaguars in the forest. Jaguar hunting behavior in CNP is strongly related to the abundance of nesting marine turtles and thus moon phase. Reproduction-related observations made on the radio-marked adult female jaguar included when she traveled with an adult male, her approximate denning dates, cub productivity (1/litter), and the length of time between pregnancies (22 months). Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-5685. Publicación no.: 142 Distribution and dispersal of species in natural and human-dominated landscapes (Lepidoptera) [Distribución y diseminación de especies en paisajes naturales y dominados por el hombre (Lepidoptera)] / Ricketts, T.H. (World Wildlife Fund, Conservation Science Program, 1250 24th St NW, Washington, DC 20037, US <E-mail: taylor.ricketts@wwfus.org>). Stanford, CA: Stanford University, 2000. 108 p. ISBN: 0-599-93176-0. Dissertation, Ph.D., Stanford University, Graduate School, Stanford CA (USA). The four chapters that compose my dissertation address two ecological issues of importance to biodiversity conservation. The first issue (Chapters 1 and 2) concerns the ecological effects of anthropogenic habitat fragmentation with a specific focus on the "matrix" (i.e., the human-dominated areas surrounding native fragments). In the first chapter, I sampled moth species richness in the agricultural matrix surrounding forest fragments in southern Costa Rica. I found that agricultural type did not affect moth species richness or composition; however, sites near (about 1 km) a large forest fragment were significantly higher in species richness and more similar to forest sites in species composition than sites far (3.5 km) from the fragment. In the second chapter, I tested whether two distinct matrix types (i.e., conifer forest and willow thicket) differed in their resistances to butterfly movement between patches of meadow habitat in the Rocky Mountains. For the majority of butterflies, conifer was 3-12 times more resistant than willow. These two studies suggest that the surrounding

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matrix may support substantial native diversity and may influence the "effective isolation" of habitat remnants in fragmented landscapes. The second issue (Chapters 3 and 4) concerns the utility of indicator taxa as surrogate measures of overall diversity. Well-known indicator taxa often are proposed as efficient ways of identifying conservation priorities, but the correlation between putative indicators and other taxa has been largely untested. In the third chapter, I tested nine taxa as indicators of overall species richness across North America. I found that the three most practical choices for indicator taxa (mammals, birds, and butterflies) are not the most informative indicators of overall species richness, when employed either individually or in combination. In the fourth chapter, I examined whether butterflies were a useful indicator of diversity in a closely-related but relatively poorly-known group, the moths, at a local landscape scale. I found no correlation in diversity between the two taxa. The findings of these two studies suggest that well-known taxa are often not informative surrogate measures of diversity in other groups and that phylogenetic and ecological relatedness are not reliable criteria for selecting appropriate indicator taxa. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-8072. Publicación no.: 143 Effects of dry tropical forest fragmentation on the reproductive success and genetic structure of the tree Samanea saman [Efectos de la fragmentación del bosque seco tropical sobre el éxito reproductivo y estructura genética del árbol Samanea saman] / Cascante-Marín, Alfredo M; Quesada-Avendaño, Mauricio; Lobo-Segura, Jorge A; Fuchs-Castillo, Eric J. (Museo Nacional de Costa Rica. Departamento de Historia Natural, Apdo 749-1000, San José, CR <E-mail: hnatural@museocostarica.go.cr> <E-mail: mquesada@oikos.unam.mx> <E-mail: jlobo@biologia.ucr.ac.cr> <E-mail: efuchs@cariari.ucr.ac.cr>). En: Conservation Biology (ISSN 0888-8892), v. 16, no. 1, p. 137-147. 2002. Tropical trees are particularly vulnerable to forest fragmentation it because of their low densities, selfincompatibilty system, and high rates of outbreeding. Forest fragmentation is likely to decrease gene flow, increase endogamy, and eventually produce a high differentiation among remnant populations. Our objectives were to evaluate the effect of forest fragmentation on the reproductive success, progeny vigor, and genetic variation of the tropical dry-forest tree Samanea saman. We conducted our study in the dry forest of Costa Rica and compared two tree conditions to evaluate forest fragmentation: (1) isolated, individual trees more than 500 m from the nearest conspecific and surrounded by agricultural fields, pastures, or small remnant forest patches and (2) trees in continuous populations of 10 or more individuals per hectare and surrounded by undisturbed forest, We compared the probability of natural pollination, seed production, genetic variation, and progeny vigor of trees in isolation and in continuous populations. The probability of flowers receiving more than 23 pollen tubes at the base of styles (the flowers more likely to produce a mature fruit) was significantly greater for trees in continuous populations (2.1%) than for trees in isolation (0.4%). However, flowers from the two tree conditions received similar pollen loads on their stigmas. Fruits of trees from continuous populations produced similar numbers of seeds as isolated trees did and had a similar probability of seed predation by brucbid beetles were significantly greater in continuous seed abortion. The probability populations (30%) than in isolated trees (20%). The number of undamaged seeds (potentially viable) was similar for both tree conditions. A genetic analysis of progeny showed that levels of genetic diversity in trees in isolation and in continuous populations were comparable. The effective self-fertilization rate and inbreeding coefficient of the progeny were slightly higher for isolated trees than for trees in continuous populations. In addition, there was more genetic similarity in the progeny of isolated trees, within and

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between fruits. Seeds produced by different fruits within a tree were more likely to be related in an isolated tree than in a tree from continuous populations. Seeds produced by trees from continuous populations were more likely to germinate and to produce greater leaf area and biomass as seedlings than progeny from isolated trees. We concluded that the fragmentation of tropical dry forests affects the genetic variation and vigor of S. saman progeny. Isolated trees showed high reproductive capacity, however, in spite of their habitat condition. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-178. Publicación no.: 144 Regeneración temprana de dos especies arbóreas de semilla grande en bosques fragmentados de la Zona Norte de Costa Rica [Early regeneration of two large-seed arboreal species in fragmented forests of the Northern zone of Costa Rica] / Jones-Román, G. (CATIE. Area de Manejo y Conservación de Bosques y Biodiversidad, 7170 Turrialba, CR <E-mail: dipteryxcr@yahoo.com>). Turrialba: CATIE, 2000. 50 p. Tesis, Mag. Sc., Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza, Turrialba (Costa Rica). Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-7292.pdf This research evaluated the impact of mammals and the seedling performance of large-seed species Dipteryx panamensis and Carapa nicaraguensis in four forests of Sarapiquí, Costa Rica's North Zone. Starke (344 ha), Rojomaca (117 ha) and Paniagua (142 ha) are forest fragments selectively logged and prone to hunting. In opposite, the Biological Station La Selva (1536 ha) in join with the Braulio Carrillo National Park is the last connected and protected forest of hunting in the zone. Was evaluated seedling survivorship with and without seeds of both species in two mammal's exclusion treatments. Height, specific leaf area and seedling success (survival seedlings times survival groups height) was evaluated only for D. panamensis. Also, for both species was evaluated per capita recruitment (number of seedlings and saplings per reproductive tree) and was considerate as an indicator of natural regeneration level for each site. Additionally, diurnal walks in all sites were carried out to estimate mammal communities composition and possible defaunation. Results indicate that La Selva, besides its complex mammal community did not showed higher seedling mortality than forest patches. Probably, carnivore species controls herbivorous populations, or maybe there is a higher availability of food resources and this may release pressure over seedlings. Seedling mortality observed in forest patches suggests that some small and middle-size mammals are using this kind of forest as part of their habitat. Seeds bound to seedlings of both species were a potentially attractive for mammals, even when this preference doesn’t produce high seedling mortality especially in the case of C. guianensis. High seedling mortality presumably caused by mammals and signs of a low species. In the other hand, seedlings growing and the level of natural regeneration in D. panamensis suggests a more successful regeneration process in forest patches probably due to higher incidence of light than in connected forest. In short seedling survivor of large-seed species is undergoing some changes in fragmented forests, probably because these sites are part the habitat for small and mid-sizes herbivorous. Although forests patches seem to have better abiotic conditions for the natural regeneration of the studied species but the effect of mammals could not be underestimated. Some suggestions can be derived from results of this research. It seems reasonable to include some considerations about plant-herbivorous interaction in management and conservation strategies for the studied species. Additionally, connectivity among forest patches could be a key action in order to maintain populations of herbivorous predators. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-7292. Biblioteca Carlos Monge A.: 581.31 J77r.

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Publicación no.: 145 Temporal change and patch dynamics of Costa Rican tropical dry forest remnants in an agricultural landscape assessed using remotely sensed thermal data [Cambio temporal y dinámica de la parcela de remanentes de bosques secos costarricenses en un paisaje agrícola evaluado remotamente mediante datos térmicamente sensibles] / Kramer, E.A. (University of Georgia. Institute of Ecology, Athens, GA 30602, US). Athens, GA: The University of Georgia, 1996. 133 p. Dissertation, Ph.D., The University of Georgia, Graduate School, Athens, Georgia (USA). Vegetation scientist estimates that there was once 650,000 km² of tropical dry forests along the Pacific Coast of Central America and Mexico. Today less than two percent of that area remains as intact tropical dry forests. In Costa Rica, an effort to restore tropical dry forests is being undertaken. In 1989 the Guanacaste Conservation Area (GCA) was established in Northwestern Costa Rica. The GCA consists of approximately 700 km² of land that was once predominantly tropical dry forest. The current area is composed of small remnants of forest ranging in size from a few trees to a few hundred hectares, embedded in pastures. This dissertation presents two studies. The first study characterizes the vegetation and measures change that has occurred within GCA from 1979 to 1985. The study's focus is on the patterning of vegetation and how the patterning is affecting change in vegetation cover over time. The second study focuses on how the patterning of the landscape influences landscape surface temperatures. These studies use geographical information systems (GIS) and thermal remote sensing as tools to study changes and patterns in the landscape. The first study found that natural regeneration of woody vegetation can occur in areas where seed sources are available, when fire is suppressed from the season. In addition, surface temperature pattern analysis confirms that different landscape vegetation configurations dissipate incoming solar energy with different efficiencies. Forest vegetation may play a role in modifying surface temperatures and thus, effect rates of additional forest re-establishment. Localización: No disponible. Publicación no.: 146 Green Phoenix: restoring the tropical forests of Guanacaste, Costa Rica [Phoenix verde: la restauración de los bosques tropicales de Guanacaste, Costa Rica] / Allen, William. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. 310 p. ISBN: 0-19-5108-93-0. In these days of increasing pressure on researchers to justify what they do in practical terms, most ecologists and field biologists would cite the importance of their work for conservation. However, too few such scientists recognize that biology is just one small piece of the conservation puzzle, which is made up mostly of political, social, and economic elements. "Green Phoenix", a narrative account of the evolution of Costa Rica's small, under-resourced Santa Rosa National Park into the impressively expanded and managed Guanacaste Conservation Area, brings this reality home. Science writer William Allen spotlights a key example of where researchers have become involved in these other aspects of conservation with great effectiveness. The book is a difficult one to describe or place in one’s mental library catalog. It certainly does not fit in a science section, nor even in popular science. Although it could be shelved under conservation or environmental activism, parts of it might qualify as biography, some is about politics and economics, and other parts fall under natural history. This classification difficulty, which stems from both the complex nature of the subject and the rather discursive way in which the book is written and organized, makes it difficult to define the author's target audience. As a scientist and field biologist, I found much of the science and natural history rather irritating in their wide-eyed superficiality. Nonetheless, I found the lessons about the principal needs and activities for establishing a functioning practical conservation and restoration program very useful; for many of us, in the conservation sector. These lessons have already been learned, at least in theory, but the specific

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examples are valuable, as is the concise synthesis of the lessons in the much better structured epilogue. Allen provides readers a regional background covering basic research and the environmental pressures that together demonstrated the need to expand the original reserve and to restore forest cover. The issues and challenges covered include: the necessity of controlling fires, while still somehow limiting the standing biomass of exotic grass; problems caused by the limitation of dispersal of tree seeds through lack of appropriate fauna; and principles of landscape ecology and the need to connect habitat fragments. The author also discusses some of the solutions scientists and volunteers employed in the field. For me, the real value of the book kicks in where science and its application ends and Allen addresses the vital roles of politics, sociology, economics, and (incidentally) personalities in achieving conservation goals. The influences of politics from local (harnessing the influence of powerful landowners and vested interests) to national and international (U.S. involvement and interests in Nicaragua)--emerge clearly, if in rather fragmented form. The author emphasizes both the importance of education in generating local support for the conservation area and, interestingly, the importance of basic research in adding to the perceived value of the site. His detailed accounts of the acquisition of additional blocks of land for the park and of the fund-raising and politics involved illustrate very effectively the magnitude of effort and the kinds of focus required for such work. Guanacaste's most interesting economic lesson is the importance of generating an endowment to provide both sustainability and room for making short-term errors in the management of a conservation project. The influence of personalities and the importance of leadership are highlighted through the book's focus on the key role Dan Janzen played in the development of the Guanacaste Conservation Area. While noting that Janzen doesn't want to be lionized, the author proceeds to do just that. In doing so, he appears to place less weight on the roles of other individual’s and. especially, on the course of events from a Costa Rican perspective. I can't help wondering what Janzen himself thinks of the book. In his conclusion, Allen recognizes that some of the lessons from the Guanacaste project depend on its unique local situation, but he ventures little comment on their applicability in other contexts. This is one of several respects in which I found myself frustrated and wanting to know more. Another is the extent of information Allen provides about the restoration program and its impact. Maps and illustrations of the progress of the reforestation would have helped a great deal in this respect and would have been a very useful addition to the book's photographs of personalities and landscapes. Despite these frustrations, I found Green Phoenix informative and inspiring. It offers a fresh perspective on scientists' involvement in practical conservation. Localización: Biblioteca OET: 333.75153097286 A467g. Publicación no.: 147 The role of bats in regeneration of fragmented tropical dry forest in Guanacaste, Costa Rica [El papel de los murciélagos en la regeneración de bosques secos tropicales fragmentados en Guanacaste, Costa Rica] / Monahan, B. (Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55105, US). En: Minnesota Academy of Science Journal (ISSN 0026-539X), v. 63, no. 3, p. 16. 1999. (Abstract only). Tropical forest regeneration depends on the ability of secondary forest species to establish previously disturbed areas. Many species depend on dispersal vectors such as bats to disperse their seeds effectively. The role of bats in forest regeneration is especially important in the tropical dry forest of Guanacaste, Costa Rica, where forest fragmentation rates are high due to farming. This study was performed to determine whether bats disperse seeds beyond forest edges, and whether distance traveled affected seed germinability. Bats were mist-netted at measured distances from patches of

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secondary forest during the dry season in Guanacaste in 1998. Seeds were collected from feces and a sample was planted in petri dishes. One hundred twenty-six bats were captured, representing 12 species. Ninety-nine percent of the bats caught were capable of seed dispersal, based on their known diet. Seventy-eight percent were found at the forest edge, with other bats captured up to 150 m from the forest edge. Of seeds obtained from feces, 3.58% germinated, and germination rate was not affected by dispersal distance. It is suggested that forest regeneration is taking place at a gradual rate during the dry season, and may increase at other times of the year. Bats were more likely to be found in open areas when lone trees were present, suggesting additionally that the presence of lone trees in cleared regions may increase bat activity in these areas, thereby enhancing overall forest regeneration rates. In Guanacaste bats' regular seed dispersal at least 150 m from the forest edge makes them important contributors to the regeneration of this region's fragmented forest. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-899. Publicación no.: 148 La dinámica del bosque y la diversidad arbórea [Forest dynamics and tree diversity] / Asquith, N.M; Guariguata-Urbano, Manuel R (ed.); Kattan, G.H (ed.). (Duke University. Department of Zoology, Box 90325, Durham, NC 27708-0630, US <E-mail: nigelasquith@yahoo.com>). En: Ecología y conservación de bosques neotropicales Cartago: Libro Universitario Regional (EULAC-GTZ), 2002. p. 377-406. ISBN: 9968-801-11-9. Este capítulo consta de cuatro secciones: (1) se comentan, en primer lugar, los principales patrones de diversidad del bosque neotropical; (2) se describe el proceso de sucesión vegetal como impulsor de la diversidad vegetal; (3) se examina la forma en que la diversidad de árboles logra mantenerse gracias a la interacción entre las diferentes especies del bosque, y (4) se explora la forma en que la diversidad arbórea puede perderse debido a la fragmentación. Localización: Biblioteca OET: 574.52642 E19ec. Publicación no.: 149 La estructura genética de las poblaciones de árboles [Genetic structure of population trees] / Nason, J.D; Rocha-Núñez, Oscar J; Guariguata-Urbano, Manuel R (ed.); Kattan, G.H (ed.). (Iowa State University. Department of Botany, Ames, IA 50011, US <E-mail: jnason@iastate.edu> <E-mail: ojrocha@biologia.ucr.ac.cr>). En: Ecología y conservación de bosques neotropicales Cartago: Libro Universitario Regional (EULAC-GTZ), 2002. p. 299-327. ISBN: 9968-801-11-9. En este capítulo se examina no solo la estructura genética de las poblaciones de árboles del bosque neotropical sino también los procesos ecológicos y evolutivos que se hacen patentes al estudiar la variabilidad espacial que presenta esa información genética. Antes que nada, se pasa revista a los primeros intentos que se hicieron por explicar la estructura de los árboles del bosque tropical; se describen, luego, los patrones de dispersión de polen que suelen presentar los árboles del dosel del bosque y se ofrece un resumen de varios estudios recientes que han utilizado marcadores genéticos y técnicas estadísticas para cuantificar el flujo de genes polínicos. De manera general se comparan los aportes de polen y de semillas a la estructura genética de los árboles y en su dinámica poblacional. Localización: Biblioteca OET: 574.52642 E19ec. Publicación no.: 150 Bird of bright desire [Ave de deseo reluciente] / Bergman, C. En: Wildlife Conservation (ISSN 1048-4949), v. 102, no. 5, p. 42-49. 1999.

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Life history information is presented on the resplendent quetzal. The author also discusses habitat alterations that are affecting this species' habitat and its survival in Costa Rica. Localización: No disponible. Publicación no.: 151 Bosque y población en la Península de Osa, Costa Rica [Forest and population at Península de Osa, Costa Rica] / Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Maldonado-Ulloa, Tirso; Bonilla-Carrión, Róger. (Universidad de Costa Rica. Escuela de Estadística, Programa Centroamericano de Población, San José, CR <E-mail: lrosero@ccp.ucr.ac.cr> <E-mail: fneotrop@sol.racsa.co.cr>). En: Revista de Biología Tropical (ISSN 0034-7744), v. 50, no. 2, p. 585-598. 2002. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-4106.pdf The research is focused on the relationship between population growth and conservation of the forest on the Osa Peninsula. Data of the geo-referenced censuses and information on land-use, derived from satellite images and aerial photography, were integrated into a GIS. We undertook an historical inventory of the changes in the population and the forest coverage, and the key events in the land tenure and economy of the region. Deforestation, reforestation, and fragmentation of the forest during the period 1980 - 1995 were analyzed. Relationships with the population potential, derived from the 1984 Costa Rican censuses, were identified, and the effects of third variables were controlled such as distances to the roads, rain, distances to the forest frontier, level of protection, etc. Both strong and significant associations between 1984 population potential and the three processes were detected. The probability of deforestation is null in unpopulated areas, 35% in areas with 25 - 30 potential farmers and to 65% in areas with 50 farmers and over. The probability of reforestation decreases from 100% to 28% and to 18% in these three categories. This kind of relationship persists in the multivariable analysis. An increase of 0.63% in the number of household, results in an increment of 1% in the risk of deforestation (elasticity). The elasticity in the chances of reforestation is -0.37 and 1% in fragmentation of the forest. An evaluation in the risk of deforestation for the period 1995 - 2005 was done. The most recent population data were used and it identifies several geographic areas with high deforestation risk. Localización: Biblioteca OET: R. NBINA-4106. Publicación no.: 152 Population dynamics of a neotropical lizard (Norops polylepis) in its native forest and in adjacent pastures [Dinámica poblacional de una lagartija neotropical (Norops polylepis) en su bosque nativo y en potreros adyacentes] / Schlaepfer, M.A. (Cornell University. Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Mudd Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-2702, US <E-mail: mas50@cornell.edu>). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, 2002. 201 p. ISBN: 0-493-83037-5. Dissertation, Ph.D., Cornell University, Faculty of the Graduate School, Ithaca, NY (USA). As humans extend their influence to an increasingly large portion of the globe, it is of theoretical and practical interest to understand the consequences of our activities on wildlife populations. I studied the population dynamics of Norops polylepis (Polycrotidae), a lizard from Costa Rica, in its native forest and in adjacent cattle pastures. Norops polylepis eggs, obtained from females held in captivity, were more likely to hatch in pastures than in their native forest because eggs developed faster and were exposed to a lower predation rate in pastures (chapter 1). I estimated juvenile and adult persistence, a proxy for survival, along the pasture-forest gradient using mark-recapture sampling. Persistence was higher in forests than in pastures in two study sites, but indistinguishable in a their site. Population growth projections based on estimates of survival and reproduction for each life-stage suggest that, overall, forest populations were self-replacing, whereas pasture populations were in decline (chapter 2). Once

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basic demographic variables are estimated, one can ask why individuals respond to altered environments the way they do. Organisms often rely on environmental cues to make behavioral and lifehistory decisions. However, in environments that have been suddenly altered by humans, formerly reliable cues might no longer be associated with adaptive outcomes. In such cases, organisms can become 'trapped'by their evolutionary responses to the cues and experience reduced survival or reproduction (chapter 3). I also present demographic and ecological variables for N. polylepis collected along an elevational gradient from sea-level to 1300 m. Sexual size dimorphism, population density, and individual growth rates all decreased with elevation. My findings corroborate general theoretical predictions that population densities and sexual size dimorphism should be reduced in marginal habitats at the periphery of species's ranges (chapter 4). As a side-project, I researched the number of amphibians and reptiles traded across U.S. borders for the pet and food trade (chapter 5). Massive numbers of individuals are being taken from the wild. Species-specific records of all shipments and a better understanding of each species 'harvestability' are necessary to ensure that the commercial harvest is not contributing to the declines currently observed in many of the world's amphibians and reptiles. Localización: Biblioteca OET: Tesis 403. Publicación no.: 153 Avian communities in forest fragments and reforestation areas associated with banana plantations in Costa Rica [Comunidades de aves en fragmentos de bosques y áreas de reforestación asociadas con bananales en Costa Rica] / Matlock, Robert B., Jr; Rogers, D; Edwards, P.J; Martin, S.G. (Tulane University. Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, 6823 St Charles Ave, Dinwiddie Hall 310, New Orleans, LA 70118, US <E-mail: rmatlock@tulane.edu>). En: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment (ISSN 0167-8809), v. 91, p. 199-215. 2002. To evaluate the conservation value of forest habitats associated with banana (Musa sp.) plantations, an inventory of bird species was conducted in 10 forest fragments and reforestation areas surrounding seven plantations in the Costa Rican Atlantic lowlands. Birds were censused by point counts at 42 points in conserved forest remnants and 30 points in reforestation areas. To gather information about reproductive patterns, a supplementary mist-net study was conducted at 29 of these sites. Overall, 194 species (11,361 individuals) were recorded in the point counts and 73 species (1035 individuals) in the mist-net study for a combined total of 206 species, including 46 migrants and 87 resident species classified as moderately to highly susceptible to habitat disturbance. Immature birds were observed in 67% of the species captured in the mist-net survey and represented 35% of the total individual netted. The results suggest that small-scale forest patches associated with banana plantations may provide viable habitat for the conservation of migrants and bird species moderately susceptible to habitat alteration. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S8479. NBINA-622. LS. LC. Publicación no.: 154 Tree seed fate in a logged and fragmented forest landscape, northeastern Costa Rica [Destino de semillas de árboles en bosques bajo manejo y fragmentados, noreste Costa Rica] / Guariguata-Urbano, Manuel R; Arias-Le Claire, Harold; Jones, G. (Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza. Unidad Manejo Bosques Naturales, Apdo. 7170, Turrialba, CR <E-mail: mguarigu@catie.ac.cr>). En: Biotropica (ISSN 0006-3606), v. 34, no. 3, p. 405-415. 2002.

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We compared the seed fate of two animal-dispersed, large-seeded timber species (Dipteryx panamensis [Fabaceae] and Carapa guianensis [Meliaceae]) in logged and fragmented forests with that for continuous forest in northeastern Costa Rica. For both species, we quantified rates of seed removal (an index of vertebrate predation) and the fate of dispersed seeds (those carried away from their original location that either germinated or were not subsequently removed within three months). We predicted that (1) fewer seeds would be dispersed by vertebrates in fragmented forest than in continuous forest due to low population abundances after hunting and/or loss of suitable habitat, and (2) seed predation rates would be higher in forest fragments than in continuous forest due to high abundance of smallbodied seed consumers. We compared three forest fragments currently managed for timber (140-350 ha) and a large reserve of continuous forest (La Selva, 1500 ha and connected to a national park). An exclusion experiment was performed (seeds placed in the open vs. seeds within semipermeable wire cages; 5 cm mesh size) to evaluate the relative roles of large and small animals on seed removal. Seed germination capacity did not differ among all four sites for both species. Removal of Dipteryx seeds was higher in forest fragments (50% removal within 10 days and related to the activity of small rodents) compared to La Selva (50% removal after 50 days). Also, more Dipteryx seeds were dispersed at La Selva than in fragmented forests. Contrary to our predictions, removal of Carapa seeds was equally high among all four sites, and there was a trend for more seeds of Carapa to be dispersed in fragments than in La Selva. Our results suggest that fragmentation effects on tree seed fate may be specific to species in question and contingent on the animal biota involved, and that management strategies for timber production based on regeneration from seed May differ between forest patches and extensive forest. Localización: Biblioteca OET: B. NBINA-4320. Publicación no.: 155 Para no tropezar dos veces con la misma piedra: experiencias de conservación y desarrollo sostenible comunitario en Tortuguero / Oduber-Rivera, José; Araneda, X. (Fundación Neotrópica, Apdo. Postal 236-1002, San José, CR <E-mail: fneotrop@racsa.co.cr>). San José: Fundación Neotrópica, 2002. 60 p. Presentamos al público el aprendizaje que vivió la Fundación Neotrópica de 1989 al 2000 en las llanuras de Tortuguero. Fueron dos enriquecedoras experiencias que se dieron casi simultáneamente: por una parte, la consolidación de un corredor biológico para dedicarlo a la protección de flora y fauna y, por otra, los procesos que ocurrieron en su zona de amortiguamiento con varias comunidades, cuyo objetivo era mejorar las condiciones económicas de sus pobladores mediante actividades lucrativas amigables con el ambiente. Nuevamente, esta organización pone de relieve la práctica del desarrollo sostenible con acciones concretas en el área rural. Fueron dos iniciativas que, ubicadas en el mismo contexto geográfico, ambiental y social, tuvieron sus propios procesos metodológicos. Esto sucedió así debido a la índole de los objetivos específicos que las vieron nacer. El indicador o el norte que se tuvo al llevar adelante la adquisición de tierras para el establecimiento del Corredor Biológico fue que, al finalizar el trabajo, Costa Rica pudiera contar con un área de conectividad ubicada en el noreste del país, la cual facilitara la migración de flora y fauna rompiendo barreras, incluso de carácter geopolítico, para lograr una mejor protección de las especies en el este de Costa Rica y Nicaragua. Como se detalla en las páginas de esta compilación de hechos y lecciones, los diversos procesos fueron largos, onerosos, no exentos de serias dificultades, pero el objetivo se cumplió y hoy, orqullosamente el país cuenta con 6.980 hectáreas adicionales al Parque Nacional Tortuguero. Aún más, existen evidencias de recuperación vegetal y animal, lo cual debe validarse adecuadamente en un estudio posterior. Para

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sistematizar este proceso de consolidación del Parque, utilizamos la narración con el propósito de describir las lecciones que fuimos aprendiendo paso a paso. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 447. Publicación no.: 156 Integrity and isolation of Costa Rica's national parks and biological reserves: examining the dynamics of land-cover change [Integridad y aislamiento de los parques nacionales y reservas biológicas de Costa Rica: examinando la dinámica del cambio en el uso de la tierra] / SánchezAzofeifa, Gerardo Arturo; Daily, Gretchen C; Pfaff, Alexander S.P; Busch, C.B. (University of Alberta. Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E3, CA <E-mail: arturo.sanchez@ualberta.ca> <E-mail: gdaily@stanford.edu> <E-mail: ap196@columbia.edu>). En: Biological Conservation (ISSN 0006-3207), v. 109, p. 123-135. 2003. The transformation and degradation of tropical forest is thought to be the primary driving force in the loss of biodiversity worldwide. Developing countries are trying to counter act this massive loss of biodiversity by implementing national parks and biological reserves. Costa Rica is no exception to this rule. National development strategies in Costa Rica, since the early 1970s, have involved the creation of several National Parks and Biological Reserves. This had led to monitoring the integrity of and interactions between these protected areas. Key questions include: "Are these areas' boundaries respected?"; "Do they create a functioning network?” and "Are they effective conservation tools?". This paper quantifies deforestation and secondary growth trends within and around protected areas between 1960 and 1997. We find that inside of national parks and biological reserves, deforestation rates were negligible. For areas outside of National Parks and Biological Reserves we report that for 1km buffer zones around such protected areas, there is a net forest again for the 1987/1997 time period. Thus, it appears that to this point the boundaries of protected areas are respected. However, in the 10km buffer zones we find significant forest loss for all study periods. This suggests that increasing isolation of protected areas may prevent them from functioning as an effective network. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S9046. NBINA-6851. Publicación no.: 157 Principios, criterios e indicadores para la evaluación de corredores biológicos y su aplicación: caso Costa Rica [Principles, criteria and indicators for biological corridor evaluation and their implementation in Costa Rica] / de Campos, D.P; Finegan, Bryan. (Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza. Area de Manejo de Bosques Tropicales y Conservación de la Biodiversidad, Turrialba7170, CR <E-mail: daniele_campos@hotmail.com> <E-mail: bfinegan@catie.ac.cr>). En: Revista Forestal Centroamericana (ISSN 1021-0164), no. 38, p. 9-13. 2002. Biological corridors have recently awakened interest in various regions and countries. However, criteria for biological corridors are not yet well defined and the emphasis has not always been on their true purpose of conserving biodiversity. The objective of the present study was to develop a preliminary standard to evaluate existing and potential biological corridor areas, through the definition of a set of principles, criteria and indicators (P,C&I) integrating biological, socioeconomic and management dimensions. A systematic approach was used, which included the collection of information to formulate the initial standard, its evaluation via a workshop with a group of experts and field study of two biological corridors in Costa Rica. The results indicated that different levels of specific application of the proposed P,C&I exist, as a function of the particular context of each site, of its purpose and of its management state. In both cases, the management dimension performed the best in the field studies, with a high percentage of parameters accepted without modification, while in the biological dimension,

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a high percentage of indicators had to be modified or rejected. Among the parameters that all the three dimensions conformed to, a few existed that were qualified as very relevant and universal. Based on this, it is hoped that all initiatives to establish biological corridors comply with these parameters. However, it is recommended that this standard, as well as the ranking system for each indicator, be developed further and tested in other ecological, social and institutional contexts, to facilitate the separation of generic or universal parameters from site-specific ones. Localización: Biblioteca OET: R. Publicación no.: 158 Efectos de borde en la vegetación de remanentes de bosque muy húmedo tropical en el norte de Costa Rica, y sus implicaciones para el manejo de la conservación [Edge effects on remnant vegetation of very humid tropical forest in Northern Costa Rica, and their implications for conservation and management] / Forero-Molina, A; Finegan, Bryan; Kanninen, Markku; DelgadoRodríguez, Luis Diego. (Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza. Area de Manejo de Bosques Tropicales y Conservación de la Biodiversidad, Turrialba 7170, CR <E-mail: lforero@telesat.com.co> <E-mail: bfinegan@catie.ac.cr> <E-mail: m.kanninen@cgiar.org> <E-mail: ddelgado@catie.ac.cr>). En: Revista Forestal Centroamericana (ISSN 1021-0164), no. 38, p. 39-43. 2002. The present study aimed at detecting edge effects on the composition, structure and diversity of five very humid tropical forest remnants with and without disturbance due to timber harvesting, located in a pastureland matrix. Edges were formed more than 20 years ago. The work was carried out in the canton of Sarapiquí, Heredia Province, Costa Rica, in a zone of low to moderate fertility soils. Thirty-six permanent samples plots (PSPs) of 0.2 ha were established, with 9 PSPs per fragment, distributed in transects of three plots, located in the forest edge, at 150 m from the edge, and at 300 m from the edge. All stems 10 cm were measured, including lianas. Statistical analysis revealed higher abundance of heliophytic species in the edge plots, both individually and as a guild, in diameter classes indicating their origin after edge formation. There were no trends in richness, diversity and disturbance indicators (dead trees, crown occupation by lianas, crown form) with respect to distance from the edge, except for clandestinely logged trees, which were significantly more common in the edge plots. The results indicate that these forest remnants retain most of the compositional and diversity characteristics during the first three decades after formation of the forest-pastureland edges, and that there is an effective recuperation of forest in edge habitats after their formation. However, silvicultural strategies suitable for forest edges should be considered, in order to control natural disturbance resulting from mortality of long-lived heliophytes, which otherwise may lead to deterioration of fragments through expansion of edge conditions. Localización: Biblioteca OET: R. Publicación no.: 159 Water resources and regional land cover change in Costa Rica: Impacts and economics [Recursos hídricos y cambio regional en la cobertura del suelo en Costa Rica: Impactos y economía] / Sánchez-Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo; Harriss, R.C; Storrier, A.L; De Camino-Beck, Tomás. (University of Alberta. Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E3, CA <E-mail: arturo.sanchez@ualberta.ca>). En: International Journal of Water Resources Development (ISSN 0790-0627), v. 18, no. 3, p. 409-424. 2002.

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This paper evaluates the relationships between sediment production, economic losses and land cover change in Costa Rica. Results suggest that the relationship between sediment production and the deterioration of land resources in Costa Rica is less understood than expected, and that new sediment monitoring systems must be implemented in order to be able to detect the overall impact of tropical deforestation and habitat fragmentation on sediment production. The results also indicate that the correlation between economic losses due to flooding and landscape fragmentation can be counteracted by promoting 'payment for environmental services' initiatives; a new concept that takes into consideration the role that tropical ecosystems play in protecting the environment. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-6511. Publicación no.: 160 Dynamics of tropical deforestation around national parks: Remote sensing of forest change on the Osa Peninsula of Costa Rica [Dinámica de la deforestación tropical alrededor de los parques nacionales: Imágenes de satélite de cambio en el bosque en la Península de Osa de Costa Rica] / Sánchez-Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo; Rivard, Benoit; Calvo-Alvarado, Julio César; Moorthy, I. (University of Alberta. Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Building 1-26, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E3, CA <E-mail: arturo.sanchez@ualberta.ca> <E-mail: benoit.rivard@ualberta.ca> <E-mail: jucalvo@itcr.ac.cr>). En: Mountain Research and Development (ISSN 0276-4741), v. 22, no. 4, p. 352-358. 2002. National parks and biological reserves play an important role in counteracting the effects of tropical deforestation in mountainous environments, a leading cause of biodiversity loss worldwide; unfortunately, information is sparse on the nature, dynamics, and spatial dimension of land use and land cover change processes that contribute to park vulnerability. This article assesses the current state of landscape fragmentation and structure on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica, using Landsat Multispectral Scanner and Thematic Mapper satellite scenes between 19 79 and 1997. The Osa Peninsula hosts the Corcovado National Park, which contains the only protected region of Tropical Wet forest on the Pacific slopes of Mesoamerica, including a significant number of species that are endemic, threatened, or new to science. The level of isolation of the Corcovado National Park is based on the degree of ecosystem degradation produced by frontal deforestation processes. Our results indicate that the proportion of the Osa Peninsula covered by forest declined from 97% in 1979 to 91% in 1987 and to 89% by 1997. Total forest area declined from 977 km2 in 1979 to 896 km2 by 1997. These results pose significant questions regarding the effectiveness of current conservation efforts in this mountain biodiversity-rich area of Mesoamerica. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-829. Publicación no.: 161 Forest fragmentation hits insectivorous birds hard [La fragmentación del bosque golpea fuerte a las aves insectívoras] / Sekercioglu, Cagan H. (Stanford University. Department of Biological Sciences, Center for Conservation Biology, Stanford CA 94305-5020, US <E-mail: cagan@stanford.edu>). En: Directions in Science (ISSN 1538-0033), v. 1, p. 62-64. 2002. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-6093.pdf Habitats around the world, especially in the tropics, are being fragmented at a rapid rate, causing a t tremendous loss of biodiversity [1]. For example, 12% of the approximately 10,000 bird species are threatened with extinction in the next 10 to 100 years, and another 8% are near-threatened [2]. This loss of species is likely to result in the collapse of significant ecosystem processes and free ecosystem

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services to people [3], such as pest control by insectivorous birds. Tropical forest insectivorous birds, such as antbirds, woodcreepers, and wrens, present a good example of an important, species-rich group of small, noncharismatic organisms who do not get much public attention, but whose demise may have significant negative ecological and financial consequences. They are among the species most likely to go extinct as a result of forest fragmentation [4] and their loss may result in insect pest outbreaks in tropical forests and surrounding agricultural areas. Finding out the causes of the disappearance of understory insectivores may help explain the disappearance of the other small, short-lived, and specialized bird species that comprise the majority (65%) of threatened bird species in the world [5]. In a recent study of the factors behind the disappearance of insectivorous birds in Costa Rican forest fragments reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [6], we provide evidence that inter-fragment dispersal, rather than food limitation, may be the most critical factor for the persistence of understory insectivorous birds in forest fragments. As in previous studies [4,7], small forest fragments had significantly lower insectivore species diversity and abundance than more extensive forest. However, our initial hypothesis - that the decline of insectivorous birds in forest fragments is caused by an impoverished invertebrate prey base - was not supported by invertebrate counts and examination of bird diet samples. Instead, the inability of understory insectivores to use the non-forest matrix surrounding the fragments seemed to be the main reason for their decline. Few studies have examined tropical bird communities along with their food resources [8,9] and studies on the effects of forest fragmentation on understory insectivorous birds through changes in prey availability have been few and limited to the temperate zone[ 10,11]. Ours is the first study to investigate the effects of forest fragmentation on a bird community, along with bird diet and prey availability. In the two temperate forest studies [10,11], increased invertebrate abundance in larger forest fragments was positively correlated with the reproductive performance of the two understory insectivorous bird species studied. Karr and Brawn [8], on the other hand, could not find a clear relationship between the abundance of understory arthropods and understory insectivorous birds in Panama. They concluded that the habitat associations of these birds were not solely food-resource mediated, and that a combination of factors, such as microclimate, predation, and food availability, determine the habitat associations of bird species and guilds. Our results are consistent with the findings of Karr and Brawn [8]. Invertebrate prey abundance, biomass, and composition, both in habitats (106,082 invertebrates sampled) and in bird diet (735 diet samples obtained non-lethally with the use of antimony potassium tartarate) were not significantly different between small forest fragments and the more extensive Las Cruces forest. However, the sampling of over 2,300 birds with mist nets revealed that the abundance and species richness of understory insectivorous birds were significantly lower in small fragments. Abundance and species richness of birds in other guilds, such as granivores, nectarivores, and omnivores, did not differ or were greater in small fragments. The limited dispersal capabilities of understory insectivores [4,12] may be the most important reason behind their sensitivity to fragmentation. Insectivorous birds were significantly underrepresented in the non-forest matrix surrounding our forest fragments. The opposite was true for other guilds, such as granivores, nectarivores, and omnivores. Therefore, we concluded that weak dispersal across non-forest habitats, not limited prey availability, is the main reason behind the disappearance of many insectivorous species from forest fragments around Las Cruces. Tropical understory insectivorous birds and many other species that are not good at dispersing through non-forest habitats are more likely to go extinct in forest fragments as a result of increased nest predation and demographic stochasticity [13]. Even though tropical forest fragments may have high overall bird diversity, as observed in many studies including

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ours, some groups will be far more susceptible to extinction than others. Consequently, we need to investigate the effects of fragmentation on a group-by-group basis and not just rely on overall biodiversity. Facilitating animal dispersal across agricultural tropical countryside by planting vegetation corridors between forest fragments and by improving agricultural practices (such as emphasizing shade coffee over sun coffee) will promote the conservation of biodiversity in this extensive but oftenneglected habitat. The preservation of the biodiversity of ecologically significant groups, such as insectivorous birds, will ensure the continuity of their contribution to ecosystem processes and services, such as control of insect pests. Insect outbreaks in forests and surrounding agricultural areas are likely if no insectivorous birds remain in forest fragments. This will have significant negative ecological and financial consequences for local people, not to mention the intrinsic, priceless value of the biodiversity that is being lost. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S8753. NBINA-6093. Publicación no.: 162 Distribution of ground-dwelling arthropods in tropical countryside habitats [Distribución de artrópodos que viven en el suelo en hábitats del paisaje tropical] / Goehring, David M; Daily, Gretchen C; Sekercioglu, Cagan H. (Stanford University. Department of Biological Sciences, Center for Conservation Biology, Stanford CA 94305-5020, US <E-mail: dgoehrin@princeton.edu> <E-mail: gdaily@stanford.edu><E-mail: cagan@stanford.edu>). En: Journal of Insect Conservation (ISSN 1366-638X), v. 6, p. 83-91. 2002. The future of biodiversity depends to a great extent on the conservation value of human-dominated and seminatural habitats. In a mixed agricultural landscape in southern Costa Rica, we compared the richness and composition of terrestrial arthropod communities occurring in three habitat types along a gradient of increasing disturbance: in a large (227 ha) forest fragment, small (3.8-5.3 ha) forest fragments, and sun coffee (1-3 ha) plantations. Pitfall trap sampling revealed decreasing morphospecies richness with increasing disturbance. Moreover, the number of species unique to a habitat type was lower in the smaller forest fragments and the coffee sites. We found significant changes in community composition associated with habitat at the levels of order (all arthropods). family (beetles). and morphospecies (carabids, scarabs, and ants). We identified no significant correlation of richness among the taxonomic orders, meaning these taxa are unable to serve as biodiversity indicators (for each other or for all arthropods) in the study region. Arthropod diversity presently found in countryside habitats is certainly lower, and perhaps less sustainable, than that of the extensive forested habitats fragmented 40 years ago. It nonetheless remains substantial, suggesting a conservation opportunity in humandominated landscapes of the tropics. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S8752. NBINA-1306. Publicación no.: 163 Distance, dynamics, and diversity in tropical rainforests: an experimental approach using foliicolous lichens on artificial leaves. I. Growth performance and succession [Distancia, dinámica y diversidad en bosques lluviosos tropicales: un enfoque experimental utilizando líquenes foliícolas en hojas artificiales. I. Comportamiento del crecimiento y sucesión] / Lücking, Robert; Bernecker-Lücking, Andrea. (Universität Bayreuth. Lehrstuhl für Pflanzensystematic, D 95447 Bayreuth, DE <E-mail: rlucking@hotmail.com> <E-mail: andrea.bernecker@biologie.uni ulm.de> <E-mail: aberneck@biologia.ucr.ac.cr>). En: Ecotropica (ISSN 0949-3026), v. 8, no. 1, p. 1-13. 2002.

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An experimental approach using artificial leaves of Ocotea atirrensis was designed to test the effect of niche fragmentation (distance) and intermediate disturbances (dynamics) on diversity patterns of foliicolous lichens. The long term experiment in Costa Rica was first surveyed after 36 months, with the observations being presented here. Foliicolous lichens grew well on the artificial leaves, and community parameters such as species richness, diversity, specific abundance, and successional patterns closely resembled those on natural leaves. As diaspore traps, the artificial leaves had a homogenizing effect, leading to a very uniform but rich foliicolous lichen flora, with a total of 109 species detected on 99 analysed leaves and an average of 29 species per leaf on those leaves exposed for the entire period of 36 months. Almost all taxa that grew on natural leaves in the same environment were present on the artificial leaves, with the notable exception of those species of Strigula growing subcuticularly, which artificial substrata seem to exclude. At the selected scale, niche fragmentation, i.e., increased spatial distance between individual leaves, tended to increase diversity within the experimental set ups (groups of five leaves each), probably due to enhanced stochastic effects by diaspore dispersal via small scale rain splash. However, intermediate disturbances, simulated by individual leaf replacement within an experimental set up, caused a decrease in diversity. This is explained by the fact that after 36 months, succession is still approaching a high diversity phase, and any replacement of individual leaves in this stage with new, uncolonized leaves will naturally decrease diversity. Localización: No disponible. Publicación no.: 164 Strategy for monitoring the management of protected areas in Central America [Estrategia para monitorear el manejo de áreas protegidas en Centroamérica] / Courrau, J.A. (The Nature Conservancy's PROARCA/CAPAS Project, P.O. Box 230-1225, San José, CR). First Workshop for the Monitoring of Protected Areas in Central America, Tegucigalpa HNMay 12-13, 1997. , 1999. 68 p. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-840.pdf Introduction: This strategy was developed during a workshop organized and carried out in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, by PROARCA/CAPAS (Programa Ambiental Regional para Centroamérica / Central American Protected Area System), in coordination with the Executive Secretariat of the Central American Council of Protected Areas and Forests (CCAB-AP). The principal objective of the workshop was to develop the components of a monitoring strategy for Central American protected areas. This tool should fulfill some basic requirements that were agreed upon at the beginning of the event. These requirements included: simplicity, low cost, short time necessary for generating data and that excellent management of protected areas would be promoted. Due to the lack of a tool of this kind, once it was validated in the field, it should be adopted at the regional level as a monitoring strategy for Central American protected areas. The workshop consisted of participatory sessions where different components were developed for the monitoring strategy of Central American protected areas. Moreover, special attention and detail was given to the component of criteria and indicators. The strategy generated as a product of the workshop contains the following components: the desired scenario for the protected area, areas of analysis, factors that characterize each area, the criteria for each factor, and the indicators for each criteria. Conceptually the strategy is based on the method developed by The Nature Conservancy (TNC) known as "Scorecards: Consolidation Criteria". This method has been applied in protected areas of Latin America included within the Endangered Parks Program of TNC for two consecutive years and has proved to be very simple in its application, yet valuable for the information generated and the comparability of that information across time, which is a very important factor for monitoring. On the other hand, the strategy has benefited from the conceptual contribution and experience of the Central

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American professionals participating in the workshop. The monitoring strategy has been validated in different pilot protected areas in Central America. In Costa Rica it was initially applied to the Volcán Poás National Park, the Volcán Irazú National Park, the Braulio Carrillo National Park, the Guayabo National Monument, and the Grecia Forest Reserve. In Guatemala it was applied in the Cerro San Gil. In Honduras it was applied once in the Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve. In Panama it has been applied in various protected areas. In El Salvador it was applied in the Montecristo National Park. In Belize it was applied in the protected areas managed by the Belize Audubon Society such as Crooked Tree and the Cockscomb Wildlife Sanctuaries. Moreover, the strategy has been adopted at a national level in Costa Rica for all its protected areas. Panama will also be adopting this strategy at a national level. Many people, especially officials from the protected areas of different Central American countries, have reviewed, analyzed and improved the present strategy during the different measurement sessions that have been carried out. PROARCA/CAPAS offers an effusive thanks to all of those persons that have dedicated time and interest for the improvement of the management of Central American protected areas. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-840. Publicación no.: 165 Countryside biogeography of tropical butterflies [Biogeografía de paisaje de mariposas tropicales] / Horner-Devine, M.C; Daily, Gretchen C; Ehrlich, Paul R; Boggs, Carol L. (Stanford University. Department of Biological Sciences, Center for Conservation Biology, 371 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-5020, US <E-mail: mcdevine@stanford.edu> <E-mail: gdaily@stanford.edu> <E-mail: pre@stanford.edu>). En: Conservation Biology (ISSN 0888-8892), v. 17, no 1, p. 168-177. 2003. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-842.pdf Although most conservation efforts focus on preserving biodiversity in relatively pristine ecosystems, we investigated possible conservation opportunities in human-dominated landscapes. We evaluated butterfly diversity in a tropical countryside that was converted about four decades ago from continuous forest to a mosaic of coffee farms, pasture, and forest fragments. We compared the butterfly fauna in coffee plantations with that in a forest remnant, the Las Cruces Reserve (227 ha). We used coffee plantation sites located "near" (2.5 km) and 'far" (6 km) from the large forest remnant to test the effects of distance from the remnant on butterfly diversity. We also tested the effects of immediately adjacent habitat by selecting coffee plantation sites that were either contiguous with "small" (2.5-9.5 ha) forest fragments (coffee/forest) or lacking adjacent forest (coffee). Both coffee/forest and coffee habitats near the Las Cruces Reserve differed from those far from the reserve in species composition but not in species richness. Overall, coffee/forest habitats had significantly higher mean species richness and higher mean abundance of species than coffee and reserve sites. Further, butterflies with narrow geographic ranges were less likely to be found in coffee plantations than were those with larger geographic ranges. Area of forest cover within a radius of 50 to 100 m of the sampling site was significantly correlated with species richness of frugivorous butterflies during the dry season but was not correlated with richness of frugivorous butterflies in the wet season or of non-frugivorous butterflies in either season. Nonetheless, species richness of frugivorous and non-frugivorous butterflies was positively correlated overall; thus, frugivorous butterflies may be good indicators of the status of the entire butterfly community in a region. Our work suggests that small, isolated forest fragments may help retain butterfly diversity in the tropical countryside and increase the conservation value of agricultural landscapes. Relatively large tracts of forest remain important, however, because they maintain rare and endemic species.

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Localización: Biblioteca OET: S9044. NBINA-842. Publicación no.: 166 Effects of forest fragmentation and flowering phenology on the reproductive success and mating patterns of the tropical dry forest tree Pachira quinata [Bombacopsis quinata] [Efectos de la fragmentación de bosques y la fenología de floración sobre el éxito reproductivo y los patrones de apareamiento de Pachira quinata, un árbol de bosque tropical seco [Bombacopsis quinata]] / Fuchs-Castillo, Eric J; Lobo-Segura, Jorge A; Quesada-Avendaño, Mauricio. (Universidad de Costa Rica. Escuela de Biología, San José, CR <E-mail: efuchs@cariari.ucr.ac.cr> <E-mail: jlobo@biologia.ucr.ac.cr> <E-mail: mquesada@oikos.unam.mx>). En: Conservation Biology (ISSN 0888-8892), v. 17, no 1, p. 149-157. 2003. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-841.pdf The results of several studies suggest that forest fragmentation affects the mating patterns and reproductive success of tropical tree species by reducing pollinator activity, pollen deposition, and outcrossing levels. The flowering synchrony of trees has also been proposed as an additional factor in controlling fruit set and regulating levels of outcrossing, particularly in disturbed habitats. We examined the effects of forest fragmentation and flowering phenology on the reproductive success and genetic structure of the progeny produced by the tropical tree Pachira quinata. We conducted our study in the dry forest of Costa Rica and compared trees in two density and environmental conditions: (1) isolated trees separated by 500 m from other adult conspecifics and located in disturbed sites and (2) trees from continuous populations of groups of 20 or more reproductive individuals per hectare surrounded by undisturbed mature forest. Our study was conducted in the Guanacaste Conservation Area, Costa Rica, and surrounding areas. To evaluate flowering phenology, trees were classified as having synchronous or asynchronous flowering. The phenological stage of individuals was classified according to the proximity of the peak flowering date of each tree with respect to the mean peak flowering of the rest of the population. Six percent of the flowers produced a fruit in trees from continuous populations, whereas in isolated trees only 3% of the flowers did so. Fruit set was not affected by the flowering phenology of trees but was influenced mainly by factors associated with forest fragmentation. Seed production per fruit was not affected by forest fragmentation or flowering phenology. Overall, total fruit production per tree was not affected by forest fragmentation, because isolated trees tended to produce more flowers than trees from continuous populations. Genetic analysis revealed that the progeny of trees from continuous populations experienced lower levels of relatedness, a tendency for higher levels of outcrossing, and/ or more sires than isolated trees. Our results suggest that forest fragmentation can have an effect on the mating patterns of P. quinata, reducing the number of outcross sires represented in the progeny of isolated trees. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-841. Publicación no.: 167 Spatial methods for characterising land cover and detecting land-cover changes for the tropics [Métodos espaciales para caracterizar la cobertura vegetal y detectar los cambios en la misma para los trópicos] / Read, J.M; Lam, N.S.N. (Syracuse University. Maxwell School, Department of Geography, 144 Eggers Hall, Syracuse, NY 13210, US <E-mail: jaread@maxwell.syr.edu>). En: International Journal of Remote Sensing (ISSN 0143-1161), v. 23, no. 12, p. 2457-2474. 2002. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-332.pdf Characterizing land cover and detecting land cover changes using spatial methods is an area of research that has been attracting increasing attention recently. We compare performances of selected pattern

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recognition methods for characterizing different land covers using unclassified Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data for a lowland site in northeastern Costa Rica. Two spatial statistics (fractal dimension, using the isarithm and triangular prism surface area (TPSA) methods, and Moran's I index of spatial autocorrelation) and selected landscape indices (Shannon's diversity index, contagion, and fractal dimension from perimeter/area) were investigated. Mean values of each metric for each cover type were calculated for subset areas representing forest, agriculture, pasture, and scrub, for all seven Landsat-TM bands and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Fractal dimension (DTPSA) and Moran's I were found to be useful for characterizing spatial complexity of Landsat-TM data, whereas the standard landscape indices were not. Values of DTPSA decreased along a gradient of increasing human disturbance: old-growth forest-scrub-pasture-agriculture. These results can be further applied locally using moving windows for change detection in global environmental change studies. Moreover, in this information era characterized by increasingly abundant imagery, these spatial statistics could serve as metadata for content-based data mining of imagery. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-332. Publicación no.: 168 Countryside biogeography of tropical herbaceous plants [Biogeografía de plantas herbáceas tropicales de la campiña] / Mayfield, Margaret M; Daily, Gretchen C; Ehrlich, Paul R. (University of California at Santa Barbara. Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Sciences, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9610, US <E-mail: mayfield@msi.ucsb.edu> <E-mail: gdaily@stanford.edu> <E-mail: pre@stanford.edu>). Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America. 87th, and Annual International Conference of the Society for Ecological Restoration. 14Th, abstracts, Tucson, AR USAugust 04-09, 2002. En: Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting Abstracts, v. 87, p. 206. 2002. (Abstract only). Increasing amounts of information indicate that a substantial proportion of forestaffiliated animals occur commonly outside extensive tropical forest, in agricultural landscapes. Little is known about the persistence of forest plants in these heterogeneous, countryside habitats. Herbaceous plants directly contribute to native biodiversity and are crucial to the permeability and quality of countryside habitats for native animal life. We surveyed herbaceous plant diversity in 8 common countryside habitat types in southern Costa Rica: pasture, near and far from extensive forest, hedgerows near and far from forest, stream edges within and far from forest, and tree-fall gaps within and at the edge of forest. 850 species from 80 angiosperm families were found in our study. Forest sites had significantly higher species richness and significantly lower average species abundance than pasture or hedgerow sites. Preliminary results indicate that up to 80 % of the plant families and 60 % of species in this study are found in both forest and pasture habitats. The majority of these cosmopolitan species occur in forest tree-fall gaps, pasture-stream edges and near forest edges. Patterns are very taxonspecific, with the Asteraceae and Melastomataceae representing the most cosmopolitan families. Only about 15 % of families are restricted to forested sites. These results are promising for conservation prospects, but should be interpreted with caution. Ongoing intensification of land use threatens to diminish the conservation value of human dominated tropical countryside. Localización: No disponible. Publicación no.: 169 Species diversity and community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in tropical forest fragments and adjacent pastures [Diversidad de especies y composición de la comunidad de hongos micorrízicos en fragmentos de bosque tropical y potreros adyacentes] / Aldrich-Wolfe, Laura.

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(Kansas State University. Division of Biology, Ackert Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506, US <E-mail: law6@ksu.edu>). Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America. 87th, and Annual International Conference of the Society for Ecological Restoration. 14Th, abstracts, Tucson, AR USAugust 04-09, 2002. En: Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting Abstracts, v. 87, p. 61. 2002. (Abstract only). Conversion of forest to pasture has been hypothesized to lead to declines in species richness and abundance of mycorrhizal fungi species. Evidence for such declines is currently ambiguous. In this study, I compared species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi for three pairs of forest fragment and adjacent pasture sites in a coffee farming community in Coto Brus, southern Costa Rica. I determined species diversity of AM fungi by both direct assessment of field-collected soil samples and estimates from -trap cultures in the greenhouse. Results suggest conversion of forest to pasture produces shifts in abundances of many AM fungi species rather than general declines. Species richness of AM fungi was similar in pasture and forest sites, despite the depauperate nature of the pasture plant community relative to that of forest. While some AM fungi species were common in both forest and pasture sites, others were abundant in one vegetation type and rare or absent in the other. These results suggest pasture plants support a AM fungi community that may be at least as species-rich as that of forested sites, but that differs in its composition. Inoculations of seedlings of a tropical forest tree with the divergent communities indicate that forest AM fungi provide a growth benefit to seedlings, while pasture AM fungi do not. Consequences of this shift in AM fungi species composition for forest regeneration need to be examined. Localización: No disponible. Publicación no.: 170 Justificación biológica para el establecimiento del Parque Nacional Maquenque, Costa Rica: Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva / Monge-Arias, Guisselle; Chassot, Olivier; LópezVargas, R; Chaves-Kiel, Henry. (Centro Científico Tropical. Proyecto de Investigación y Conservación de la Lapa Verde (Ara ambiguus), Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva, Apdo. 8-3870, 1000 San José, CR <Email: lapa@cct.or.cr>). San Pedro de Montes de Oca: Centro Científico Tropical, 2002. 40 p. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-2948.pdf La Zona Norte de Costa Rica alberga el último hábitat de conexión viable relativamente poco desarrollado que permite mantener la continuidad del Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano entre Nicaragua y Costa Rica. Sin embargo, el pequeño tamaño y el incremento de la degradación y aislamiento del bosque dentro de esta región, amenaza seriamente esa conectividad ecológica, así como también la viabilidad de una biodiversidad regional única: el conjunto de un bosque biológicamente rico, dominado por el almendro (Dipteryx panamensis), el cual no está representado en ningún Parque Nacional o área protegida de Costa Rica. La región entre la Cordillera Volcánica Central, y el Río San Juan alberga varias especies en peligro de extinción, incluyendo la lapa verde, el gaspar y el manatí. Las metas de protección del Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva se basan en gran parte en los resultados de la investigación biológica sobre el uso del hábitat por la lapa verde, una especie que habita los bosques de almendro de América Central. Además de usar extensos rangos hogareños, la lapa verde se dispersa desde las bajuras hacia bosques más elevados conectados con su hábitat reproductivo. Estableciendo un área núcleo de bosque natural protegido que mantiene la conectividad con los ecosistemas que lo rodean como se requiere para sostener una población viable de lapas, también se protegerá la biodiversidad del área. La iniciativa del Corredor San Juan-La Selva pretende consolidar el hábitat en un Parque Nacional mientras quese promueve el desarrollo sostenible de las comunidades aledañas a través de la certificación forestal, el apoyo en conservación y la aplicación de incentivos financieros para

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los servicios ambientales n tierras privadas. Tales incentivos influencian fuertemente las tendencias de uso de tierra en esta región y deberán ser expandidos para promover un verdadero uso sostenible de los recursos del bosque. Los propietarios de tierras están dispuestos a modificar el uso de la tierra cuando hay incentivos financieros; sin embargo, para ser más efectivos biológicamente, los programas existentes de incentivos deben ser expandidos y clarificados para habilitar la participación de los propietarios de tierras. Se establecerá un programa de educación ambiental complementario, enfocado hacia la enseñanza tanto de conceptos básicos de biología como de políticas de conservación; esto con el propósito de combinar el aprendizaje dentro y alrededor del propuesto Parque Nacional Maquenque. El tamaño y la localización del propuesto Parque Nacional Maquenque y del Corredor biológico que lo rodea, están basados en la información científica que identifica el hábitat de mayor valor para la biodiversidad, con particular énfasis en el hábitat de anidación de la lapa verde y en los humedales necesarios para el manatí. El Corredor conectará hábitats claves y corredores de vida silvestre documentados para prevenir el aislamiento de especies y ecosistemas nativos de esos hábitats. La creación del nuevo Parque Nacional en la zona norte de Costa Rica diversificará la economía local, creando oportunidades en un área económicamente en depresión, que actualmente depende de actividades forestales y agrícolas potencialmente limitadas. Los ríos escénicos de esta área, los ricos recursos biológicos, y la hospitalidad de pequeños pueblos, son las atracciones que contribuirán a un ecoturismo de pequeña escala. El proceso de evaluación del éxito ecológico de la iniciativa se llevará a cabo por medio de un monitoreo biológico, usando especies focales como indicadores del estado del ecosistema del Parque Nacional y del Corredor. El componente del monitoreo biológico evaluará y comunicará cuán bien está sirviendo el Corredor a las necesidades ecológicas del área. Como la población de Costa Rica reconoce cada vez más que las especies como la lapa verde y el manatí son símbolos de su herencia natural, el apoyo nacional al Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano incrementará al estar este protegiendo poblaciones viables de estas especies. La implementación del Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva a través de la compra de tierra selectiva y de un esfuerzo para registrar propietarios en el programa de pago por servicios ambientales tendrá mayores compensaciones en términos de conservación biológica como de valor del compromiso del pueblo de Costa Rica para conservar su excepcional y rica herencia natural. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 474. NBINA-2948. Publicación no.: 171 Avian frugivores and seed input in regenerating forests on cattle pastures in southern Costa Rica [Aves frugívoras y diseminación de semillas en la regeneración de bosques en potreros en el sur de Costa Rica] / Werner, Frederick Reuben. (Cornell University. Department of Natural Resources, Ithaca, NY 14851, US <E-mail: frw4@cornell.edu>). International Symposium-Workshop on Frugivores and Seed Dispersal: Biodiversity and Conservation Perspectives. III, São Pedro, São Paulo, BR, August 6-11, 2000, p. 280. Regeneration of young secondary growth on pastures or other degraded areas in the Neotropics has been shown to increase the local diversity and abundance of birds. The seed dispersal activity of these birds can in turn accelerate forest succession, thus creating a positive feedback loop between natural forest regeneration and the avian frugivore community. I sampled birds and their seed load in six fixedage forest regeneration plots in southern Costa Rica. The plots consist of large cattle exclosures containing six-year-old secondary growth on pastures adjacent to mature forest fragments. Mist-net data is supplemented with direct observations using a modified area search methodology. I collected seeds from fecal samples of netted birds to determine the quantity and species composition of seed

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input provided by the assemblage of avian frugivores. Data from the forest regeneration plots are compared with data collected simultaneously in adjacent pastures to determine the degree to which avian activity and seed input changes with secondary forest succession. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 511. Publicación no.: 172 Monitoring protected area management in Central America: a regional approach [Monitorización del manejo de áreas protegidas en Centroamérica: un enfoque regional] / Courrau, J.A. (The Nature Conservancy's PROARCA/CAPAS Project, P.O. Box 230-1225, San José, CR). En: Parks (ISSN 0960-233X), v. 9, no. 2, p. 56-60. 1999. This paper outlines the system of monitoring protected area management developed by The Nature Conservancy as part of the PROARCA/CAPAS project. Indicators organized in five different areas (social, administrative, natural resources management, political-legal and economic-financial) form the central component of the system. The system is currently being implemented in all the protected areas of Panama and Costa Rica and also in pilot sites in Nicaragua, El Salvador, Guatemala and Belize. The system is expected to be adopted by more protected areas in the near future. Localización: Biblioteca OET: P. NBINA-8198. Publicación no.: 173 Estudio de la migración del quetzal, Pharomachrus mocinno / Powell, George V.N; Bjork, Robin D; Avila-Hernández, M.L. (World Wildlife Fund, 1250 24th Street nw, Washington, D.C. 20037, US <E-mail: powell@wwfus.org> <E-mail: bjorkr@peak.org>). Congreso de Ornitología Tropical. IV, Quito, EC, 3-9 Nov., 1991. Quito: Corporación Ornitológica del Ecuador / Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, p. irr. (Abstract only). El quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno, es un trogónido que habita en los bosques de niebla del sureste de México y Centroamérica, y que migra altitudinalmente fuera de las zonas de anidación. Los objetivos de este estudio son: Determinar los movimientos migratorios y hábitats críticos del quetzal en la Reserva Biológica Bosque Nuboso Monteverde, Costa Rica, C. A. y en la Reserva de la Biosfera El Triunfo, Chiapas, México. Así como determinar parámetros reales en la delimitación y zonificación de áreas boscosas en ambas reservas, usando a la especie y su ecología como indicador biológico. La investigación está siendo realizada desde 1989 en Costa Rica y 1991 en México, aplicando la técnica de radiotelemetría y métodos de observación conductuales, realizando a la vez observaciones sobre la fenología de los árboles de los cuales se alimenta el quetzal. Hasta la fecha se han capturado y colocado radios a 28 quetzales en Costa Rica y 4 en México, observándose en C. Rica que los quetzales migran 2 veces al año, la primera en Agosto, moviéndose hacia la vertiente del Pacífico a 100 m. de altitud de diferencia, y la segunda en Noviembre, hacia la vertiente del Atlántico, a 500 m. de altitud de diferencia, volando en ambos casos hacia zonas fuera de las áreas protegidas. En México se ha observado que los quetzales se desplazan hacia la vertiente del Pacífico, con una diferencia de 800 m de altitud, y hacia la vertiente del Atlántico, con una diferencia de 700 m de altitud. migrando a zonas fuera de la zona núcleo de la Reserva. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 479. Publicación no.: 174 Estado de fragmentación del hábitat para el desplazamiento del mono congo (Alouatta palliata) y sus efectos sobre la variabilidad genética en tropas de esta especie en el Área de Conservación Tempisque, Costa Rica / Quan-Rodas, Claudia Lorena. (Universidad Nacional. Instituto Internacional en Manejo y Conservación de Vida Silvestre, Apdo. 1350-3000, Heredia, CR <E-mail:

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alouatta18@hotmail.com>). Heredia: Universidad Nacional, 2002. 80 p. Tesis, Mag. Sc. en Conservación y Manejo de Vida Silvestre, Universidad Nacional, Sistema de Estudios de Posgrado, Programa Regional en Manejo de Vida Silvestre para Mesoamérica y el Caribe, Heredia (Costa Rica). Habitat fragmentation is currently one of the major threats to wildlife populations. This process can reduce the genetic flow in isolated populations, increase endogamy levels and therefore a progressive loss of adaptive value. The objectives of this thesis are to describe the habitat fragmentation in the Tempisque Conservation Area (TCA) and to measure the effects of this process on the genetic variability of howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) troops that live in this region. GIS methodology was used for the landscape description. Two microsatellite loci were evaluated for 22 individuals in five locations of a continuous and relatively large habitat, as well as for 14 individuals in 5 locations of forest fragments outside protected areas. The habitat in the TCA is severely fragmented and consists mainly of gentle slope areas that are well suited for the development of productive activities. The main remaining forests are found in zones with steep slopes and in most cases coincide with protected areas or proposed corridors and Special Protection Zones. In fragmented zones, the howler monkey troops have less genetic flow and diversity compared to troops in large forest areas like Palo Verde National Park. The results show that natural and anthropic barriers exist for the dispersion of the howlers. Gallery forests act as natural corridors through the landscape, therefore its protection and enrichment is very important for primates in this habitat. The fragmentation processes and the loss of genetic diversity could put at risk the survival of howlers in TCA in the medium or long term. However, the howlers' great adaptability and ability to recover after declines can help to maintain its populations if adequate management activities are implemented. In this study some recommendations are offered in this regard. Localización: Biblioteca OET: Tesis 417. Publicación no.: 175 Sistema Nacional de Áreas de Conservación: Parques nacionales y otras áreas silvestres protegidas de Costa Rica / Mena-Araya, Yadira; Artavia-Zamora, G. (Ministerio de Ambiente y Energía. Sistema Nacional de Áreas de Conservación; Equipo de Áreas Silvestres Protegidas, San José, CR). San José: MINAE, 1998. 67 p. La labor realizada en el país durante las últimas décadas en el campo de la conservación, es producto de los esfuerzos compartidos por el Estado y la comunidad nacional, lo cual ha otorgado al país un reconocimiento y una responsabilidad que exige afrontar con novedosos y eficientes planteamientos, los retos del desarrollo sostenible para el próximo siglo. Con el establecimiento del Sistema Nacional de Áreas de Conservación se propone resguardar los ecosistemas más sobresalientes, integrando los gobiernos locales, empresa privada, organizaciones e individuos en las iniciativas de conservación de los recursos naturales del país. En este documento se presentan los aspectos más relevantes sobre la gestión del Sistema Nacional de Áreas de Conservación, con la intención de satisfacer la demanda de información requerida por la población estudiantil y otros interesados en el tema. Se describe el marco conceptual y estructura de la nueva organización, y se resume la situación actual de las áreas silvestres protegidas del país. El Sistema Nacional de Áreas de Conservación (SINAC) surge como parte de un proceso de modernización del esquema de gestión administrativo y de manejo de los recursos naturales del país que se viene desarrollando desde el decenio de los setentas. La puesta en operación de este enfoque ha implicado fuertes cambios conceptuales y administrativos, así como la formulación de los cambios jurídicos necesarios para consolidar el SINAC. Este nuevo modelo de gestión está orientado a satisfacer los requerimientos de una nueva administración de las áreas silvestres protegidas y a

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satisfacer las necesidades socioeconómicas de las comunidades aledañas a éstas, mediante su integración al desarrollo regional. Las Áreas de Conservación sirven de enlace entre las organizaciones locales y nacionales, en procura de un aprovechamiento racional de los recursos naturales disponibles y la búsqueda de soluciones conjuntas a la problemática ambiental de la región. El fundamento de la gestión del SINAC consiste en integrar, por una parte, las áreas silvestres protegidas a la sociedad por medio de la producción de bienes y servicios, así como desarrollar los medios para que la sociedad participe en la administración de las mismas. Por otra parte, fomenta el manejo de los recursos naturales por parte del sector privado, organizaciones e individuos mediante el apoyo a iniciativas de producción sostenibles que aseguren la conservación de los sistemas esenciales para la vida. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 481. Publicación no.: 176 Perspectives for the integrated management of the Tempisque river basin, Costa Rica [La cuenca del Río Tempisque: perspectivas para un manejo integrado] / Jiménez-Ramón, Jorge A (ed.); González-Jiménez, Eugenio (ed.); Mateo-Vega, Javier (ed.). (Organización para Estudios Tropicales, Apdo. 676-2050, San Pedro de Montes de Oca, CR <E-mail: jjimenez@ots.ac.cr> <E-mail: egonza@ots.ac.cr> <E-mail: jmateo@ots.ac.cr>). San José: Organización para Estudios Tropicales, 2001. 24 p. ISBN: 9968-9717-5-8. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-1185.pdf Introduction: The Tempisque River Basin is one of the most beautiful landscapes of Costa Rica. It contains an impressive diversity of environments that range from cloud forests in the summits of volcanoes to swamps and marshes in the lower sections of the basin. This region is particularly important due to the economic activities that are carried out within its boundaries. Tourism, aquaculture and sugar cane and rice plantations have brought prosperity and employment to the area. In addition, the cultural heritage of the basin is one of the richest in the country. The marked cultural mix that originated in the XVI century has generated a strong identity among the people and resulted in the emergence of a very interesting and colorful popular folklore. During the last decades, the proliferation of tourism megaprojects and agricultural infrastructure have caused considerable impacts on the region's natural systems, which already suffer from regular impacts caused by natural processes, including floods and droughts. The development of infrastructure projects to control floods, as well as the unrestrained extraction of superficial and groundwaters for irrigation threaten the ecological integrity of the region. As a result, the appropriate management of the basin's waters is one of the most pressing issues that this area currently faces, particularly considering that the productive capacity and development of the region depend on this critical resource. The search for equilibrium between the requirements of productive systems (i.e. in irrigation and flood protection) and the hydrologic needs of ecological systems in the region (i.e. occasional floods and permanent flows), is one of the greatest challenges faced in the basin. However, the most certain course of action seems to be the integration of both necessities through the integrated management of the area. The opportunity to make this basin a model of this approach will depend upon steps taken in the next few years. This publication summarizes the discussions and presentations of two workshops held in the Palo Verde Biological Station in 2000. Many of the discussions centered on water issues considered the unifying theme for the establishment of a management process for the basin. However, the subsequent chapters also discuss the impacts of the irrigation megaproject managed by SENARA, potential impacts of proposed dams and dikes, uncontrolled extraction of water resources, lack of institutional coordination and limited public participation in the basin. We hope that these discussions will help to initiate a political-social

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movement that should result in the implementation of an integrated management process in this important basin. The country cannot afford the luxury of delaying such a critical course of action. Localización: Biblioteca OET: 333.917 P467. NBINA-1185. Publicación no.: 177 Forest cover assessment, fragmentation analysis and secondary forest detection for the Chorotega Region, Costa Rica [Evaluación de la cobertura forestal, análisis de la fragmentación y detección de bosques secundarios para la Región Chorotega, Costa Rica] / Arroyo-Mora, J. Pablo. (The University of Connecticut, 75 N. Eagleville Road, Unit 3043, Storrs, CT 06269-3043, US <E-mail: pablo.arroyo@uconn.edu>). Edmonton: University of Alberta, 2002. 111 p. ISBN: 0-612-69680-4. Thesis, M.Sc., University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). A forest cover assessment for the Chorotega region, Costa Rica (2000) was carried out at the regional and at the life zone levels using remote sensing and geographical information systems techniques. At the regional level, forest represents 45.1% of the study area (mainly secondary growth). At the life zone level, the tropical moist forest is the life zone with the largest forest area (58%). A forest fragmentation analysis was performed to determine the composition and configuration of forest patches. This analysis showed that fragmentation at the regional and life zone levels is the product of forest restoration rather than forest division. Finally, a novel methodology integrating ecology and remote sensing was used to map secondary growth within the Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica. By accurately mapping four successional stages within the Santa Rosa National Park this analysis showed the advantage of integrating both high and medium resolution satellite imagery. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-5639. Publicación no.: 178 Restoring tropical diversity: beating the time tax on species loss [Restaurando la diversidad tropical: derrotando al "impuesto del tiempo" en pérdida de especies] / Martínez-Garza, C; Howe, Henry F. (University of Illinois. Department of Biological Sciences, M-C 066,845 W Taylor St, Chicago, IL 60607, US <E-mail: cmarti22@uic.edu). En: Journal of Applied Ecology (ISSN 0021-8901), v. 40, no. 3, p. 423-429. 2003. 1. Fragmentation of tropical forest is accelerating at the same time that already cleared land reverts to secondary growth. Fragments inexorably lose deep-forest species to local extinction while embedded in low-diversity stands of early successional pioneer trees. 2. Pasture matrices undergoing passive secondary succession become a 'pioneer desert' from the vantage of remnant immigration, imposing a 'time tax' of loss of deep-forest plants from forest fragments. However, if seeds of deep-forest trees find pastures, or seedlings are planted there, many will prosper. 3. Bypassing early domination of pioneer trees in regenerating matrices, or enriching matrices with animal-dispersed forest trees, may stem the loss of species from forest fragments and accelerate succession far from the edges of old forest. 4. Synthesis and applications. Planting disperser-limited trees that establish in open ground may bypass 30-70 years of species attrition in isolated remnants by attracting animals that encourage normal processes of seed dispersal into and out of the fragments. Development of criteria for selection of persistent, reasonably rapidly growing, animal-dispersed species that are mixed with planted or naturally arriving pioneers will be an important component of enrichment planting. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-986. Publicación no.: 179 Seed predation in Neotropical pre-montane pastures: site, distance, and species effects [Depredación de semillas en potreros neotropicales premontanos: Efectos de los sitios, distancias

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y especies] / Jones, F. Andrews; Peterson, Chris J; Haines, B.L. (University of Georgia. Department of Botany, Athens, GA 30602, US <E-mail: fajones@dogwood.botany.uga.edu> <E-mail: chris@dogwood.botany.uga.edu> <E-mail: haines@dogwood.botany.uga.edu>). En: Biotropica (ISSN 0006-3606), v. 35, no. 2, p. 219-225. 2003. We studied patterns of removal and predation on seeds of ten plant species over two years in four abandoned pastures adjacent to forest fragments in Costa Rica. We hypothesized that: (1) removal within pastures would be greater nearest forest fragments and decline at farther distances; (2) removal rates would be greater on smaller-seeded species; and (3) removal rates would differ among pastures. We placed seeds of two species in three pastures in 1997 and eight species in two pastures during 1998. In each pasture, removal was monitored at three distances from the forest edge. Rates of seed removal in 1997 and 1998 were significantly greater 1-5 m from the forest than at 20 m distances, but removal rates at the 40 m distance did not differ from the1-5 m distance. Rates of removal for both species were low in 1997, although removal was significantly greater for the smaller-seeded species Sorocea trophoides than for the large seeds of Nectandra sp. Removal rates differed significantly among pastures for both species in 1997 and among pastures for five small-seeded species in 1998. No removal of three large-seeded species was detected in 1998. Interspecific differences in seed removal rates were consistent with the hypothesis that larger seeds are removed less in pastures than smaller seeds. While some seed removal patterns appear predictable, species-specific variation in removal within and among sites was substantial. Predator population densities and other among-pasture differences may also influence patterns of spatial variation in seed predation. Localización: Biblioteca OET: B. NBINA-4884. Publicación no.: 180 The effects of forest fragment size and isolation on monkey density in a Costa Rican tropical dry forest [Efectos del tamaño de la fragmentación del bosque y aislamiento en la densidad de monos en un bosque seco tropical] / DeGama-Blanchet, Holly Noelle; Fedigan, Linda M. (University of Calgary. Department of Anthropology, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, CA <E-mail: fedigan@ucalgary.ca>). Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists. 26th., University of Calgary, Alberta, CA, July 29-August 2, 2003. En: American Journal of Primatology (ISSN 0275-2565), v. 60, Suppl. 1, p. 57-58. 2003. (Abstract only) This study examined the effects of forest fragment size and isolation on the density and presence of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus), mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) and black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi), in tropical dry forest fragments. Line transects were walked between January and June 2003 in three sectors of the megapark Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica. In accordance with previous studies on primates and with predictions made in Island Biogeography Theory, I hypothesized that there would be larger primate populations and that each primate species would be more likely to be found in larger fragments of forest. Secondly, I predicted that these primate populations would be less likely to be found and their populations would be smaller in more isolated patches. Lastly, this study explored how forest fragment age affected primate density and how the primate population dynamics in the Park have changed since the las transect surveys were conducted. The information gained from my study contributes to the small body of knowledge on how primates survive in habitat fragments. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S9577.

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Publicación no.: 181 Genetic variation of mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) from Costa Rica [Variación genética de los monos congo (Alouatta palliata) de Costa Rica] / Zaldívar-Ruiz, María Eugenia; Glander, Kenneth E; Rocha-Núñez, Oscar J; Aguilar, G; Vargas-Barrantes, Elida María; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Sánchez-Porras, Ronald E. (Universidad de Costa Rica. Escuela de Biología, San José, CR <Email: zaldivar@biologia.ucr.ac.cr> <E-mail: glander@duke.edu> <E-mail: ojrocha@biologia.ucr.ac.cr> <Email: ggutier@biologia.ucr.ac.cr> <E-mail: resanche@cariari.ucr.ac.cr>). En: Biotropica (ISSN 0006-3606), v. 35, no. 3, p. 375-381. 2003. We examined genetic diversity of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) from Costa Rica. Blood samples of howler monkeys were collected at various locations in Costa Rica, and electrophoresis of total plasma proteins yielded no variation. We also conducted starch gel electrophoresis of red cell isozymes and did not find variation for any of the 4 loci analyzed (i.e., ACP, ADA, CA2, EST, GPI, IDH, LDH-1, LDH-2, MDH, PGD, PGM-1, PGM-2, SOD, and TPI). These findings were compared with the levels of genetic variation for A. seniculus and A. belzebul from one Brazilian population. Four of the 14 isozymes (ADA, GPI, PGD, and SOD) showed more than one allele for these species. Both A. seniculus and A. belzebul from Brazil showed similar levels of genetic variation. The potential causes of the low genetic variation in A. palliata from Costa Rica are discussed. Localización: Biblioteca OET: B. NBINA-7900. Publicación no.: 182 La cuenca del río Savegre, un corredor biológico / Sánchez-Pérez, Julio E. (Museo Nacional de Costa Rica. Departamento de Historia Natural, Apdo. 749-1000, San José, CR <E-mail: jesornis@racsa.co.cr>). En: Zeledonia (Costa Rica) (ISSN 1659-0732), v. 7, no. 1, p. 3, 40. 2003. Al observar una fotografía de la cobertura boscosa, tomada desde un satélite, nos da tristeza de lo que hemos hecho en pocos años con la naturaleza de nuestro país. Fácilmente notaremos en la vertiente Pacífica una franja boscosa que se extiende desde las partes altas de Talamanca hasta el nivel del mar. La cuenca del río Savegre se convierte así, en la única cuenca con una cobertura boscosa continua en Costa Rica. Desde el páramo Bella Vista o Cerro de la Muerte (3491 msnm) hasta el nivel del mar, esta cuenca de 590 km² constituye un clarísimo ejemplo de la rica biodiversidad neotropical. Estudios realizados recientemente por el Museo Nacional lo demuestran, más de 2000 especies de plantas y 478 especies de aves. ¿Por qué esta diversidad biológica? El amplio gradiente altitudinal, regímenes de temperatura y humedad diferentes y lo abrupto del terreno producen una gama de microclimas y ambientes donde se desarrollan bosques de una gran complejidad florística y estructural que brindan una variedad de recursos, que permiten una fina división de nichos, donde las especializaciones ecológicas y de comportamiento hacen posible la coexistencia de una gran diversidad de especies de aves. La cuenca del río Savegre está ubicada entre las dos áreas de mayor endemismo de aves del país: las tierras altas de Talamanca y el bosque tropical del Pacífico Sur, lo cual le confiere a ésta un rango de conservación, de importancia mundial. En todo el ámbito altitudinal encontramos especies endémicas, además más de 30 especies realizan migraciones altitudinales estacionalmente, fenómenos que obligan a la conservación de este corredor. Su relieve abrupto, más del 60% en la mayoría de su geografía es lo que ha salvado a estos bosques y su fauna asociada de la piratería de los madereros. Paradójicamente este relieve y su alta precipitación y consecuentemente su caudal de aguas es lo que ha hecho que esta cuenca esté bajo la codiciosa mirada del ICE. Si en sólo 1,15% del territorio nacional existen 480 especies de aves (más del 50% de especies de la avifauna) y 60 especies endémicas, es tarea de la AOCR propiciar la conservación de esta cuenca.

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Localización: Biblioteca OET: Z. Publicación no.: 183 New data on the distribution and abundance of Saimiri oerstedii citrinellus [Nuevos datos sobre la distribución y abundancia de Saimiri oerstedii citrinellus] / Sierra, Claudine; Jiménez-Pérez, Ignacio; Altrichter-Cateula, Mariana; Fernández-Morillo, Maria Teresa; Gómez-Bernal, German Luis; González-Villalobos, Jorge A; Hernández-Soliz, César Augusto; Herrera-Rosales, Heydi Maria; Jiménez, B; López-Arévalo, Hugo Fernando; Millán-Araujo, José Oswaldo; Mora-Cerdas, Geisel; Tabilo-Valdivieso, Elier Lorenzo. (Apartado 73-3017, San Isidro de Heredia, CR <E-mail: clodin@racsa.co.cr> <E-mail: ijimenez@una.ac.cr> <E-mail: mariana_altrichter@redlands.edu> <E-mail: mfernad@una.ac.cr> <E-mail: hherrera@una.ac.cr> <E-mail: omillan@una.ac.cr> <E-mail: gmora@una.ac.cr> <E-mail). En: Primate Conservation (ISSN 0898-6207), v. 19, p. 5-9. 2003. (No abstract). Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-10510. Publicación no.: 184 Restoration of genetic diversity in the dry forest tree Swietenia macrophylla (Meliaceae) after pasture abandonment in Costa Rica [Restauración de la diversidad genética en el árbol del bosque seco Swietenia macrophylla (Meliaceae) luego del abandono de potreros en Costa Rica] / Céspedes-Castro, Maguil; Gutiérrez-Soto, Marco Vinicio; Holbrook, Noel Michele; Rocha-Núñez, Oscar J. (Universidad de Costa Rica. Escuela de Biología, San Pedro de Montes de Oca, CR <E-mail: marcogs@racsa.co.cr> <E-mail: holbrook@oeb.harvard.edu> <E-mail: ojrocha@biologia.ucr.ac.cr>). En: Molecular Ecology (ISSN 0962-1083), v. 12, no. 12, p. 3201-3212. 2003. We studied the levels of genetic diversity of Swietenia macrophylla (big leaf mahogany) in five successional plots in the Santa Rosa National Park, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. We selected sites with different lengths of time since the last major disturbance (typically fire): 6, 9, 15 and 20 years. In addition, we also included a patch of mature forest that had experienced selective logging and other human activity in the past 100 years. Genetic diversity was assessed using five polymorphic DNA microsatellite loci. We found a total of 21 alleles in the five loci examined, in which the number of alleles present varied among the five sites studied. Allelic diversity varied between sites ranging from 20 to 14 alleles, and our data revealed that earlier successional sites have more alleles than older sites. There was significant heterogeneity in allele frequencies between sites; however, genetic differentiation between populations was low (F-ST = 0.063) indicating that most of the variation was found within sites and extensive gene flow between sites. In addition, our analysis also showed that genetic diversity of adult trees does not solely determine the diversity of seedlings and saplings found around them, also supporting the existence of extensive gene flow. The impact of these findings for the design of conservation strategies for tropical dry forests trees is discussed. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-1184. Publicación no.: 185 Successful lizard eggs in a human-disturbed habitat [Éxito de los huevos de lagartija en hábitats perturbados por el hombre] / Schlaepfer, M.A. (Cornell University. Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Mudd Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-2702, US <E-mail: mas50@cornell.edu>). En: Oecologia (ISSN 0029-8549), v. 137, no. 2, p. 304-311. 2003. As humans extend their influence to an increasingly large portion of the globe, it becomes of both theoretical and practical interest to understand the consequences of our activities on wildlife populations. Norops polylepis is a small anoline lizard native to rainforest of southern Costa Rica. It is

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also found and known to lay eggs in cattle pastures immediately adjacent to forest. I predicted that N. polylepis eggs would fare poorly in pastures because of the important abiotic and biotic differences with their native forest habitat. I obtained eggs from captive females and estimated an egg's probability of hatching, daily survival rate, and incubation time at various distances along a forest-to-pasture gradient. Contrary to expectation, egg survival rates were higher in pastures than in forest areas. Furthermore, egg incubation times were significantly shorter in pastures than in their native forest. As a result, eggs were at least as likely to hatch in pastures as in forested areas. Thus, pastures may represent a benign or even beneficial habitat for the eggs of some reptile species. High survival of eggs will facilitate range expansion into human-altered habitats such as pastures, but does not guarantee it. Indeed, pastures could represent an ecological trap and a population sink if adults are drawn there (e.g., in search of favorable ovipositioning sites) yet suffer higher mortality than in forests. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-1093. Publicación no.: 186 Ecological forecasts [Predicciones ecológicas] / Daily, Gretchen C. (Stanford University. Department of Biological Sciences, Center for Conservation Biology, Stanford, CA 943055020, US <E-mail: gdaily@stanford.edu>). En: Nature (ISSN 0028-0836), v. 411, p. 245. 2001. (No abstract). Localización: Biblioteca OET: S9090. Publicación no.: 187 Participación de nueve comunidades campesinas estratégicas en la gestión, apropiación y reconstrucción del Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva / Chassot, Olivier (ed.); MongeArias, Guisselle (ed.); Chassot, D, (il.). (Centro Científico Tropical. Proyecto de Investigación y Conservación de la Lapa Verde (Ara ambiguus), Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva, Apdo. 8-3870, 1000 San José, CR <E-mail: lapa@cct.or.cr>). San José: Librería e Imprenta Hnos. Segura S.A., 2003. 70 p. La presente publicación resulta de una propuesta desarrollada por el Comité Ejecutivo del Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva con financiamiento del Fondo Canje de Deuda Costa Rica-Canadá. "Participacion de nueve comunidades campesinas estratégicas en la gestión, apropiación y reconstrucción del Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva" es una propuesta que se implementó en las comunidades de Boca San Carlos, Santa Rita, Boca Tapada, Quebrada Grande, Pangola, Golfito, California Tico, Chilamate y Cristo Rey con el fin de contribuir al conocimiento y capacidad local en el manejo sostenible de los recursos naturales y la protección de su ambiente. Si bien los objetivos fueron ambiciosos .para una primera campaña con las comunidades del Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva, las comunidades respondieron al llamado. Para favorecer la conservación efectiva de la biodiversidad en el Corredor, es sumamente necesario desarrollar la capacitación y participación activa de las comunidades, fortaleciendo la capacidad de las instancias locales, que además, deberían de integrar los distintos sectores de la sociedad en la toma de decisiones sobre los rumbos a dar al Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva. Mediante las visitas a las comunidades, la distribución de material divulgativo y educacional del Corredor Biológico, se logró en parte que las comunidades se apropiaran de la iniciativa y participaran en el desarrollo y la toma de decisiones correspondientes a dicha iniciativa. Durante las visitas a las nueve comunidades, se realizaron una serie de entrevistas que constituyen la sustancia del presente documento, como un esfuerzo de rescatar la cultura y la historia de cada comunidad visitada con el afán de poder valorizar su propia experiencia en torno al Corredor Biológico y el uso de los recursos naturales, además de poder compartir la experiencia con otras comunidades en los corredores del país. El Comité Ejecutivo del Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva agradece a los pobladores de las

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nueve comunidades visitadas y espera tener la oportunidad de fortalecer la experiencia y de repetirla en otras comunidades estratégicas usuarias de los recursos naturales del Corredor. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 490. Publicación no.: 188 Breeding structure of neotropical dry-forest tree species in fragmented landscapes [Estructura reproductiva de especies de árboles del bosque seco neotropical en paisajes fragmentados] / Hamrick, James L; Apsit, Victoria Joan. (University of Georgia. Botany Department, Athens, GA 30602, US <E-mail: hamrick@dogwood.botany.uga.edu>). En: Biodiversity conservation in Costa Rica: learning the lessons in a seasonal dry forest. Frankie, G.W; Mata-Jiménez, A; Vinson, S.B., (eds.) Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004. p. 31-37. ISBN: 0520-24103-7. (No abstract). Localización: Biblioteca OET: 333.9516097286 b615. Publicación no.: 189 Impact of global changes on the reproductive biology of trees in tropical dry forests [Impacto de los cambios globales en la biología reproductiva de árboles en los bosques secos tropicales] / Bawa, Kamaljit S. (University of Massachusetts. Department of Biology, 100 Morrissey Blvd, Boston, MA 02125-3393, US <E-mail: kamal.bawa@umb.edu>). En: Biodiversity conservation in Costa Rica: learning the lessons in a seasonal dry forest. Frankie, G.W; Mata-Jiménez, A; Vinson, S.B., (eds.) Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004. p. 38-47. ISBN: 0520-24103-7. (No abstract). Localización: Biblioteca OET: 333.9516097286 b615. Publicación no.: 190 Habitat linkages and the conservation of tropical biodiversity as indicated by seasonal migrations of three-wattled Bellbirds [Conexiones de hábitat y la conservación de la biodiversidad tropical indicada por migraciones estacionales de los pájaros campana (Procnias tricarunculata)] / Powell, George V.N; Bjork, Robin D. (World Wildlife Fund, 1250 24th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037, US <E-mail: powell@wwfus.org> <E-mail: bjorkr@peak.org>). En: Conservation Biology (ISSN 0888-8892), v. 18, no. 2, p. 500-509. 2004. Using radiotelemetry, we discovered that the Three-wattled Bellbird (Procnias tricarunculata), one of Central America's largest frugivorous birds, has the most complex migratory pattern yet recorded for a tropical species. The annual migration cycle included 2- to 5-month stopovers in four distinct life zones: two middle-elevation and two lowland sites separated by as much as 200 km. We captured and radiotagged bellbirds during 4 years between July and September in middle-elevation forest fragmentsof the Pacific slope, 6 km from Monteverde in the Tilarán mountain range of north-central Costa Rica. These habitats, which exist almost exclusively as small, isolated fragments on private farms, are poorly represented (2%) in Costa Rica's system of protected areas. During September and October, the bellbirds migrated from this site to the northeast into the lowland Atlantic forest of southeastern Nicaragua and northeastern Costa Rica. In Costa Rica these habitats have been heavily fragmented. In Nicaragua they remain intact but are highly threatened. In November and December, the bellbirds migrated from these Atlantic forests to heavily modified, little-protected forests along the Pacific coast of southwestern Costa Rica, where they remained until March. Here, most individuals utilized forest remnants and second growth on private property. In March the Bellbirds moved from the coastal areas to middle-elevation (1000-1800 m) moist forest on the Atlantic slope of the Tilarán mountains sites, where they bred. In June and July, they left the breeding area and moved back across the continental

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divide of the Tilarán Mountains to return to the middle-elevation Pacific slopes where they had been captured. Our findings demonstrate the complicated ecological integration of geographically dispersed tropical ecosystems and the need for comprehensive conservation strategies that include representation of the full array of regional habitats and a greater emphasis on maintaining connectivity. The bellbird's migratory pattern reveals serious inadequacies in protected-area networks of Costa Rica, a country that is considered to have one of the best systems of national parks and reserves in the Neotropics. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-1386. Publicación no.: 191 Focus on deforestation: zooming in on hot spots in highly fragmented ecosystems in Costa Rica [Centrarse en la deforestación: un acercamiento sobre los puntos calientes en ecosistemas altamente fragmentados en Costa Rica] / van Laake, Patrick E; Sánchez-Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo. (NL7500 AA Enschede, NL <E-mail: vanlaake@itc.nl> <E-mail: arturo.sanchez@ualberta.ca>). En: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment (ISSN 0167-8809), v. 102, no. 1, p. 3-15. 2004. Most estimates of deforestation are derived for areas that are not intrinsically related to the causes of deforestation, making it hard to link such estimates with strategies for improved land management. In this paper a method is presented to identify local areas of high rates of deforestation within larger areas, using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS). These deforestation hot spots are identified using a local analysis approach, considering for every location only land coverchanges taking place in the immediate vicinity, and they thus reflect local deforestation. This method has potential application in improved land policy development, land management and it could supplement land use change modelling at the landscape level. Specifically, the method could be used to undertake a risk assessment of the effectiveness of ecological corridors. The method was applied to the province of Limón in Costa Rica, where commercial agriculture has caused large scale deforestation. The deforestation hot spots in the period 1986-1997 that were identified with this method represent a large proportion of the total deforestation having taken place in the province, and for each of the hot spots specific drivers of deforestation could be identified. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-1383. Publicación no.: 192 Diversidad alfa, beta y gamma: una comparación entre mariposas y escarabajos / Cepeda-González, María Fernanda. En: Fragmentación: su impacto en la diversidad de escarabajos (Coleoptera) y mariposas (Lepidoptera), Cañas, Costa Rica Heredia: Universidad Nacional, 2003. 41 p. Tesis, Mag. Sc. en Conservación y Manejo de Vida Silvestre, Universidad Nacional, Programa Regional en Manejo de Vida Silvestre para Mesoamérica y El Caribe, Heredia (Costa Rica). Se seleccionaron 15 parcelas, cinco por cobertura vegetal: bosque secundario, charral y potrero de alta densidad de vegetación. Se muestrearon dos grupos de insectos: mariposas diurnas y escarabajos estercoleros. Para las primeras se utilizaron redes de mano en transectos, para los segundos se usaron trampas "pit-fall" con cebo de estiércol fresco de cerdo (32 trampas por parcela). Se calculó la diversidad alfa, beta y gamma de ambos grupos. Se compararon las parcelas usando la diversidad alfa (GI=14,29; F=1.32; P=0.2992) sin encontrar diferencias. Usando esta misma diversidad se compararon las coberturas vegetales con las mariposas (GI=2, 14; F=0.08; P=0.9217) y los escarabajos (GI=2, 14; F=0.67; P=0.5307); así mismo se compararon ambos grupos (GI=5, 29; F=0.29; P=0.9116). En ningún caso se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas ni biológicas. Para el nivel (3 se compararon las

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coberturas vegetales dentro de cada grupo (escarabajos: GI=2, P=0.9999; mariposas GI=2, P=0.9999), y entre los grupos (P=0.09958). A nivel beta, se obtuvieron los valores de diversidad para escarabajos y=31.84 y las mariposas de y=43.78. Sin embargo sólo se hace en forma descriptiva. Dado que no se detectaron diferencias significativas entre la diversidad de las parcelas, los insectos considerados parecen no ser buenos indicadores para evaluar el impacto de la fragmentación, posiblemente debido a que las poblaciones ya son estables, y que las extinciones locales sucedieron con anterioridad a este estudio. Por lo que se recomienda estudiar localizar inventarios previos a la perturbación a la que son sometidos los parches boscosos restantes hasta hoy. Localización: Biblioteca del BIODOC: Tesis 2240. Publicación no.: 193 Relaciones entre diversidad de insectos con variables espaciales locales y regionales / Cepeda-González, María Fernanda. En: Fragmentación: su impacto en la diversidad de escarabajos (Coleoptera) y mariposas (Lepidoptera), Cañas, Costa Rica Heredia: Universidad Nacional, 2003. 41 p. Tesis, Mag. Sc. en Conservación y Manejo de Vida Silvestre, Universidad Nacional, Programa Regional en Manejo de Vida Silvestre para Mesoamérica y El Caribe, Heredia (Costa Rica). Se seleccionaron 15 parcelas, cinco por cobertura vegetal: bosque secundario, charral y potrero de alta densidad de vegetación. Se muestrearon dos grupos de insectos: mariposas diurnas y escarabajos estercoleros. Para las primeras se utilizaron redesde mano en transectos, para los segundos se usaron trampas "Pit-fall" con cebo de estiércol fresco de cerdo (32 trampas por parcela). Se realizó un censo total dentro de cada parcela de los árboles mayores a 1.5 m de altura. Se calculó la diversidad alfa, beta y gamma, para realizar un análisis de componentes principales a nivel alfa y beta usando variables espaciales para cada nivel. A nivel alfa no se encontraron relaciones fuertes con alguna de la variables (diversidad de vegetación, área, perímetro, índice de Patton, dimensión fractal), explicando las dos componentes formadas la variación en un 84%. A nivel alfa tampoco se encontraron relaciones marcadas entre las variables (media de la relación perímetro-área, tamaño medio de parche, diversidad de vegetación, densidad de borde y media del índice fractal) y la diversidad, explicando en el 100% la variación con las dos componentes formadas. Así mismo, a nivel y se describieron algunas características generales del paisaje. Es probable que la falta de relaciones marcadas con alguna de las variables se deba a que la diversidad se relacione con otras no usadas, o a que la diversidad se relaciona ligeramente con éstas y otras no presentes en este estudio, y no sea una fuerte relación con alguna en particular. Se recomienda buscar otras variables que permitan conocer si existe algún factor que determine o influye fuertemente sobre la diversidad de insectos. Localización: Biblioteca del BIODOC: Tesis 2240. Publicación no.: 194 Influencia de las variables espaciales y del hábitat sobre una comunidad de murciélagos (Chiroptera) en remanentes boscosos en Cañas, Costa Rica / Montero-Muñoz, Jorge L. Heredia: Universidad Nacional, 2003. 86 p. Tesis, Mag. Sc. en Conservación y Manejo de Vida Silvestre, Universidad Nacional, Programa Regional en Manejo de Vida Silvestre para Mesoamérica y El Caribe, Heredia (Costa Rica). Se presenta evidencia de que el área y la forma de los fragmentos no influye sobre la riqueza de especies de murciélagos en fragmentos boscosos remanentes en un agropaisaje del bosque seco de Cañas, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Se evaluó la relación especies y área para remanentes de fragmentos boscosos mediante el uso de cuatro modelos de regresión (lineal, logarítmica, potencial y exponencial).

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La influencia de la forma se evaluó mediante la correlación de la riqueza de especies con tres índices de forma euclidiana y la dimensión fractal de cada fragmento discreto, también se calculó la dimensión fractal para el conjunto de fragmentos. Ninguna pendiente de los cuatro modelos de regresión fue estadísticamente significativa, lo cual sugiere que no existe una relación entre la riqueza de especies de murciélagos y el área de los fragmentos. No se encontró correlación significativa entre los índices de forma de los fragmentos discretos y la riqueza de especies. Como posibles explicaciones, se propone que las poblaciones de murciélagos en el paisaje funcionen de acuerdo con la teoría metapoblacional, donde el tamaño de las poblaciones no está limitado por el tamaño del parche. De igual manera se evaluó la influencia de las variables de diversidad alfa de la vegetación, porcentaje de cobertura de dosel y dimensión fractal, sobre la diversidad taxonómica de murciélagos en un agropaisaje. Se trabajó en cinco hábitats, bosque de ripario, bosque secundario, charral, potrero de alta cobertura de árboles, potrero de baja cobertura de árboles. En cada sitio de muestreo se ubicó una parcela de 1 ha donde se colocó ocho redes de niebla de tamaño estándar 12m X 2,5m. Los hábitats presentaron diferencias en el promedio de diversidad alfa (F=3, 67, gl=4, 35, p=0.0135). La diversidad beta entre fragmentos presentó diferencias en el promedio del reemplazo de especies entre hábitat (F=19,26, gl=4, 35, p=0.001). A nivel de cada hábitat, las variables de diversidad alfa de murciélagos, diversidad alfa de vegetación, porcentaje de cobertura de dosel y dimensión fractal logran explicar el 94% de la composición taxonómica de especies dentro de los hábitats. Dando calificaciones altas para las correlaciones de estas variables para el bosque ripario, bosques secundario y charral. Las variables de beta diversidad de murciélagos, diversidad alfa de vegetación, porcentaje de cobertura de dosel y dimensión fractal logran explicar el 91%, para el reemplazo de especies entre hábitat. Los valores altos de diversidad beta, indican una mayor dispersión espacial de las especies y un uso generalizado del paisaje. Localización: Biblioteca del BIODOC: Tesis 2239. Publicación no.: 195 Cobertura arbórea y diversidad de aves en un paisaje fragmentado en Cañas, Costa Rica [Tree cover and bird diversity in a fragmented landscape in Cañas, Costa Rica] / CárdenasCarmona, G. Turrialba: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza, 2002. 100 p. Tesis, Mag. Sc., CATIE, Escuela de Posgrado, Turrialba (Costa Rica). Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-1926.pdf This research main objective was to determine the influence of tree coverage over the abundance, diversity and distribution of birds in different habitats in the area of Cañas, Costa Rica. The composition, structure and tree diversity was characterized and evaluated in habitats with different tree coverage (dry forest fragments, riparian forests, scrubs, live fences, pastureland of high coverage and pastureland of low coverage) in a highly fragmented landscape. The abundance of birds that use the different types of habitats was compared, the existing relationship between the characteristics of the plant community (abundance, diversity, density) the spatial characteristics (area, perimeter, area-perimeter index, and percentage of tree coverage) and the bird diversity of the different habitat in this landscape was also evaluated. The habitats varied in their richness, abundance, diversity, structure and tree composition. In general the diversity of the tree species found in the forestry habitats, was significantly greater than the one found in the habitats denominated open. The fragments of dry and riparian forests showed more trees species and more individuals on average per parcel and greater tree diversity than scrub, pasture lands of high and low coverage. The live fences showed fewer species. Based on its tree composition three groups stood out in the main habitats, the dry forest fragments, riparian forests, scrubs, the live fences and the pasturelands of high and low coverage. In the open habitats (pasturelands of high and

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low coverage) was found a higher average of diameter to the height of chest in comparison to the registered in the dry forest fragments and scrubs. This due to the fact that the individuals found in the habitat of pasturelands of high and low coverage were possibly remnant adult trees from the original forests in that area, or they were established individuals in these systems without competition for light or nutrients with neighboring trees. Significant differences were also found for the median height of the trees in different habitats. In the riparian forests a greater average of height in the species was registered, being the median of the height different from the median calculated for the scrubs and pasturelands of low coverage. The richness, abundance and composition of the avifauna varied in the different habitats. The average of bird species registered in the pasturelands of high coverage was greater to the registered in the fragmented dry forests, scrubs, pasturelands of low coverage and live fences, but equal to the one registered in the riparian forests. In the habitats of fragmented dry forests, riparian forest, and scrubs the diversity of bird species registered was greater than in the pasturelands of high and low coverage and live fences. Based on its bird composition two big differentiated groups appeared affluent as they were it, the dry forest fragments, riparian forests and scrubs in a group and another grouping the pasturelands of high and low coverage and the live fences. Significant differences in the evenness index (E) average between the bird species registered in the different habitats were not found. The pastureland habitats of high coverage and the riparian forests were more diverse as far as the bird species, compared to the fragmented dry forest and the pasturelands of low coverage according to the Shannon index. The forestry habitats showed a more complex bird composition (with species and individuals particular of fragmented forests)to the registered in the open habitats, which showed a less complex bird composition (common species and abundant, particulars of agricultural systems). The insectivorous birds were the best-represented feeding guild among the species and individuals registered in each one of the habitats. The fragmented dry forests, the riparian forests and the scrubs housed mainly nectarivorous, piscivorous, and frugivorous guilds, while the habitats of pasturelands of high and low coverage systems housed the carnivorous, seedeaters and omnivorous guilds. Significant differences between the number of bird species and individuals that belonged to the pastureland areas as well as to the forestry areas were found between the different compared habitats. Fragmented dry forests, riparian forests and scrubs registered more particular species of forestry areas, while the open habitats (pasturelands of high and low coverage) observed more particular species of pastureland areas. A positive regression was found when comparing the richness of the vegetation registered in the different habitats and the number of species and individual birds belonging to the forest, indicating that the higher the richness of the species the greater the number of birds belonging to the particular forestry areas. Also a negative regression was found when comparing the richness of the vegetation registered in the different habitats and the number of species and individual birds belonging to these open habitats, indicating that the higher the richness of the tree species in the habitats, is lower the number of particular birds of pastureland areas. The fragments of forestry habitats in the Cañas area were important areas in the in the fragmented landscape because they preserve in great measure communities belonging to forests which are not kept in pastureland areas or in systems of agricultural production. But on the other hand the pastures of high tree coverage showed that they could hold significant abundance and richness of bird species belonging to pastureland areas or adapted to this environment in a highly fragmented landscape, more than in the pasturelands of low tree coverage. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-1926. Biblioteca Conmemorativa Orton: Thesis C266c. Biblioteca del BIODOC: Tesis 2191.

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Publicación no.: 196 Effects of forest fragmentation on pollinator activity and cosequences for plant reproductive success and mating patterns in bat-pollinated bombacaceous trees [Efectos de la fragmentación de bosques sobre la actividad de los polinizadores y consecuencias en el éxito reproductivo y los patrones de apareamiento en árboles de bombacáceas] / Quesada-Avendaño, Mauricio; Stoner, Kathryn E; Lobo-Segura, Jorge A; Herrerías-Diego, Yvonne; Palacios-Guevara, Carolina; Munguía-Rosas, Miguel Angel; Salazar, Karla A.O; Rosas-Guerrero, Víctor. (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas, Apartado Postal 27-3 (Xangari), Morelia, Michoacán 58089, MX <E-mail: mquesada@oikos.unam.mx> <E-mail: kstoner@oikos.unam.mx> <E-mail: jlobo@biologia.ucr.ac.cr>). En: Biotropica (ISSN 0006-3606), v. 36, no. 2, p. 131-138. 2004. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-6063.pdf Forest fragmentation and the resulting spatial isolation of tree species can modify the activity of pollinators and may have important implications for the reproductive success and mating systems of the plants they pollinate. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the effect of forest fragmentation on pollinator activity in bat-pollinated bombacaceous trees and (2) determine the effects of forest fragmentation on reproductive success and mating systems of bombacaceous trees. We studied these parameters in three bombacaceous tree species in tropical seasonal forest of Charnela, Jalisco, Mexico, and Osa and Guanacaste, Costa Rica. For Ceiba aesculifolia, more visits were observed in fragments by both Glossophaga soricina and Leptonycteris curasoae. For Ceiba grandiflora, Musonycteris harrisoni visited flowers exclusively in forest and G. soricina visited more flowers in forest than in fragments; no difference was shown by L. curasoae. For Ceiba pentandra in Chamela, no differences were found in visitation by G. soricina between forest and fragments; L. curasoae visited significantly more flowers in forest. Ceiba pentandra received more visits by Phyllostomus discolor than G. soricina in Guanacaste, whereas no bat visitors were observed in Osa. Total mean flower production was greater in fragments than forest for C. aesculifolia, whereas no difference was observed for C. grandiflora. Fruit set was greater in forest than in fragments for C. grandiflora, whereas no difference was observed for C. aesculifolia. Outcrossing rates were high for C aesculifolia and C. grandiflora in Chamela, and for C. pentandra in Guanacaste, independent of tree habitat, while C. pentandra in Osa showed a mixedmating system. The effects of forest fragmentation on bat pollinators, plant reproductive success, and mating patterns varied depending upon the bombacaceous species. This variability was associated with the effects that forest fragmentation may have on differences in flowering patterns, bat foraging behavior, and plant self-incompatibility systems. Localización: Biblioteca OET: B. NBINA-6063. Publicación no.: 197 The effect of forest fragmentation on genetic diversity, mating systems and effective population sizes of forest trees in Guanacaste, Costa Rica [Efecto de la fragmentación del bosque en la diversidad genética, sistemas reproductivos y tamaños efectivos de población de árboles forestales en Guanacaste, Costa Rica] / Cornelius, J.P. (ICRAF. World Agroforestry Centre, CIP, Apartado 1558, Lima 12, PE <E-mail: j.cornelius@cgiar.org>). Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta, 2003. 272 pp. ISBN: 0-612-82090-4. Dissertation, Ph.D., University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada). This thesis addresses the genetic impact of forest fragmentation on remnant tree populations in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Chapter One justifies the research in terms of the importance of genetic diversity and possible fragmentation effects. Chapter Two reviews the latter. Chapter Three traces the deforestation history of the study zone and discusses its genetic implications, particularly those of

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increased forest linearity. Chapters Five and Seven report studies of two native species (Chapters Four andSix describe inheritance, neutrality, linkage of the allozytne markers used). Anacardium excelsum gene diversity (He) was similar to other tropical woody species. There was no apparent relationship between gene diversity and population size. There was moderate to large subpopulation differentiation overall, but less genetic differentiation within population groups, and there was an apparent relationship between genetic and geographical distances. Fst-based migration estimates were around 1 individual generation&minus;1 overall, but 2&ndash;4 generation &minus;1 within groups. Current gene flow to one isolated population (m) was 0.18. Outcrossing estimates (tm) varied between fragments (mixed mating system), and were significantly positively related to neighbourhood density. Sheltered fragments on watercourses tended to higher flowering and flowering equitability. Growth rate in common garden experiments varied significantly between fragments; it was not significantly related to tm, but tended to be lower in highly disturbed populations. Plumeria rubra (He) was similar to A. excelsum. Subpopulation differentiation was low to moderate. Fst-based migration estimates were 2&ndash;7 migrants generation&minus;1, whilst m to one population was 0.13. Estimated population tm were not significantly different from 100%. Capsule production was positively related to neighborhood density. Results suggest differing susceptibilities to fragmentation. Disturbance may reduce A. excelsum effective population size dueto inbreeding and high fertility variance. Despite smaller population sizes, anemochory, and aggregated populations, P. rubra retains high variation and little subpopulation differentiation, probably due to its highly mobile pollinator, whilst selfincompatibility precludes outcrossing effects. However, low genetic variation in one population, and density-related limitation of fruiting, suggest the species’ resilience has limits. In Chapter Eight, general implications are discussed, with reference to species and forests of the zone, and to genetic and reproductive processes. The mitigation of fragmentation by improved husbandry of pastureland and riparian trees is considered. Localización: Biblioteca Conmemorativa Orton: Thesis C814. Publicación no.: 198 Causes and consequences of bird extinctions [Causas y consecuencias de las extinciones de aves] / Sekercioglu, Cagan H. (Stanford University. Department of Biological Sciences, Center for Conservation Biology, Stanford, CA 94305-5020, US <E-mail: cagan@stanford.edu>). Stanford, CA: Stanford University, 2003. 130 pp. Dissertation, Ph.D., Stanford University, Stanford CA (USA). Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-1767.pdf Human domination of the planet is driving species extinct. Each species has not only intrinsic value, but ecological functions of organisms are also essential for the integrity of ecosystems that allow people to benefit from key ecosystem services. In order to retain global biodiversity, we must study the factors behind species' declines, understand their consequences, improve biodiversity capacity of humandominated landscapes, and persuade human communities to preserve their natural heritage. I address these issues by modeling bird extinctions in the 21st century, investigating effects of habitat degradation on tropical forest birds, and reviewing birdwatching tourism. Analyzing a database of all bird species, I found that certain groups, such as frugivores, piscivores and scavengers, are more extinction-prone than average, and oceanic islands and forested landscapes have more threatened species than average. These patterns are likely to deteriorate in the 21st century, signaling the potential loss of crucial ecosystem services such as pest control, pollination, and seed dispersal. In Uganda, I found that past forestry practices had long-term negative impacts on forest birds, whereas low intensity forestry was compatible with the preservation of local biodiversity. In Costa Rica, I showed that understory

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insectivorous birds disappeared from forest fragments not due to lack of food, but because of limited mobility. Three forest bird species that persisted in agricultural countryside did so eitherby being preadapted to disturbed habitats (Catharus aurantiirostris ) or by being mobile and making efficient use of 11% of the landscape still covered by trees (Tangara icterocephala and Turdus assimilis). Radio telemetry underlined the importance of remnant trees, riparian strips, and small forest patches for native forest species. Analysis of birdwatching tourism revealed that, just as human-dominated landscapes are often excluded from conservation initiatives, most local people in less-developed areas are also excluded from income generated by birdwatching that is overwhelmingly conducted by wealthy citizens of developed countries. If the combination of large scale habitat clearance, exclusion of human-dominated landscapes from conservation policies, and alienation of local communities from ecotourism initiatives continues, consequent disappearance of species is likely to cause collapses in ecosystems and their services that are crucial for humanity. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-1767. Tesis 437. Publicación no.: 199 A framework for assessing the relative vulnerability of species to land-use change [Un sistema para estimar la vulnerabilidad de especies susceptibles al cambio en el uso de la tierra] / de Freitas-Pereira, Henrique Miguel Leite; Daily, Gretchen C; Roughgarden, J. (Instituto Superior Técnico. Departamento de Engenharia Civil e Arquitectura, Av Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, PT <E-mail: <E-mail: hpereira@civil.ist.utl.pt> <E-mail: gdaily@stanford.edu>). En: Ecological Applications (ISSN 1051-0761), v. 14, no. 3, p. 730-742. 2004. Conversion of native habitat to human-dominated uses is the main driver of global biodiversity loss, yet which species will be most impacted, and why, remain poorly known. There is thus an urgent need to develop frameworks for understanding, and predicting, the effect of habitat alteration on biodiversity. We develop an approach with three components: a demographic model, a regional database of lifehistory traits, and a sensitivity analysis of the model predictions. We use a spatially explicit model that predicts the fate of individual species in a human-dominated landscape. The model takes as parameters habitat affinity, population growth rate, annual dispersal, and dispersal behavior at the habitat edges. The model predicts the minimum area of native habitat that allows for persistence of a species. We apply the model to a regional community of species, the avifauna of Costa Rica. We gather life-history data (body mass, clutch size, breeding season length, number of broods per year, age at first breeding, life span, and dispersal distance) for Costa Rican birds. When data are not available for Costa Rican species, inferences are made from North American and European birds. We use these data to estimate the model parameters for each species. Minimum patch sizes predicted by the model are used to specify the relative degree of threat faced by each species. We perform a sensitivity analysis of patch size and relative vulnerability predictions to model assumptions and gaps in the data. Our predictions of relative vulnerability are robust to changes in model assumptions and agree with an independently derived empirical assessment. Our framework thus appears to be useful for understanding, and influencing, the fates of neotropical birds and possibly other taxa worldwide. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-2024. Publicación no.: 200 Where have all the rainforest flycatchers gone--and why? [¿Adónde se han ido todos los mosqueritos y por qué?] / Sekercioglu, Cagan H. (Stanford University. Department of Biological Sciences, Center for Conservation Biology, Stanford CA 94305-5020, US <E-mail: cagan@stanford.edu>). En: American Scientist (ISSN 0003-0996), v. 90, no. 4, p. 391. 2002.

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The research of Cagan H. Sekercioglu into the effects of forest management on an insectivorous bird community along with its diet and prey in Costa Rican rain forest is profiled. Sekercioglu is a doctoral candidate in ecology and evolution at the Stanford University Center for Conservation Biology and a Sigma Xi Grant-In-Aid recipient. The research suggests that insectivorous birds have difficulty recolonizing rain forest fragments where they have gone extinct. These results suggest that it is important to establish vegetative corridors between forest fragments and improve the hospitality of the open agricultural countryside to these birds. This field research led to a publication in PNAS earlier this year. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S9565. Publicación no.: 201 Injury and disease of the mantled howler monkey in fragmented habitats [Lesiones y enfermedades de los monos congos en hábitats fragmentados] / Jones, Clara B. (Fayetteville State University. Department of Psychology, 1200 Murchison Road, Fayetteville, NC 28301-4298, US <Email: cbjones@uncfsu.edu>). En: Neotropical Primates (ISSN 1413-4705), v. 2, no. 4, p. 4-5. 1994. (No abstract). Localización: Biblioteca OET: S10283. Publicación no.: 202 Tropical dry secondary forest detection: an ecological approach [Detección de bosque tropical seco secundario: un enfoque ecológico] / Arroyo-Mora, J. Pablo; Sánchez-Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo; Rivard, Benoit; Calvo-Alvarado, Julio César. (The University of Connecticut, 75 N. Eagleville Road, Unit 3043, Storrs, CT 06269-3043, US <E-mail: pablo.arroyo@uconn.edu> <E-mail: arturo.sanchez@ualberta.ca> <E-mail: benoit.rivard@ualberta.ca> <E-mail: jucalvo@itcr.ac.cr>)). Tropical Forests: Past, Present, Future. The Association for Tropical Biology Annual Meeting. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City, PA, July 29-Aug. 3, 2002. Panamá City: The Association for Tropical Biology, p. 4. (Abstract only). The detection of secondary forest in a tropical dry forest (Td-f) ecosystem was tested in a 49 km² area within the Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica combining the use of high and medium resolution imagery (IKONOS and Landsat ETM+, respectively). A theoretical scheme was develop for four successional stages (pastures, early, intermediate and late or mature) base on ecological characteristics such as canopy density, vertical structure of the stand and flushing dynamics at the time of imagery acquisition. The ecological interpretation of each successional stage based on the theoretical schemes, allowed for a better interpretation of the information in the IKONOS image (4 meters resolution and 4 spectral bands). The analysis of these successional stages in the IKONOS image was used as ground trothing information to identify the same successional stage in the Landsat image (28.5 m resolution and 7 spectral bands) through a supervised classification. We obtain an overall accuracy for the classification of the successional stages using Landsat of 95%. The intermediate successional stage occupied the highest proportion of the study area (0.4), the late or mature forests (0.27), early successional stage and pastures (0.19 and 0.12, respectively). Topographic and soils conditions that affect the forest structure in Santa Rosa and thus the interpretation of successional stages using remote sensing data were not considered in this study. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 519. Publicación no.: 203 Dynamics of forest cover change and its implications to conservation in Costa Rica [Dinámica del cambio de cobertura del bosque y sus implicaciones para la conservación en Costa Rica] / Calvo-Alvarado, Julio César; Sánchez-Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo; Arroyo-Mora, J. Pablo. (Instituto

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Tecnológico de Costa Rica. Escuela de Ingeniería Forestal, Cartago, CR <E-mail: jucalvo@itcr.ac.cr> <Email: arturo.sanchez@ualberta.ca> <E-mail: pablo.arroyo@uconn.edu>). Tropical Forests: Past, Present, Future. The Association for Tropical Biology Annual Meeting. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City, PA, July 29-Aug. 3, 2002. Panamá City: The Association for Tropical Biology, p. 15. (Abstract only). Standard procedures established by the NASA Landsat Pathfinder project were used in the automated classification of satellite images for the three selected years 1986, 1997 and 2000. Forest cover assessment for the Chorotega region (Guanacaste Peninsula) required the development of a special protocol due to the condition of deciduous forest foliage during the dry season. Analysis of satellite-image for 1996 indicates that Costa Rica had 40% of total forest cover. Due to cloud cover and shadows on the images 8.7% of the national territory could not be clearly interpreted. Approximately 164,000 ha of forest cover were lost during the ten-year period from 1986 to 1997, not including deforestation in the Chorotega region. However, 130,000 ha of forest were recovered for the same period through plantations and secondary-growth forest. Improved interpretation of the 2000 images for the Chorotega region and the reduction of cloud cover and shadows to 3.9%, resulted in 45% of forest coverfor Costa Rica. During this period we detected 9,100 ha of forest lost. This implies that deforestation rate for Costa Rica was reduced from 16,400 ha/year for the period 1986/1997 to 3,300 ha/year for the period 1997/2000. Our findings contradict Costa Rican popular opinion about high deforestation rates and small % of forest cover for Costa Rica. Nevertheless, we recognized that our study is not able to provide information about how much pristine forest still remains in Costa Rica, but we consider this data key for the planning, execution and monitoring of forest and conservation policies and projects. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 519. Publicación no.: 204 Restoration of genetic diversity in the dry forest tree Swietenia macrophylla (Meliaceae) after pasture abandonment in Costa Rica [Restauración de la diversidad genética en el árbol del bosque seco Swietenia macrophylla (Meliaceae) luego del abandono de potreros en Costa Rica] / Céspedes-Castro, Maguil; Rocha-Núñez, Oscar J. (Universidad de Costa Rica. Escuela de Biología, San Pedro de Montes de Oca, CR <E-mail: ojrocha@biologia.ucr.ac.cr>). Tropical Forests: Past, Present, Future. The Association for Tropical Biology Annual Meeting. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City, PA, July 29-Aug. 3, 2002. Panamá City: The Association for Tropical Biology, p. 16. (Abstract only). We use micro satellite DNA markers to study the levels of genetic diversity of the endangered timber species Swietenia macrophylla (big leaf mahogany) in the Northwestern province of Guanacaste, Costa Rica. This species was reduced to a few isolated patches of trees surrounded by extensive areas of pastures; however, after the abandonment, these pastures are being colonized by mahogany. Here, we describe genetic diversity in five successional plots in the Santa Rosa National Park that differ in the time since the last disturbance (fire) (6, 9, 15, 20 years). In addition, we also include a patch of mature forest that experienced selective logging and other human caused disturbances in the past 100 years. The sites have been named Jenny I, Jenny II, Las Mesas, Principe, and Mature Forest respectively. We found a total of twenty-one alleles in the five loci examined, where the number of alleles present varied among the five sites studied. Allelic diversity varied between sites ranging from 20 to 14 alleles, and our data revealed that earlier successional sites have more alleles than older sites. Genetic differentiation between populations was low (Fst=0.0631), and genetic distance between populations is not correlated with geographical distance. The impact of these findings for the design of conservation strategies for tropical dry forests trees are discussed.

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Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 519. Publicación no.: 205 Forest fragmentation and the biological sustainability of tropical timber management [La fragmentación del bosque y la sostenibilidad biológica del manejo de maderas tropicales] / Guariguata-Urbano, Manuel R. (Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza. Unidad Manejo de Bosques Naturales, Apdo. 7170, Turrialba, CR <E-mail: mguarigu@catie.ac.cr>). Tropical Forests: Past, Present, Future. The Association for Tropical Biology Annual Meeting. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City, PA, July 29-Aug. 3, 2002. Panamá City: The Association for Tropical Biology, p. 42-43. (Abstract only). Fragmentation effects may have both direct and indirect consequences for the ecological sustainability of tropical timber management, thus potentially limiting the applicability of management standards developed for continuous forest. By using Central America as a neotropical scenario where the degree of forest fragmentation is high, I speculate on the main biological factors that may affect timber production in forest patches, and argue that these novel forests should be approached with management guidelines that harmonize with their inherent condition. I discuss issues of tree pollination and seed production, and early recruitment from seed. I hypothesize that forest fragments destined to timber production may not be under immediate danger of reduced tree reproductive output, and that in turn, constraints to early recruitment may be intense after seeds reach the forest floor (in particular for those species whose seeds are both consumed and dispersed by vertebrates). Fire intrusion into fragmented forests may also reduce standing timber volume, so measures to counteract fire invasions are warranted. Forest patches might show diminished financial returns per unit area if harvesting quotas developed for extensive areas are appliedas a blanket prescription. Accordingly, managers and researchers involved in developing standards for assessing and monitoring the sustainability of management practices should be aware that fragments may not behave like continuous forest. Targeted ecological research may be needed in order to refine management guidelines in these novel habitats. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 519. Publicación no.: 206 Temporal variation in the pollen pools of three neotropical dry-forest tree species [Variación temporal en los acervos de polen de tres especies de árboles del bosque seco neotropical] / Hamrick, James L. (University of Georgia. Botany Department, Athens, GA 30602, US <E-mail: hamrick@dogwood.botany.uga.edu>). Tropical Forests: Past, Present, Future. The Association for Tropical Biology Annual Meeting. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City, PA, July 29-Aug. 3, 2002. Panamá City: The Association for Tropical Biology, p. 45. (Abstract only). Generally, information on temporal variation in plant mating systems is lacking. In particular, little is known of the variation in the pool of pollen donors among reproductive events or its causes. The general availability of genetic markers to analyze plant breeding patterns now makes it possible to document temporal changes in the pollen donor pool in a variety of ways. Perhaps, the most straight forward approach and also possibly the most informative is to document changes in the genetic composition of the pollen pool among individual plants and among reproductive events. Multi-year genetic analyses of the effective pollen pools of three tree species (Enterolobium cyclocarpum, insectpollinated; Hymenaea courbaril, bat-pollinated; Spondias purpurea, small insect-pollinated) belonging to the seasonal dry forest communities of Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica will be presented. The results indicate that significant annual variation in the genetic composition of the pollen pools occur for each

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species although the magnitude of the temporal variation varies among individual trees. Generally, isolated trees located in disturbed habitats demonstrate more year-to-year variation than trees located in less disturbed habitats. Also, trees grouped into clusters have less temporal variation in their pollen pools, often due to intracluster matings. These results are discussed in the context of the effects of tropical forest disturbance and fragmentation on the breeding patterns of tropical tree species. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 519. Publicación no.: 207 Compositional and structural variation of understories within and among four neotropical forests and the relationship with woody plant regeneration [Variación estructural y en composición de los sotobosques dentro y entre cuatro bosques neotropicales y la relación con la regeneración de plantas leñosas] / Harms, Kyle E. (Louisiana State University. Department of Biological Sciences, Baton Rouge, LA 7083-1715, US <E-mail: kharms@lsu.edu>). Tropical Forests: Past, Present, Future. The Association for Tropical Biology Annual Meeting. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City, PA, July 29-Aug. 3, 2002. Panamá City: The Association for Tropical Biology, p. 45. (Abstract only). The composition of the understory, defined as vegetation below 65 cm height, varied dramatically both within and among sites visited by the OTS four-forests course, i.e., La Selva (Costa Rica), BCI (Panama), Manu (Peru), and Km 41 near Manaus (Brazil). Palm cover was statistically significantly lowest at BCI and was statistically significantly highest at La Selva. Fern cover increased significantly among sites in the following order: Km 41 BCI La Selva Manu. Non-fern, herbaceous cover was statistically significantly lowest at Km 41 and was statistically significantly highest at La Selva. Woody dicots ?10 - ?50 cm tall were five times more abundant at BCI. Manu, and Km 41 than at La Selva. The high density and cover of ferns, and especially of understory palms and large-leaved monocots at La Selva may be the key determinant of the low densities of regenerating woody dicot seedlings and small saplings found there relative to the other three sites. The all-site relationships between the density of regenerating woody dicots and cover by palms, ferns, or non-fern herbaceous plants, as well as many of the between-habitat comparisons within sites, were consistent with the hypothesis that understory plants negatively influence the regeneration of woody dicots whose adults attain heights beyond the understory. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 519. Publicación no.: 208 Regeneration of tropical dry forest communities in a fragmented landscape [Regeneración de comunidades del bosque seco tropical en un paisaje fragmentado] / Rocha-Núñez, Oscar J; Gutiérrez-Soto, Marco Vinicio; Holbrook, Noel Michele. (Universidad de Costa Rica. Escuela de Biología, San Pedro de Montes de Oca, CR <E-mail: ojrocha@biologia.ucr.ac.cr> <E-mail: marcogs@racsa.co.cr> <E-mail: holbrook@oeb.harvard.edu>). Tropical Forests: Past, Present, Future. The Association for Tropical Biology Annual Meeting. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City, PA, July 29-Aug. 3, 2002. Panamá City: The Association for Tropical Biology, p. 97-98. (Abstract only). Most studies addressing the consequences of the change in use of land are concerned with the negative effects of human activities, such as deforestation, urban development, and other forms of habitat degradation, on the environment. Here, we study the changes in species composition and vegetation structure in highly degraded pastures after their abandonment. In order to do that, we established permanent plots along a successional gradient in the seasonally dry forest of Santa Rosa National Park, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. In 1998, we selected eight sites on basis of the time since their last disturbance (age). The ages of the sites were 3.5, 7.5, 12, 18, 40 and 60 years. In addition, we

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included two sites, one that is burned every year by the park rangers and one considered a mature forest. Within each of these sites, we established thirty 4x4 m quadrants distributed along 5 transects. Next to each quadrant we placed one 50x50 cm trap to sample seed rein in the site. We found major differences in species composition among the woody species recorded in the successional gradient. However, species richness was similar in all sites. In contrast, species composition in the seed rain (over 200 sp. recorded), and their patterns of spatial and temporal distribution were similar in all sites. When we examined the distribution of individuals according to height categories, we found that between 40 and 60 years were needed to have a size distribution similar to that found in the mature forests. The consequences of these findings for the regeneration of seasonally dry forest in a fragmented landscape are discussed. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 519. Publicación no.: 209 Dynamics of forest cover in Costa Rica using Landsat images 1986/87, 1996/1997 and 1997/2000 [Dinámica de cobertura forestal en Costa Rica utilizando imágenes del satélite Landsat de 1986/87, 1996/1997 y 1997/2000] / Sánchez-Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo; Calvo-Alvarado, Julio César; Arroyo-Mora, J. Pablo. (University of Alberta. Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E3, CA <E-mail: arturo.sanchez@ualberta.ca> <E-mail: jucalvo@itcr.ac.cr> <Email: pablo.arroyo@uconn.edu>). Tropical Forests: Past, Present, Future. The Association for Tropical Biology Annual Meeting. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City, PA, July 29-Aug. 3, 2002. Panamá City: The Association for Tropical Biology, p. 103. (Abstract only). Standard procedures established by the NASA Landsat Pathfinder project were used in the automated classification of satellite images for the three selected years 1986, 1997 and 2000. Forest cover assessment for the Chorotega region required the development of a special protocol due to the condition of deciduous forest foliage during the dry season. Analysis of the satellite-image for 1996 indicates that Costa Rica had 40% of total forest cover. Due to cloud cover and shadows on the images 8.7% of the national territory could not be clearly interpreted. Approximately 164,000 ha of forest cover were lost during the ten year period from 1986 to 1997, not including deforestation in the Chorotega region. However, 130,000 ha of forest were recovered for the same period through plantations and secondary-growth forest. Improved interpretation of the 2000 images for the Chorotega region and the reduction of cloud cover and shadows to 3.9%, resulted in 45% of forest cover for Costa Rica. During this period we detected 9,100 ha of forest lost. This implies that deforestation rate for Costa Rica was reduced from 16,400 ha/year for the period 1986/1997 to 3,300 ha/year for the period 1997/2000. Our findings contradict Costa Rican popular opinion about high deforestation rates and small % of forest cover for Costa Rica. Nevertheless, we recognized that our study is not able to provide information about how much pristine forest still remains in Costa Rica, but we consider this data key for the planning, execution and monitoring of forest and conservation policies and projects. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 519. Publicación no.: 210 Breeding patterns of an epiphytic orchid [Patrones reproductivos de una orquídea epífita] / Trapnell, Dorset W; Hamrick, James L. (University of Georgia. Department of Plant Biology, Athens, GA 30602, US <E-mail: dorset@plantbio.uga.edu> <E-mail: hamrick@dogwood.botany.uga.edu>). Tropical Forests: Past, Present, Future. The Association for Tropical Biology Annual Meeting. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City, PA, July 29-Aug. 3, 2002. Panamá City: The Association for Tropical Biology, p. 117.

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(Abstract only). Levels and patterns of gene movement are of central importance to a species' ability to maintain genetic diversity within its populations and therefore its evolutionary trajectory. Genetic diversity is crucial for the long-term survival of species, particularly in fragmented landscapes. The epiphytic orchid, Laelia rubescens, occurs in seasonally dry lowland habitats of Central America. The study site in the Tempisque River watershed, Guanacaste, Costa Rica is characterized by open cattle pastures with one or more centrally located shade trees. On these trees L. rubescens reaches its greatest abundance (up to 350 clusters). The bisexual, hummingbird pollinated flowers have sticky pollen grains aggregated together to form pollinia packets. As a result, each capsule contains seeds pollinated by a single pollen donor and represent full-sib progeny arrays. From these progeny arrays the multi-locus allozyme genotypes of each pollen donor can be inferred. By identifying pollen donors for a large number of fruits, breeding patterns within populations were described and direct measures of contemporary levels of pollen flow were estimated. We also determined minimum distances of pollen immigration from outside of study populations. Results indicate significant levels of geitonogamy as well as gene flow events from outside the populations. By understanding how pollen dispersal impacts the distribution of genetic diversity in this epiphytic orchid, insights are gained into how landscape level habitat modifications influence the maintenance of genetic diversity in this patchily distributed orchid. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 519. Publicación no.: 211 Reproductive success, gene flow and inbreeding in fragmented populations of two understory tree species in Costa Rica [Éxito reproductivo, deriva genética y endogamia en poblaciones fragmentadas de dos especies de árboles del sotobosque en Costa Rica] / Woodward, Catherine L. (University of Wisconsin. Department of Botany, Madison, WI 53706, US <E-mail: cwoodwar@wisc.edu>). Tropical Forests: Past, Present, Future. The Association for Tropical Biology Annual Meeting. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City, PA, July 29-Aug. 3, 2002. Panamá City: The Association for Tropical Biology, p. 127-128. (Abstract only). Tree species restricted to small populations in isolated forest fragments may face increased extinction risk due to reproductive failure precipitated by a disruption of pollinator and seed disperser services, genetic drift and inbreeding depression. This study examines the reproductive and genetic consequences of forest fragmentation on two species of understory tree in Costa Rica. Fruit set, gene flow by pollen, intergenerational genetic variability and inbreeding depression are being compared between continuous forest and small, isolated forest fragments ranging from 1 to 8 hectares in size. The ongoing study makes use of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) to quantify pollenmediated gene flow among fragmented populations and to determine the proportion of progeny sired by pollen donors external to the fragment. Genetic erosion of fragment populations through time is investigated by comparing the genetic variability between adult, seedling and seed generations and by assessing inbreeding depression in fragment versus forest progeny arrays. The research will reveal whether reproductive connectivity: is maintained, if detectable intergenerational loss of genetic diversity is occurring, and if such losses have negative impacts on fitness for these species in fragmented landscapes. Gene flow into forest fragments can offset the genetic consequences of inbreeding and drift in small fragment populations, and is likely to be related to fragment size, distance between fragments, and extent of nearby forest. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 519.

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Publicación no.: 212 Partitioning nuclear and chloroplast variation at multiple spatial scales in the neotropical epiphytic orchid, Laelia rubescens / Trapnell, Dorset W; Hamrick, James L. (University of Georgia. Department of Plant Biology, Athens, GA 30602, US <E-mail: dorset@plantbio.uga.edu> <Email: hamrick@dogwood.botany.uga.edu>). En: Molecular Ecology (ISSN 0962-1083), v. 13, no. 9, p. 2655-2666. 2004. Insights into processes that lead to the distribution of genetic variation within plant species require recognition of the importance of both pollen and seed movement. Here we investigate the contributions of pollen and seed movement to overall gene flow in the Central American epiphytic orchid, Laelia rubescens. Genetic diversity and structure were examined at multiple spatial scales in the tropical dry forest of Costa Rica using nuclear (allozymes) and chloroplast restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers, which were found to be diverse (allozymes, P = 73.3%; H-E = 0.174; cpDNA, H-E = 0.741). Nuclear genetic structure (F-STn) was low at every spatial scale (0.005-0.091). Chloroplast markers displayed more structure (0.073-0.254) butrelatively similar patterns. Neither genome displayed significant isolation-by-distance. Pollen and seed dispersal rates did not differ significantly from one another (m(p)/m(s) = 1.40) at the broadest geographical scale, among sites throughout Costa Rica. However, relative contributions of pollen and seeds to gene flow were scale-dependent, with different mechanisms determining the dominant mode of gene flow at different spatial scales. Much seed dispersal is highly localized within the maternal population, while some seeds enter the air column and are dispersed over considerable distances. At the intermediate scale (10s to 100s of metres) pollinators are responsible for substantial pollen flow. This species appears capable of distributing its genes across the anthropogenically altered landscape that now characterizes its Costa Rican dry forest habitat. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-1650. Publicación no.: 213 Defining common ground for the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor [En busca de un enfoque común para el Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano] / Miller, Kenton R; Chang, Elsa; Johnson, Nels. (World Resources Institute, 1709 New York Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20006, US). Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute, 2001. 45 pp. ISBN: 1-56973-473-9. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-5078.pdf The Mesoamerican Biological Corridor is a regional initiative launched in Central America and southern Mexico that aims to conserve biological diversity while fostering sustainable development. Its particular significance lies in the scope and complexity of its goals and the wide range of institutions and social actors it involves. These characteristics give the MBC great promise; however, they also present major challenges that will have to be addressed if the initiative is to have a positive impact on the region. Most centrally, the initiative's success requires the development of a shared vision of its goals and functions-a vision that recognizes the divergent needs at stake and identifies the common interest all regional actors share in achieving ecological and socioeconomic sustainability. The ability to build trust and confidence among various stakeholders of the MBC will, in the end, determine its fate. This paper aims to contribute to the building of such a vision, not by prescribing solutions, but by raising issues and suggesting processes within which these issues can be addressed. The need for a comprehensive response to Mesoamerica's environmental problems is pressing. The region possesses one of the world's richest concen-trations of biological resources, but the viability of these resources is threatened by economic underdevelopment, social inequality, and population pressure. A vicious cycle of environmental degradation and socio-economic stagnation exists. In the last decade, however, these issues have received increased attention from regional decision-makers, a trend culminating in the

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launching of the MBC. This initiative has become the focus of significant inflows of donor assistance, and inspired numerous field projects in the region. Nevertheless, stakeholders and policy-makers remain divided and uncertain about the MBC's goals and benefits, and wary of its likely impact on their interests. The rationale that lies behind the MBC arose from conservation biologists' growing awareness of the need to maintain links between biological habitat areas to ensure species survival. This recognition has stimulated the development of a holistic approach to the relationship between wild and human-impacted land. Such an approach aims to maximize the conservation function of protected wildlands by promoting forms of land-us in the wider landscape that offer both conservation benefits and sustainable livelihoods. Guided by this rationale, the MBC's planners have endorsed four land use zones: Core Zones, Buffer Zones, Corridor Zones, and Multiple-Use Zones. This paper discusses the characteristics of each zone-type as well as the criteria that should be used for assigning land to each. Core Zones are locations designated as protected areas designed to provide secure habitats for wild fauna and flora. Buffer Zones surround protected areas and function to filter out negative impacts moving into and out from these areas. Corridor Zones link core areas with one another, and either remains under wild cover, or are managed to ensure that human land-uses are compatible with the maintenance of a high degree of biological connectivity. Finally, Multiple-Use Zones are areas devoted primarily to human use, but managed to facilitate the creation of broader landscapes that are hospitable to wild species. As part of an integrated system for regional land-use, each type of zone provides both ecological-and socioeconomic benefits. Planning and implementing the MBC effectively will require that several strategic challenges be addressed. Eight are considered here: 1. Reconciling Stakeholder Interests: The MBC aims to improve biological conservation in the Mesoamerican region, while delivering benefits to a wide range of rural and urban social groups. Itwill, therefore, require consensus among public agencies at regional, national, and local levels; the private sector; conservationists; civil society organizations; and rural and indigenous populations. The benefits that each of these major stakeholder groups is likely to seek from the initiative are identified, and strategies for building cooperative relationships among these groups are outlined. 2. Fostering Democratic Governance and Enabling Civil Society Participation: The MBC is being imple-mented in a regional political context marked by efforts to consolidate democracy, decentralize public decision-making, and increase opportunities for participation by civil society groups. Its planners must take these processes into account; in doing so they also have the opportunity to position the MBC as a key mechanism for deepening democratization within Mesoamerica. 3. Catalyzing Information for Participatory DecisionMaking: The MBC's success will depend on the collection and dissemination of accurate, relevant, and appropriate information to the broad array of decision-makers and stakeholders involved. At present, there are severe limitations in the types of information available and the mechanisms for its distribution. These shortcomings must be addressed, at both technical and political levels, if meaningful stakeholder participation is to be achieved. 4. Clarifying the Function of MBC Land-Use Categories: The use of an integrated scheme for the functional zoning of land use lies at the heart of the MBC's proposed strategy. To be effective, therefore, these categories must be well understood and effectively applied. The contribution of each zone should be well defined, taking into account its function within the overall scheme for land use. 5. Addressing Property Rights and Land-Tenure Issues: The MBC raises questions regarding land rights that have long plagued Mesoamerican society. Long-term approaches to land use can only thrive if secure title is recognized an issue of particular importance to the region's indigenous peoples. Nevertheless, security of land-tenure is no ecological panacea. The problem of unsustainable exploitation strategies must be addressed by also strengthening the broader economic

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incentives for sustainable land use. 6. Capturing Benefits from Ecosystem Goods and Services: Mesoamerica's ecosystems produce a range of vital goods and services to human populations. At present, however, these benefits are undervalued from an economic standpoint, and often are neither shared with rural populations, nor reinvested in ecosystem maintenance. Potential strategies to address these problems, such as carbon sequestration credits, ecotourism, and sustainable agriculture, are discussed. 7. Harmonizing Institutional and Legal Frameworks and Promoting Intersectorial Cooperation: Implementing the MBC requires actions coordinated across policy sectors and at a variety of geographic levels. Current legal and institutional frameworks are isolated and often provide conflicting approaches to identical issues. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 528. NBINA-5078. Publicación no.: 214(Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva, Apdo. 8-3870, 1000 San José, CR <E-mail: lapa@cct.or.cr>). Taller de Conformación y Coalición de la Comisión Local del Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva, Reserva Biológica La Tirimbina, La Virgen de Sarapiquí CR23 de nov., 2001. , 2001. 47 pp. Introducción: El Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano (CBM) representa un esfuerzo de las 7 naciones de América Central, con el apoyo financiero de organizaciones internacionales tales como el GEF, el Banco Mundial, y la GTZ con el fin de desarrollar unavisión unitaria para conservar la excepcional biodiversidad de la región. El Corredor Biológico San Juan - La Selva cuenta con un Comité Ejecutivo que representa una alianza de varias organizaciones de la sociedad civil con el fin de levantar los fondos necesarios para el establecimiento de un nuevo Parque Nacional en el Área de Conservación Arenal Huetar Norte y la implementación de la iniciativa local del Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano para proteger el hábitat del remanente de la población de lapa verde. Nuestra propuesta de Corredor Biológico San Juan - La Selva radica en el centro de un extenso conjunto de actividades que dependen de datos ecológicos basados en la ciencia para asegurar que los objetivos espaciales adecuados estén establecidos y para monitorear sus éxitos logrando los objetivos de la conservación una vez implementados. En este sentido, los esfuerzos combinados de estas actividades sirven de prueba para esta ambiciosa iniciativa multi-gubernamental. El ecosistema de bosque lluvioso de las bajuras de San Carlos y Sarapiquí se destaca por su alta densidad de almendro de montaña (Dipteryx panamensis) y provee el hábitat a la lapa verde y otras especies en peligro de extinción. La lapa verde depende de los inmensos árboles de almendro como sustrato para anidar y como fuente principal de alimentación. En Costa Rica, el bosque de almendro y en consecuencia la lapa verde, se encuentran restringidos a la parte noreste del país, entre el Río San Juan y la Estación Biológica La Selva. El Taller de conformación y coalición de la Comisión Local del Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva", tiene como objetivo conformar el grupo de trabajo que implementará el Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva. La dinámica de la actividad contempla un espacio para que los participantes de unas 25 a 30 instituciones compartan sus experiencias y expresen sus ideas acerca de sus funciones dentro de la Comisión Local del Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva para así poder conformar una coalición que pueda gestionar las actividades a llevar a cabo dentro del marco del Corredor. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 522. Publicación no.: 215 Establecimiento de un programa para la consolidación del Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano, CBM, 1999. 94 pp. El proyecto mejorará la conservación de la biodiversidad en Centro América y el Sur de México al establecer un Programa que apoye la Consolidación del Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano. El CBM es una prioridad de la Alianza Centroamericana para el Desarrollo Sostenible y consistirá de una red de

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áreas protegidas y sus zonas de amortiguamiento unidas por los corredores ecológicos con una variedad de usos y grados de protección. Este proyecto en seis años habrá creado, iniciado e integrado los componentes básicos del "Programa" al proveer la asistencia técnica que permitirá a los gobiernos y sociedades de los países mesoamericanos establecer conjuntamente el CBM como un sistema que integra, conserva y utiliza la biodiversidad en el marco de las prioridades del desarrollo económico, sostenible y social. Al término de los seis años de vida del proyecto, el Programa habrá fortalecido las capacidades institucionales, considerando la opinión de los grupos de interés y evaluado las estructuras claves que brinden elementos, procesos y productos requeridos para asegurar la planeación y administración de la consolidación del Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano con una visión de largo plazo. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 520. Publicación no.: 216 Dynamics in landscape structure and composition for the Chorotega region, Costa Rica from 1960 to 2000 [Dinámica en la estructura y composición del paisaje en la región Chorotega, Costa Rica de 1960 al 2000] / Arroyo-Mora, J. Pablo; Sánchez-Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo; Rivard, Benoit; Calvo-Alvarado, Julio César; Janzen, Daniel H. (The University of Connecticut, 75 N. Eagleville Road, Unit 3043, Storrs, CT 06269-3043, US <E-mail: pablo.arroyo@uconn.edu> <E-mail: arturo.sanchez@ualberta.ca> <E-mail: benoit.rivard@ualberta.ca> <E-mail: jucalvo@itcr.ac.cr> <E-mail: djanzen@sas.upenn.edu>). En: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment (ISSN 0167-8809), v. 106, no. 1, p. 27-39. 2005. Studies of forest fragmentation in the tropics have systematically paid more attention to understanding processes contributing to the formation of landscapes that are the product of deforestation, while little or no attention has been paid to forested landscapes that are the product of secondary growth processes. In this paper, using information of forest cover from 1960 to 2000 derived from aerial photography and remote sensing data, we examine the dynamics associated with deforestation and secondary growth processes at the Chorotega region, Costa Rica. Our analysis is conducted using a comprehensive land capability map developed for the country. Our results indicate the occurrence of two well-defined land cover change processes over time. Extensive/intensive cattle ranching practices that contribute to significant forest degradation and forest cover loss characterize the first of these processes, occurring between 1960 and 1980. The second period (1980-2000) is characterized by a dynamic process of secondary forest growth resulting from a combination of internal and international market forces and conservation initiatives. Conclusions from this paper indicate that more attention needs to be paid to tropical secondary landscapes that are recuperating from years of constant degradation. This natural recovery process could be beneficial for biodiversity recovery, biological corridors and environmental services. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-1755. Publicación no.: 217 How do howler monkeys cope with habitat fragmentation? [¿Cómo enfrentan los monos congos la fragmentación del hábitat?] / Bicca-Marques, J.C. (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Río Grande do Sul. Facultad de Biociencias, Av Ipiranga 6681 Pd 12, Porto Alegre, RS 90619-900, BR <Email: jcbicca@terra.com.br>). En: Primates in fragments: ecology and conservation. Marsh, L.K. (ed.) New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publ., 2003. p. 283-303. ISBN: 0306476967. (No abstract). Localización: No disponible.

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Publicación no.: 218 Socioecología de Alouatta palliata en hábitats fragmentados: Implicaciones para su conservación [Socioecology of Alouatta palliata in fragmented habitat: Implications for conservation] / Vea, J.J; Cristobal-Azkarate, J. (University of Barcelona. Ctr Esp Rec Primates (CERP) & Department of Psiquiatry & Psicobiology Clin, Vall Hebron 171, 08035 Barcelona, ES <E-mail: jvea@psi.ub.es>). En: Primates: evolución, cultura y diversidad: homenaje a Jordi Sabater PI. Martínez-Contreras, J; Vea, J.J. (eds.) Mexico: Centro de Estudios Filosóficos, Políticos y Sociales, Vicente Lombardo Toledano, 2002. p. 175-195. ISBN: 9685721009. (No abstract). Localización: No disponible. Publicación no.: 219 Patterns of diversity and community composition [Patrones de diversidad y composición de la comunidad] / Horner-Devine, M.C. (Stanford University. Department of Biological Sciences, Center for Conservation Biology, 371 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-5020, US <E-mail: mcdevine@stanford.edu>). Stanford, CA: Stanford University, 2004. 130 pp. Dissertation, Ph.D., Stanford University, Stanford, CA (USA). Humans have long been fascinated with the extraordinary diversity of life on Earth. Not only is the sheer diversity of living creatures intriguing, but there are also striking patterns in their distribution over space and time. Most of what we know about the origin, maintenance and distribution of biodiversity stems from research on plants and animals, especially in temperate ecosystems. It is as important but increasingly difficult to examine the patterns in richness and community composition of diverse communities such as those found in the tropics or the hyperdiverse communities of micro-organisms. Bacteria may be one of the most abundant and species-rich groups of organisms, and they mediate many critical ecosystem processes; despite their incredible abundance and ecological importance, past practical and theoretical constraints have limited our ability to document patterns of bacterial diversity and to understand the processes that determine these patterns. However, recent advances in molecular techniques that allow more thorough detection of bacteria in nature have made it possible to examine such patterns and processes. I extend the approaches and questions of traditional ecology to outstanding questions in microbial ecology. First, I review recent studies of the distribution of free-living bacterial diversity and compare our current understanding to what is known about patterns in plant and animal diversity. Second, I present the first evidence that bacteria can exhibit taxa-area relationships. Third, I showed, for the first time, that, even within the same system, different bacterial taxonomic groups could exhibit different responses to changes in productivity and thus make an important step toward understanding processes responsible for the maintenance of bacterial biodiversity. Finally, I examined patterns of richness and community structure for butterflies in an agricultural landscape in Costa Rica; while not as species rich as microbial communities, these butterfly communities present similar challenges in terms of sampling and uncertainties about dispersal abilities and resource use. I found that the large forest reserve was important for rare and endemic species and those sites near even small forest remnants were more diverse than those far from small patches. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-5415. Publicación no.: 220 Mating patterns and gene flow in the neotropical epiphytic orchid, Laelia rubescens [Patrones reproductivos y flujo génico en la orquídea epífita neotropical, Laelia rubescens] / Trapnell, Dorset W; Hamrick, James L. (University of Georgia. Department of Plant Biology, Athens, GA 30602, US <E-mail: dorset@plantbio.uga.edu> <E-mail: hamrick@dogwood.botany.uga.edu>). En: Molecular Ecology (ISSN 0962-1083), v. 14, no. 1, p. 75-84. 2005.

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Understanding mating patterns and gene movement in plant populations occupying highly disturbed landscapes is essential for insights into their long-term survival. We used allozyme genetic markers to examine mating patterns and to directly measure pollen flow in the Central American epiphytic orchid, Laelia rubescens. Study populations were located in disturbed, seasonally dry tropical forest in Costa Rica. Every flowering individual within 15 populations and 12-18 seedlings from each maternal individual were genotyped over two reproductive seasons. Strict correlated mating by orchids produces full-sib progeny arrays from which the multilocus diploid genotype of the pollen parent can be inferred. These paternity analyses produced detailed quantitative estimates of pollen movement within and among populations of this species. Although our data illustrate that mating patterns vary spatially and temporally among trees, among pastures, and between years, overall patterns were surprisingly consistent. Thirty-four per cent of the capsules produced in both years resulted from gene flow events. Where pollen parents were identified, pollen moved mean distances of 279 m and 519 m in 1999 and 2000 respectively and a maximum documented distance of 1034 m. A substantially larger floral display in 2000 corresponded to a marked increase in pollen dispersal distances. Smaller populations, which more closely resembled those in undisturbed forest, had higher rates of gene flow than the large populations that characterize disturbed sites. We predict the occurrence of greater gene flow between low-density populations occupying undisturbed habitats. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-2101. Publicación no.: 221 Enlazando el paisaje: el papel de los corredores y la conectividad en la conservación de la vida silvestre [Linkages in the landscape: the role of corridors and connectivity in wildlife conservation] / Bennett, Andrew F. (Darkin University. Faculty of Ecology and Environment Rusden Campus, Clayton, Victoria 3168, AU). Gland: IUCN, 1998. 254 pp. ISBN: 2-8317-02216. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-1922.pdf (No abstract). Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-1922. 333.7214 B471e. Publicación no.: 222 Cobertura arbórea y cercas vivas en un paisaje fragmentado, Río Frío, Costa Rica [Tree cover and live fences in a fragmented landscape in Rio Frio, Costa Rica] / Chacón-León, Mario. (Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE). Departamento de Agricultura y Agroforestería, Apdo. 7170, Turrialba, CR <E-mail: mchacon@catie.ac.cr>). Turrialba: CATIE, 2003. 111 pp. Thesis, Mag. Sc., Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza, Programa de Educación para el Desarrollo y la Conservación, Turrialba (Costa Rica). Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-1925.pdf Forest fragmentation leads to the reduction and deterioration of habitats, and changes the structure and composition of the landscape The study, conducted in the Atlantic region of Costa Rica (Río Frío), characterized the diversity and the spatial structure and composition of habitats in a fragmented landscape, and explored the contribution of livfences on the structure and physical connectivity of this landscape. The different habitat types were identified through aerial photos, GIS tools and field verification, and were characterized and analyzed on the basis of structure, composition and spatial patterns within the 4,883 ha study area To characterize the composition, structure, richness and diversity of trees in the different habitat types, 32 randomly selected plots of 100 m x 20 m (0.2 ha) were installed in dense intervened forest habitat, riparian forest habitat, pastures with high tree cover density and pastures with low tree cover density (8 plots per habitat). To understand the contribution of

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livefences on the structure and connectivity of the landscape, all fences (both live and "dead") in a 500 ha sample (segmented in 5 blocks of 1 km x 1 km) were measured and characterized. On the basis of the information collected, GIS tools were used to conduct landscape simulations. The results obtained indicated that the landscape was dominated by areas of pasture harboring few fragments of dense intervened forest habitat that tended to be small, irregular and at an average spacing of 315 m A total of 1,157 trees with a DBH larger than 10 cm were registered in the 32 surveyed plots, representing 145 species in 46 families. The principal species were Pentaclethra macroloba, Stryphnodendron microstachyum and Goethalsia meiantha. The dense intervened forest habitats and the riparian forest habitats were found to be similar in richness, composition and tree diversity, but differed from pastures in these aspects. The floristic composition indicated that the trees in pastures with high tree cover density probably stemmed from forest remnants, whilst in pastures with low tree cover density, the trees were either regenerating or deliberately planted. Within the 500 ha plot, it was found that 45 5% of fences were livefences and 55 5% were of the "dead"type (using wooden fence posts). The total length of livefences in the surveyed area was 25 3 km, consisting principally of Erythrina costaricensis, Erythrina poeppigiana and Gliricidia sepium. The landscape simulations demonstrated that livefences had the potential to transform extensive areas of pasture into smaller plots (from an average of 31.8 ha to 2.1 ha), as well as creating a complex network connecting forest habitats. By increasing the extent of the livefences through the replacement of all traditional fences, the average distances between forest habitats could be significantly reduced from 527 m to 71 m, which in turn could reduce the time and effort required by fauna to travel from one tree shelter to another. This study strengthened the importance of different habitats for the conservation of tree species on a landscape-level, and analyzed how livefences in tropical areas may favor the physical connectivity of forests on a broader spatial scale. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-1925. Publicación no.: 223 Population structure and mitochondrial DNA variation in sedentary Neotropical birds isolated by forest fragmentation [Estructura poblacional y variación del ADN mitocondrial en aves neotropicales sedentarias aisladas por la fragmentación del bosque] / Brown, L.M; Ramey, R.R., II; Tamburini, B; Gavin, Thomas A. (Denver Museum of Nature and Science. Department of Zoology, 2001 Colorado Boulevard, Denver, CO 80205, US <E-mail: lauramacbrown@hotmail.com> <E-mail: tag1@cornell.edu>). En: Conservation Genetics (ISSN 0962-1083), v. 5, p. 743-757. 2004. The current worldwide concern about tropical deforestation raises questions about the sustainability of avian population, in isolated forest fragments. One of the most important issues concerns the sizes of forest fragments necessary to maintain populations and the genetic variation within them. We address this by: (1) using mtDNA sequence variation to infer aspects of the population structure of four species of understory birds frons four sites in southern Costa Rican rainforest: and (2) determining whether forest fragmentation that has occurred in the last 50 years has had an effect on the amount of withinpopulation variation for the species in question. High levels of between-population differentiation (Dxy) were found over a relatively small geographic scale ( 130 km) for white-breasted wood-wren (Henicorhina leucosticta), bicolored antbird lGloniopithys leucaspis), and gray-headed tanager (Eucometis penicillata), suggesting that these species are highly sedentary and exhibit strong female philopatry. No mtDNA variation was found in Plain Antevireo (Dysithamnus mentalis). In all three of the polymorphic species there was a significant decrease in mtDNA nucleotide diversity in populations isolated by forest fragmentation as compared to populations in contiguous primary forest. Even in

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relatively large (250-1000 ha) forest reserves, sedentary avian species have lost roughly half (range: 4385%) of the nucleotide diversity in mtDNA over a relatively short period of time. Our results indicate that sedentary avian species in forest fragments isolated by clearing have undergone severe reductions in effective population size due to population bottlenecks perpetuated by prolonged isolation and potential edge effects. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S10197. Publicación no.: 224 Countryside biogeography of neotropical herbaceous and shrubby plants [Biogeografía de paisaje de plantas herbáceas y arbustivas neotropicales] / Mayfield, Margaret M; Daily, Gretchen C. (University of California at Santa Barbara. Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Sciences, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9610, US <E-mail: mayfield@msi.ucsb.edu> <E-mail: gdaily@stanford.edu>). En: Ecological Applications (ISSN 1051-0761), v. 15, no. 2, p. 423-439. 2005. As human impacts on the environment intensify, the future of plant and animal biodiversity will depend increasingly on the floras surviving in human-dominated "countryside" habitats. To begin to characterize these floras for the Neotropics, we investigated the richness and composition of herbaceous and shrubby plant communities in six forested and deforested habitats, in three replicated study areas (7.5km in diameter), of southern Costa Rica. We chose habitat types that are common throughout the tropics, to begin building a general understanding of both the habitats of origin and the diversity of countryside floras. Focal forest habitats were understory, 1- to 2-year-old tree-fall gaps, and riverbanks, all in primary forest. Focal deforested habitats were ungrazed road verges, grazed pasture, and riverbanks in grazed pasture. Non-riverbank habitats were sampled both near and far from. forest edge. In total, we sampled 772 species from 79 families, similar to 40% of the non-tree plant diversity of the region. Only 6% of identified species are known to be exotic. In each study area, understory and pasture plots were consistently species poor, while tree-fall gaps and road verges near forest were consistently the most species-rich habitats. In each study area, we found the same proportion of species restricted to forested habitats (similar to 45%) and deforested habitats (similar to 37%), and the same proportion of "countryside-habitat generalists" ( similar to 18%) occurring in both forested and deforested habitats. However, different forested habitats supported different proportions of country side-habitat generalists in each study area, although understory plots consistently 'supported the fewest generalists. Among forested habitats, riverbanks were the most similar floristically to deforested habitats. Pasture riverbanks and road verges near forest supported plant communities most similar to those in forested habitats. The uniqueness and richness of each habitat suggests that countrysides with diverse land uses can support many native herbaceous and shrubby plant species. As it becomes increasingly difficult to protect large tracts of undisturbed tropical forest, we suggest that conservation goals expand to encompass maintenance of heterogeneity in countryside landscapes. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-2154. Publicación no.: 225 Can the parrot trade help save the rain forest [¿Puede el comercio de loros ayudar a salvar al bosque lluvioso?] / Duffy, D.C. (University of Alaska. Department of Biology, Alaska Nature Heritage Program, Anchorage, AK 99501, US). En: AFA Watchbird (ISSN 0199-543X), v. Aug.-Sept., p. 13-15. 1990. (No abstract). Localización: Biblioteca OET: S10353.

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Publicación no.: 226 Ayuda de memoria del taller de consolidación del corredor biológico binacional El Castillo-San Juan-La Selva / Chassot, Olivier; Monge-Arias, Guisselle. (Centro Científico Tropical. Proyecto de Investigación y Conservación de la Lapa Verde (Ara ambiguus), Corredor Biológico San JuanLa Selva, Apdo. 8-3870, 1000 San José, CR <E-mail: lapa@cct.or.cr>). Taller de consolidación del corredor biológico binacional El Castillo-San Juan-La Selva, Montecristo River Lodge, Sábalos, Municipio de El Castillo NI28-29 Nov., 2002. Sábalos: Fundación del Río / Centro Científico Tropical / Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva / Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano, 2002. 24 pp. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-2253.pdf Se habló de la necesidad de unir los esfuerzos del Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva y del Corredor Biológico del Sureste de Nicaragua. Con el fin de lograr este propósito, se decidió organizar el "Taller de Consolidación del Corredor Biológico Binacional El Castillo-San Juan-La Selva, Nicaragua-Costa Rica". Objetivo: Definir líneas de acción conjunta para la integración de los corredores biológicos de Costa Rica y Nicaragua. 1. Compartir los avances de las fichas técnicas de ambos corredores. 2. Establecer un plan de acción binacional en el marco del Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano. 3. Integrar los proyectos binacionales en ejecución a las iniciativas del corredor binacional (Pro Cuenca San Juan, UICN, Confederación de Gobiernos Transfronterizos, Conservación Internacional, The Nature Conservancy, etc.). Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-2253. Publicación no.: 227 Efecto de hábitat sobre la comunidad de mariposas diurnas en un paisaje fragmentado del Norte de Costa Rica [Effect of habitat on the community of diurnal butterflies in a fragmented landscape in Northern of Costa Rica] / Tobar-López, Diego E. Turrialba: CATIE, 2004. 74 pp. Tesis, Mag. Sc. en Manejo y Conservación de Bosques Tropicales y Biodiversidad, CATIE, Turrialba (Costa Rica). Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-2389.pdf Diversity, richness, abundance and composition of the community of diurnal butterflies were studied in a fragmented landscape in northern of Costa Rica. A total of 3946 diurnal butterflies were observed, belonging to 103 species in four contrasting habitat: forest fragments, riparian forest, pasturelands and live fences. When comparing the richness of butterflies between fragmented landscape observed in the present work and the same indicator for continuous forest found by Aguilar (1999), though the sampling efforts were different, similarity was found. In conclusion, in this agricultural landscape, fragmented forest and riparian forest are key habitat to maintain and to conserve most of the diversity of butterflies. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-2389. Biblioteca Conmemorativa Orton: Thesis T628. Publicación no.: 228 Genetic diversity and population structure of trees in fragmented dry zones forests of Central America [Diversidad genética y estructura de la población de árboles en zonas de bosques secos fragmentados de Centroamérica] / Boshier, David H; Billingham, M.R. (University of Oxford. Oxford Forestry Institute. Department of Plant Sciences. South Parks Road, Oxford 0X1 3RB, GB <E-mail: david.boshier@plant-sciences.oxford.uk>). Oxford: University of Oxford / Oxford Forest Institute, 2000. 30 pp. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-2265.pdf Project Purpose: Sources of biodiversity depletion identified & strategies to minimise impact developed & promoted. Mesoamerican dry forests are amongst the world's most threatened habitats: a mosaic of habitats, which under human influence have become highly fragmented and localised. The same forests

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are the source of many tree genera that are used, or show potential for use, worldwide. Conservation here must be proactive, but may take different forms; e.g. ecological restoration, or active in situ/circa situm conservation of specific, economically important, tree species through local use. The project aimed to provide data for genetic managemnt by; assessing effects of fragmentation on intra-specific genetic diversity, mating system & gene flow, b) relating habitat, population size & proximity of alternative populations/habitats to intra-specific diversity, c) devising strategies for conservation of mesoamerican dry forest tree species. Research Activities: the project studied intra-specific and interprovenance crossing in "undisturbed" and framented forest for four species (Bombacopsis quinata, Cedrela salvadorensis, Leucaena salvadorensis, Swietenia humilis). Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-2265. Publicación no.: 229 The importance of nearby forest to known and potential pollinators of oil palm (Elaeis guineënsis Jacq; Areceaceae) in southern Costa Rica [Importancia del bosque cercano para los polinizadores conocidos y potenciales de la palma aceitera (Elaeis guineënsis Jacq; Areceaceae) en el sur de Costa Rica] / Mayfield, Margaret M. (University of California at Santa Barbara. Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Sciences, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9610, US <E-mail: mayfield@msi.ucsb.edu>). En: Journal of Economic Botany (ISSN 0013-0001), v. 59, no. 2, p. 190-196. 2005. (No abstract). Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-1815. Publicación no.: 230 Conservación del jaguar en Centroamérica [Jaguar conservation in Central America] / Vaughan-Dickhaut, Christopher. (University of Wisconsin-Madison. Department of Wildlife Ecology, Madison, WI 53706, US <E-mail: cvaughan@facstaff.wisc.edu>). En: El jaguar en el nuevo milenio. Medellín, R.A; Equihua, C; Chetkiewicz, C.L.B; Crawshaw, P.G., Jr; Rabinowitz, A; Redford, K.H; Robinson, J.G; Sanderson, E.W; Taber, A.B. (comps.) México, D.F.: Fondo de Cultura Económica / UNAM /Wildlife Conservation Society, 2002. p. 355-366. (Ediciones Científicas Universitarias; Serie Texto Científico Universitario). ISBN: 968-16-6617-8. Jaguar conservation in Central America faces great difficulties because of the short-term political, economic and social crises. The natural resource base is rapidly deteriorating and governments have been unable to reverse this trend. Following a general diagnostic of its present status, we concluded that key components of a regional jaguar conservation strategy for the isthmus should include: a] detailed jaguar status surveys in relatively unknown areas, b] protection of large wildland areas with jaguar populations, c] connection of major wildland areas via biological corridors, d] resolution of jaguarhuman conflicts in agroecosystems, and carrying out jaguar research. Thus far, legalization of eight large wildland areas with between 50-730 adult jaguars each has been an important step, although resource deterioration within them must be monitored for long-term jaguar conservation. The Paseo Panthera corridor project uniting wildlands on the Caribbean coast between Mexico and Panama has received governmental, scientific and financial support and must be implemented. Jaguar-human conflict (livestock predation, illegal hunting of jaguars and their prey) resolution has not been sufficiently addressed. Scientific research on the jaguar in the region (and elsewhere) has provided important information for management. Abandoned agricultural ands are being converted to secondary forested areas, thereby benefiting jaguars and their prey. Promoting the jaguar as a "flagship" species for conservation efforts in large Central American wildlands will also protect their biodiversity. Localización: Biblioteca OET: 599.755 J24. S10401.

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Publicación no.: 231 Estructura y composición de un paisaje boscoso fragmentado: herramienta para el diseño de estrategias de conservación de la biodiversidad [Structure and composition of a fragmented forest landscape: a tool for designing biodiversity conservation strategies] / RamosBendaña, Zayra S. Turrialba: CATIE, 2004. 114 pp. Tesis, Mag. Sc, Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza, Turrialba (Costa Rica). Management of large territories with the goal of biodiversity conservation requires knowledge about the natural communities as well as the use of technical tools and methodologies, such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which allow for an analysis at the landscape or regional scale. This study was conducted in the San Juan - La Selva Biological Corridor in Costa Rica in order to find a tool that contributes to landscape management as a basis for conservation of neotropical forests and their biodiversity. Using rigorous field sampling, three primary forest types were identified in the lowlands: 1) Pentaclethra macroloba - palms; 2) Qualea paraensis - Vochysia ferruginea - Couma macrocarpa; 3) P. macroloba - Carapa guianensis. These were characterized and compared with each other by their composition, structure, diversity and species richness. A methodological procedure was developed with the use of GIS in order to select priority areas for conservation and forest cover restoration to increase connectivity within the landscape. This process consisted of three analyses which allowed us: 1) to evaluate the forest cover situation according to the landscape pattern; 2) to examine the representation of the natural forest types in the current and proposed protected areas (Gap analysis); and 3) to create an ecological network scenario for potential connectivity based on the search for the shortest connection routes between natural forest nuclei, which were selected under conservative and precautionary conservation criteria. The southern corridor sector was characterized as a fragmented landscape with a mixed matrix formed by forests and agricultural uses, principally, cattle pastures. In this sector, both forests dominated by P. macroloba (Fabaceae) can be found. On the other hand, the northern sector is a landscape dominated by natural forests where important continuous forest areas exist. In the northern sector all the three forest types identified in this study can be found, but Q. paraensis - V. ferruginea - C. macrocarpa, is the most characteristic of this sector. The latter forest type had the greatest representation within the actual protected areas. However, because the management categories do not offer absolute protection, this forestis not exempt from habitat degradation processes caused by extractive uses. In the case of the two Pentaclethra forest types, they were poorly represented in the protected area. For the P. macroloba - Carapa guianensis forest, besides being the least common, it was also located in the most fragmented areas which implies greater vulnerability to the loss of this community type within the corridor. In the gap analysis which included the area proposed for the creation of the Maquenque National Park, the three forest types increased their areas significantly under any protection category, and the majority of the protected areas are under the national park category. With the potential connectivity analysis, two potential connectivity trajectories were defined and critical areas for maintaining the structural connectivity in the corridor landscape were identified; these were: a) between the Sarapiquí River and La Selva, b) the Sardinal River for the forest remnants from northwest-southeast, c) between the Toro River and the Cuarto River, d) to the northeast of the Toro River, e) to the northeast of the Sarapiquí River, f) to the southwest of the San Carlos River, and g) the San Carlos River delta. It is important that this potential connectivity network proposal be validated in the field both technically and socially. It is also necessary to create and evaluate alternative scenarios with the participation of the key participants within the corridor and to use more information for identifying the importantecological areas.

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Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-2398. Publicación no.: 232 Abundance and species richness of trees, birds, bats, butterflies and dung beetles in silvopastoral systems in the agricultural landscapes of Cañas, Costa Rica and Rivas, Nicaragua [Abundancia y riqueza en especies de árboles, aves, murciélagos, mariposas y abejones estercolieros en sistemas silvopastoriles en los paisajes agrícolas de Cañas, Costa Rica y Rivas, Nicaragua] / Harvey, Celia A; Sáenz-Méndez, Joel Cris; Montero, J; Medina, Arnulfo; Sánchez-Merlo, Dalia; Vílchez-Mendoza, Sergio J; Hernández, Blas; Maes, Jean Michel; Sinclair, Fergus L. (Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Dr, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22202, US <E-mail: c.harvey@conservation.org> <E-mail: tipitapa13@hotmail.com> <E-mail: jmmaes@ibw.com.ni> <E-mail: f.l.sinclair@bangor.ac.uk>). Semana Científica. VI. Memorias, Turrialba CR11-12 Mar., 2004. Turrialba: CATIE, 2004. p. 82-84. (Serie Técnica. Reuniones Técnicas; no. 9). Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-2381.pdf Examinamos la abundancia, riqueza y diversidad de aves, murciélagos, escarabajos y mariposas en diferentes tipos de cobertura arbórea (bosques, bosques riparios, charrales, cercas vivas y potreros con cobertura arbórea) en dos zonas ganaderas (Rivas, Nicaragua y Cañas, Costa Rica). Con base en esa información, discutimos la importancia de la cobertura arbórea en fincas ganaderas para la conservación de la biodiversidad y recomendamos cómo mantener la biodiversidad en esas zonas. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-2381. Biblioteca Conmemorativa Orton: CATIE ST RT9. Publicación no.: 233 Influence of live fences on the structure and conectivity of a fragmented landscape, Río Frío, Costa Rica [Influencia de las cercas vivas en la estructura y la conectividad de un paisaje fragmentado, Río Frío, Costa Rica] / Chacón-León, Mario; Harvey, Celia A. (Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE). Departamento de Agricultura y Agroforestería, Apdo. 7170, Turrialba, CR <E-mail: mchacon@catie.ac.cr> <E-mail: c.harvey@conservation.org>). Semana Científica. VI. Memorias, Turrialba CR11-12 Mar., 2004. Turrialba: CATIE, 2004. p. 69-71. (Serie Técnica. Reuniones Técnicas; no. 9). Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-2383.pdf Se realizó un estudio para determinar los aportes que dan las cercas vivas a la estructura y conectividad física en un paisaje tropical fragmentado. Para esto se midieron y caracterizaron 377 cercas en 500 ha (segmentadas en 5 bloques de 1x1 km). Las cercas estuvieron conformadas por árboles de las especies Erythrina costaricensis, Erythrina poeppigiana y Gliricidia sepium. Mediante la simulación de escenarios del paisaje y herramientas SIG, se determinó que las cercas pueden transformar extensas aéreas de potrero a unidades de potrero más pequeñas. También que las cercas vivas pueden interconectar fragmentos de bosques densos y bosques riparios, además de reducir la distancia promedio entre las copas de los árboles de cercas vivas y los bosques densos y bosques riparios. Los resultados indican que la estructura y el arreglo espacial de las cercas vivas son de suma importancia para la conservación de la biodiversidad en espacios abiertos ya que pueden afectar el grado de conectividad física a escala de paisaje. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-2383. Biblioteca Conmemorativa Orton: CATIE ST RT9. Publicación no.: 234 Diversidad y riqueza de aves en diferentes hábitats en un paisaje fragmentado en Cañas, Costa Rica / Cárdenas-Carmona, G; Harvey, Celia A; Ibrahim, Muhammad A; Finegan, Bryan. (Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Dr, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22202, US <E-mail:

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c.harvey@conservation.org> <E-mail: mibrahim@catie.ac.cr> <E-mail: bfinegan@catie.ac.cr>). Semana Científica. VI. Memorias, Turrialba CR11-12 Mar., 2004. Turrialba: CATIE, 2004. p. 66-68. (Serie Técnica. Reuniones Técnicas; no. 9). Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-2384.pdf Richness, abundance and bird diversity were characterized in habitats with different tree cover (dry forest fragments, riparian forests, scrubs, live fences, low and high coverage pasturelands) in a fragmented landscape in Cañas, Costa Rica. Pastureswith high tree cover and riparian forests presented higher richness of bird species than the dry forest fragments and pastures with low tree cover. Forest habitats presented a different bird composition than that registered in the open habitats, with more species of particular forest birds. Open habitats and pastures presented a simpler bird composition (common and abundant species) characteristic of agricultural systems. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-2384. Biblioteca Conmemorativa Orton: CATIE ST RT9. Publicación no.: 235 Climate change and biodiversity: synercistic impacts [Cambio climático y biodiversidad: impactos sinergísticos] / Hannah, L; Lovejoy, Thomas E, (eds.). En: Advances in Applied Biodiversity Science; no. 4 Washington, DC: Conservation International, 2003. 123 pp. ISBN: 1-881173-74-7. The chapters of this volume that follow focus on the synergistic and cascading impacts of climate change on biodiversity that occur when multiple factors interact. Researchers are working to understand these compound impacts using numeric computer models, field experimentation, and conceptual models framed by experts in multi-disciplinary assessment. The two chapters of this introductory section explore models and experimental methods that have been applied in research on the impacts of climate change on biotic interactions. Chapter 1 describes synergies and the models that may be used to simulate them. Because the models needed to directly simulate synergies are very complex, however, relatively few synergies have been successfully simulated. Instead, many synergies have been examined in conceptual models, through experimental manipulation, or by combining single-factor models. Chapter 2 explores these more fundamental approaches, which have been used to build understanding of synergies piece by piece. Chapters 1 and 2 lay the groundwork for Chapters 3-12, which draw on the methods described here and add others, such as conceptual models of fire or physiological effects of CO2, to paint a provocative, if partial, portrait of the synergistic effects of climate change on biodiversity. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-2715. Publicación no.: 236 Estado de conservación de la lora nuca amarilla (Amazona auropalliata) en la Zona Protectora Tivives, Puntarenas, Costa Rica / Arcos-Torres, A. (Centro de Investigación en Educación Ambiental Inty Llacta EC <E-mail: agustinaarcos@hotmail.com>). En: Zeledonia (Costa Rica) (ISSN 1659-0732), v. 9, no. 1, p. 35-37. 2005. La Lora Nuca Amarilla (Amazona auropalliata) es considerada una especie amenazada en todo su rango de distribución, que va desde el sureste de México hasta el noreste de Costa Rica, razón por la cual en el 2002 esta especie fue movida del Apéndice IIde la Convención para el Comercio Internacional de Especies Amenazadas de Flora y Fauna al Apéndice I (CITES 2002). En Costa Rica la especie habita desde el Pacífico Norte, llegando hasta las cercanías del Río Tárcoles, donde prefiere los bosques caducifolios y perennifolios de galería, sabanas con árboles y zonas agrícolas aledañas (Stiles & Skutch 1995). Debido a su gran capacidad de imitar sonidos humanos esta especie es muy cotizada en los mercados ilegales de

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fauna silvestre, tanto a nivel nacionalcomo internacional, por lo que es considerada una de las especies de psitácidos más amenazadas del país. En la Zona Protectora Tivives, ubicada en el Pacífico Central de Costa Rica, se llevó a cabo una investigación para obtener información sobre la dinámica poblacional de la especie, estudiar la problemática del saqueo de nidos en la zona, realizar una caracterización de los mismos y determinar la vulnerabilidad que presentan los nidos al saqueo, para diseñar las bases de una estrategia de conservaciónque permita mantener las poblaciones de la especie en el área de estudio. Como parte de la metodología aplicada durante el estudio, se realizó una entrevista al 30% de los habitantes de los poblados aledaños a la Zona Protectora. Según la información obtenida, cada pichón de lora tiene un precio comercial promedio de 27000 colones. Otro dato interesante obtenido mediante las entrevistas es que más del 45% de los hombres entrevistados afirmaron haber saqueado nidos recientemente. La edad promedio de los hombres que se dedican a extraer pichones es de 19 años. Paralelamente a la entrevista se llevó a cabo la búsqueda intensiva de nidos, lo cual fue realizado por medio de observación del comportamiento de las parejas, información brindada por las personaslocales (la mayoría saqueadores) y rastros de saqueos dejados en los árboles, vegetación cercana y suelo. De los 20 nidos encontrados, 16 (80%) no fueron exitosos en esta temporada; de este porcentaje, un 50% fueron saqueados, un 15% mostraron señales desaqueo aunque no fue posible determinar si estas pertenecían al año de investigación o a temporadas pasadas; y el 15% de nidos restantes fueron depredados. Estos datos son comparables a los de un estudio realizado por Wright et al. (2001) desde 1993 hasta 1997 en Costa Rica, en el que encontró que aproximadamente el 45% de los nidos fracasan y que el 90% de esto se debe al saqueo. Por otra parte, según CITES en Guatemala, entre el 70% y el 100% de los nidos no protegidos son saqueados. En Costa Rica, hasta la tercera parte de los nidos son saqueados, aún dentro de reservas naturales. En las islas costeñas de Honduras el 100% de los nidos son saqueados. El alto porcentaje de nidos saqueados en la temporada de anidación del 2004, sin tomar en cuenta los nidos indeterminados, explica que la principal causa de mortalidad es el saqueo. Esta actividad es la causa más difundida y significativa de mortalidad de los loros neotropicales. Según Wright et al. (2001), la pérdida de pichones debido al saqueo de nidos es mayor que la muerte por causas naturales. El saqueo de nidos en el área continúa gracias a que esta actividad genera ingresos relativamente altos para los saqueadores por lo que se ven extremadamente atraídos por la comercialización de pichones (sobre todo los jóvenes). Por otra parte, existe la falta de un ente regulador organizado, responsable y eficiente ya que las infracciones en el área se cometen a plena luz del día y en zonas aledañas a la casa destinada a la protección (MINAE). Los jóvenes de la región sienten que tienen las puertas abiertas para saquear nidos y comercializar pichones sin ningún inconveniente. Con los datos obtenidos mediante esta investigación se propusieron las bases para crear una estrategia de conservación que ayude a incrementar y mantener estable el tamaño de la población de A. auropalliata en el área. Se sugirieron una serie de actividades relacionadas con educación ambiental, vigilancia y monitoreo de los nidos activos para evitar el saqueo e investigación y manejo del hábitat ya que la sobrevivencia de la especie a largo plazo depende no solo de lograr el control sobre el saqueo de nidos sino también de la conservación del hábitat, tanto en los lugares donde la especie forrajea, como en los sitios de anidación. Lamentablemente, la mayoría de individuos forrajean en tierras privadas donde los árboles son reemplazados por pastizales, construcciones y plantas introducidas, o peor aún, incendiadas. Localización: Biblioteca OET: Z.

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Publicación no.: 237 Species and functional diversity of native and human-dominated plant communities [Diversidad funcional y de especies de comunidades de plantas nativas y dominadas por el hombre] / Mayfield, Margaret M; Boni, M.E; Daily, Gretchen C; Ackerly, David D. (University of California at Santa Barbara. Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Sciences, Santa Barbara, CA 931069610, US <E-mail: mayfield@msi.ucsb.edu> <E-mail: gdaily@stanford.edu>). En: Ecology (ISSN 0012-9658), v. 86, no. 9, p. 2365-2372. 2005. Despite growing attention to how human activities alter plant communities, little is known about the ecosystem consequences of these changes. We explore the relationship between species and functional diversity of herbaceous and shrubby plant communities in forested and deforested habitats in three Neotropical landscapes. We focus on six traits: pollination mechanism, dispersal mechanism, growth form, fruit type, fruit size, and seed size. We ask: (1) What is the relationship between species richness and functional diversity (trait state richness)? (2) Do species/functional diversity relationships differ between forested and deforested habitats? and (3) Are observed species/functional diversity patterns more consistent with ecological filtering or differentiation-based assembly processes? We show that species richness is often a weak surrogate for functional diversity, depending on the trait. Species/functional diversity relationships differ significantly between forested and deforested habitats, but the nature of-differences is trait dependent. Dispersal mechanism and fruit type number increased more rapidly in deforested than forested habitats, but the opposite was true for most other traits. Using a null model, we found evidence of ecological filtering for most traits in both habitats. Results demonstrate that deforested habitats do not necessarily contain lower functional diversity than forest but that the ecological assembly processes influencing community function in deforested communitiesdiffer dramatically from forest. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-2785. S10934. LC. Publicación no.: 238 Forest fragmentation and biodiversity conservation: case studies of Costa Rica and Vancouver Island [Fragmentación del bosque y conservación de la biodiversidad: estudios de caso de Costa Rica y la Isla Vancouver] / Roman, G; Emerson, L; Fairweather, K. , 2001. 134 pp. The conservation of biodiversity is an important responsibility for humanity for economic, aesthetic, ecological, and ethical reasons. Human-caused habitat fragmentation is a major threat to the conservation of biodiversity. We assessed the impacts of forest fragmentation on biodiversity in two widely differing regions: Costa Rica and Vancouver Island. First, we quantified landscape fragmentation patterns in both regions. Subsequently, it was shown how current landscape patterns, such as the representativeness of ecosystem types, sizes of habitat patches, and degree of landscape connectivity, are impacting biodiversity in the two regions. Many of these impacts were species-specific, and were obtained directly from the literature, while others could only be inferred by established generalized rules. One important conclusion is that the impacts of fragmentation on biodiversity may have very extensive effects under rapid climate change scenarios. The future outlook for biodiversity conservation in both regions was also assessed. This was done by first documenting initiatives towards a system of land use compatible with conservation, and subsequently pointing out areas where improvements could be directed. We conclude that both regions studied still have a long way to go before incentives and mechanisms are in place that encourages land use patterns compatible with biodiversity conservation objectives. Creating the transition towards such a system must be a high priority for everyone, and will requiremany changes in styles of resource management, in the attitudes, lifestyles, and consumption patterns of individuals, and in the ways in which businesses go about their operations. The Importance

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of This Study: The conservation of the Earth's biodiversity is thought by many to be one of the most important and pressing issues of our time. Ordinary citizens, prominent scientists, resource managers, university professors, environmentalists, schoolchildren, and government bureaucrats from all parts of the world are just some of the important groups of people that have acknowledged the importance of saving the earth's biotic wealth. In Canada, a public opinion poll prepared by the Angus Reid Group showed that 94% of Canadians would support Federal Endangered Species Legislation, and that the majority of rural Canadians would be willing to use at least a portion of their privately owned land for endangered species conservation (Canadian Endangered Species Coalition, 2001). Globally, the recognition of the importance of biodiversity conservation is reflected by the ratification of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), first presented at the1992 Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, by 168 countries (Conference of the Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2001). In many regions, the increasing public awareness on the importance of conserving biodiversity is being expressed in many ways. We can note this just from the increased usage of the term 'biodiversity' (despite the fact that it is not commonly fully understood), and also by the increasing referral to biodiversity in the rhetoric of government policies and mandates (see: BC CORE, 1995a; Budowski, 1992). However, although many conservation-oriented activities and programs have been plannedthe widespread recognition of the importance of biological conservation does not necessarily mean that specific actions have been taken to address the root causes of threats to biodiversity. Actual changes in land use and related policies, which satisfybiodiversity conservation objectives, are considered by many to be scarce (UNEP, 2000). The reasons for this are complicated, and have a lot to do with the extreme difficulties involved in satisfying multiple objectives in planning. Defining a trajectoryof development that satisfies all environmental, economic, and social objectives may at best be excruciatingly difficult, and at worst may be outright impossible. Therefore, tradeoffs between objectives may often be forced into being during planning activities. Governments, corporations, small businesses, non-government organizations, and public citizens will make these tradeoffs, either consciously or unconsciously, in their daily operations. We need more integration of environmental thinking into decision-making about agriculture, forestry, trade, investment, infrastructure, development and finance (UNEP, 2000). However, the seemingly inconsequential consumption and lifestyle choices of individuals also make a huge difference, as these have a huge cumulative impact on many aspects of society, on the economy, and on the environment. Therefore, decision-making has a dire need for being as fully informed as possible. However, relevant information must be presented in such a manner so as to not become too complicated or to paralyze or blind the decision-maker. Whether decisions are made by a government-run round-table deciding on regional land use planning, corporations deciding where to buy its raw goods, or individuals deciding where to shop for furniture, more informed decision-making at all levels will bring us closer to the realization of satisfying as many developmental objectives that we strive for as possible; if people understand clearly what the consequences of certain actions are, they willlikely make decisions that are more consistent with the achievement of the multiple values that they respect. Aims and Goals of This Project: The overarching goal of this paper is to assess the impacts of forest fragmentation on biodiversity. The aims implicit within this goal are: 1. To inform the reader on the level of importance of specific threats to biodiversity. 2. To quantitatively assess the current state of the landscape, with respect to forest fragmentation, in two study regions. 3. To show how the quantified patterns of forest fragmentation across the landscapes affect biodiversity in the two study regions. 4. To discuss the underlying causes of forest fragmentation in the two regions. 5. To compare and contrast the

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differences in relative threats to the components of biodiversity affected for the two study regions. 6. To show the differences in conservation strategies in "developed" vs. "less developed" regions. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-1225. Publicación no.: 239 Avian community dynamics in a fragmented tropical landscape [Dinámica de la comunidad de aves en un paisaje tropical fragmentado] / Borgella, Rene, Jr; Gavin, Thomas A. (Ithaca College. Department of Biology, CNS 213, Ithaca, NY 14853, US <E-mail: rborgella@ithaca.edu> <E-mail: tag1@cornell.edu>). En: Ecological Applications (ISSN 1051-0761), v. 15, no. 3, p. 1062-1073. 2005. As humans alter habitats worldwide, developing reliable methods of assessing biodiversity and community attributes of interest (e.g., species richness, turnover, and extinction rates) is important. Frequently, estimates of community-level attributes are biased because the estimators make assumptions of the data that are violated; many published studies assume equal detectability across species, sites, or time. The accuracy of estimators of species richness and community-level vital rates (e.g., extinction and colonization) can be increased by using probabilistic estimation methods, which do not assume that all species are detected, or that the data assume a particular statistical distribution. Using these estimation methods, we examined avian community dynamics in a fragmented tropical landscape using data from five years of a mark-release-recapture study. For the resident understory avifauna in each of five small (-0.3-20 ha), isolated forest fragments in southern Costa Rica, we estimated species richness, rate of change in species richness, extinction and turnover rates of species, and the number of colonizing species over temporal scales of one month, one year, and two years. We expected that community dynamics would be higher in smaller fragments than in larger fragments, reflecting greater temporal variability of avian communities in relatively small habitat patches. Additionally, a selective logging operation was conducted at one of our sites during the midpoint of this study, which gave usthe opportunity to examine how community-level vital rates may reflect the effects of that perturbation. Our results demonstrate that avian communities in the larger fragments were more stable than those in the smaller fragments, and that the selectivelylogged fragment was the most unstable of all. We found that extinction rates were more similar across our sites than were colonization rates, and that the higher instability of the small fragments was due primarily to higher levels of colonization. Although our sample size (n = 5) precludes strong inference, our findings are consistent with the prediction of higher local dynamics within small fragments and after logging. Taken together, these findings suggest that smaller fragments are more dynamic overtime, and that ecological processes and multitrophic relationships at these dynamic sites may be in a constant state of flux. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S10486. NBINA-4868. Publicación no.: 240 Efectos de la fragmentación del hábitat sobre la ecología reproductiva de Quararibea ochrocalyx (K. Schum) Vischer en el bosque húmedo de Costa Rica [Effects of habitat fragmentation on the reproductive ecology of Quararibea ochrocalyx (K. Schum) Vischer in the tropical humid forest of Costa Rica] / Flores-Llampa, B. Turrialba: CATIE, 2005. 58 pp. Thesis, Mag. Sc., Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Programa para el Desarrollo y la Conservación, Turrialba (Costa Rica). Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-3161.pdf The present study evaluated the effects of fragmentation on plant density, fruit production, predation of seeds and herbivory in fragmented forests and in continuous forest in northern Costa Rica. The decrease

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of juvenile plants shown in the forest fragments could be the result of the changes in the microhabitat and the interaction with their dispersers. Therefore, increased of knowledge of regeneration, the plant species interaction with its predators and dispersers and the causes of failure in these ecological processes may be one of the most important steps toward the achievement of sustainability of forest fragments in northern Costa Rica. Localización: Biblioteca OET: Tesis 462. NBINA-3161. Publicación no.: 241 Taller Internacional de Expertos sobre Manejo y Conservación de Ara macao en Costa Rica: Resumen de resultados y recomendaciones. Villa Lapas, Costa Rica, Abril de 1995, 9 pp. La lapa roja (Ara macao) es una especie situada en el Apéndice I de CITES y considerada en peligro de extinción en Costa Rica. Los factores determinantes de esta situación son la deforestación, el robo de nidos para el trasiego ilegal de pichones y la falta de protección efectiva de sus hábitats claves. En el Pacífico Central de Costa Rica se establecieron dos proyectos de investigación y manejo de una de las poblaciones más importantes. La Universidad Nacional desarrolla un proyecto de investigación basado en el monitoreo poblacional y la Fundación Pro Iguana Verde (con el apoyo del WWF de Austria y del gobierno de Costa Rica) un proyecto de manejo y conservación integrando a las comunidades locales. La meta de ambos esfuerzos es procurar la viabilidad a largo plazo de la población de lapas en la región y con ello contribuir a su mantenimiento en Costa Rica. La población de lapas rojas en Costa Rica se encuentra geográficamente distribuida principalmente en tres sectores: Península de Osa, Pacífico Central y Tempisque-Palo Verde. No se conoce la existencia de flujo de individuos entre estos sectores. Es posible que haya tendencia a que las poblaciones se encuentren fragmentadas, como consecuencia del aislamiento de las áreas silvestres y la fragmentación del bosque tropical Son numerosos los peligros reales y potenciales de la fragmentación y aislamiento de las poblaciones silvestres. Efectos de depresión endogámica, reducción de la capacidad reproductiva, incremento de la mortalidad por efectos demográficos y genéticos, son algunas de estas consecuencias negativas. La solución de este problema es complejo, pero apunta a evitar el aislamiento poblacional, restablecer el flujo genético entre las poblaciones separadas e incrementar la población efectiva dentro de cada fragmento. Asimismo, es necesario aplicar una serie de medidas complementarias, tales como protección y recuperación de hábitats, reducción del saqueo de nidos, incremento de recursos claves, entre otros. En el caso particular del Pacífico Central de Costa Rica, es necesario reducir los efectos negativos del saqueo de pichones, proteger los sitios claves de nidificación y de corredores así como iniciar un programa orientado a reabastecer la población antes de su reducción crítica, como una forma de mantener a la población por arriba de su mínimo viable. Debido a que el manejo de poblaciones reducidas implica el desarrollo y ajuste de metodologías particulares para cada caso, se consideró de suma importancia discutir las posibles opciones con especialistas en el tema. De este modo, la Fundación Pro Iguana Verde ejecutó este Taller de Expertos, cuyos resultados y recomendaciones más significativas damos a conocer en el presente documento. Los participantes representaron los sectores claves del manejo de psitácidos, tanto en sus aspectos biológicos como veterinarios. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S10340. Publicación no.: 242 Phyllostomid bat community structure and abundance in two contrasting tropical dry forests [Estructura comunitaria y abundancia de murciélagos filostómidos en dos bosques secos tropicales contrastantes] / Stoner, Kathryn E. (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Centro de

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Investigación en Ecosistemas, Apartado Postal 27-3, Xangari, Morelia 48980, MX <E-mail: kstoner@oikos.unam.mx>). En: Biotropica (ISSN 0006-3606), v. 37, no. 4, p. 591-599. 2005. Although tropical wet Forests are generally more diverse than dry forests for man), faunal groups, few studies have compared bat diversity among dry forests. I compared ground level phyllostomid bat community structure between two tropical dry forests with different precipitation regimes. Parque National Palo Verde in northwestern Costa Rica represents one of the wettest tropical dry forests (rainfall 1.5 m/yr), whereas the Chamela Cuixmala Biosphere Reserve Oil the Pacific coast of central Mexico represents one of the driest (750 mm/yr). Mist net sampling was conducted at the two Study sites to compare changes ill ground level phyllostomid bat community structure between regions and seasons. Palo Verde was more diverse than Chamela and phyllostomid species showed low similarity between sites (Classic jaccard = 0.263). The distinct phyllostomid communities observed at these two dry Forest sites demonstrates that variants of tropical dry forest can be sufficiently different in structure and composition to affect phyllostomid communities. At both dry forest sites, abundance of the two most common foraging guilds (frugivores and nectarivores) differed between seasons, with greatest numbers of individuals captured coinciding with highest chiropterophilic resource abundance. Localización: Biblioteca OET: B. NBINA-6064. Publicación no.: 243 Landscape connectivity and biological corridors [Conectividad del paisaje y los corredores biológicos] / Laurence, S.G.W. En: Agroforestry and biodiversity conservation in tropical landscapes. Schroth, G; da Fonseca, GA.B; Harvey, C.A; Gascon, C; Vasconcelos, H.L; Izac, A.M.N. (eds.) Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2004. p. 5063. ISBN: 1-55963-356-5. (No abstract). Localización: Biblioteca OET: 634.990.913 A281. Publicación no.: 244 Live fences, isolated trees, and windbreaks: tools for conserving biodiversity in fragmented tropical landscapes [Cercas vivas, árboles aislados y tapavientos: herramientas para conservar la biodiversidad en paisajes tropicales fragmentados] / Harvey, Celia A; Tucker, N.I.J; Estrada, Alejandro. (Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Dr, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22202, US <E-mail: c.harvey@conservation.org>). En: Agroforestry and biodiversity conservation in tropical landscapes. Schroth, G; da Fonseca, GA.B; Harvey, C.A; Gascon, C; Vasconcelos, H.L; Izac, A.M.N. (eds.) Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2004. p. 269-289. ISBN: 1-55963-356-5. This chapter discusses the potential role of three agroforestry elements 'live fences, isolated trees and windbreaks' in helping retain plant and animal species and maintain the continuity of species populations and ecological processes in fragmented tropical landscapes. The abundance of these agroforestry elements are first characterized in tropical regions and how farmers manage them. Data are presented on the floristic and structural diversity that they represent and the fauna associated with then, focusing on the potential role of the agroforestry elements as habitats, food resources, stepping stones and corridors. Finally, the knowledge gaps that must be filled before the potential of these agroforestry elements for landscape'scale conservation strategies can be fully appreciated are identified. Localización: Biblioteca OET: 634.990.913 A281. NBINA-4904.

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Publicación no.: 245 Agroforestry systems: important components in conserving the genetic viability of native tree species? [Sistemas agroforestales: ¿componentes importantes en la conservación de la viabilidad genética de especies de árboles tropicales nativos?] / Boshier, David H. (Oxford Forestry Institute. Department of Plant Sciences, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RB, GB <E-mail: david.boshier@plant-sciences.oxford.uk>). En: Agroforestry and biodiversity conservation in tropical landscapes. Schroth, G; da Fonseca, GA.B; Harvey, C.A; Gascon, C; Vasconcelos, H.L; Izac, A.M.N. (eds.) Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2004. p. 290-313. ISBN: 1-55963-356-5. (No abstract). Localización: Biblioteca OET: 634.990.913 A281. Publicación no.: 246 Hábitat potencial para la danta centroamericana (Tapirus bairdii) en el Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva, Costa Rica / Chassot, Olivier; Monge-Arias, Guisselle; Jiménez, Vladimir. (Centro Científico Tropical. Proyecto de Investigación y Conservación de la Lapa Verde (Ara ambiguus), Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva, Apdo. 8-3870, 1000 San José, CR <E-mail: lapa@cct.or.cr>). San José: Centro Científico Tropical, 2005. 17 pp. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-3392.pd Introducción: La Zona Norte de Costa Rica alberga el último hábitat de conexión viable de tierra que permite mantener la continuidad del Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano entre Nicaragua y Costa Rica. Sin embargo, el pequeño tamaño y el incremento de la degradación y aislamiento del bosque dentro de esta región, amenaza seriamente su conectividad ecológica y la viabilidad de una biodiversidad regional única: un bosque biológicamente diverso, dominado por el almendro (Dipteryx panamensis), el cual no se encuentra adecuadamente representado en el sistema de áreas silvestres protegidas de Costa Rica. Esta región, entre el Río San Juan y la vertiente norte de la Cordillera Volcánica Central, también alberga varias especies en peligro de extinción, incluyendo la danta centroamericana (Tapirus bairdii), la lapa verde (Ara ambigua), el jaguar (Panthera onca), el pez gaspar (Atractosteus tropicus) y el manatí (Trichechus manatus). Actualmente se desarrolla una iniciativa integral para implementar el Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva y el Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Mixto Maquenque, con el fin de conservar un mosaico de ecosistemas boscosos en peligro y proteger un mayor enlace del Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano, a nivel nacional, binacional y regional. El Corredor se ubica al norte de las provincias de Heredia y Alajuela, abarcando parte de los cantones de Sarapiquí y San Carlos. La totalidad de la superficie del Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva pertenece a la Cuenca del Río San Juan. El Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva tiene una extensión de 246.608 ha. Administrativamente abarca parte de las Áreas de Conservación Cordillera Volcánica Central y Arenal Huetar Norte. Por otra parte, el Área de Conservación Tortuguero es importante porlas áreas silvestres protegidas que están conectadas con el Corredor, tales como el Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Barra del Colorado y el Parque Nacional Tortuguero. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-3392. Publicación no.: 247 Avian community response to lowland tropical rainforest isolation: 40 years of change at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica [Respuesta de la comunidad de aves al aislamiento del bosque lluvioso tropical de la tierra baja: 40 años de cambio en la Estación Biológica La Selva, Costa Rica] / Sigel, Bryan J; Sherry, Thomas W; Young, Bruce E. (Tulane University. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 310 Dinwiddie Hall, New Orleans, LA 70118, US <E-mail: bsigel@tulane.edu> <Email: bruce_young@natureserve.org>).

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En: Conservation Biology (ISSN 0888-8892), v. 20, no. 1, p. 111-121. 2006. Since 1960, most of the forest surrounding the La Selva Biological Station, an intensively studied tropical research facility in Costa Rica, has been converted to agricultural uses. We used quantitative censuses and analysis of previously published categorical abundances to assess changes in the bird community, and we evaluated potential causes of species-specific changes by assessing their association with habitat, diet, participation in mixed-species flocks, and nest type. Approximately the same percentage of species increased as decreased in abundance from 1960 to 1999 (10-20% of all species, depending on method of assessment). Diet was the single most important trait associated with declining species. At least 50% of the species that declined have insectivorous diets. Use of forest habitat and participation in mixed-species flocks were also significant factors associated with declines, but nest type was unrelated to change in abundance. The species that increased in abundance tended to occur in open habitats and have omnivorous diets. These results reinforce the importance of several population risk factors associated with tropical understory insectivory and mixed-species flocking: patchy spatial distribution, low population density, large home range, and dietary specialization. La Selva's protected area (1611 ha), despite a forested connection on one boundary with a higher elevation national park, is apparently too small to maintain at least one major guild (understory insectivores). This first quantitative assessment of bird community change at La Selva highlights the need to intensify study of the mechanisms and consequences of biological diversity change in tropical forest fragments. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-3385. Publicación no.: 248 Seminario "Biodiversidad, capital natural y desarrollo: perspectivas y herramientas para la sostenibilidad". Memorias / Castaño-Betancur, Leandro (ed.). (Organización para Estudios Tropicales, P.O. Box 676-2050, San Pedro de Montes de Oca, CR). San José: OET / Programa de Política y Ciencias Ambientales, 2004. 34 pp. La Organización para Estudios Tropicales, a través de su programa Política y Ciencias Ambientales, impartió entre octubre de 2003 y febrero de 2004 tres ediciones de este seminario, con el apoyo financiero del Departamento de Estado del Gobierno de los Estados Unidos, el Centro Ambiental para Centroamérica y el Caribe y el auspicio del Instituto Centroamericano y La Cuenca del Caribe de Estudios Legislativos (ICEL). Dicha actividad, brindó a 45 Legisladores y Asesores Parlamentarios de Centroaméricay el Caribe, un espacio para conocer con mayor profundidad la situación ambiental de la región y explorar las dimensiones ambientales, sociales y económicas de la protección de la biodiversidad y el manejo responsable de los recursos naturales. El intercambio de información entre instructores, facilitadores y participantes en torno a la realidad ambiental, así como los trabajos en grupo y las actividades directamente desarrolladas en la naturaleza, fueron un aporte a la construcción de conocimiento común a partir del cual se aspira generar acciones en conjunto que lleven a la protección eficiente, al uso racional y al manejo adecuado del capital natural de la región. Las lecciones y salidas al campo, así como las discusiones y procesos de intercambio de conocimientos, opiniones y posiciones; estuvieron a cargo de importantes instructores y facilitadores internacionales que poseen una amplia experiencia de trabajo en la región. A través de esta experiencia de campo se ilustró el contexto regional para la protección de los recursos naturales y el estado de los mismos, se describieron los principios ecológicos fundamentales para una buena toma de decisiones y se presentaron algunas herramientas e instrumentos legales y económicos importantes en los procesos de protección y uso racional de la biodiversidad. La planificación y desarrollo de este tipo de eventos académicos se logra partiendo de una sólida base institucional, contando con la cooperación de estamentos regionales y con

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el apoyo financiero deorganismos internacionales, pero sobre todo, teniendo la voluntad y disposición de las personas que trabajan en las entidades gubernamentales, que están tomando decisiones relacionadas con el ambiente y que son la razón de ser de nuestro programa. Una muestra de dicho soporte institucional y algunos comentarios de colaboradores y beneficiarios son presentados en este documento. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 641. Publicación no.: 249 Factors shaping the range-size frequency distribution of the endemic fish fauna of the Tropical Eastern Pacific [Factores que conforman la distribución de la frecuencia de rango de tamaño de la fauna de peces endémica del Pacífico Oriental Tropical] / Mora, C; Robertson, D.R. (University of Windsor. Department of Bikology, 401 Sunset, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4, CA <E-mail: moracamilo@hotmail.com> <E-mail: drr@stri.org>). En: Journal of Biogeography (ISSN 0305-0270), v. 32, p. 277-286. 2005. Aim: To assess the effect of habitat fragmentation and isolation in determining the range-size frequency distribution (RFD) of the shorefish fauna endemic to a discrete biogeographical region. Location: The Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP). Methods: Habitat isolation represents the separation between oceanic islands and the continental shore of the TEP and habitat fragmentation the degree of spatial continuity of habitats (i.e. reefs, soft bottom, nearshore waters) along the continental coast of the TEP. The effects of habitat isolation and fragmentation were quantified by comparing the RFDs of (1) the species found on oceanic islands vs. the continental shore, and (2) species on the continental shore that use different habitat types. Results: The RFD of the entire TEP fauna was bimodal, with peaks at both smalland largerange ends of the spectrum. The small-range peak was due almost entirely to island species and the large-range peak due mainly to species found in both the continental shore and oceanic islands. RFDs varied among species using different habitats on the continental shore: reef-fishes had a right-skewed RFD, soft-bottom species a flat RFD, and coastal-pelagic fishes a left-skewed RFD. Main conclusions: Variation in dispersal capabilities associated with habitat isolation and fragmentation in the TEP appears to be the main mechanism contributing to differences among RFD structure, although variation in tolerances arising from the dynamic regional environment may contribute to some patterns. Because diversity patterns are strongly affected by RFD structure, it is now evident that the insular and continental components of a fauna should be treated separately when analysing such patterns. Furthermore, contrasts in RFD structure among species using different habitats demonstrate that a full understanding of the causes of diversity patterns requires analyses of complete regional faunas in relation to regional geography. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-3320. Publicación no.: 250 Behavioral plasticity among black-handed spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) communities in a mosaic habitat at El Zota Biological Field Station, Costa Rica [Plasticidad de comportamiento entre las comunidades de monos colorados (Ateles geoffroyi) en un mosaico de hábitats en la Estación Biológica El Zota, Costa Rica] / Lindshield, Stacy M. (Iowa State University. Department of Anthropology, 324 Curtiss Hall, Ames, IA 50011, US <E-mail: slind@iastate.edu>). En: American Journal of Physical Anthropology (ISSN 0002-9483), Suppl. 42, p. 122. 2006. (No abstract). Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-4139.

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Publicación no.: 251 The effects of forest fragment age, isolation, area, habitat type, and water availability on monkey density in a tropical dry forest [Efectos de la edad de fragmentación del bosque, aislamiento, área, tipo de hábitat y disponibilidad de agua en la densidad de monos en un bosque seco tropical] / DeGama-Blanchet, Holly Noelle. (University of Calgary. Department of Anthropology, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, CA <E-mail: fedigan@ucalgary.ca>). Calgary, Alberta: Univesity of Calgary, 2005. 113 pp. ISBN: 0-494-03810-1. Thesis, M.A., University of Calgary (Canada). Área de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Costa Rica, four centuries of heterogeneous disturbance, including logging, burning, hunting, and clearing, have fragmented and degraded the tropical dry forest. The present study examined the effects of ACG forest fragment age, isolation, area, habitat type, and dry season water availability on the density of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus), mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata), and black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi )using the line transect method. Significantly higher densities of capuchins and howlers were found in older forest. Fragment isolation and area were significantly, and positively, related only to capuchin relative density. Additionally, transects containing evergreen forest had higher densities of all three species, while this relationship was only significant for capuchins. Lastly, water availability was only significantly, positively, related to capuchin density. The information gained from my study can be used to create conservation management plans for these three primates. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-5403. Publicación no.: 252 Of forests and farms: Species and functional diversity patterns of herbaceous and shrubby plant communities in neotropical countryside landscapes (Costa Rica) [De bosques y fincas: Diversidad de patrones de especies y comunidades funcionales de plantas herbáceas y arbustos en paisajes de campo neotropicales (Costa Rica)] / Mayfield, Margaret M. (University of California at Santa Barbara. Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Sciences, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9610, US <Email: mayfield@msi.ucsb.edu>). Stanford, CA: Stanford University, 2005. 156 pp. ISBN: 0-542-08470-8. Dissertation, Ph.D., Stanford University (USA). The research I report on in this dissertation was developed in the framework of countryside biogeography, which focuses on patterns of biodiversity in human-altered (countryside) landscapes. I examined three aspects of plant community diversity in forested and deforested tropical habitats of human-dominated landscapes: (1) species diversity, (2) functional trait diversity and (3) community assembly rules (phylogenetic patterns). All projects were based on plant diversity data collected during my survey of herbaceous and shrubby plants in 85 sites in three forested and three deforested habitat types in three areas of southern Costa Rica. In total, I surveyed the richness and abundance of over 750 plant species. For studies of functional diversity, Ialso collected data on six functional traits from 668 species. These traits were pollination mechanism, dispersal mechanism, growth form, fruit type, fruit size and seed size. I found that only 16-20% of native plant species were present in both forestedand deforested habitats but total species richness did not differ between forested and deforested habitats on a per site basis. Community composition differed greatly by habitat type, with riverbanks in forest most floristically similar to deforested habitats. Functional diversity patterns were largely trait dependent. There were more dispersal mechanisms represented on average in deforested than forest habitats but the reverse was true for growth form and seed size. Pasture and understory consistently had the lowest levels of functional diversity while road verges and tree-fall gaps were consistently functionally rich. Studies of community assembly revealed that for all six traits, ecological filtering was the dominant filtering pressure acting on focal plant communities, but the extent of these pressures

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varied between forested and deforested habitats. Phylogenetically, only understory communities were under-dispersed indicating intense ecological filtering on suites of unstudied traits in these communities. Few of my studied trait states, however, correlated with patterns of phylogenetic clustering. This thesis is one of the most in depth examinations of how tropical herbaceous and shrubby plant communities are altered by human activities and has advanced our understanding of the ecology of complex humanaltered landscapes. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-5437. Publicación no.: 253 The influence of microclimate and habitat area on the ecology of the army ant Eciton burchellii in tropical forest fragments [Influencia del microclima y área de hábitat en la ecología de las hormigas ronchadoras Eciton burchellii en fragmentos de bosque tropical] / Meisel, Joe E. (1202 Williamson St, Madison, WI 53702, US <E-mail: jemeisel@ceiba.edu>). Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin, 2004. 150 pp. ISBN: 0-496-15672-1. Dissertation, Ph.D., The University of Wisconsin at Madison (USA). Army ants are keystone species in tropical forests, where they promote elevated biological diversity. In northeastern Costa Rica I encountered Eciton burchellii (Westwood) colonies in small forest fragments. I evaluated the effects of microclimate variation on army ant mobility and survival, compared the contribution of ants to bird flocks in primary forest and forest fragments, and assessed prey harvest by colonies foraging in these two habitat types. E. burchellii mobility is constrained by substrate temperature, and individual ants perish rapidly at temperatures typical of open lands. Thermal variation in primary forest influences army ant traffic, causing avoidance of gaps and edges where temperature is high, and the selection of raid routes that minimize route temperature mean and variance. Bird flocks attending ant raids in forest fragments were composed of equal numbers of individuals, but more species, than in primary forest. Few obligate ant-followers were observed in fragments, with Northern Barred-Woodcreepers (Dendrocolaptes sanctithomae) a notable exception. Prey composition and capture rates for this species were similar in both habitat types. In forest fragments with army ant raids woodcreeper prey capture rates were three times higher than without raids. Bird flocks with ant swarms in fragments included many generalist species, but a greater proportion of migratory species than in primary forest. Primary forest ant raids committed more ant foragers and experienced higher rates ofprey harvest. Harvest rates in fragments were highly variable, but patches larger than five hectares produced rates equivalent to primary forest. Leaf litter, number of arthropods, and arthropod biomass per area were greater in forest fragments than in primary forest; all three variables were negatively correlated with fragment area. The probability of Eciton spp. occurring in fragments was affected by fragment size, proximity to large forest, percent adjacent forested land, and presence of corridors toneighboring patches. Model results suggest Eciton spp. colonies are likely to visit nearly half of all small forest fragments in the study region. E. burchellii may play an important role in sustaining biodiversity in fragmented tropical landscapes if land management policies limit minimum patch size and encourage maintenance of corridors connecting forest fragments. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-8093. Publicación no.: 254 Dynamic spatial modelling for natural resources management [Modelaje espacial dinámico para el manejo de recursos naturales] / Van Laake, Patrick E. (International Institute of Geoinformation Sciences & Earth Observatory, ITC, P.O.Box 6, NL-7500 AA Enschede, NL <E-mail:

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vanlaake@itc.nl>). Edmonton: University of Alberta, 2004. 112 pp. ISBN: 0-612-96034-X. Dissertation, Ph.D., University of Alberta (Canada). Modelling the essential functions of the natural environment is increasingly complex due to our increasing knowledge which calls for the detailed description of an increasing number of components of larger systems. Modelling those functions is also increasingly more critical with natural resources being exhausted or threatened, and the effects of Mankind's influence on the global system are being felt ever more acutely as being detrimental to our own continued presence and prosperity on Earth. This thesis deals with two issues related to modelling the dynamics of the natural environment: identifying those areas most as risk of land cover change, and the accurate estimation of the terrestrial receipt of photosynthetically active radiation. Most estimates of deforestation are derived for areas that are not intrinsically related to the causes of deforestation, making it hard to link such estimates with strategies for improved land management. In this thesis a method is presented to identify local areas of high rates of deforestation within larger areas. These deforestation hot spots are identified using a local analysis approach, considering for every location only land cover changes taking place in the immediate vicinity, and they thus reflect local deforestation. This method has potential application in improved land policy development, land management and it could supplement land use change modelling at the landscape level. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is an important parameter in the estimation of vegetation growth. A method is presented with which instantaneous PAR can be calculated with high accuracy from MODIS Atmosphere data products. Comparing the calculations to field measurements made in Costa Rica in 2002, absolute errors in the order of 2-3% are obtained, which should be sufficiently accurate for application of the method in models of vegetation growth as a source of incident PAR. When the instantaneous data is integrated over the day a more useful measure of the daily radiation regime is obtained. Using the MODIS data maps of PAR can then be constructed with many applications in vegetation studies. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-5594. Publicación no.: 255 Cooperación transfronteriza ambiental para la conservación de humedales en cuencas compartidas: Un análisis desde la frontera Costa Rica - Nicaragua / Jiménez-Hernández, A. Ciudad Universitaria Rodrigo Facio: Universidad de Costa Rica, 2004. 234 pp. Thesis, Mag. Sc. en Geografía, Universidad de Costa Rica, Sistema de Estudios de Posgrado, San José (Costa Rica). Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-4020.pdf Esta investigación busca analizar la cooperación transfronteriza entre Costa Rica y Nicaragua, para la conservación de los humedales que cruzan el límite político entre ambos países. El análisis espacial demuestra que más de la tercera parte del límite político entre Costa Rica y Nicaragua, se encuentra cubierto por humedales de diversos tipos. La mayoría de estos ecosistemas se encuentran protegidos como Refugios de Vida Silvestre, o alguna otra figura de protección. Incluso los más importantes han sido declarados sitios Ramsar (humedales de importancia internacional). La situación ambiental de los humedales transfronterizos, es de un serio deterioro. La dinámica socio-espacial de esta zona fronteriza, con sus altos índices de pobreza y de debilidad institucional, empeora esta condición. Las raíces de esta problemática las encontramos en la historia misma de la colonización de la zona fronteriza, producto del accionar de fuerzas geopolíticas que transformaron el paisaje, abriendo bosques y humedales a la ganadería, y más recientemente, a una expansión sin precedentes de monocultivos. La población y las actividades económicas, crecen en la zona fronteriza. Tanto el derecho internacional, como la legislación Centroamericana y las normativas ambientales desarrolladas en Costa Rica y en Nicaragua, contemplan

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la conservación de humedales transfronterizos. Esta, se encuentra además, totalmente ligada a la conservación de aguas que fluyen de un país a otro, y ganaría terreno en la discusión política si se abordara como tal. Costa Rica y Nicaragua tienen gran potencial para crear sitios Ramsar transfronterizos. La cooperación transfronteriza entre Costa Rica y Nicaragua en conservación de humedales, fue planteada hace más de 30 años. El Proyecto SI-A-PAZ, fue la iniciativa que, pese a su frustración política en ambos países, señaló la importancia de proteger conjuntamente ecosistemas que no reconocen fronteras políticas. Proyectos tales como el Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano y el Proyecto Pro Cuenca San Juan, han impulsado de manera débil, la cooperación transfronteriza para la conservación de humedales compartidos. Algunas figuras institucionales han sido creadas, más estos proyectos no logran definir los mecanismos para articular de manera efectiva a los actores sociales de las complejas zonas fronterizas. La cooperación transfronteriza informal, surge como una opción para algunas iniciativas de conservación. Sin embargo, el respaldo de las instituciones gubernamentales, o bien de una estructura regional que impulse agendas de cooperación transfronteriza en el campo ambiental, definidas por los actores sociales desde el territorio, facilitaría mucho esta compleja tarea. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-4020. Publicación no.: 256 Towards a bioregional approach to tropical forest conservation: Costa Rica's Greater Osa Bioregion [Hacia un enfoque bioregional para la conservación del bosque tropical: La Bioregión Mayor de Osa de Costa Rica] / Ankersen, Thomas T; Regan, Kevin E; Mack, Steven A. (University of Florida. College of Law, Center for Governmental Responsibility, 230 Bruton Geer, Gainesville, FL 32605-7629, US <E-mail: ankersen@law.ufl.edu> <E-mail: kevineregan@hotmail.com> <E-mail: smack@osacampaign.org>). En: Futures (Guildford) (ISSN 0016-3287), v. 38, p. 406-431. 2006. Even by neotropical standards, the Osa Peninsula on the Southwest Pacific coast of Costa Rica contains extraordinary levels of biodiversity and endemism. Despite a 40-year history of conservation in a country known for its conservation efforts, the greater Osa Bioregion and its complex of protected areas face an uncertain future. Habitat fragmentation and genetic isolation threaten the long-term survival of the Osa's signature species, while Osa policymakers with limited resources struggle to address dilemmas posed by illegal resource extraction and uncertain and changing land tenure. More recently, the sociopolitical landscape has changed with the emergence of a 'landed conservation gentry,' sharing the Osa's ecological wealth with the poor frontier campesino. A review of conservation efforts in the Osa through the political ecology construct of bioregionalism provides an opportunity to further define this construct in the distinct context of neotropical forest conservation. In this article we review the theoretical underpinnings of bioregionalism, focusing on its value for neotropical forest conservation, and apply it to the mosaic of public and private lands that encompass the Greater Osa Bioregion. We characterize the complex and shifting governance framework for Osa conservation focusing on the current conservation initiative, the Osa Biological Corridor project. We conclude with the suggestion that bioregionalism's emphasis on reconciliation of humans and their environment-'reinhabitation'-an implicit goal of the Osa Biological Corridor project, may offer the best hope for the future. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-4105. Publicación no.: 257 Diversidad y riqueza de aves en diferentes hábitats en un paisaje fragmentado en Cañas, Costa Rica [Diversity and richness of birds in different habitats in a fragmented landscape in Cañas, Costa Rica] / Cárdenas-Carmona, G; Harvey, Celia A; Ibrahim, Muhammad A; Finegan, Bryan.

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(Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Dr, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22202, US <E-mail: c.harvey@conservation.org> <E-mail: mibrahim@catie.ac.cr> <E-mail: bfinegan@catie.ac.cr>). En: Agroforestería en las Américas (ISSN 0304-2529), v. 10, no. 39/40, p. 78-85. 2003. The abundance, species richness and diversity of birds were characterized in habitats with different types of tree cover (dry forest fragments, riparian forests, forest fallows, live fences, pasture with high tree cover and pastures of low tree cover) in a fragmented landscape in Cañas, Costa Rica. Using point counts, a total of 3037 individuals of birds were registered from 29 families and 80 species. Pastures with high tree cover and riparian forests presented a higher richness of bird species than dry forest fragments and pastures with low tree cover. In addition, pastures with high tree cover presented a higher abundance of birds than that registered in pastures with low tree cover, riparian forests and forest fallows. There were no differencesin the mean of the evenness index among the different habitats. Pastures with high tree cover and riparian forests had a higher Shannon diversity index than dry forest fragments and pastures with low tree cover. Insectivorous birds were the most common group in the habitats studied. Dry forest fragments, riparian forests and forest fallows contained mainly nectarivorous, piscivorous, and frugivorous guilds, while pastures with high and low tree cover contained mainly carnivorous, granivorous and omnivorous species. Forest habitats presented a different bird composition than that registered in the open habitats, with more species typical of forests, whereas the open habitats (pastures and live fences) presented a more simple bird composition, dominated by common species, typical of agricultural systems. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-4077. Publicación no.: 258 Establishment, reproduction and genetics of epiphytic bromeliad communities during premontane forest succession in Costa Rica [Establecimiento, reproducción y genética de las comunidades de epífitas durante una sucesión de un bosque premontano en Costa Rica] / CascanteMarín, Alfredo M. (Museo Nacional de Costa Rica. Departamento de Historia Natural, Apdo 749-1000, San José, CR <E-mail: hnatural@museocostarica.go.cr>). Amsterdam: Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2006. 192 pp. ISBN: 90-7689461-2. Dissertation, Doctor, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-5677.pdf Epiphytic plants constitute an important element of tropical forests around the world and reach their highest diversity in the Neotropics. Some families of vascular epiphytes are restricted to the new tropics, such as bromeliads (members of the pineapple family) and cacti, while other groups with a worldwide distribution have experienced a burst of speciation on this continent, such as the orchids. The permanence of epiphyte populations in tropical forests is threatened by the continuous reduction and fragmentation of their natural habitat. Uncontrolled harvesting of species for commercial purposes may cause local extinctions. The recovery of plant communities has been well documented for groundrooted species; however, the processes that regulate the recovery of epiphyte communities during forest regeneration are still elusive. The main purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the community composition and population structure of epiphytic bromeliads (subfamily Tillandsiodeae) in relation to differences in colonization ability, life history strategy and breeding system among local species. The project took place in a tropical premontane forest in the region of Monteverde, province of Puntarenas, Costa Rica (latitude: 10° 17' 10" N, longitude: 84° 47' 40" W, 1050 m a.s.l). As a starting point, the composition of communities in secondary and mature forest was studied. Life-history traits related to seed dispersal, seed germination, plant growth and reproduction were examined in selected

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species with seemingly different habitat preferences in secondary and mature forest. An analysis of the breeding system, the genetic variation and its distribution among populations in different successional habitats was undertaken by using microsatellite primers especially designed for the targeted species. The results are examined into the context of the current hypotheses about plant community assembly, which predict that differencesin seed availability and dispersal are most important in determining the development and structuring of communities during secondary succession. The alternative view suggests that differences in the ability to exploit the conditions in a particular habitat and competitive exclusion interactions among species are more important in shaping the community composition. Both ideas are usually referred to as the `dispersal' and `niche' perspective, respectively. In epiphytic plants, some correlative studies have suggested that factors affecting dispersal are more important in determining the identity of the species that constitute the communities in a local scale. The later assumption implies that most epiphytic species are ecological (near) equivalents, but this remains to be tested. Following the previous ideas, epiphytic species inhabiting early (i. e. pioneer species) and later stages of forest succession (i.e. late-successional species) are expected to exhibit differences in their ecology and breeding system according to the `niche assembly' perspective. It is expected that colonizer or pioneer species are short-lived, light-demanding, and have a high demographic turnover. They most likely have a breeding system that promotes the rapid production of many propagules by autonomous means to colonize new empty sites, which involves self-compatibility and self-pollination mechanisms. As a consequence of this mating system, the levels of genetic variation will be lower in colonizer species due to the higher selling rates, and a significant genetic differentiation among populations is likely, due to limited gene flow through means of pollen vectors. In comparison, late-successional species are expected to be long-lived, slow-growing, more competitive and shade-tolerant. They putatively have a breeding system that promotes outcrossing by pollinators and produce fewer, larger seeds. On the other hand, the `dispersal assembly perspective' model predicts that species occurring in dissimilar successional forest habitats do not significantly differ in their ecology. That is, they are ecologically (near) equivalents, and seed dispersal efficiency determines their presence or absence in a particular habitat. In this regard, the dispersal success of a species is under the control of factors related to the presence and magnitude of local seed sources, the dispersal mode and the species' fecundity (which involves several factors, such as the rate of flowering, the pollination mode, breeding system, and flower and fruit production). Localización: Biblioteca OET: Tesis 468. NBINA-5677. Publicación no.: 259 Dispersal limitation in epiphytic bromeliad communities in a fragmented landscape [Limitación de la diseminación en comunidades de bromelias epífitas en un paisaje fragmentado] / Cascante-Marín, Alfredo M; von Mejenfeldt, Noemi; de Leeuw, Hanneke M.H; Oostermeijer, J. Gerard B; Wolf, Jan H.D; den Nijs, Joannes C.M. (Museo Nacional de Costa Rica. Departamento de Historia Natural, Apdo 749-1000, San José, CR <E-mail: alfredo.cascante@gmail.com> <E-mail: jhdwolf@worldonline.nl>). En: Establishment, reproduction and genetics of epiphytic bromeliad communities during premontane forest succession in Costa Rica Amsterdam: Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2006. p. 69-88. ISBN: 907689461-2. Dissertation, Doctor, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-5677.pdf

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The transformation and reduction of tropical forests is likely to affect the patterns of seed dispersal of wind-dispersed epiphytes and seedling survival in the altered habitats. We tested this hypothesis by carrying out a comparative study of seed influx, survival and growth of transplanted seedlings of epiphytic bromeliads among bromeliad-poor forest interiors, forest edges, and isolated pasture trees in a premontane area in Costa Rica during 2003 and 2004. Inside the forest, the number of seeds collected on carpet-made traps was significantly lower compared to forest edges and pasture trees. The most abundant genera collected in each habitat were Guzmania and Tillandsia. The number of seeds per trap was positively correlated with the number of fruiting plants in its vicinity, which suggests a predominance of short-range dispersal. Variation in seed rain distribution is likely the effect of local patterns in abundance and spatial distribution of the species pool. Seedling survival after one yearshowed no differences among habitats in Catopsis nutans, Guzmania monostachia and Tillandsia fasciculata; nevertheless, the latter species showed the highest survival rate in each habitat. The relatively more severe daily fluctuations in air temperature and humidity recorded in forest edges and pasture trees during the end of the dry season were not clearly associated with an increase in seedling mortality. After one year, growth rate was higher of seedlings in forest interiors, also providing no explanation for the low bromeliad densities there. Assuming that germination and establishment rates are similar between habitat types and that adult mortality is relatively low, we hypothesize that the distribution of epiphytic bromeliads is recruitment limited due to limited seed dispersal rather than being determined by specific microclimatic conditions of each habitat. Localización: Biblioteca OET: Tesis 468. NBINA-5677. Publicación no.: 260 Hypocrealean (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) fungal diversity in different stages of tropical forest succession in Costa Rica [Diversidad de hongos hypocrealeanos (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) en diferentes estados de sucesión del bosque tropical en Costa Rica] / Chaverri-Echandi, Priscilla; Vílchez-Alvarado, Braulio. (Howard University. Department of Biology, Washington, DC 20059, US <E-mail: pchaverri@howard.edu> <E-mail: bvilchez@itcr.ac.cr>). En: Biotropica (ISSN 0006-3606), v. 38, no.4, p. 531-543. 2006. The relationship between forest succession and microfungal diversity has been poorly studied. Fungi provide important ecosystem services that may deteriorate in deforested or highly disturbed forests. To determine the possible effects of deforestation and forest succession on microfungi, species diversity of hypocrealean fungi (Ascomycota) was compared in forest stands in Eastern Costa Rica representing three stages of succession: 1-2, 25-27 yr old, and an old growth forest. Species diversity in a secondgrowth forest fragment surrounded by timber plantations and second-growth forest was also compared to that of a stand surrounded by old growth forest. The results show that the overall diversity of hypocrealean fungi was inversely proportional to the age of the forest stand, and each family showed different successional trends. Clavicipitaceae was more diverse in the old-growth forest and was positively related to the age of the forest stand. Nectriaceae was highly diverse in the 1- to 2-yr-old stand and less diverse in the old-growth stand. Saprobic and plant pathogenic fungal species were more diverse in the 1- to 2-yr-old stand and their diversity was inversely proportional to the age of the forest stand. The diversity of insect pathogens was positively related to the age of the forest stand. The 20- to 22-yr-old forest fragment had the lowest number of species overall. Based on the data gathered in this study, hypocrealean fungal species diversity is related to the successional stage and fragmentation of tropical forest. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-4377.

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Publicación no.: 261 Thermal ecology of the neotropical army ant Eciton burchellii [Ecología térmica de la hormiga ronchadora neotropical Eciton burchellii] / Meisel, Joe E. (1202 Williamson St, Madison, WI 53702, US <E-mail: jemeisel@ceiba.edu>). En: Ecological Applications (ISSN 1051-0761), v. 16, no. 3, p. 913-922. 2006. I explored the thermal ecology of Eciton burchellii, a New World army ant, in primary forest and forest fragments in the Atlantic lowlands of Costa Rica in 2002 and 2003. My primary objective was to determine whether high surface temperatures in pastures surrounding forest fragments posed a thermal barrier to ant colonies within those fragments; secondarily, I. assessed whether thermal gradients within continuous moist forest were sufficient to elicit avoidance reactions from foraging colonies. E. burchellii colonies in forest fragments avoided entering open pasture in full sun (51.3 °C) on 100% of all edge interactions; however, edges were readily crossed where artificial shaded areas had previously been installed. Ant raids in primary forest avoided artificially established temperatures 43 °C but tolerated 45.5 °C in the presence of prey baits. Captive ants held at 43 °C survived 18.5 min; at temperatures of 51.3 °C survival time was only 2.8 min. Ants running on established foraging trails increased running velocity by 18% when substrate temperature was raised from 28.4 °C to 38.0 °C, and they abandoned trails at temperatures 43 °C. The standard deviation (s) of temperatures on active raid trails in continuous forest was 2.13 °C, while nearby systematic sampling revealed a greater background standard deviation of 4.13 °C. E. burchellii colonies in this region appear to be living surprisingly near their upper limits of thermal tolerance. The heat of open pastures alone is sufficient to prevent their exiting forest fragments, or entering similarly hot areas within continuous forest. Shaded vegetative corridors are sufficient to permit mobility between isolated fragments, and their preservation should be encouraged. Despite views that tropical lowland moist forests have an essentially homogenous microclimate, army ants appear to avoid local hot spots on the forest floor, steering daily foraging trails to follow cooler routes than would be expected by chance. As deforestation remakes tropical landscapes worldwide, it is important to consider the thermal consequences of these actions and their effect on keystone organisms such as army ants. Changes in global climate patterns are likely to affect even evergreen tropical systems whose organisms maybe sensitive to finer microclimatic variation than previously suspected. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-4392. Publicación no.: 262 Biodiversity conservation and sustainable community development in the Los Cusingos-Las Nubes Biological Corridor in southern Costa Rica [Conservación de la biodiversidad y desarrollo sostenible comunitarios en el Corredor Biológico Los Cusingos-Las Nubes en el sur de Costa Rica] / Daugherty, Howard E. (York University. Faculty of Environmental Studies, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3, CA <E-mail: jaguar@yorku.ca>). V Taller Internacional Ecología y Desarrollo (ECODES'2002), Matanzas, CU, 2002. 13 pp. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-4547.pdf Introduction: There is increasing evidence that national parks and other protected areas alone are insufficient for the conservation of the world?s biodiversity, particularly within tropical environments where most of the biological wealth of the planet is concentrated. Similarly, sustainable community development in buffer zones around protected areas has proved to be elusive for rural dwellers adjacent to these areas. Deforestation has not only taken a heavy toll on tropical forests and their respective biotas, but forest fragmentation into terrestrial islands has also been a powerful force for the

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depletion of biological diversity. Creative alternatives are needed to ensure the longterm survival of biodiversity and to enhance the achievement of sustainable development at the local community level. Three such alternatives are the creation of biological corridors, "green consumerism" and financial support for environmental services. The Los Cusingos?Las Nubes Biological Corridor in southern CostaRica illustrates each of these three approaches to biodiversity protection and sustainable community development. This corridor is the focus of a joint research and development project of the Tropical Science Center of Costa Rica and the Faculty of Environmental Studies of York University in Toronto. Conservation of regional biodiversity and sustainable development of local agricultural communities are important objectives of this project. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-4547. Publicación no.: 263 Educación ambiental no-formal: Un ejemplo de iscovery.ca en Costa Rica / Rutherford, B.M; Daugherty, Howard E. (York University. Faculty of Environmental Studies, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3, CA <E-mail: brentr@yorku.ca> <E-mail: jaguar@yorku.ca>). V Taller Internacional Ecología y Desarrollo (ECODES'2002), Matanzas, CU, 2002. 1 p. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-4462.pdf (Abstract only). A pesar de que los esfuerzos básicos de investigación raramente buscan comunicar sus resultados al público en general, la apreciación de éste sobre la naturaleza de las investigaciones y sus hallazgos son elementos de un público informado. Este poster discute el proceso a través del cual el Discovery Channel (Canadá) decidió crear y difundir un programa televisivo presentando el trabajo conjunto llevado a cabo por el Centro Científico Tropical (CCT) y la Facultad de Estudios Ambientales (FES) de la Universidad de York en Toronto sobre los regímenes del cultivo de café en el sur de Costa Rica. Esta investigación forma parte importante del Fondo Fisher para la Investigación Neotropical el cual se enfoca a la protección de la biodiversidad, sistemas agropecuarios sustentables y participación comunitaria en la cuenca del Río Peñas Blancas localizada entre la Reserva Biológica Las Nubes y el Santuario de Aves Neotropicales Los Cusingos. Mientras que algunos de los conceptos requieren de una apreciación general más que un trato detallado, el documental mostrado en el programa iscovery puso a la disposición de un amplio público los elementos clave del proyecto de investigación. Estos incluyen el terreno donado por el Dr. Woody Fisher y el acuerdo entre el CCT y FES, así como los principios del rol de los diferentes regímenes de cultivo de café en la biodiversidad. El trabajo de investigación al momento de la filmación del documental fue llevado a cabo por las estudiantes de postgradoSandra Znadja y Anna Baggio, quienes hicieron las investigaciones de sus tesis de maestría en este proyecto. Algunas porciones del programa serán proyectados como parte de este poster. Como complemento al programa, Discovery también realizó un documentalsobre el Dr. Alexander Skutch, un reconocido ornitólogo a nivel mundial quien ha vivido por más de 60 años en el Santuario de Aves Los Cusingos. Este documental también fue mostrado en iscovery y será mostrado como parte de este poster. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-4462. Publicación no.: 264 Asynchronous migration patterns and the coexistence of tropical hummingbirds [Patrones de migración asíncronos y coexistencia de colibríes tropicales] / Feinsinger, Peter. (University of Florida. Department of Zoology, Gainesville, FL 32611, US <E-mail: peter.feinsinger@nau.edu>). En: Migrant birds in the neotropics Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1980. p. 411-419. ISBN: 0-87474-661-2.

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The complex vegetation of tropical mountains creates a mosaic of habitat patches among which numerous short-billed hummingbird species migrate. Calculation of "seasonal overlaps" among hummingbird populations at two Costa Rican sites, Monteverde (Feinsinger 1976) and the Cerro de la Muerte (Wolfe, Stiles, and Hainsworth 1976) demonstrates that in each patch the population density of each hummingbird species fluctuated in a unique temporal pattern. During seasons of flower scarcity, one or a few species could control all resources. Therefore, the ability of other hummingbirds to locate alternate resources through migration was crucial to their survival. I conclude that asynchronous migration patterns are instrumental in permitting the regional coexistence of large numbers of shortbilled hummingbird species. It follows that regions lacking such habitat mosaics must suffer reduced hummingbird diversity. This factor, among others, may lead to such contrasts in hummingbird diversity as that between the Andes and the Amazon Basin, between eastern and western North America, or between the tropical mainland and various islands. Data from studies in progress on Trinidad and Tobago support this reasoning. Several extensive nonforested habitats exist on Trinidad; seven shortbilled hummingbird species, in particular abundant Amazilia tobaci and Chrysolampys mosquitus, travel between habitats in different spatiotemporal patterns. In contrast Tobago has but one extensive habitat type; not only must Chrysolampis and Amazilia coexist nearly year-around, but they also migrate synchronously to exploit what flower bursts occur in peripheral habitat patches. Individuals of only two other shorter-billed species, which normally forage high in trees, enter the Tobago study sites. The relationship between diverse migration strategies and the regional coexistence of hummingbirds follows predictions of theoretical models for fugitive species. In this sense it parallels the evolution and ecology of latitudinal migrations by other bird groups. Localización: Biblioteca OET: S10811; 598.298 M636m. Publicación no.: 265 El Corredor Biológico Talamanca-Caribe, un esfuerzo por el desarrollo sostenible de Talamanca / Chacón-Chaverri, Didiher; Ochoa, E. (Asociación ANAI, Apdo 170-2070, San José, CR <Email: tortugas@racsa.co.cr>). San José: PROARCA/COSTAS, 1998. 29 pp. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-1640.pdf Para algunos el Corredor Biológico Talamanca/Caribe (CBTC) es un área, para otros una comisión interinstitucional, para otros una estrategia de conservación y desarrollo que un grupo de entidades privadas y públicas intentan concretar; pero no existe documento gubernamental alguno de creación del CBTC ni como área ni como entidad. El CBTC es un esfuerzo constituido por una federación de organizaciones privadas y entidades del Estado, cuya influencia cubre 31.500 ha terrestres y 4.500 ha marinas, las cuales incluyen algunas Reservas Indígenas, áreas protegidas y terrenos privados. La misión del CBTC es impulsar y fortalecer el equilibrio entre los pobladores del área y su medio ambiente a través de fomentar la capacidad de las organizaciones y comunidades para actividades de producción sostenible y conservación de la biodiversidad (Bustillo, 1996). Se trata de un corredor sin la visión clásica de un área protegida. Es un intento de manejo de una zona bajo el liderazgo de Asociaciones de Desarrollo yONGs, con importante participación de entidades del gobierno central con base en la zona (y muy poca participación directa aún de los gobiernos municipales). El área de influencia del CBTC va desde Alta Talamanca, donde se localiza la Reserva Biológica Hitoy-Cerere, hasta el Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca/Manzanillo (REGAMA) en la zona costera de Baja Talamanca. Incluye una pequeña porción de la Reserva Indígena Tayni, la Reserva Biológica Hitoy Cerere, la parte mayor de la Reserva Indígena Cabécar y de la Reserva Indígena Talamanca/Bribrí, además de la totalidad del área de la Reserva Indígena Keköldí y el REGAMA. En el área viven, aproximadamente 10.000 personas. El

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cantón Talamanca forma parte de la provincia de Limón. Está ubicado en laparte Sureste de la Región Huetar Atlántica, entre las coordenadas 9° 00´ a 9° 50´ latitud Norte y 82° 35´a 83° 05´ longitud Oeste. Limita al Norte con el cantón de Limón y el mar Caribe; al Sur con los cantones de Coto Brus y Buenos Aires (de la provincia de Puntarenas); al Este con la República de Panamá y al Oeste con el cantón de Pérez Zeledón, provincia de San José. El cantón fue creado en 1969 con una extensión de 2,809.93 Km2 (5% del territorio nacional) y los distritos de Cahuita, Sixaola y Bratsi. La densidad de población es de 4.0 habitantes por km². Posee una agencia bancaria, tres agencias de extensión agrícola, 27 establecimientos de salud, dos clínicas del Seguro Social, ocho centros preescolares, 42 centros de educación primaria y un colegio técnico agropecuario. El turismo es la actividad más reciente y empezó hace unos 15 años. La zona tenía entonces bajos ingresos familiares, dependía de intermediarios para la comercialización, carecía de vías de acceso, tecnificación y créditos parala producción. Los pobladores locales afirman que antes de la llegada del turismo los ecosistemas estaban menos alterados, los mariscos abundaban y solo se los sacaba para la alimentación del día, el bosque tenía toda clase de árboles y solo se cortaban para hacer casas, nadie comerciaba la madera. Según los lugareños ahora hay menos bosques, menos recursos marinos y menos lluvia. El principal factor de cambio en la zona es el desarrollo turístico masivo de la línea costera. Algunos otros cambios en esta última década son: la construcción de una presa en la cuenca del Sixaola, la caída de los precios y de las cuotas de los monocultivos más importantes en el cantón. El más temido cambio reciente de tipo administrativo se refiere a la capacidad de emitirpermisos de aprovechamiento forestal que se le ha otorgado a las Municipalidades con la nueva Ley Forestal. Desde la publicación de la nueva ley, cientos de ha de tacotales y bosques en recuperación se han perdido, muchos de estos dentro del área del CBTC. Un nuevo cambio puede venir con la ya anunciada intención del Estado de explotar los yacimientos de carbón en el área. La directora de la federación del corredor ve al organismo como una herramienta colectiva creada por las organizaciones miembros para mejorar las posibilidades de la conservación y del desarrollo a beneficio de las gentes del cantón. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-1640. Publicación no.: 266 Impacto de la cobertura arbórea sobre las comunidades de aves en un agropaisaje del Pacífico Central de Costa Rica / Enríquez-Lenis, Marta Lucía. (Universidad Nacional. Instituto Internacional en Conservación y Manejo de Vida Silvestre, Apartado 1350-3000, Heredia, CR <E-mail: maluenriquez@yahoo.com>). Heredia: Universidad Nacional, 2005. 89 pp. Thesis, Mag.Sc. en Conservación y Manejo de Vida Silvestre, Universidad Nacional, Programa Regional en Manejo de Vida Silvestre para Mesoamérica y El Caribe, Heredia (Costa Rica). In Latin America, during the last decades, deforestation has been very intense in order to establish pastures, cash or subsistence crops and infrastructures, and it rapidly led to the fragmentation and deterioration of natural habitats, to the destruction of many ecosystems, and to a dramatic erosion of biodiversity. The landscapes resulting from these dramatic changes consist in small forest patches surrounded by matrices made of pastures and crops which host a significant part of the current biodiversity. Consequently, it is necessary to assess accurately biodiversity in these agroecosystems and to propose sustainable management plans which fulfill conservation goals while improving the socioeconomic situation of rural communities. This study aimed at investigating the influence of the tree and vegetation cover on the local avifauna in livestock farms of the Central Pacific Region of Puntarenas, Costa Rica. Therefore, a monitoring of birds and vegetation was carried out between July and December2004 in twelve livestock farms of different sizes and having different percent tree and

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vegetation cover. The structure of the vegetation was shown to influence considerably the composition of avian trophic guilds. Moreover, significant differences amongst land uses were found in term of bird abundance for each guild. At landscape scale, it appeared that the diversity of granivorous bird’s species was influenced by the percent of forest area in the surroundings of the farms under investigation. The diversity of most of the migratory birds seemed to be influenced by tree height and percent tree cover. For the overall avifauna, vegetation diversity was the main factor driving bird richness, abundance and diversity. At farm scale, results showed that the size of the forest patches and the heterogeneity and diversity of land uses influence drastically bird diversity and richness. Additionally, in term of species vulnerability, the presence of birds which survival depends on forest fragments appeared to be directly related to the size of farm forest patches. This study demonstrates the importance of the presence of forest and high and heterogeneous vegetation cover in agrolandscapes, due to the strong influence of vegetation structure, diversity and connectivity on bird communities. It is consequently essential to keep on fostering the implementation of silvopastoral systems, focusing on the conservation of forests which bring unique resources to birds in these kinds of productive systems. Localización: Biblioteca del BIODOC: Tesis 2352. Publicación no.: 267 Live fences and landscape connectivity in a neotropical agricultural landscape [Cercas vivas y conectividad del paisaje en un paisaje agrícola neotropical] / León, M.C; Harvey, Celia A. (Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Dr, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22202, US <E-mail: c.harvey@conservation.org>). En: Agroforestry Systems (ISSN 0167-4366), v. 68, no. 1, p. 15-26. 2006. Live fences are common elements in neotropical agricultural landscapes and could play important roles in the conservation of biodiversity by enhancing landscape connectivity, however, little is known about their abundance and spatial arrangement. Theobjectives of this study were to characterize the abundance and spatial patterns of live fences in a fragmented landscape dominated by pastures in Río Frío, Costa Rica, to determine their contribution to landscape structure and connectivity and to examine their role as tools for landscape conservation planning. Live fences accounted for 45.4% of all fences in the landscape and occurred with a mean density of 50.5 linear meters per hectare. Although live fences covered only a small total area of the landscape ( 2%), they had an important effect on landscape structure and connectivity, increasing total tree cover, dividing pastures into smaller areas, creating rectilinear networks that cross the landscape and providing direct physical connections to forest patches. Simulations showed that the conversion of all existing wooden fences to live fences would greatly enhance landscape connectivity by more than doubling the area, density and number of direct connections to forest habitats, and reducing the average distance between tree canopies. Our study demonstrates that live fences play key roles in defining the structure and composition of neotropical agricultural landscapes and merit consideration in both conservation efforts and agricultural policies designed to enhance landscape connectivity and promote biodiversity conservation. Live fences are common elements in neotropical agricultural landscapes and could play important roles in the conservation of biodiversity by enhancing landscape connectivity however, little is known about their abundance and spatial arrangement. The objectives of this study were to characterize the abundance and spatial patterns of live fences in a fragmented landscape dominated by pastures in Río Frío, Costa Rica, to determine their contribution to landscape structure and connectivity and to examine their role as tools for landscape conservation planning. Live fences accounted for 45.4% of all fences in the landscape and occurred with a mean density of 50.5 linear meters per hectare. Although live fences

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covered only a small total area of the landscape ( 2%), they had an important effect on landscape structure and connectivity, increasing total tree cover, dividing pastures into smaller areas, creating rectilinear networks that cross the landscape and providing direct physical connections to forest patches. Simulations showed that the conversion of all existing wooden fences to live fences would greatly enhance landscape connectivity by more than doubling the area, density and number of direct connections to forest habitats, and reducing the average distance between tree canopies. Our study demonstrates that live fences play key roles in defining the structure and composition of neotropical agricultural landscapes and merit consideration in both conservation efforts and agricultural policies designed to enhance landscape connectivity and promote biodiversity conservation. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-4858. Publicación no.: 268 The influence of habitat variables on bird communities in forest remnants in Costa Rica [Influencia de las variables de hábitats en las comunidades de aves en remanentes de bosque en Costa Rica] / Matlock, Robert B., Jr; Edwards, P.J. (Tulane University. Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, 6823 St Charles Ave, Dinwiddie Hall 310, New Orleans, LA 70118, US <E-mail: rmatlock@tulane.edu>). En: Biodiversity and Conservation (ISSN 0960-3115), v. 15, no. 9, p. 2987-3016. 2006. This study examined the effects of forest structure (tree species richness, canopy height, percent canopy cover, understory density, tree density and DBH) and avian species traits (nest type and indicator list status) on the diversity, abundance and dissimilarity of bird communities in forest remnants and reforestation areas adjacent to Costa Rican banana plantations. Bird species richness and abundance were significantly related to tree species richness, canopy height and canopy cover in multiple linear regressions, the latter two forest structure variables being the best statistical predictors. Stratification of analyses by bird species indicator categories improved fits of regressions, because correlations with environmental variables differed in sign for different guilds of birds, a result likely to hold for other avifaunas. Analysis of avifauna dissimilarities among sites demonstrated that the species composition of bird communities was highly correlated with forest structure and tree species composition. Logistic regressions indicated that birds making protected (cavity, burrow, pendant, sphere and covered) nests were 2-6 times more likely to be present in the study avifauna than birds making open (cup, saucer, platform and scrape) nests andindicators of disturbed habitats were 11 times more likely to be present than indicators of primary forest. The forest structure data used were simple and inexpensive to collect, and data on avian traits were drawn from the literature. Thus, these methods could easily be replicated at other locations and would be valuable management aids and biodiversity assessment tools for conservation planning. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-4870. Publicación no.: 269 Valor de algunas prácticas agrícolas para la conservación de poblaciones de primates en paisajes fragmentados en Mesoamérica [Conservation value of some agricultural practices for primate populations in fragmented landscapes in Mesoamerica] / Estrada, Alejandro; Harvey, Celia A; Sáenz-Méndez, Joel Cris; Muñoz-Guerrero, Diego A; Naranjo, E; Rosales-Meda, Marta Marleny. (Instituto de Biología (UNAM). Estación de Biología Los Tuxtlas, Laboratorio de Primatología, Apartado Postal 94, San Andrés Tuxtla, Veracruz, MX <E-mail: aestrada@primatesmx.com> <E-mail: c.harvey@conservation.org> <E-mail: jsaenz@una.ac.cr>). En: Universidad y Ciencia (ISSN 0186-2979), Número Especial, no. 2, p. 85-94. 2005.

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Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-4903.pdf It is generally accepted that agricultural activities are the main threat to primate diversity in the world. The point in this paper is that some agricultural practices in the fragmented landscapes of the Neotropics favour the persistence of primate populations, and merit study and evaluation. The presence of activities of primate populations of five primate species (Alouatta palliata, A. pigra, Ateles geoffroyi, Saimiri oerstedii, Cebus capucinus) were found in 15 types of agrosystems. Some populations of these primates were found to reside permanently or temprarily in 50% of the agrosystems. Others use the agrosystems as temporary foraging or stop-over areas during movements through the landscapes. In most cases, crop damage by primates is non existent. The presence and activities of the primates in the agrosystems may favour primary productivity, the persistence of tree species that provide shade to crops, and the provision of nutrients to the soil of the agrosystems. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-4903. Publicación no.: 270 Variation in seedling density and seed predation indicators for the emergent tree Dipteryx panamensis in continuous and fragmented rain forest [Variación en los indicadores de la densidad de plántulas y depredación de la semilla en el árbol emergente Dipteryx panamensis en bosque lluvioso continuo y fragmentado] / Hanson, Thor R; Brunsfeld, Steven J; Finegan, Bryan. (University of Idaho. Department of Forest Resources, P.O.Box 441133, Moscow, ID 83844-1133, US <E-mail: thor@rockisland.com> <E-mail: bfinegan@catie.ac.cr>). En: Biotropica (ISSN 0006-3606), v. 38, no. 6, p. 770-774. 2006. Seedling density and the condition of stony endocarps of the tree Dipteryx panamensis were assessed in protected continuous forest and two forest fragments exposed to hunting and selective logging. Seedling density was higher in forest fragments thanin continuous forest, while more whole endocarps and fewer chewed and half endocarps were found in fragments, indicating lower seed predation at fragment sites. These findings appear to contradict two earlier D. panamensis studies and we discuss methodological differences that could account for our disparate results. Hunting and fragmentation effects on mammal populations are suggested as a cause for the altered recruitment pattern in fragments. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-4916. Publicación no.: 271 Sistemas de apareamiento de Bombacopsis quinata en bosque, huerto semillero y cerca viva / Sandiford, M; Billingham, M.R; Boshier, David H. (EC/UNDP SGP PTF. SEARCA, Regional Programme Coordinator, College Laguna 4031, PH <E-mail: david.boshier@plants.ox.ac.uk>). En: Bombacopsis quinata: un árbol maderable para reforestar. Cordero-Salvado, J; Boshier, D.H (eds.) Oxford: Oxford Forestry Institute, 2003. p. 39-47. (Tropical Forestry Papers; no. 39). ISBN: 0-85074-1513. Estudios usando isoenzimas mostraron altos niveles de alocruzamiento en B. quinata, tanto en poblaciones modificadas con manejo por el ser humano (bosque fragmentado, cercas vivas, huertos semilleros) como er el bosque natural. A pesar de las creencias, no se encontró evidencia de autofecundación en las cercas vivas. La falta de evidencia para autogamia en todas las poblaciones corresponde a la existencia de un fuerte sistema de autoincompatibilidad en B. quinata (sección 3.4). En las cercas vivas, aunque no se observé autogamia, como resultado de su establecimiento mediante propagación vegetativa se dió una reducción y sesgo en la base genética, con una sobre representación de ciertos clones. En el huerto semillero, por el contrario, la recolección de árboles madre ampliamente

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espaciados en una zona resultó en una base genética amplia, como era de esperarse. A pesar de que B. quinata se ha mostrado casi completamente autoincompatible, el rigor de los mecanismos de autoincompatibilidad varía. Se observó que la polinización con una mezcla de polen propio y no emparentado no dio evidencia de autocruzamiento + sección 3.4), sugiriendo un alocruzamiento preferencial. Sin embargo, se desconoce si el bajo nivel observado de autocruzamiento aumentaría bajo la ausencia completa de polen no emparentado, como por ejemplo en el caso de árboles aislados, aunque sería muy difícil determinar la distancia requerida para un completo `aislamiento'. Los murciélagos polinizadores tienen un rango amplio de vuelo locual, en combinación con el sistema de autoincompatibilidad, hace que incluso los árboles en potreros muestren altos niveles de alocruzamiento. Solo en grupos de árboles emparentados y aislados se observó una reducción en la tasa de alocruza y en la basegenética de la semilla producida. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 698. Publicación no.: 272 Costa Rica: una experiencia innovadora de manejo ambiental / Brenes-Gámez, O.E. (Centro Científico Tropical, P.O. Box 8-3870, 1000 San José, CR <E-mail: oscarb@cct.or.cr>). En: Feria de Soluciones Ambientales: Experiencia de Costa Rica San José: Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD), 2003. 57 pp. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-4978.pdf Costa Rica por su ubicación geográfica en el istmo centroamericano, con montañas que cubren más de la mitad de su área terrestre, contiene un conjunto de hábitat que permite albergar una enorme biodiversidad. Se estima que un cuatro por ciento de las especies terrestres del planeta se encuentran en Costa Rica, a pesar de que solo cuenta con el 0,01% de la extensión global, lo cual constituye una herencia y un recurso natural de grandes magnitudes. Gracias a diferentes esfuerzos, como el establecimiento de áreas protegidas, cambios en la legislación forestal y de uso de la tierra y el pago de incentivos forestales y servicios ambientales, conjugado con cambios en los mercados internacionales para productos tradicionales como la carne bovina, Costa Rica ha disminuido la tasa de deforestación pro gresivamente desde mediados de la década de 1980, pasando de una cifra alarmante de 60.000 ha por año en los años 1960-70, a un promedio de 5.000 ha en los últimos cinco años. Como resultado de estos esfuerzos, la cobertura forestal aumentó del 32% del territorio nacional en 1990 a 46,3% en el 2000. La conservación de la biodiversidad no debe ser una responsabilidad únicamente del Gobierno, hay que cultivar y fortalecer el apoyo de la sociedad en todas sus dimensiones, además de los incentivos para la protección de bosques en manos privadas. Costa Rica ha desarrollado en los últimos años nuevas opciones de gestión para el manejo de áreas privadas y mixtas, tales como el co-manejo o la concesión total o de servicios no esenciales de un área. Lograr un desarrollo sostenible en armonía con la naturaleza ha sido uno de los principales desafíos de Costa Rica, y entre los retos para llevarlo a cabo están: mejorar la gestión de las áreas silvestres protegidas, atender los recursos hídricos y el aire, mediante una política integral, y lograr implementar un plan de desarrollo urbano que atienda los problemas relacionados con desechos sólidos y líquidos, vulnerabilidad de los acuíferos y riesgos de deslizamientos e inundaciones en el Área Metropolitana. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-4978. Publicación no.: 273 Influence of forest fragmentation on community structure of frogs and lizards in northeastern Costa Rica [Influencia de la fragmentación del bosque sobre la estructura comunitaria de

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ranas y lagartijas en el noreste de Costa Rica] / Bell, K.E; Donnelly, Maureen A. (Hudsonia Ltd, P.O. Box 66, Red Hook, NY 12571, US <E-mail: bell@bard.edu> <E-mail: donnelly@fiu.edu>). En: Conservation Biology (ISSN 0888-8892), v. 20, no. 6, p. 1750-1760. 2006. To better understand responses of reptiles and amphibians to forest fragmentation in the lowland Neotropics, we examined community and population structure of frogs and lizards in the fragmented landscape surrounding La Selva Biological Station in the Sarapiquí region of northeastern Costa Rica. We used diurnal quadrats and nocturnal transects to sample frogs and lizards in nine forest fragments (1-7 ha each) and La Selva (1100 ha). Species richness in all fragments combined was 85% of that found in La Selva with comparable sampling effort. Richness varied from 10 to 24 species among forest fragments, compared with 36 species at La Selva. Lizard density was higher and frog density was lower in forest fragments than in La Selva. Community composition varied among sites and by fragment size class, and species occurrence was nested with respect to fragment area. Isolation and habitat variables did not significantly affect species richness, composition, or nestedness. We classified 34% of species as fragmentation sensitive because they were absent or occurred at low densities in fragments. Nevertheless, the relatively high diversity observed in the entire set of fragments indicates that preserving a network of small forest patches may be of considerable conservation value to the amphibians and reptiles of this region. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-5296. Publicación no.: 274 Reproductive success, genetic diversity, and gene flow in fragmented populations of two understory tree species in Costa Rica [Exito reproductivo, diversidad genética y deriva genética en poblaciones fragmentadas de dos especies de árboles del sotobosque en Costa Rica] / Woodward, Catherine L. (University of Wisconsin. Department of Botany, Madison, WI 53706, US <E-mail: cwoodwar@wisc.edu>). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin, 2005. 185 pp. Dissertation, Ph.D. (Botany), University of Wisconsin, Madison,WI (USA). Habitat loss and fragmentation is causing widespread declines in biodiversity, by negatively affecting survival, reproduction and dispersal in many species. I investigated the reproductive and genetic consequences of forest fragmentation on two species of understory trees, Symphonia globulifera and Matisia ochrocalyx, in lowland rainforest of northeastern Costa Rica. I estimated fruit set, seedling density, genetic variation, and gene flow for several populations by combining field studies with analyses of genetic markers (AFLP). I examined genetic change by fingerprinting individuals in three cohorts: adults, seedlings and seeds, reflecting, in that order, successively more recent population genetic processes. Populations of trees in small forest fragments did not suffer a consistent reduction in fruit set, although individual flowers of M. ochrocalyx were less likely to set fruit in forest fragments than in intact forest. Densities of small seedlings were elevated in forest fragments, but only near parent trees, suggesting that fragments lack mammalian dispersers. In contrast, large seedlings were scarcer in fragments than in continuous forest, indicating reduced survival. Fragmentation only reduced genetic variation in seedlings, with no effect on adults and a slightly positive effect on seeds. Symphonia globulifera exhibited increasing differentiation between fragment and intact forest populations through time. Substantial pollen flow into fragmented populations, estimated directly by paternity analysis of seeds, suggests that the mobilities of hummingbirds and bats that pollinate S. globulifera and M. ochrocalyx, respectively, are not diminished by fragmentation, at least up to the maximum distance of 360 m separating study populations from other forest-like vegetation. Unexpectedly, pollen flow originating from outside of study populations of S. globulifera was positively correlated with distance to

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continuous forest. This trend was absent in M. ochrocalyx, where external pollen flow decreased as population density increased. These patterns of pollen movement are consistent with each species' population structure and pollination ecology. My results confirm that pollen flow can be maintained in fragmented landscapes, but that fragmentation has negative impacts on the seedling stage through reduced dispersal, lower survival and intense selection. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-5433. Publicación no.: 275 Diseño de una red ecológica de conservación entre la Reserva de la Biosfera La Amistad y las áreas protegidas del Área de Conservación Osa, Costa Rica [Design of an ecological network of conservation between La Amistad Biosphere Reserve and the protected areas of the Area of Conservation Osa, Costa Rica] / Céspedes-Agüero, Margarita Victoria. Turrialba: CATIE, 2006. 164 pp. Tesis, Mag. Sc. en Manejo y Conservación de Bosques Tropicales y Biodiversidad, Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Turrialba (Costa Rica). Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-5330.pdf Methodologies for the design of biological corridors and connectivity networks in fragmented landscapes have evolved with the development of technological tools like Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing, as well as understanding of the factors that influence connectivity spatially and temporally at the landscape and regional scales. In this study a proposal for an ecological conservation network was developed for the area between La Amistad Biosphere Reserve and the Osa Conservation Area (ACOSA), Costa Rica, with an approach seeking greater stability over time of structural connectivity. The investigation started with the selection of a network that connected the sites of interest, encompassing an area of 444,437 ha. In the designof the initial connectivity paths the least cost-path methodology was applied to connect core habitat prioritized through spatial multicriteria analysis. The criteria for selection of core habitat emphasised habitat quality and threats from human activity. In order to select connectivity pathways with the lowest probability of land use change, criteria were identified through the historical analysis of changes in the structure of the landscape and the transitions between land uses over a 16-year period.The temporal sequence of land-uses classified using Landsat covered the years 1987, 1997 and 2003. Transitions were estimated by Markov matrices using the 1987-1997, 1997-2003 and 1987-2003 time periods. The selected connectivity network was delimited and divided in analysis units according to watersheds, enabling the identification of alternate routes. The best route was the one that have the least probability of change from ‘forest’ to ‘pastures and crops’. The final result was an ecological conservation network that potentially connects La Amistad Biosphere Reserve and the protected areas of ACOSA, representing 14.7% of the original study area. This network connects six protected areas and was composed of 34,479 ha of forest in patches bigger than 1000 ha, and 30,986 ha of landscape made up of a mosaic of seven other land uses. A critical sector for the consolidation of the network was located on the River Coto Brus, due to its small natural cover and its high instability over time. This proposal based on biophysical criteria represents a coarse filter approach that contributes to planning on a regional scale for the altitudinal biological corridor between the Talamanca Mountains and the Osa Peninsula. The next step in the planning of the corridor must consider social, economic and management aspects that were not contemplated in this analysis. Also, more studies are needed to identify the groups of species that would be moving in the proposed corridor. Finally, it is important to note that corridor design is an iterative process that will be improved with the generation of new information. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-5330.

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Publicación no.: 276 Distribution of ground-dwelling beetles in fragmented tropical habitats [Distribución de abejones que viven en el suelo en hábitats tropicales fragmentados] / Gormley, Lorraine Helen L; Furley, P; Watt, Allan D. (University of Wales. School of the Environment and Natural Resources, Bangor, LL57 2UW, GB <E-mail: l.gormley@bangor.ac.uk> <E-mail: adw@wpo.nerc.ac.uk>). En: Journal of Insect Conservation (ISSN 1366-638X), v. 11, no. 2, p. 131-139. 2007. The conservation of biodiversity is increasingly dependent on human-altered habitats. In a fragmented forest landscape in northern Costa Rica within the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, an area of great conservation importance, we compared the diversity and composition of ground-dwelling beetle communities in five habitat types along a gradient of increasing disturbance: primary forest, logged forest, secondary forest, plantation (Gmelina arborea) and pasture. Using pitfall trapping we captured a total of 1,877 beetles (Coleoptera), comprising 422 morphospecies in 26 families. The plantation sites had the lowest number of species followed by secondary forest and pasture. Multivariate analysis separated the beetle fauna according to land use, and suggested that only the logged forest maintains a similar species assemblage to primary forest. However, each habitat harboured a number of unique species indicating the conservation value of the mosaic of habitats found in fragmented landscapes. Our results suggest that to maintain forest beetle species diversity it is essential that areas of natural forest are conserved. However, other land uses also provide beetle habitats and in fragmented areas active management to maintain a mosaic of land uses will contribute to the conservation of beetle diversity. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-5611. Publicación no.: 277 Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva: trayectoria local, nacional, binacional, regional e internacional / Monge-Arias, Guisselle; Chassot, Olivier. (Centro Científico Tropical. Proyecto de Investigación y Conservación de la Lapa Verde (Ara ambiguus), Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva, Apdo. 8-3870, 1000 San José, CR <E-mail: lapa@cct.or.cr>). San José: Centro Científico Tropical, 2004. 7 p. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-5679.pdf El Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano es una iniciativa regional que busca mantener la conectividad ecológica entre América del Norte y América del Sur, con el fin de preservar rutas de migración y la transmisión del flujo genético a través del istmo centroamericano. La Zona Norte de Costa Rica contiene el último hábitat de conexión viable de tierra con poco desarrollo que permitiría mantener la continuidad del Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano entre Nicaragua y Costa Rica. Sin embargo, los procesos defragmentación de los ecosistemas dentro de esta zona, amenazan seriamente esa conectividad ecológica, así como también la viabilidad de una biodiversidad regional única: un bosque biológicamente rico, dominado por el almendro de montaña (Dipteryx panamensis) el cual no se encuentra actualmente representado en ninguna Área Silvestre Protegida de Costa Rica. El Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva conecta la Reserva Biológica Indio-Maíz en Nicaragua, con el Área de Conservación Cordillera Volcánica Central, incluyendo la Estación Biológica La Selva, en Costa Rica. Mantener la conectividad biológica entre estos fragmentos y la Reserva Indio-Maíz, es esencial para la viabilidad a largo plazo de las especies residentes y migratorias como las aves y las mariposas que migran temporalmente entre elevaciones bajas y altas. Así, mantener la unión de este hábitat es particularmente importante, no solamente porque es un punto crítico para el Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano, sino también porque este es el único sitio en Centroamérica en donde una gran área protegida de bosques de tierras bajas del Atlántico (Reserva Indio-Maíz, Nicaragua) tiene el potencial de

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mantener su conexión ecológica con hábitats de medianas y altas elevaciones (Parque Nacional Braulio Carrillo, Costa Rica). Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-5679. Publicación no.: 278 Integrated research on the causes and effects of forest loss and fragmentation in the San Juan - La Selva Mesoamerican Biological Corridor [Investigación integrada sobre las causas y efectos de la pérdida de bosque y fragmentación en el Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano San Juan - La Selva] / Morse, Wayde; Roberts, Dina L; Schedlbauer, Jessica L; Sesnie, Steven E; Finegan, Bryan; Garton, Edward O; Gessler, Paul E; Harvey, Celia A; Hollenhorst, Steven J; Kavanagh, Kathleen L; Stoian, Dietmar. (Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Dr, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22202, US <E-mail: c.harvey@conservation.org> <E-mail: sirpa.thessler@mtt.fi> <E-mail: paulg@uidaho.edu>). Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Production in Tropical and Temperate Fragmented Landscapes. Proceedings of the Second Annual Meeting of the University of Idaho and the Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center (CATIE) IGERT, Moscow, ID USMay 2004. , 2004. p. 14-16. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-5199.pdf Costa Rica has developed one of the most comprehensive protected areas systems in Central America, yet deforestation rates in Costa Rica ranked among the highest in the world between 1950 and 1990. Land colonization and incentives to clear forest forcattle grazing were the primary drivers of deforestation and have led to increasingly fragmented landscapes. However, the complex of agricultural areas and forest remnants that comprise the majority of modern Costa Rican landscapes do provide vital environmental services and habitat for a variety of organisms. Costa Rica has begun to combat forest loss and fragmentation on private land by developing policies, organizational infrastructure, and conservation incentive programs over the past 20 years. The most recent of these are the 1996 Forestry Law that prohibits the conversion of forest to other land uses and the 1998 Biodiversity Law, designed to protect biological resources. An innovative market-based strategy has been developed to pay farmers for retaining natural forest remnants and to help finance reforestation. Programs and financial mechanisms such as Payments for Environmental Services (PSA) target key watersheds and biological corridors to connect national parks and other protected areas. The objectives of these programs are to assure watershed protection, carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, and aesthetic values by planting and retaining forests. The Sarapiquí study region in Costa Rica represents an ideal case study to examinethe causes and effects of forest fragmentation in the unique context of PSA. This area is home to several conservation and sustainable development projects which help to administer PSA contracts and the region is also a target area for conservation within the Atlantic Mesoamerican Biological Corridor (MBC). Costa Rica?s exemplary programs to conserve forest among private landowners are widely heralded as a conservation success story. However, few studies have investigated contemporary social and environmental changes on private land in light of these programs. Our research seeks to integrate the social and biological sciences to answer questions about dynamic landscape conditions in relation to human use, programs promoting forest cover, and ecological functions. Land change detection will be linked with manager and landowner surveys to identify important mechanisms for private forest conservation. Forest successional changes and carbon cycling will be studied as a means of assessing the role of secondary forest in recovering ecosystem processes. Avian populations will also be studied to examine the influence of elevational, successional, and fragmentation gradients on population density. Each research component addresses a particular aspect of PSA program objectives. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-5199.

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Publicación no.: 279 Conservation genetics and reproductive ecology of a keystone rainforest tree (Dipteryx panamensis) in forested and fragmented landscapes [Genética de conservación y ecología reproductiva de un árbol clave del bosque lluvioso (Dipteryx panamensis) en paisajes boscosos y fragmentados] / Hanson, Thor R; Brunsfeld, Steven J; Finegan, Bryan. (University of Idaho. Department of Forest Resources, P.O.Box 441133, Moscow, ID 83844-1133, US <E-mail: thor@rockisland.com> <Email: bfinegan@catie.ac.cr>). Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Production in Tropical and Temperate Fragmented Landscapes. Proceedings of the Second Annual Meeting of the University of Idaho and the Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center (CATIE) IGERT, Moscow, ID, US, May 2004, p. 32-35. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-5199.pdf Habitat loss is widely recognized as the greatest threat to global biodiversity (Meyers et al 2000; Novacek and Cleland 2001). In tropical forests, home to more than half of the world’s species (Wilson 1988), recent estimates put the rate of forest clearing as high as 14.7 million hectares per year (as cited in Laurance 1999). While commercial agriculture and other large-scale projects can lead to complete habitat conversion over wide areas, forest clearing often occurs more sporadically, leaving behind a mosaic of pastures, small farms and forest patches (Meyers 1984). Maintaining biodiversity within these fragmented landscapes presents a major challenge for policy makers, natural resource managers and landowners. Studies of species-level fragmentation effects have often focused on taxa with well-defined and easily monitored populations, including birds and mammals. Recent innovations in molecular genetic techniques have led to new insights in the study of pollen and seed dispersal, allowing a deeper understanding of reproductive ecology in plant populations (e.g. Wang and Smith 2002). These techniques can be applied to help define effective population size, genetic diversity and patterns of gene flow for plant populations in forested and fragmented habitats (e.g. Aspit et al. 2001). Keystone plant resources have been defined as those species exerting a strong influence on other groups of organisms at various trophic levels, particularly through copious fruit production (Nason et al 1998). Their extirpation causes changes in habitat structure and community composition, with the potential for a cascade of local extinctions (Nason et al 1998, Lennartson 2002). Keystone plants in tropical forests are often large, fruiting trees vulnerable to increased windthrow and other effects associated with habitat fragmentation (Nason et al 1998, Peres 2000). Many also have commercial or cultural value, exposing them to logging pressure and other human disturbances. Preserving viable populations of keystoneplants is a fundamental aspect of biodiversity conservation in fragmented landscapes. Decision makers cannot include keystone species in long-term conservation planning without an understanding of fundamental population parameters including reproductive ecology, gene flow and responses to habitat fragmentation. Dipteryx panamensis is a large canopy emergent tree occurring in lowland wet tropical forests of the Caribbean slope, from Colombia to Costa Rica (Flores 1992) or perhaps as far north as Mexico; once a characteristic and widespread species at low elevations, D. panamensis has suffered from habitat loss through conversion to commercial banana and pineapple production, selective logging, and clearing for pasture and small-scale farming. It is currently listed as an Appendix III species by CITES, creating permitting regulations for international trade (UNEP-WCMC 2004). In Costa Rica, where the bulk of this study will take place, remaining populations are concentrated in the northeastern corner of the country from the Rio San Juan south to Braulio Carrillo National Park. Though little forest remains undisturbed in this region, many D. panamensis individuals were left standing in fragments or pastures due to the extremely dense nature of its wood. Improved saws and milling

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technology were introduced in the 1990s and remnant trees began rapidly disappearing from the landscape. Recognizing the biological importance of the species, the Costa Rican government placed a temporary moratorium on harvest in 2003, pending an environmental review. A member of the pea family (Fabaceae; Papillionoideae), D. panamensis bears compact, single-seeded pods during the dry season when few other trees are in fruit. Sixteen species of mammals (Bonaccorso et al. 1980) and approximately 100 species of birds (Flores 1992) have been observed feeding regularly on its fruits and seeds. Confirmed pollinators include nineteen different bees (Perry and Starrett 1980, Thiele 2002), while the seeds are dispersed by large bats, primates and the scatterhoarding habits of several small mammals (Forget 1993, Flores 1992). Among the associated fauna, the endangered great green macaw (Ara ambigua) has been the subject of considerable conservation attention (Arias and Chassot 2003, Friends of the Great Green Macaw 2002). Once ranging from Ecuador to Honduras, the great green macaw has suffered from widespread habitat destruction and capture for the pet trade, and is now considered globally vulnerable to extinction (IUCN 2003). In Costa Rica, fewer than thirty breeding pairs remain (GGMRCP 2003) and the species is recognized as endangered. The macaw relies on D. panamensis fruits for up to 80% of its diet during the dry season and nests almost exclusively in cavities within mature D. panamensis (GGMRCP 2003). Similar relationships exist in the Amazon between the congeneric D. odorata and the scarlet macaw (Ara macao) and red and green macaw (Ara chloroptera) (Brightsmith 2004). Conservation efforts in Costa Rica have focused on an area in the northeast known as the San Juan-La Selva Biological Corridor. The proposed Maquenque National Park would protect core habitat along the border with Nicaragua, while environmental service payments, reforestation and other conservation activities would help maintain habitat connectivity south to the La Selva Biological Reserve and Braulio Carrillo National Park. Maintaining viable populations of D. panamensis is recognized as a fundamental and critical aspect of this effort. As a prominent member of the Mesoamerican flora, D. panamensis has been a focal species for studies ranging from seedling survival (De Steven and Putz 1984, Clark and Clark 1987, De Steven 1988) to long-term demographic trends (Clark and Clark 1999, 2001). Significant questions remain, however, about effective population size, genetic diversity, gene flow via pollen and seed dispersal, and the effects of habitat fragmentation. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-5199. Publicación no.: 280 Influences of landscape fragmentation on stream fish assemblages in the Talamanca region, Costa Rica [Influencia de la fragmentación del paisaje en el congregamiento de peces de riachuelo en la región de Talamanca, Costa Rica] / Lorion, Christopher M; Braatne, J. Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Production in Tropical and Temperate Fragmented Landscapes. Proceedings of the Second Annual Meeting of the University of Idaho and the Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center (CATIE) IGERT, Moscow, ID, US, May 2004, p. 39-40. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-5199.pdf Aquatic ecosystems are closely linked to their surrounding watersheds through fluxes of water, nutrients, and sediment (Likens et al. 1970, Hynes 1975, Vannote et al. 1980). As a result, deforestation, agricultural intensification, and other changes in land use can have a profound effect on stream habitats and aquatic biodiversity (Allan and Flecker 1993). Recent studies have suggested that deforestation can negatively affect aquatic biodiversity in tropical streams both through alteration of physical stream habitats (Iwata et al. 2003), and through changes in the basal food resources that support stream food webs (Benstead et al. 2003). However, very little research attention has been directed toward these issues in Costa Rica, despite extensive deforestation in many parts of the country (Sader and Joyce

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1988). The objective of this study is to evaluate how the conversion of forests to agriculture has affected stream fish assemblages in the Talamanca region of southeastern Costa Rica. In additionwe will examine factors, including physical stream habitats and food resources available to fish that may explain differences in fish abundance and species composition between forested and agricultural stream reaches. This work will focus on lowland streams in a fragmented landscape near the Caribbean coast, but will also include streams and small rivers in the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenous Reserve. Fish have been chosen as the focal group for a variety of reasons, including their importance in structuringaquatic communities in lowland Costa Rican streams (Pringle and Hamazaki 1998) and their significance as a food source for humans. Comparisons between forested and agricultural stream reaches will be based on fish surveys using backpack electroshocking equipment. Approximately eight stream reaches of each type will be sampled. Physical stream habitat variables, including stream width and depth, substrate characteristics, and canopy cover will be measured in all of these stream reaches. Quantitative sampling of terrestrial and aquatic insects, coarse particulate organic matter, and epilithic algae will also be conducted. These procedures will be repeated three times for each site, permitting inter-annual and inter-seasonal comparisons. Comparisons of potential food resources between forested and agricultural stream reaches will also be complemented with a stable isotope study that investigates the importance of terrestrial and aquatic carbon sources in fish diets. Research in the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenous Reserve will focus on stream reaches downstream from pesticide application points, as well as forested watersheds on the periphery of the Talamanca Valley. Fish surveys in these locations will be conducted with using several different gear types, including seines and backpack electroshocking equipment. These surveys will provide information on fish species composition and abundance in heavily impacted streams, as well as in forested drainages that have not been directly affected by agriculture. The research efforts described here will contribute to a growing body of knowledge concerning the effects of tropical deforestation on stream ecosystems, and could have important implications for biodiversity conservation and fisheries management in Costa Rica. This information will also contribute to interdisciplinary research on pesticide fate and transport in the Sixaola River basin, as well as conservation planning for the region based on both terrestrial and aquatic criteria. The results of this work will be provided to local and regional stakeholders so that impacts of landscape fragmentation and pesticide use on aquatic ecosystems can be addressed in regional conservation and development planning. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-5199. Publicación no.: 281 Understanding the effects of forest loss and fragmentation on birds: an integrated approach [Comprendiendo los efectos en las aves de la pérdida del bosque y la fragmentación: un enfoque integrado] / Roberts, Dina L; Garton, Edward O; Harvey, Celia A. (Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Dr, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22202, US <E-mail: c.harvey@conservation.org>). Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Production in Tropical and Temperate Fragmented Landscapes. Proceedings of the Second Annual Meeting of the University of Idaho and the Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center (CATIE) IGERT, Moscow, ID, US, May 2004, p. 56-57. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-5199.pdf Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of fragmentation on overwinter survival and movement patterns and to compare home range estimates of Wood Thrush in continuous forest within La Selva Biological Reserve, with those in isolated forest remnants. Methods: During the

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first season (December 2003 to April 2004), we collected information on 20 individual Wood Thrush movements, survival, and territoriality at La Selva Biological Station and within 5 forest fragments, using radio telemetry techniques. Individual Wood Thrush were located by walking trails within La Selva and in forest fragments while using recorded call notes. Upon locating a bird, targeted mist-netting was used to capture each bird. A USFWS aluminum band (size 1A) was attached and morphological data was collected. Also, a blood sample was collected from each bird for PCR analysis to sex birds. A backpack harness was attached to each bird using the thigh loop method (Rappole and Tipton 1991), weighing 1.8 g each (Holohil, Inc.). Radiotelemetry techniques have been established for H. mustelina and there is no evidence that attaching a small transmitter affects survival or behavior of this species (Lang et al. 2002). Individual birds with transmitters were located on foot with a waterproof receiver (Habit Research, Inc) and a Yagi 3-element antenna. Triangulation method was used to obtain at least one position/day or every other day throughout the winter season. Home range size was determined using the fixed kernel method with an 80% probability. Program MARK will be used to estimate survival probabilities. Results: The average home range for La Selva birds was 1.09 ha, with a range of 0.32-2.6 ha. Birds captured in fragments also established territories andmaintained an average home range of 1.23 ha, ranging from 0.35-2.8 ha. Our results also indicated that certain individual Wood Thrush territories in fragments comprised largely edge habitat or often overlapped extensively with other individuals. First year results suggest that Wood Thrush are adapting to forest fragmentation and forest edges containing important fruit resources. Several observations of individual birds in fragments, in conjunction with telemetry data, confirmed that fragment birds readily used fragment edges for mid-winter foraging, resting, and premigratory fattening. Future research: As the last Wood Thrush with a transmitter left Costa Rica the last week of April, we just completed the field work for phase one. We will need more time to complete the survival analysis using MARK. Specific survival estimates will be determined; data will be analyzed and will be presented this summer at the American Ornithologists’ Union in 57 Quebec, Canada. Also, analysis to sex individuals using PCR techniques in conjunction with Mike Webster’s lab at WSU will be completed during summer 2004. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-5199. Publicación no.: 282 The effects of forest fragmentation on forest structure, water-use efficiency, and soil respired CO2 in the Atlantic lowlands of Costa Rica [Los efectos de la fragmentación del bosque en la estructura del mismo, eficiencia en el uso del agua y CO2 respirado en las tierras bajas del Atlántico de Costa Rica] / Schedlbauer, Jessica L; Kavanagh, Kathleen L; Finegan, Bryan. (Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza. Programa Manejo Integrado de Recursos Naturales, Turrialba, CR <E-mail: bfinegan@catie.ac.cr>). Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Production in Tropical and Temperate Fragmented Landscapes. Proceedings of the Second Annual Meeting of the University of Idaho and the Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center (CATIE) IGERT, Moscow, ID, US, May 2004, p. 60-61. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-5199.pdf Introduction: Anthropogenic disturbance in the form of land conversion from forest to agricultural use has resulted in extensive forest fragmentation in the tropics. One consequence of fragmentation is that conditions within forest fragments contraststrongly with the environment of the surrounding matrix, thus leading to the development of edge effects. This research will evaluate edge-induced changes in forest structural patterns and assess changes in physiological processes to clarify and model the response of tropical forests to fragmentation. The primary hypothesis for this research is that forests in

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the Sarapiquí region of Costa Rica are not structurally altered by fragmentation, but that the net carbon gain of trees (as assessed through measurements of water-use efficiency) is reduced with increased proximity to the forest edge. An additional consequence of forest fragmentation is the eventual recovery of forest in areas that have been released from intensive human use. It is necessary to evaluate the trajectory of secondary forest development to understand the capacity of a region for forest recovery. Therefore, this research will also address the recovery of soil carbon cycling in secondary forests. As C3-dominated secondary forest develops on land previously dominated by C4 pasture grasses, it is expected that a shift in the isotopic signature of soil organic matter and soil respired CO 2 will be detected. The speed of this shift across secondary forests of increasing age can be used to evaluate the rate of and overall potential for forest recovery on the landscape. The Sarapiquí region of Costa Rica provides an excellent opportunity to study the effects of forest fragmentation because of the region’s history of deforestation and its social and political context. Particularly, the development of a program that provides for environmental service payments has created the potential to increase forest and biodiversity protection while at the same time meeting the needs of local landowners.This region is also an integral part of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, which increases the priority of forest conservation in the area. Research focused on changes in forest pattern and process in response to fragmentation can increase our knowledge of the conservation value of different forest types. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-5199. Publicación no.: 283 Habitat-based conservation planning in Costa Rica: predicting the effects of fragmentation on the long-term persistence of area-sensitive species [Planificación de la conservación con base al hábitat en Costa Rica: prediciendo los efectos de la fragmentación en la persistencia a largo plazo de especies sensibles al área] / Schipper, Gerrit Jan III; Scott, J.M; Carrillo-Jiménez, Eduardo. (<Email: j.schipper@conservation.org> <E-mail: ecarrill@racsa.co.cr> ). Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Production in Tropical and Temperate Fragmented Landscapes. Proceedings of the Second Annual Meeting of the University of Idaho and the Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center (CATIE) IGERT, Moscow, ID USMay 2004. , 2004. p. 62-64. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-5199.pdf Within the disciplinary framework of the NSF-IGERT program at the University of Idaho, we will examine the effectiveness of the current reserve system and biological corridor in the Talamancas Region of Costa Rica, in protecting long-term viable populations of area sensitive and threatened mammals. One primary goal will be to examine the relative porosity of land-use types for the dispersal of metapopulations between protected areas and remaining habitat, thus identifying potential source and sink populations. We will determine which land-use types outside of reserves are suitable for the dispersal of species with either large area requirements or narrow habitat constraints. By designing and validating a suitability index of remaining habitat for individual species across a landscape, we will attempt to improve both the science and the policy of habitat-based conservation planning in Costa Rica. At the broadest scale, accurate vertebrate distribution models in the Neotropics and elsewhere are useful in determining potential species occurrences (Ron 2000, Boitani et al. 1999). This information is important for evaluating if a reserve system captures the assumed richness and diversity of particular taxa. The identification of gaps in protection andin habitat representation have been developed over multiple scales and resolutions (Rodríguez 2004, Scott et al. 1993, Soulé and Terborgh 1999). Methods for spatial planning of habitat conservation have also been well developed in recent years; yet putting the science into practice remains a challenge (Groves et al. 2002, Abbitt et al. 2000, Scott et al. 2000,

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Noss et al. 1997, Noss and Cooperrider 1994). While quantifying species diversity and richness at a broad scale can be effective for national or bioregional reserve design, monitoring and evaluation of individuals and metapopulations must be considered at the landscape scale. In other words, there is a spatial hierarchy at which measures of success can be quantified. Modeling species occurrence and the distribution of remaining habitat are the first steps in understanding spatial constraints of a given country or landscape. The next step is to test and validate these models in the field. Because sampling all species is impossible in the scope ofthis project, selected species will be used to test some of the basic assumptions. In choosing an indicator species or group of species, it is important to examine the ecological role of the species and specific spatial and habitat constraints. In the scope of this study, mammals represent an indicative group at the scale of reserve effectiveness. Mammals with broad habitat and large-area requirements such as jaguar (Panthera onca) and tapir (Tapirus bairdii) will likely not persist over the long term if populations are confined to existing reserves, unless land-use types outside reserves are permeable or connected through habitat corridors. On the other hand, mammals with narrow habitat constraints (such as arboreal specialists) or narrow distributions (regional endemics) are more likely to be confined to forest fragments and populations are at the mercy of the land-use history within their range of occurrence. Current protected area systems in Costa Rica are largely discontinuous and areas between reserves have been almost entirely converted to agriculture and urban development. There are currently over 30 conservation corridor projects proposed in Costa Rica (Boza, M, pers. comm.), yet no formal vision detailing how to prioritize implementation and management exists. If viable populations of species are to be maintained, then better understanding of both the porosity and barriers to dispersal of these species within the predominantly human dominated landscape is necessary. This project seeks to work with the local government organizations and international NGO's from the inception, both to streamline with current projects which are being developed as well influence the policy making and legislation surrounding the design and management of conservation areas. In summary, we seek to develop and refine habitat suitability models for a suite of mammals, validate the models with field techniques (camera trapping and line transects) to confirm presence, and integrate these results to develop decisionsupport tools for local communities and organizations. This information will be integrated with data from other Talamanca Team members into a spatial decision-support system, such as MARXAN, to aid local planners and stakeholders in improving conservation measures both inside and outside of protected areas. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-5199. Publicación no.: 284 A geospatial data integration framework for mapping and monitoring tropical landscape diversity in Costa Rica's San Juan - La Selva Mesoamerican Biological Corridor (SJLS-MBC) [Sistema de integración de datos geoespaciales para el mapeo y monitoreo de la diversidad de paisaje tropical en el Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano San Juan - La Selva (SJLS-MBC) de Costa Rica] / Sesnie, Steven E; Gessler, Paul E; Finegan, Bryan. (Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza. Programa Manejo Integrado de Recursos Naturales, Turrialba, CR <E-mail: bfinegan@catie.ac.cr> <Email: paulg@uidaho.edu> <E-mail: sirpa.thessler@mtt.fi>). Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Production in Tropical and Temperate Fragmented Landscapes. Proceedings of the Second Annual Meeting of the University of Idaho and the Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center (CATIE) IGERT, Moscow, ID, US, May 2004, p. 65-67. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-5199.pdf

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Identifying the spatial and temporal distribution of tropical forest habitats and agroecosystems is essential for investigating fragmentation effects on biodiversity. Conservation policies, landscape planning, and ecosystem management also rely on verified land cover information for decision making. However, diverse tropical habitats are frequently lumped into "Forest" and "Non-Forest" categories, life zones or other broadly defined classes. Such classifications have led to confusion over the conservation status of remaining tropical forests and other habitats (Kleinn et al. 2002). Ecologists have avoided floristically based land cover classifications given the mega diversity of humid tropical forests and highly dispersed tree species over complex ecological and successional gradients (Condit 1996). Yet, tropical forest composition is frequently sampled at relatively small spatial scales over fewer than 100 ha that can limit detecting vegetation patterns better recognized over many thousands of hectares (Tuomisto 1998, Potts et al. 2002). Our investigation uses a gradient analysis approach to characterize region scale tropical forest types and verify a data integration framework for mapping and monitoring tropical landscape diversity. A 2,500 km² portion of Costa Rica's Atlantic Mesoamerican Biological Corridor was selected to test a prototype framework where long-term research and published studies provide background information. Extensive vegetation surveys will be linked to biophysical features contained within a geographic information system and spectral regions contained within images acquired by satellite and airborne sensors for comprehensive land cover mapping. We hypothesize that regional scale floristic patterns can be detected throughreplicated vegetation sampling along a-priori selected ecological gradients. A preliminary cluster analysis and Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling ordination of data from 138 quarter ha vegetation plots (trees, palms and arboreal ferns) reveal that 7 to 9 forest types can be identified within our study area. Multi-Response Permutation Procedure and Indicator Species Analysis (McCune and Grace 2002) will be used to test for non-random differences in vegetation composition among forest types and characterize them according to indicator species. Classification and regression tree and cross validation techniques (Breiman 2001) will be used to develop the classification framework based on key environmental variables. The framework will be verified using ground reference data collected in the field for accuracy assessment of classified multispectral images (Congalton and Green 1999). This research is expected to result in an enhanced, repeatable, and verified classification protocol for observing ecosystem changes in response to long term conservation policy and program changes. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-5199. Publicación no.: 285 Evaluación del hábitat para la danta centroamericana (Tapirus bairdii) en la Zona Norte de Costa Rica [Evaluation of the habitat of the Central American tapir (Tapirus bairdii) in the northern zone of Costa Rica] / Chassot, Olivier; Monge-Arias, Guisselle; Jiménez, Vladimir. (Centro Científico Tropical. Proyecto de Investigación y Conservación de la Lapa Verde (Ara ambiguus), Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva, Apdo. 8-3870, 1000 San José, CR <E-mail: lapa@cct.or.cr>). En: Tapir Conservation (ISSN 1813-2286), v. 15, no. 2, p. 17-23. 2006. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-5964.pdf Baird's Tapir (Tapirus bairdii) survives in the San Juan-La Selva Biological Corridor, a mosaic of fragmented forest habitats that maintain the ecological connectivity between the lowland rain forest ecosystem of Southeastern Nicaragua and Northern Costa Rica with Costa Rican montane forests. This corridor totals more than one million hectares of protected areas in different degrees of conservation. Evidence of tapir presence in the corridor has been observed during the last eight years, but the status of this species in the area remains largely unknown, leading us to conduct a habitat viability assessment

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based on our knowledge of the area and on information about Baird's Tapir in similar ecosystems. We used GIS data, measuring seven ecological parameters that allowed us to characterize the availability of habitat for Baird's Tapir in the San Juan-La Selva Biological Corridor. We estimated the number of tapirs to range from 69 to 208 individuals. Our methods exemplify an inexpensive means to assess Tapir's habitat viability where there is substantial and reliable georeferenced data about the ecosystems present in the study area. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-5964. Publicación no.: 286 Primates in agroecosystems: conservation value of some agricultural practices in Mesoamerican landscapes [Primates en agroecosistemas: valor en conservación de algunas prácticas agrícolas en paisajes mesoamericanos] / Estrada, Alejandro; Sáenz-Méndez, Joel Cris; Harvey, Celia A; Naranjo, E; Muñoz-Guerrero, Diego A; Rosales-Meda, Marta Marleny. (Instituto de Biología (UNAM). Estación de Biología Los Tuxtlas, Laboratorio de Primatología, Apartado Postal 94, San Andrés Tuxtla, Veracruz, MX <E-mail: aestrada@primatesmx.com> <E-mail: jsaenz@una.ac.cr> <E-mail: c.harvey@conservation.org>). En: New Perspectives in the Study of Mesoamerican Primates: Distribution, Ecology, Behavior, and Conservation. Estrada, Alejandro; Garber, Paul A; Pavelka, Mary S. M; Luecke, LeAndra (eds.) New York: Springer, 2006. p. 437-470. ISBN: 038725854X. While there is a general perception that agricultural activities are the principal threat to primate biodiversity in the tropics, empirical evidence was presented in this paper to investigate the value of certain types of agroecosystems for sustaining primate populations in fragmented landscapes in Mesoamerica. Presence of primates was investigated in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico, in Lachuá, Guatemala, and in three landscapes in Costa Rica. We also compared the similarity in population parameters (density, group size, and immature to adult female ratios) of five primate species (A. palliata, A. pigra, A. geoffroyi, S. oerstedii, and C. capucinus) living in agroecosystems with those of the same species living in extensive and/or in fragmented forests. Primates were found in 15 agroecosystems. Some species were found residing in shaded agroecosystems (e.g., cacao, coffee), but not in unshaded plantations (e.g., citrus, allspice), which were used as foraging or stop-over habitats. For howler and spider monkeys in Mexico, mean values of primate demographic parameters in agroecosystems more closely resembled those in extensive than in fragmented forests. Those for squirrel and capuchin monkeys fell within the range of populations in forest fragments. Farmers reported crop damage by primates in banana, mango, citrus, and allspice plantations, but responses toward the monkeys' activities ranged from tolerance to expulsion. No damage was reported by howler and spider monkeys to the shaded cacao, coffee, and cardamom plants or in forestry plantations. Some primate species can persist in cacao plantation by exploiting the leaves and fruits of tree species providing shade for the cultivated plants, while others can do so by visiting various agroecosystems on a regular basis. Our study suggests that certain types of agroecosystems, specifically those grown under the shade of forest or of planted trees, favors the persistence of primate populations in fragmented landscapes. At these habitats, the presence and feeding activities of primates may benefit the plantations by accelerating primary productivity, by dispersing the seeds of their fruit sources, and by adding important amounts of nutrients, via their defecation, to the soil of the plantation. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-5986.

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Publicación no.: 287 Taxonomy and distributions of Mesoamerican primates [Taxonomía y distribuciones de primates mesoamericanos] / Rylands, A.B; Groves, C.P; Mittermeier, R.A; Cortés-Ortiz, L; Hines, J.J.H. (Conservation International. Center of Applied Biodiversity Sciences, 1919 M St NW, Ste 600, Washington DC 20036, US <E-mail: cortes1@naos.si.edu). En: New Perspectives in the Study of Mesoamerican Primates: Distribution, Ecology, Behavior, and Conservation. Estrada, Alejandro; Garber, Paul A; Pavelka, Mary S. M; Luecke, LeAndra (eds.) New York: Springer, 2006. p. 29-79. ISBN: 038725854X. In this chapter, we review the taxonomy and distributions of the 21 primate taxa occurring in Central America and southern Mexico, from about 24°N in Tamaulipas, Mexico, extending south along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, through Central America to the border of Colombia and Panama. In our appraisal, we follow the PSC, as outlined by Groves (2001). Panama (with eight species) has the richest primate community; Costa Rica has four species (five if night monkeys, Aotus are included). Capuchin monkeys, C. capucinus, extend north as far as Nicaragua and Honduras, and only spider monkeys (A. geoffroyi) and howling monkeys (A. palliata and A. pigra) occur in Belize, Guatemala, and Mexico. Only spider monkeys have been recorded from El Salvador. Geoffroy's tamarin, S. geoffroyi, and the night monkey, Aotus, both regionally restricted to Panama, are considered distinct and monotypic. There are two broadly accepted subspecies of squirrel monkey, S. oerstedii, occurring in a small area of the Pacific lowlands of Panama and Costa Rica. The white-throated capuchin, C. capucinus, extending from Panama to northern Honduras, may comprise three subspecies, although their validity is doubtful. There are two distinct howling monkey species, the mantled howler (A. palliata) and the black howler (A. pigra). The howling monkeys of Coiba Island and the Azuero Peninsula have some distinct morphological features that argue for their classification as a third species, A. coibensis, but a recent molecular genetics' study failed to distinguish them from A. palliata. We list three subspecies of A. palliata but they are of doubtful validity. The spider monkeys, A. geoffroyi, are highly variable. Seven subspecies are listed, and there is the possibility of an eighth undescribed subspecies in northern Honduras. The variability is still poorly understood, however, and the possibility remains that a number of taxa are not valid. The Colombian black spider monkey, A. fusciceps rufiventris, extends a short way into Panama. A notable finding while researching this review was the lack of modern published revisions of the taxonomy and distributions of the region's primates; the major references are still those of Kellogg and Goldman (1944), Hershkovitz (1949), and Hall (1981, based on Hall and Kelson, 1959). The spider monkeys, howler monkeys, and capuchin monkeys are in urgent need of major taxonomic revision, while it is probable that the establishment of the precise historic distributions of all of the Mesoamerican primates is now an impossible task due to introductions, hunting, and forest loss and fragmentation. The widespread loss of population diversity makes taxonomic and biogeographic research on the Mesoamerican primates an increasingly difficult task. All are now restricted to few, diminishing, and isolated forest fragments, and there is an urgent need for regionwide and detailed surveys to identify and map them, to determine the status of the populations remaining. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-5984. Publicación no.: 288 La cuenca del río Savegre como modelo de gestión integral [The Savegre river basin as a model of integral management] / Romero-Ramírez, Sergio. En: Quercus (Revista de Observación, Estudio y Defensa de la Naturaleza) (ISSN 0212-0054), v. 235, p. 52-58. 2005. (No abstract). Localización: No disponible.

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Publicación no.: 289 Mono tití en peligro de extinción / Wong-Reyes, Grace. (Universidad Nacional. Programa Regional de Maestría en Manejo de Vida Silvestre, Apdo. 1350, Heredia, CR). En: Ambientico (ISSN 1409-214X), no. 107, 3 p. 2002. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-6065.pdf (No abstract). Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-6065. Publicación no.: 290 Edge effects on lizards (Norops) and frogs (Eleutherodactylus) in neotropical forest fragments [Efectos de borde en las lagartijas (Norops) y en las ranas (Eleutherodactylus) en fragmentos de un bosque neotropical] / Schlaepfer, M.A. (Cornell University. Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Mudd Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-2702, US <E-mail: mas50@cornell.edu>). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, 1998. 41 p. Thesis, M.Sc., Cornell University, Faculty of the Graduate School, Ithaca, NY (US). We describe the abundance and distribution of two species of anoline lizards (genus Norops) and five species of leaf litter frogs (genus Eleutherodactylus) along the edges and in the interiors of nine forest fragments near Las Cruces, Costa Rica; using a paired-plot design that controlled for the effects of weather, topography, and searcher-. ability, we found that edge effects varied seasonally and, possibly, daily. Norops lizards were more abundant along forest edges during the dry season, but became more abundant in the forest interiors during the wet season. This seasonal use of edges by Norops challenges the notion that all species are either generalists, or associated only with edge or interior habitat. We also found that in Norops polylepis, the most abundant anole, rates of ectoparasitism were lower along edges than in forest interiors. We speculate that the lizards moved towards forest edges during the dry season for increased foraging opportunities and decreased rates of parasitism, and then returned to the forest interior during the rainy season to establish territories and reproduce. The distribution of leaf litter frogs with respect to edges did not change across seasons. Nocturnal leaf litter frogs were equally abundant near forest edges and in forest interiors. The single diurnal eleutherodactylid species, however, was consistently more abundant in the forest interior, which supports the idea that abiotic edge effects are more pronounced during the day, thereby excluding small diurnal amphibians from edge habitat. Edge effects should not be defined by the distance to which they are detected. Rather, edge effects should be viewed as dynamic, varying in both space and time, with taxa responding to different components of edge effects according to their biological requriements. Localización: Biblioteca OET: Tesis 280. Publicación no.: 291 Effects of habitat fragmentation on the reproductive ecology and conservation genetics of the almendro (Dipteryx panamensis), a keystone rainforest tree [Efectos de la fragmentación del hábitat en la ecología reproductiva y conservación genética del almendro (Dipteryx panamensis), un árbol clave del bosque lluvioso] / Hanson, Thor R. (University of Idaho. Department of Forest Resources, P.O.Box 441133, Moscow, ID 83844-1133, US <E-mail: thor@rockisland.com>). Moscow, Idaho: CATIE / University of Idaho, 2006. 113 p. Dissertation, Ph.D. with a Major in Natural Resources, College of Graduate Studies CATIE / University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho (USA). Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-6354.pdf Deforestation in the tropics creates a mosaic of forest patches embedded in a human-dominated matrix. Maintaining biodiversity in these fragmented landscapes relies on their ability to sustain ecological

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processes. This study examined the effects of habitat fragmentation on the reproductive ecology and genetic diversity of Dypterix panamensis, a canopy emergent tree considered a keystone species in the Atlantic lowland forests of Central America. Populations of D. panamensis were mapped, sampled andgenotyped for nine microsatellite loci in a protected forest, two forest patches and adjacent pastures, and two isolated pasture sites in northern Costa Rica. Additionally, seed dispersal, seed predation and seedling density were assessed along transects placed systematically at the protected forest and fragment sites. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-6354. Publicación no.: 292 Forest ecosystem responses to edge effects and secondary forest development in northeastern Costa Rica: Implications for conservation [Respuestas del ecosistema de bosque a los efectos de borde y al desarrollo de bosque secundario en el noreste de Costa Rica: Consecuencias para la conservación] / Schedlbauer, Jessica L. (University of Idaho. Department of Forest Resources, Moscow, ID 83844-1133, US <E-mail: sche4619@uidaho.edu>). Moscow, ID: University of Idaho, 2007. 94 p. Dissertation, Ph.D., University of Idaho, Moscow (USA). The landscape of northeastern Costa Rica is characterized by fragmented forests interspersed with pasture and agricultural land. Knowledge of ecosystem responses to forest edge effects and the recruitment of new secondary forests is critical to regional conservation planning directed at increasing forest cover. Forest structure was examined at 20+ year old forest-pasture edges to assess edge effects. Stem density was significantly higher at forest edges than interiors due to an increase in small diameter trees close to edges. These data show that forest edges seal with dense vegetation in the 20+ years following edge creation, suggesting that edges are robust and likely to promote high-value environmental services in these forests. Measures of water-use efficiency (WUE) and stable carbon isotopes (delta13C) were used to evaluate changes in forest function at edges. No changes in foliar delta13C and thus WUE were detected in Pentaclethra macroloba, consistent with the theory that these forests develop resilient edges. A significant depletion in the delta13C of soil respired CO2 was found at forest edges, and may be linked to changes in species composition. Forest recruitment and carbon dynamics were examined in a chronosequence of secondary forests. Though aboveground carbon storage increased with site age, soil carbon storage did not vary. delta13C data showed that soil carbon turned over within 10 years of pasture abandonment. Rapid recovery of aboveground carbon storage and soil carbon cycling highlights theconservation value of these secondary forests. To evaluate Costa Rica's 1996 Forestry Law initiating environmental service payments (pago por servicios ambientales, PSA) and prohibiting deforestation, landowner data were used to compare forest change before and after 1996. A decline in natural forest loss was observed after 1996. This indicated that PSA helped to retain forest, a finding corroborated by landowner data. Increased forest connectivity over time was related to recruitment of tree plantations and secondary forests. Secondary forest carbon storage approached primary forest levels after 25-30 years, but few landowners retained natural regeneration. As a result, secondary forests will persist as minor landscape components without incentives. This case study provides evidence that PSA can be effective in retaining natural forest. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-7640. Publicación no.: 293 The density and distribution of Ateles geoffroyi in a mosaic landscape at El Zota Biological Field Station, Costa Rica [Densidad y distribución de Ateles geoffroyi en un mosaico de paisaje en la Estación Biológica de Campo El Zota, Costa Rica] / Lindshield, Stacy M. (Iowa State University.

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Department of Anthropology, 324 Curtiss Hall, Ames, IA 50011, US <E-mail: slind@iastate.edu>). Ames: Iowa State University, 2006. 142 p. ISBN: 978-0-542-99896-6. Thesis, M.A. in Anthropology, Iowa State University, Department of Anthropology, Ames, IA (USA). The genus Ateles is thought to prefer primary forest, as spider monkeys are ripe fruit specialists and generally occupy the upper canopy of tropical forests. However, this generalization could be weakened by new research examining Ateles' use of disturbed and undisturbed habitat. This study measures spider monkey habitat use with density estimates following line transect methodology and encounter frequencies between undisturbed and disturbed habitat in wet and swamp forests. Results indicate no significant difference in habitat use. Preliminary measures of habitat quality show greater overall fruit abundance in primary forest, yet similar Ateles densities suggest factors influencing habitat use in mosaic-land is more complex than previous research indicates. A better understanding of spider monkeys in areas of forest disturbance is necessary in order to evaluate their habitat requirements in an increasingly anthropogenic landscape. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-8028. Publicación no.: 294 Rain forest structure at forest-pasture edges in Northeastern Costa Rica [Estructura del bosque lluvioso en los bordes del bosque colindante con potreros en el Noreste de Costa Rica] / Schedlbauer, Jessica L; Finegan, Bryan; Kavanagh, Kathleen L. (University of Idaho. Department of Forest Resources, Moscow, ID 83844-1133, US <E-mail: sche4619@uidaho.edu> <E-mail: bfinegan@catie.ac.cr>). En: Biotropica (ISSN 1744-7429), v. 39, no. 5, p. 578-584. 2007. Land-use change in the Sarapiquí region of Costa Rica has resulted in a fragmented forest landscape with abrupt edges between forest and pasture. Forest responses to edge effects vary widely and can significantly affect ecosystem integrity. Our objective was to examine forest structure at 20+ yr old forest-pasture edges in Sarapiquí. Three transects with 0.095-ha plots at seven distances from forest edges were established in each of six forest patches. Stem density, basal area, and aboveground biomass in trees and palms ≥ 10-cm diameter at breast height were measured in all plots. In addition, hemispherical photographs were taken to determine leaf area index, understory light availability, and percent canopy openness. Linear mixed-effects models showed significantly higher tree stem density at forest edges, relative to interiors, a pattern reflected by increased stem density, basal area, and aboveground biomass in small diameter trees (≤ 20 cm) growing near edges. No differences in total tree basal area, aboveground biomass, or hemispherical photograph-derived parameters were detected across the forest edge to interior gradient. The recruitment of small diameter trees following edge creation has contributed to the development of dense vegetation at the forest edge and has aided in the maintenance of similar tree basal area and aboveground biomass between edge and interior environments. These data reflect on the robustness of forest edges in Sarapiquí, a characteristic that will likely minimize future detrimental edge effects and promote a number of high-value environmental services in these forests. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-7304. Publicación no.: 295 Conservation ecology of amphibians and reptiles in Sarapiquí, Costa Rica: Forest fragmentation and long-term population change [Ecología de la conservación de anfibios y reptiles en Sarapiquí, Costa Rica: Fragmentación del bosque y estudios a largo plazo de cambios en la población] / Bell, K.E. (Hudsonia Ltd, P.O. Box 66, Red Hook, NY 12571, US <E-mail: bell@bard.edu>). Miami, FL:

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Florida International University, 2005. 75 p. Thesis, M.Sc. in Biology, College of Arts and Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, Florida (USA). In order to explore the conservation ecology of frogs and lizards in the Sarapiquí region of Costa Rica, I compared populations and communities among forest fragments and La Selva Biological Station, as well as across 35 years of sampling at La Selva. Species richness in nine fragments combined was 85% of that found in La Selva, and community composition varied among sites and by fragment size class. Although communities in fragments differed fundamentally from those in intact forest, the high diversity observed across all fragments indicates that preserving a network of small forest patches may be of great conservation value to the herpetofauna of this region. According to data from past studies at La Selva, most common species of leaf-litter frogs and lizards demonstrated significant decreases in density over the 35-year period. My findings may represent either natural population fluctuations or sweeping faunal declines at this site. Localización: Biblioteca OET: Tesis 474. Publicación no.: 296 Programa de monitoreo ecológico terrestre de las áreas protegidas y corredores biológicos de Costa Rica (PROMEC-CR). Etapa I (2007-2011): Manual de objetivos, indicadores y protocolos / Sistema Nacional de Áreas de Conservación (SINAC) del Ministerio de Ambiente y Energía (MINAE) San José: Asociación Conservación de la Naturaleza, 2007. 28 p. ISBN: 978-9968-9660-5-5. Las metas nacionales de conservación: marco del PROM EC-CR: El PROMEC-CR es una de las herramientas que contribuirán al logro de las metas nacionales de conservación, definidas por el proyecto GRUAS 11 (2006) en los siguientes términos: El área mínima a conservar, dentro de cada una de las unidades fitogeográficas (UF) definidas para el país, será de 10, 000 ha en términos absolutos, pero si en términos relativos esto corresponde a menos del 10% de la UF respectiva, entonces debe aumentarse el área de manera que alcance al menos el 10%. Sí, por el contrarío, las 10,000 ha representan más del 10% pero no sobrepasan el 30% de la UF se mantienen las mismas 10, 000 ha. Finalmente, si las 10,000 ha representan más del 30% de la UF, debe disminuirse el área absoluta a conservar, asegurando que la nieta de conservación se mantenga en al menos un 30% de la UF correspondiente. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 818. Publicación no.: 297 Programa de monitoreo ecológico terrestre de las áreas protegidas y corredores biológicos de Costa Rica (PROMEC-CR). Etapa I (2007-2011): Resumen ejecutivo / Sistema Nacional de Áreas de Conservación (SINAC) del Ministerio de Ambiente y Energía (MINAE) San José: Asociación Conservación de la Naturaleza, 2007. 24 p. ISBN: 978-9968-9660-6-1. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-11099.pdf Introducción: La propuesta de Programa de Monitoreo Ecológico Terrestre de las Áreas Protegidas y Corredores Biológicos de Costa Rica (PROMEC-CR) es una iniciativa del SINAC/ MINAE y The Nature Conservancy-Costa Rica (TNC-CR) a través del programa "Acuerdos Nacionales de Apoyo a la Implementación" de la mencionada ONG, a la cual se sumó el Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE). La implementación de este programa de monitoreo es uno de los esfuerzos necesarios para que el país avance hacia el cumplimiento de las metas 2010 del Convenio sobre la Diversidad Biológica (CDB). La elaboración de la propuesta fue coordinada por la Comisión para el Desarrollo de la Estrategia Nacional para el Monitoreo de la Biodiversidad, con Énfasis en las Areas Silvestres Protegidas y los Corredores Biológicos (en adelante, la Comisión). Esta comisión está

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conformada por TNC-CR, la Gerencia de Áreas Silvestres Protegidas y el Programa Nacional de Corredores Biológicos del SINAC, el Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio), la Universidad Nacional (UNA), la Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR) y el CATIE. La elaboración de la propuesta fue liderada por personal del CATIE e involucró revisiones de literatura técnica, entrevistas con expertos y un taller de consulta para definir el marco conceptual del programa. A partir de este marco conceptual se definió una propuesta metodológica abarcando los elementos del PROMEC-CR hasta el nivel de indicadores, la cual fue socializada con grupos de interesados en un segundo taller. Con los insumos generados por este segundo taller, se finalizaron las metas, objetivos, indicadores y protocolos metodológicos del PROMECCR y se elaboró el plan de implementación del Programa. La propuesta del PROMEC-CR se ha plasmado en cuatro documentos: el Manual de Objetivos, Indicadores y Protocolos (SINAC 2007a), el Documento Técnico de Referencia (Finegan, Céspedes Agüero y Sesnie en prensa), el Plan de Implementación (SINAC 2007b) y el presente Resumen Ejecutivo. De aquíen adelante, al referirse a los mencionados documentos, en el presente resumen se les llamará simplemente el Manual, el Documento Técnico y el Plan, respectivamente. El objetivo del presente Resumen Objetivo es proveer una síntesis global concisa del PROMEC-CR, el análisis científico-técnico y el proceso de diseño que fundamentan la propuesta, y el plan de implementación para la primera etapa que abarca los años 2007-2011. Está organizado en tres secciones después de esta introducción: Los fundamentos técnico-científicos de la propuesta (tomado del Documento Técnico), Los indicadores del Programa y la justificación de su selección (tomado del Documento Técnico y el Manual), El plan de implementación 2007-2011. Los documentos completos citados incluyen más de 180 referencias bibliográficas consultadas durante el diseño del Programa que aquí se resume. Localización: Biblioteca OET: AD 819. NBINA-11099. Publicación no.: 298 A geospatial data integration framework for mapping and monitoring tropical landscape diversity in Costa Rica's San Juan - La Selva Biological Corridor [Sistema de integración de datos geoespaciales para el mapeo y monitoreo de la diversidad de paisaje tropical en el Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano San Juan - La Selva (SJLS-MBC) de Costa Rica] / Sesnie, Steven E. (Northern Arizona University. Environmental Sciences & Education Department, POB 5694, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, US <E-mail: sirpa.thessler@mtt.fi>). Moscow, ID: University of Idaho, 2006. 175 p. Dissertation, Ph.D., University of Idaho and Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE). Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-7588.pdf Landcover change has substantially reduced the amount of tropical rain forest since the 1950s. Little is known about the extent of remaining forest types. A multivariate analysis of 144 forest plots across Costa Rica's San Juan - La Selva Biological Corridor resulted in eight floristically defined old-growth forest categories. Spectral separability was tested between categories using Landsat TM bands and vegetation indices for old-growth types, palm swamps, tree plantations and regrowth. Image filtering and NDVI increased spectral separability among categories by 30%. Separability tests resulted in seven welldiscriminated forest categories. Factors driving forest beta-diversity are not well quantified for wet tropical environments. We examined the relationship between rain forest composition and environmental variation for a 3000 km² area in northeastern Costa Rica. Mid- to upper-canopy tree species abundance and soil characteristics were measured from 127, 0.25-ha plots across Caribbean lowlands and foothills. Partial Mantel tests produced significant correlations between floristic distance and soil, terrain, and climate variables controlling the effects of geographical distance. Niche-factors showed a significant trend with forest compositionmore than dispersal limitation or disturbance related

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Fragmentación del hábitat y corredores biológicos: una bibliografía anotada
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factors. Variables such as terrain features, climatic variation and Landsat TM bands associated with forest composition were assessed with two decision tree models. Thirty-two landcover types were compared for a 15-year time interval. Ten were floristic alliances from a cluster analysis of forest plots and wetland categories. A subset of 12 spectral and spatial predictor variables produced accuracies of 93%±7% and 83%±15% for QUEST and CRUISE classifiers, respectively. The QUEST classifier was accurate for habitat mapping and change detection important to biodiversity monitoring objectives. A 1996 Forestry Law initiated environmental service payments and prohibited forest conversion. Landcover changes were compared before and after 1996 and linked to landowner surveys. Carbon services from secondary forests were examined above- and belowground. Natural forest loss declined from -1.43 to 0.20% yr-1. Secondary forest carbon storage approached primary forest levels after 25-30 years, though few landowners retained tree regeneration. The Costa Rican experience provides evidence that payments were effective in retaining natural forest and recruiting tree cover mainly via tree plantations. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-7588. Publicación no.: 299 Conventional and genetic measures of seed dispersal for Dipteryx panamensis (Fabaceae) in continuous and fragmented Costa Rican rain forest [Medidas convencionales y genéticas de dispersión de semillas por Dipteryx panamensis (Fabaceae) en un bosque lluvioso costarricense contínuo y fragmentado] / Hanson, Thor R; Brunsfeld, Steven J; Finegan, Bryan; Waits, Lisette P. (University of Idaho. Department of Forest Resources, P.O.Box 441133, Moscow, ID 83844-1133, US <Email: thor@rockisland.com> <E-mail: bfinegan@catie.ac.cr>). En: Journal of Tropical Ecology (ISSN 0266-4674), v. 23, p. 635-642. 2007. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-7397.pdf The effects of habitat fragmentation on seed dispersal can strongly influence the evolutionary potential of tropical forest plant communities. Few studies have combined traditional methods andmolecular tools for the analysis of dispersal in fragmented landscapes. Here seed dispersal distances were documented for the tree Dipteryx panamensis in continuous forest and two forest fragments in Costa Rica, Central America. Distance matrices were calculated between adult trees (n=283) and the locations of seeds (n=3016) encountered along 100×4-m transects (n=77). There was no significant difference in the density of seeds dispersed 25m from the nearest adult (n=253) among sites. There was a strong correlation between the locations of dispersed seeds and the locations of overstorey palms favoured as bat feeding roosts in continuous forest and both fragments. Exact dispersal distances were determined for a subset of seeds (n=14) from which maternal endocarp DNA could be extracted and matched to maternal trees using microsatellite analysis. Dispersal within fragments and from pasture trees into adjacent fragments was documented, at a maximum distance of 853 m. Results show no evidence of a fragmentation effect on D. panamensis seed dispersal in this landscape and strongly suggest batmediated dispersal at all sites. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-7397. Publicación no.: 300 The susceptibility of tropical forest bird communities to habitat fragmentation [La susceptibilidad de las comunidades de aves de bosques tropicales a la fragmentación del hábitat] / Sigel, Bryan J. (Tulane University. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 310 Dinwiddie Hall, Orleans, LA 70118, US <E-mail: bsigel@tulane.edu>), 192p. New Orleans, LA: Tulane University, 2007. Dissertation, Ph.D., Tulane University, School of Science and Engineering, Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology (USA).

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Habitat fragmentation impacts on bird communities are relatively well studied in the temperate zone, where brood parasites and non-forest predators are the main causes of declining avian biodiversity. However, life history traits of tropical species suggest different and more diverse effects of habitat fragmentation on tropical bird communities. This dissertation used historical data and quantitative comparisons of fragmented and control sites to infer causes and patterns of tropical avian community response to fragmentation in Central America. Particular ecological guilds, namely forest understory insectivores, mixed-species flock participants, and birds that nest on or near the ground declined or disappeared from La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica since the 1950s as the site became increasingly isolated from other forest. Spot-maps of twenty-two insectivorous bird species at Costa Rica in the 1970s indicate that insectivore populations were probably never large enough to be viable, emphasizing the need for larger reserves given the low density of many tropical forest species. Comparisons of four forest sites (24.6-1200 ha) to an non-fragmented control site in southeastern Nicaragua show significant reduction in biodiversity, corresponding decline in total bird abundance, and changes in community composition, even in the larger sites. Lack of change in the Nicaraguan control site suggests landscape changes rather than climate change is the most parsimonious explanation for community changes in the fragments. Finally, comparison of community changes in two large isolated forest reserves, La Selva and Barro Colorado Island, Panama, demonstrate similar patterns of losses of insectivores and low nesting species. However, landscape level and climatic differences between the two sites also affect the ability of some species to persist in remaining forest. Overall, this dissertation suggests that deterministic factors, especially ecological characteristics, put particular species at risk to landscape changes. No single mechanism appears to explain all the patterns, but small population size, poor dispersal ability, and increase in nest depredation are implicated by this study. Further investigation is needed to assess the relative importance of these and other mechanisms. Moreover, trophic cascades involving other taxa are predicted as a result of the lack of ecological replacement of disappearing specialized forest insectivores. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-8085. Publicación no.: 301 Effects of tropical forest fragmentation on ecology and conservation of migrant and resident birds in lowland Costa Rica [Efectos de la fragmentación del bosque tropical sobre la ecología y conservación de aves migrantes y residentes en las tierras bajas de Costa Rica] / Roberts, Dina L. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho / CATIE, 2007. 113 p. Dissertation, Ph.D. in Natural Resources, University of Idaho and Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE). Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-7653.pdf Decades of forest loss throughout Central America have dramatically changed the amount and configuration of winter habitat available for Neotropical-Nearctic migrant songbirds and breeding habitat for resident birds. The overall objective of my research was to understand the value of forest fragments to a diverse group of rainforest birds that depend on lowland tropical rainforest for their survival at one part or all of their annual cycle. Using both intensive research methods on a migrant songbird and extensive survey methods for eight species of resident forest birds, results show that in general, remaining forest fragments of the Sarapiquí region provide important habitat for all species studied, to varying degrees. For the wintering Wood Thrush Hylocichla mustelina, I surveyed forest fragments of different sizes, and assessed the proportion of the population wintering outside of protected forest reserves. Fragmentation effects on wintering Wood Thrush were further studied by comparing over-winter survival, territorial fidelity, home range sizes, population structure and indices of

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body condition and fitness, for birds in forest fragments versus intact forest. Wood Thrushes were detected in all surveyed forest fragments ≥ 1 ha, and it was estimated that 80% of the population winter in forest fragments outside of protected reserves. Forest fragmentation affected sex ratios, with female Wood Thrush constituting 60% of birds sampled in small fragments (< 20 ha), 25% in large (> 200 ha), and 35% in continuous forests. Widespread presence even in fragments as small as 1 ha, along with evidence of female-biased sex ratios in small fragments, may imply that available habitat for wintering Wood Thrushes is saturated. For eight species of residentbirds, we quantified changes in species abundance and patch occupancy in forest fragments that exist across a continuum of fragmentation, isolation and remaining forest cover. We detected all eight species within at least a subset of the fragments. The most abundant species, an understory wren, Henicorhina leucosticta, was observed in all 30 fragments. Two other common species, Mionectes oleaginous and Myrmeciza exsul were also found in a majority of surveyed fragments, a rather unexpected result. Abundances of two species, Pipra mentalis, a manakin, and Thamnophilis atrinucha, an ant shrike, declined or the species disappeared entirely in fragments with decreasing patch size, isolation from a source, and low surrounding forest cover values. R. sulfuratus abundance was not significantly associated with any of the predictor variables. However, 4 of 6, or 67 % of the fragments lacking this species were 25 ha. For R. swansonii, the largest toucan in the study region, highest abundances were associated with fragments embedded within areas of higher percent forest cover. Despite our predictions that species within the same foraging guild, or those with other shared life history strategies, would respond similarly to fragmentation, we found that species responded individualistically. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-7653. Publicación no.: 302 Avifauna en sistemas agroforestales cafetaleros: relaciones entre el contexto paisajístico, la complejidad estructural y comunidades de aves dentro del Corredor Biológico Turrialba-Jiménez, Costa Rica [Tropical bird assemblages in coffee agroforestry systems: exploring the relationships between landscape context, structural complexity and bird communities in the TurrialbaJiménez Biological Corridor, Costa Rica] / Florian-Rivero, Elena M. (CATIE, Apartado 7170, Turrialba, CR <E-mail: eflorian@catie.ac.cr>). Turrialba: CATIE, 2005. 146 p. Tesis, Mag. Sc. en Agroforestería Tropical, Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Turrialba, Costa Rica. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-7668.pdf Coffee agroforestry systems are reknown for their high species richness and complex vegetation structure and stand out as a promising tool for conserving biodiversity within agricultural landscapes. Shaded coffee plantations can attract a variety of birds, and have the potential to serve as refuges for birds, however this conservation potential is likely to depend on the structure of the coffee plantation as well as the surrounding landscape composition. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between the structural complexity and the landscape context (surrounding forest cover) of coffee plantations and bird assemblages present in these systems within the Turrialba - Jiménez Biological Corridor. To examine the effects of structural complexity and landscape context on bird communities, a total of 20 Erythrina poeppigina and 20 Erythrina poeppigiana - Cordia alliodora coffee plantations and five forests were selected and georeferenced. For each coffee plantation, two 50 m x 50 m plots and twenty five 10 m x 10 m quadrats were used to characterize the structure and floristic composition. The percent of surrounding forest cover was calculated at a distance radius of 500, 1000 and 1500 m from each coffee plantation. Point counts were used to characterize birds in coffee plantations and forest sites. A total of 101 species of birds were observed in coffee plantations; the

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majority being generalist species. A total of 1,064 individuals (85 species) of birds were observed in Erythrina poeppigiana - Cordia alliodora coffee plantations and 623 individuals (56 species) of birds observed in Erythrina poeppigina coffee plantations indicating that structurally more complex coffee plantations contained more individuals and species of birds. The majority of birds were insectivores and omnivores. Epiphyte cover, canopy height and the number of Cordia alliodora trees had a positive effect on the abundante, species richness, and diversity of birds within coffee plantations. The presence of surrounding forest cover had a negative effect in the overall abundance, species richness, and diversity of birds but a positive effect on forest specialists. This study showed that structurally more complex coffee plantations such as Erythrina poeppigiana - Cordia alliodora coffee plantations were able to harbor a greater abundance and number of species of birds than Erythrina poeppigiana coffee plantations. This study also provided evidence that the presence of forest cover around coffee plantations favored the presence of forest dependent bird species. Therefore, conservation efforts should promote the diversification of coffee plantations and the protection of forests around these plantations in order to increase or restore structural and functional connectivity within the landscape. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-7668. Publicación no.: 303 Caracterización de cobertura vegetal y propuesta de una red de conectividad ecológica en el Corredor Biológico Volcánica Central - Talamanca, Costa Rica [Characterization of vegetation cover and proposed ecological connectivity network in the Volcánica Central - Talamanca Biological Corridor, Costa Rica] / Murrieta-Arévalo, E. Turrialba: CATIE, 2006. 141 p. Tesis, Mag. Sc. en Manejo y Conservación de Bosques Tropicales y Biodiversidad, Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza CATIE), Turrialba, Costa Rica. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-7666.pdf Landscape ecology studies have been possible due to the development of technologic tools such as statistical methods, geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensors which facilitate the identification of vegetation types and are important toplan forest management and conservation. In this research, a study on the identification and characterization of natural forest types was carried out for a proposal of an ecological structure connectivity network in the Volcánica Central - Talamanca Biological Corridor (VCTBC). Sampling emphasized secondary vegetation because it is the most predominant vegetation in the corridor, and it included primary forest plots as a reference. For selecting the field sites, stratified sampling was conducted which took into account biophysical variables; such as slope, soil, and life zones. Using a GIS, a map was elaborated with six strata where sampling units (plots) were installed. Sampling was conducted taking into account temporary plots of two different sizes, 50m x 50m (0.25 ha) and 20m x 50 m (0.10 ha), with dbh ranges of 20 cm and 10 cm, respectively. However, the final vegetation cover classification is based on the 0.25 ha plot size with a dbh 20 cm for trees, dbh 10 cm for palms and ferns and a circumference of 10 cm for lianas. The plots sampled were grouped into five forest types through a multi-varied analysis. These forests were named according to their indicator species: 1) Clarisia biflora, Ocotea nicaraguensis, and Rollinia pittieri forest, 2) Vismia macrophylla, Vochysia allenii and Miconia punctata forest, 3) Hampea appendiculata, Cecropia obtusifolia and Conostegia rufescens forest, 4) Croton draco, Citharexylum caudatum and Cecropia peltata forest; and 5) Croton schiedeanus, Alfaroa costaricensis, and Abarema idiopoda forest. These forests were characterized and compared according to variables such as composition, structure, richness, and floristic diversity. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-7666.

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Publicación no.: 304 Prioridades sociales y arreglos institucionales para la gestión local del Corredor Biológico Volcánica Central-Talamanca, Costa Rica [Social priorities and institutional arrangements for local management of the Volcánica Central-Talamanca Biological Corridor] / Ramírez-Chávez, J.R. Turrialba: CATIE, 2006. 112 p. Tesis, Mag. Sc. en Manejo y Conservación de Bosques Tropicales y Biodiversidad, Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Turrialba, Costa Rica. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-7669.pdf Biological corridors have been accepted during recent years as a conservation strategy. The majority of the research has focused on generating information about biophysical and ecological aspects related to the establishment and management of biological corridors. Knowledge on local management as well as socioeconomic, institutional and political aspects is still scarce; this situation could have lead, in some cases, to late involvement of the local population in the development of biological corridors. In this research, a study is conducted on social priorities and institutional arrangements for local management of the Volcánica Central-Talamanca Biological Corridor (VCTBC). The objective of this research was to identify the conditions and processes necessary for effective and participative management of the VCTBC. Thus, the research was divided into three stages: 1) social and institutional characterization of the VCTBC; 2) systematization of advanced processes of local management of three biological corridors in Costa Rica (Chorotega, San Juan-La Selva and Talamanca-Caribe Bilogical Corridors); and, 3) Identification of strategies for successful management of the VCTBC which incorporates existing social and institutional conditions and lessonslearned from other advanced processes of biological corridors. Results demonstrate that the VCTBC has a wide presence of organizations and institutions, which represents a great opportunity to facilitate successful management. According to the conflict map on land use, even when 65.5% of the territory that comprises the VCTBC is under the correct use category, 31.3% is in the overuse category; the greatest percent of overuse corresponds to pastures, which are located principally in the northern part of the corridor. It was observed that the population is interested in developing conservation programs for natural resources and environmentally friendly activities; such programs are already established. Furthermore, there are some processes underway whichcan be strengthened with the objective to advance the consolidation process of the corridor, such as: the work that ASOPROA is carrying out in agro-tourism development "The Cheese Route", Las ASADAS which is carrying out restoration and conservation activities and sustainable water management, the Local Network for Cachi Risk Reduction with forest cover recovery, environmental associations, and COVIRENAS among others; and the existence of a coordinating and management platform called the "CBVCT Management Committee" which will permit the consolidation of this initiative. With respect to the lessons learned from local management of the three systematized biological corridors, the following aspects were observed: consolidation and strengthening of the three management commissions; risk vulnerability reduction; access to financial compensation mechanisms for a greater number of beneficiaries; numerous actors involved in corridor management; and an increase in better techniques and adequate environmentally friendly agricultural practices which allowed for landscape restoration processes to a large or small degree in each of the three systematized corridors. An exchange of experiences between community leaders in the VCTBC area,in the Chorotega BiologicalCorridor (ChBC) and socialization with VCTBC participant leaders, made it possible to identify lessons learned. This initiative could guide and stimulate the VCTBC management process, obtain a commitment from the VCTBC actors to participate in this initiative, and propose management decentralization by forming five

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Fragmentación del hábitat y corredores biológicos: una bibliografía anotada
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local commissions which would involve a greater number of actors to jointly promote the process from the bases. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-7669. Publicación no.: 305 Caracterización poblacional de cinco especies arbóreas ecológicamente importantes en el Corredor Biológico Turrialba-Jiménez, Costa Rica [Populational characterization of five arboreal species ecologically important in the Biological Corridor Turrialba-Jiménez, Costa Rica] / Guerrero-Aguirre, G.F. Turrialba: CATIE, 2005. 99 p. Tesis, Mag. Sc. en Manejo y Conservación de Bosques Tropicales, Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Turrialba (Costa Rica). Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-7676.pdf The following study presents the populational characterization of five arboreal species: Alfaroa manningii, Brosimum alicastrum, Oreomunnea pterocarpa, Talauma gloriensis and Vochysia allenii ecologically important in the Biological Corridor Turrialba Jiménez (CBTJ). The general objective was to examine the populational state of the species and determine the relationship of selected environmental variables in the local and landscape scale distribution of the species. For the local scale analysis, eight study sites were selected within forested areas of approximately 20 ha each inside the CBTJ. Inside each study site 3 transects of 500m x 20m were established, within which a sample was made of all individual's of species ≥ 5 cm DBH. For each individual we collected the following measurements: elevation (masl), topographical position (if they were in hillside, ridge or valley), pH of the soil and location of coordinated geographical with GPS. In each transects we carried out measurements of points of absence of species. These points were places where any individual of the studied species was not found, and in each point we registration the same information as in the case of individuals' of the studied species registration (mentioned above). These points of absence were evaluated for the statistical analysis of the field data through logistical regression. To landscape scale secondary information was used on the presence of species, and the following environmental variables were evaluated: soil type, life zone, elevation, precipitation and temperature, the distribution relationship was carried out through logistical regression. The obtained results point out that at the landscape scales the evaluated environmental variables were not significant for the species, except for the fact that elevation was significant for A. manningii. For this species, as the elevation diminishes its population's abundance is shown to increase. At the local scale there was significance only the variables of elevationand pH of the soil for the species V. allenii and B. alicastrum, while the elevation only is significant for O. pterocarpa. The species V. allenii and O. pterocarpa have greater abundance when the elevation increases from 770 to 1094 masl, and when the pH of the soil decreases from 6 to 4 the species V. allenii responded more significantly to these variables while for O. pterocarpa it turn out to be not significant. B. alicastrum increases its abundance when the elevation diminishes from 632 to 536 masland when the pH of the soil increases its value from 5 to 6. The species V. allenii and B. alicastrum displayed high abundance, having densities of 6.7 and 1.8 individuals/ha respectively. The species O. pterocarpa, A. manningii and T. gloriensis were with low abundances (0.9. 0.1 and 0.08 individuals/ha respectively) being considered a rare or threatened species. The results obtained in the study demonstrate that it is necessary to carry out actions for the conservation of these species inside the Biological Corridor Turrialba-Jiménez. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-7676.

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Publicación no.: 306 Efecto de la estructura, composición y conectividad de las cercas vivas en la comunidad de aves en Río Frío, Costa Rica [Effects of live fence composition, structure and connectivity on bird communities in Río Frío, Costa Rica] / Santivañez-Galarza, J.L. Turrialba: CATIE, 2005. 133 p. Tesis, Mag. Sc. en Manejo de Bosques Tropicales y Biodiversidad, Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Turrialba (Costa Rica). Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-7682.pdf The objective of this study was to characterize the bird community visiting live fences, and to determine the effects of live fence composition, structure and connectivity on the bird community present. From February to August, 2004, the tree and bird communities present in 62 live fences were characterized in Río Frío, Costa Rica. Bird communities were evaluated in two species of live fence (Gliricidia sepium and Erythrina costaricensis) and five degrees of connectivity (connected to forests, connected to riparian forests, with double connections, interconnected to other live fences or without connections). In each live fence, the structural and floristic composition was evaluated through vegetation inventories, while bird abundance, species richness and diversity were evaluated using fixed point counts. A total of 6,324 trees of 49 species (dap 1.3m) were recorded in the live fences. The live fences were dominated by two main species, Gliricidia sepium and Erythrina costaricensis, that together represented 95% of all trees. However, live fences also contained some species that were relicts of the original forest and others that were products of natural regeneration (e.g. Ficus goldmanii, Cordia alliodora, Miconia argentea, Pentaclethra macroloba and Ficus cotinifolia). Live fences of madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) had a greater tree density (p=0.0371) and diversity (p=0.0005) than live fences of poró (Erythrina costaricensis), but a lower evenness (p=0.0069). Tree diameters were greater in poró live fences than in madero negro líve fences (P=0.0202). Live fence length, height, and crown radii were similar across madero negro and poró live fences. In the 62 live fences and 193 point counts, a total of 3497 birds of 123 species were registered. Fifty-three percent of the observed birds were represented by 10 species of 6 families Sporophila americana and Oryzoborus funereus (Emberizidae), Tangara larvata, Thraupis episcopus and Ramphocelus passerinii (Thraupidae), Todirostrum cinereum and Pitangus sulphuratus (Tyrannidae), Troglodytes aedon (Troglodytidae), Turdus grayi (Turdidae) and Amazilia tzacatl (Trochilidae). Most of the birds in the live fences were frugivorous or insectivorous and were typical of secondary vegetation. The type of live fence influences the bird communities present within live fences. A total of 2350 birds of 99 species were observed in madero negro fences, while 1147 birds of 94 species were observed in poró live fences. In general, there was a greater number of birds visiting live fences of madero negro and a greater evenness within poró live fences. In contrast, there were no clear effects of live fence connectivity on bird abundant, richness or diversity. There were also effects of co-variables, such as tree density, tree species richness, tree diversity, tree height, and canopy size on bird abundance, richness, and diversity within live fences. Birds used the live fences in a variety of ways. Fifty-three percent of the birds (and 98 species) were observed using live fences as sites for protection, and perching. An additional 21% of the birds (of 85 species) were observed searching for food (fruits, flowers, pollen, nectar and insects) within the live fences, while 36 species were observed in courtship displays or territorial flights. Another 17 bird species were observed building nests in the live fences and using them as permanent habitats. It is concluded that the composition and structure of live fences are the most important variables for maintaining and conserving birds within fragmented landscapes, with greater bird diversity in live fences with high trees, large crowns, and greater tree density and species richness. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-7682.

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Publicación no.: 307 Innovations in private land conservation: An integrated evaluation of payment for environmental services in the Path of the Tapir Biological Corridor in Costa Rica [Innovaciones en la conservación de la tierra privada: Una evaluación integrada de pago por servicios ambientales en la ruta del Corredor Biológico del Tapir] / Newcomer, D.W. (Yale University. School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, 210 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511, US <E-mail: fifthquint@aol.com>). New Haven, CT: Yale University, 2007. 413 p. ISBN: 9780549068662. Dissertation, Ph.D., Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (USA). Establishment of biological corridors between protected areas throughout Mesoamerica has been endorsed as a high priority by the region's political leaders. Costa Rica has led the way in developing incentive programs that encourage private landownersto participate in this effort. This research applied an integrated approach to evaluating the Payment for Environmental Services Program (PSA) as an innovative mechanism for implementing the Path of the Tapir Biological Corridor (PTBC) in southwestern Costa Rica. Contextual analysis guided by a fusion of social science theories evaluated: (1) trends and conditions that characterized the region over time; (2) the program's cultural acceptability, profitability, and ecological contribution; (3) factors that influenced the adoption and diffusion of PSA in this region during 1998-2002; and (4) the effectiveness of the management decision making process. Participants tended to have larger properties, were generally more educated, and tended not to live on-farm. Institutional program policies established certain barriers to participation which limited the ability of some landowners to participate, regardless of their interest. Extension agents promoting PSA in the region played a primary role in determining which landowners were enrolled in PSA- with limited financial resources and the ultimate goal of protecting the greatest contiguous area of forestlands, foresters promoting PSA focused efforts on the largest properties within the established priority zones. PSA made positive ecological contributions toward implementation of the PTBC- threat of deforestation and forest fragmentation was mitigated on 4,133 ha across this region. On the other hand, the breadth of PSA's economic contribution to the region was less pronounced. By 2002, payments to participants in the region totaled nearly US$175.000 per year; however, PSA was not distributed widely- only 50 landowners were inscribed during this period. Nevertheless, forest conservation and the concept of ecosystem services are culturally-acceptable, even in this remote and traditionally agricultural region. Addressing decision process breakdowns, including: (a) lack of contract flexibility for small landowners, (b) lack of field monitoring, and (c) lack of theoretical guidance for agroforestry payments would enhance the success of PSA as a mechanism for private land conservation and corridor implementation. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-8088. Publicación no.: 308 Riqueza, abundancia y diversidad de aves y su relación con la cobertura arbórea en un agropaisaje dominado por la ganadería en el trópico subhúmedo de Costa Rica [Richness, abundance and diversity of birds and their relationship with tree cover in an agricultural landscape dominated by cattle in the sub-humid tropics of Costa Rica] / Enríquez-Lenis, Marta Lucía; SáenzMéndez, Joel Cris; Ibrahim, Muhammad A. (Universidad Nacional. Instituto Internacional de Conservación y Manejo de Vida Silvestre, Heredia, CR <E-mail: maluenriquez@yahoo.com> <E-mail: jsaenz@una.ac.cr> <E-mail: mibrahim@catie.ac.cr>). En: Agroforestería en las Américas (ISSN 1022-7482), no. 45, p. 49-57. 2007. In Central America, the establishment of pastures has become one of the main reasons driving deforestation, originating fragmented landscapes with forest patches, pastures, and crops. Landscape

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transformation has modified bird populations and their composition. Therefore, it is important to establish the tree cover range at both farm and agricultural landscapes level that will contribute to bird conservation. The community of birds and vegetation of 12 livestock farms in Esparza, Costa Rica, were characterized in order to evaluate the relationship between abundance, richness and diversity of birds and plant cover in this landscape. Land uses were identified in each farm and a counting point was established at the center of each system to count the birds, and vegetation was sampled in these same plots. Tree canopy cover and vegetation volume were also estimated. A total of 1901 birds from 113 species belonging to 31 families and 9 genera were recorded. The gamma diversity predicted by Clench's model was of 126 species with a sampling effort of 90%. The most abundant resident species were Crotophaga sulcirostris (Smooth-billed Ani) and Melanerpes hoffmannii (Hoffmann's woodpecker), and the most abundant migratory species were Dendroica petechia (Yellow warbler) and Icterus galbula (Northern oriole). Plant diversity (Shannon index) explained bird richness (R2=0.66; p0.05), abundance (R2. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-8058. Publicación no.: 309 Effect of forest fragmentation on fruit and seed predation of the tropical dry forest tree Ceiba aesculifolia [Efecto de la fragmentación del bosque en depredación de frutos y semillas del árbol del bosque tropical seco Ceiba aesculifolia] / Herrerías-Diego, Yvonne; Quesada-Avendaño, Mauricio; Stoner, Kathryn E; Lobo-Segura, Jorge A; Hernández-Flores, Y; Montoya, G.S. (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas, Apartado Postal 27-3 (Xangari), Morelia, Michoacán 58089, MX <E-mail: mquesada@oikos.unam.mx> <E-mail: kstoner@oikos.unam.mx> <E-mail: jlobo@biologia.ucr.ac.cr>). En: Biological Conservation (ISSN 0006-3207), v. 141, no. 1, p. 241-248. 2008. Forests fragmentation reduces the density of natural plant populations forming patches of the remaining individuals. One of the biotic interactions that can be affected by forest fragmentation and is poorly studied is seed predation. We determined the effects of forest frag- mentation on seed and fruit predation in Ceiba aesculifolia by comparing trees in continuous forest with trees in fragmented forest. We compared the following variables: (a) frequency of fruit predation by Collie's squirrel (Sciurus colliaei) in each habitat; (b) frequency of the cotton-staining bug seed predator (Dysdercus, Orden Hemiptera) in each habitat; (c) the effect of seed predation on germination frequency and time; and (d) the effect of different life stages of Dysdercus on seed viability. In continuous habitat, 100% of the trees presented fruits with squirrel predation while only 34% of trees in fragmented habitats presented fruit predation. In continuous forest 27% of the trees contained fruits with the seed predator Dysdercus, while only 2% of the trees in fragmented forest presented Dysdercus. The initial weight of damaged seeds was greater than seeds that were not damaged indicating that seed predators select heavier seeds to feed upon. Frequency of seed germination was affected by different life stages; pre-adults decreased germination significantly more than nymphs and adults. Seed predation significantly increased the time it took for germination to occur. Our study shows that forest fragmentation significantly affects predation patterns of squirrels and cotton-staining bugs. Reduction of natural seed predators in forest fragments may have long-term consequences on forest structure and diversity. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-7969. Publicación no.: 310 Evaluación de enfoques para la definición de especies arbóreas indicadoras para el monitoreo de la biodiversidad en un paisaje fragmentado del Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano /

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Gallego-Castillo, B; Finegan, Bryan. (Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza. Programa Manejo Integrado de Recursos Naturales, Turrialba, CR <E-mail: bfinegan@catie.ac.cr>). En: Recursos Naturales y Ambiente (ISSN 1659-1216), no. 41, p. 49-61. 2004. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-12200.pdf The present study aims to test the application of Lambeck's focal species approach to tree types in a fragmented landscape of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. In recent years, monitoring proposals using indicator species have been strongly criticized because the indicator function is largely hypothetical. Our proposal shares this characteristic. The cost monitoring species is significant, considering the normal context of reduced resource availability for conservation purposes. Therefore we strongly recommend that the need for monitoring be carefully analyzed in relation to other conservation action that could be more effective and decisive. Monitoring could be justified in the case of currently used timber yielding species that are identified as vulnerable. Costs should be accordingly assumed by those benefiting from their use. A follow-up of the current study will help verify the hypothesis of whether focal species are representative indicators of a large group of other species. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-12200. Publicación no.: 311 Integrating agricultural landscapes with biodiversity conservation in the Mesoamerican hotspot [La integración de los paisajes agrícolas con la conservación de la biodiversidad en la zona interactiva de Mesoamérica] / Harvey, Celia A; Komar, Oliver; Chazdon, Robin L; Ferguson, Bruce G; Finegan, Bryan; Griffith, Daniel M; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Morales, Helda; Nigh, Ronald; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; van Breugel, Michiel; Wishnie, M. (Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Dr, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22202, US <E-mail: c.harvey@conservation.org>). En: Conservation Biology (ISSN 1523-1739), v. 22, no. 1, p. 8-15. 2008. (No abstract). Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-8161. Publicación no.: 312 Biodiversidad en paisajes agrícolas: la necesidad de nuevos enfoques para su conservación [Biodiversity in agricultural landscapes: the need for new focuses for its conservation] / Sáenz-Méndez, Joel Cris. (Universidad Nacional. Instituto Internacional de Conservación y Manejo de Vida Silvestre, Apdo. 1350-3000, Heredia, CR <E-mail: jsaenz@una.ac.cr>). Encuentro Anual de Reforestadores con Especies Nativas. VI, Ancón, Panamá, PA, Nov. 18, 2006. Panama: ELTI / PRORENA, p. 33-39. The majority of landscapes in Central America is fragmented and degraded from deforestation, overexploitation, and land-use changes; close to 40-60% of these lands are used for cattle and agriculture. These landscapes maintain forest fragments, live fences, and isolated trees in pastures, which could help to preserve biodiversity locally and regionally. In situ conservation, where habitats and species are managed passively through national park systems, has been the traditional conservation paradigm. Biodiversity management strategies, however, will need to take into consideration the remaining 95% of tropical forests worldwide do not lie within protected areas. The Integrated Silvopastoral Approaches to Ecosystem Management (GEF Project) has spent the past 5 years assessing the status of biodiversity in agricultural systems in Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Colombia in order to develop more sustainable mechanisms for payment for environmental services. To determine the status of biodiversity in agricultural landscapes of tropical Central and South America, the bird, butterfly, ant, land mollusk, and tree communities were described quantitatively in 7 to 16 land-use types in cattle ranches in Colombia, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. In all three countries, pastures with high tree densities had similar levels of

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species richness as areas with high tree cover such as secondary and riparian forests. In terms of species composition, Nicaragua and Colombia had different patterns of where species occurred by land use as compared to Costa Rica. In Nicaragua and Colombia, many species occurred across many land use types, but certain species were forest restricted. Conversely, practically all species in Costa Rica occurred across all land use types, perhaps due to the higher degree of connectivity within the agricultural matrix. Bird and animal diversity in all countries was positively correlated with habitat characteristics related to tree cover, such as structural heterogeneity of tree cover in farms and forested area with farms. Also, different taxonomic groups have stronger associations with certain habitat characteristics. Bird diversity in all three countries increased with canopy cover, vegetation richness, and the height of canopy. In Costa Rica, greater vegetation richness and tree richness were associated with greater butterfly diversity. Land mollusk diversity in Nicaragua increased with vegetation richness, canopy cover, and height of canopy, as did ant richness in Colombia with canopy height, tree density, and vegetation. In all three countries, productive land uses have relatively high biodiversity. Silvopastoral systems with tree cover, such as pastures with high tree density and multi-layered live fences, have higher biodiversity than pastures without or with little tree cover and similar levels of biodiversity as secondary and riparian forests in these landscapes. Tree cover and tree species richness explained a large percentage of the variability of biodiversity. The heterogeneity of the neighboring ecosystem also influences species richness. Payment for environmental services (PES) is a possible mechanism that could be used to promote increasing tree cover and biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. In Costa Rica, monetary incentives were provided to a group of farms and none to another in order to see whether financial incentives would increase the conservation value of these farms. In farms receiving PES, the live fence rate, percentage of pastures with high tree densities, areas of silvopastoral systems, and percentage of forest areas were greater than that of farms that did not receive PES. Overall, PES resulted in a 1 - 2% increase in forested areas of the farms. Farmers maintained their production objectives while also benefitting from environmental services. PES has demonstrated its ability to increase the conservation value of agricultural landscapes, but needs to correct certain imbalances. A high percentage of land-use changes occurred in improved pastures, systems that can degrade with time and require high maintenances costs relative to the PESs generated. The incremental payment mechanism, i.e. payment for a farm’s increased conservation value, might not provide adequate financial incentives for farms with high biodiversity baselines to participate in landscape-level conservation programs. Producers with high baselines that had invested in conservation practices did not think that the scheme should be incremental. Producers with high baselines received less money for their conservation activities than producers with lower baselines because their improvement was relatively smaller in terms of biodiversity value. Furthermore, there is a notable disincentive for small farmers to participate in PES programs; they receive less money because they have less land to conserve than larger farmers. The effectiveness of incentive mechanisms such as PES is measured by their ability to provide a sufficiently large financial benefit to precipitate a change in behavior, such as land-use change. In the case of cattle ranching in Costa Rica, large subsidies would have to be paid to ranchers for them to a) increase tree cover to a level that is meaningful in terms of biodiversity and b) accept the economic impact of producing less meat. PES represents a way to promote the adoption of silvopastoral systems that potentially increase landscape connectivity and biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. As currently formulated, PES rewards farmers with financial incentives for generating the greatest amount of environmental services, such as carbon storage, biodiversity, and watershed protection. At a landscape level, PES might prove effective in optimizing agricultural production, environmental services, and

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providing social benefits. Other incentive mechanisms, principally land taxes, flat taxes, and tax reductions for agricultural materials, could also complement PES. At present, policy mechanisms for sustainable financing of PES are at different stages of development in Costa Rica, Colombia, and Nicaragua. In Costa Rica, there is collaboration with government agencies MINAE (Ministerio de Ambiente y Energía) and FONAFIFO (Fondo Nacional de Financiamiento Forestal) to design and implement PES in agroforestry and silvopastoral systems. In Colombia, a program is being developed for sustainable cattle production that incorporates silvopastoral systems, while in Nicaragua a pilot program for PES has been established. Negotiations are in process in the World Bank, Global Environmental Facility (GEF), and other multi-lateral institutions to provide incentives for the adoption of silvopastoral systems and good practices. The success of biodiversity conservation programs in agricultural landscapes depends on their ability to meet bothproduction and conservation objectives. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-8054. Publicación no.: 313 Riqueza, abundancia y diversidad de murciélagos en diferentes hábitats y su relación con la forma y el tamaño de los fragmentos en una zona de bosque seco tropical de Costa Rica / Montero-Muñoz, Jorge L; Sáenz-Méndez, Joel Cris. (Universidad Nacional. Instituto Internacional en Conservación y Manejo de Vida Silvestre, Apdo. 1350-3000, Heredia, CR <E-mail: jsaenz@una.ac.cr>). En: Evaluación y conservación de biodiversidad en paisajes fragmentados de Mesoamérica. Harvey, C.A; Sáenz-Méndez, J.C. (eds.) Santo Domingo de Heredia: Editorial INBio, 2007. p. 393-419. ISBN: 978-9968927-29-1. The species richness, abundance, and diversity (alfa, beta and gamma) of bats were determined in different habitat fragments in a tropical dry forest in Cañas, Costa Rica. The habitats studied included riparian forests, secondary forests, forest fallows, pastures with high tree cover and pastures with low tree cover. The relationship between alpha diversity and fragment (habitat) area was evaluated using four regression models (linear, logarithmic, potential and exponential). The associations between alpha diversity and patch shape were evaluated using three Euclidean indices and one fractal index. Principal component analysis was used to relate the percent of canopy cover, the fractal dimension and tree diversity to the alpha and beta diversity of bats across habitat types. Alpha and beta bat diversity varied across habitat types. Alpha bat diversity, alpha vegetation diversity, the percent canopy cover and the fractal dimension explained 94% of the taxonomic composition of bat species across habitats, while beta bat diversity, alpha vegetation diversity, the percent canopy cover and the fractal dimension explained 91% of this variation. The correlations between these variables (bat species richness, bat abundance, and the indices of Patton, compaction, fractal dimension, shape and perimeter) were significant (p 0.05) for riparian forests, secondary forests, and areas of young secondary growth (charrals). The high values of beta diversity indicate a wide and generalized distribution of bat species across the landscape. None of the four regression models were statistically significant. Similarly, there were no significant correlations between the indices of fragment shape and bat species richness, abundance or diversity. As a possible explanation of these patterns, we suggest that the bat populations (which are principally in the family Phyllostomidae), have a high capacity for movement and show trophic plasticity which enables them to use and exploit all types of habitats within the agricultural landscapes, without any apparent barriers. Localización: Biblioteca OET: 333.9516 E92. NBINA-8061.

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Publicación no.: 314 Conservación de la biodiversidad en agropaisajes de Mesoamérica: ¿Qué hemos aprendido y qué nos falta conocer? / Harvey, Celia A; Sáenz-Méndez, Joel Cris; Montero-Muñoz, Jorge L. (Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Dr, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22202, US <E-mail: c.harvey@conservation.org> <E-mail: jsaenz@una.ac.cr> <E-mail: artibeus@prodigy.net.mx>). En: Evaluación y conservación de biodiversidad en paisajes fragmentados de Mesoamérica. Harvey, C.A; Sáenz-Méndez, J.C. (eds.). Santo Domingo de Heredia: Editorial INBio, 2007. p. 579-599. ISBN: 978-9968927-29-1. Introducción: La biodiversidad de Mesoamérica está amenazada por altos niveles de deforestación que han causado la pérdida de hábitats naturales y han convertido extensas zonas de bosques en áreas agrícolas y fragmentadas. En las últimas décadas la región ha sufrido cambios drásticos en la estructura y la composición de sus paisajes, debido a la pérdida y la fragmentación de sus bosques y a la intensificación de los sistemas agrícolas existentes. A pesar del alto impacto negativo de estas prácticas, estos cambios en el uso del suelo todavía ocurren a una escala alarmante (Harvey et al. 2005b). Si bien la naturaleza y la severidad de estos cambios varían a través de los distintos paisajes que se encuentran dentro del territorio mesoamericano, es claro que la región entera está experimentando una transformación dramática, de una región boscosa con una biodiversidad rica en una región dominada por la agricultura y las actividades humanas, en la cual muchas comunidades de plantas y animales están amenazadas. Al mismo tiempo, también es claro que, si queremos conservar la gran riqueza biológica de la región, debemos entender cómo estos cambios en el paisaje han afectado esta biodiversidad, para así identificar estrategias apropiadas que mitiguen o contrarresten los impactos negativos. Además, será clave pensar de forma creativa acerca de cómo conservar la biodiversidad dentro de los agropaisajes manejados por el ser humano, buscar nuevos enfoques que reconcilien las necesidades de la producción agrícola con las metas de conservación y utilizar nuevos métodos y herramientas para conservar la biodiversidad, tanto a escala de paisaje como regional. En este último capítulo intentamos sintetizar nuestro conocimiento actual acerca de los efectos de la deforestación y la fragmentación de los bosques sobre la conservación de la biodiversidad en Mesoamérica. La síntesis no pretende ser exhaustiva; más bien resaltamos algunos mensajes clave que emergen de los capítulos anteriores, exploramos sus implicaciones para las políticas regionales agrícolas y de conservación e identificamos las áreas prioritarias para la investigación futura. Donde sea apropiado los lectores serán dirigidos a los capítulos individuales para mayor información. Este capítulo está organizado en cuatro secciones: 1) Resultados clave de las investigaciones sobre los efectos de la conversión de los bosques a la agricultura y de la fragmentación sobre la biodiversidad (Cuadro 1); 2- Implicaciones políticas para la conservación de la biodiversidad dentro de paisajes fragmentados y agrícolas (Cuadro 2); 3- Identificación de prioridades de investigación acerca de los vínculos entre la fragmentación de los bosques, los cambios en el uso de la tierra y la conservación de la biodiversidad; y 4- Contribución de los agropaisajes a la conservación de la biodiversidad en Mesoamérica. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-8063. Publicación no.: 315 Effects of habitat characteristics on the behavioral ecology and habitat use patterns of mantled howler monkeys, Alouatta palliata [Efectos de las características del habitat en la ecología de comportamiento y patrones de uso del hábitat de los monos congo, Alouatta palliata] / Jost, C.A. (Purdue University. Department of Sociology and Anthropology, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1145, US). En: American Journal of Physical Anthropology (ISSN 0002-9483), Suppl. 46, p. 127. 2008.

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(Abstract only). The conversion of primary forests into human dominated landscapes throughout the Neotropics has resulted in a reduction of suitable habitat for arboreal primates. Given their flexible foraging strategy, the mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) provides an interesting focal species for examining adaptive flexibility in a dynamic environment. Previous research on the effects of habitat fragmentation on howler monkeys has focused on the particular characteristics of fragments necessary to maintain the presence of howler groups. More recently, studies have examined the specific impacts of habitat alterations on the behavioral ecology of groups of howlers within forest fragments. Fragmentation and habitat degradation have been found to result in changes in range size, population density and overall habitat quality. This brief study uses ecological and behavioral data to explore how habitat availability with a single forest fragment affects the habitat usage and activity patterns of three groups of mantled howler monkeys at La Suerte Biological Field Station, Costa Rica. Findings indicate that the differences observed in the behavior and habitat use patterns of study groups were attributable to size of home range, availability of habitat types within each group's home range, and high population density. The results of this study demonstrate that site-specific studies examining the behavioral responses of howler species to fragmentation should enable researchers to better predict their longterm viability in mature and degraded forests of Central America. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-10111. Publicación no.: 316 Weak genetic structuring indicates ongoing gene flow across White-ruffed Manakin (Corapipo altera) populations in a highly fragmented Costa Rica landscape [Débil estructuración genética indica el flujo de genes a través de poblaciones del saltarín gorgiblanco (Corapipo altera) en un paisaje altamente fragmentado de Costa Rica] / Barnett, Jacob R; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Viviana; Coulon, Aurélie; Lovette, Irby J. (Cornell University. Laboratory of Ornithology, Fuller Evolutionary Biology Program, 159 Sapsucker Woods Road, Ithaca, NY 14850, US <E-mail: IJL2@cornell.edu>). En: Conservation Genetics (ISSN 1566-0621), v. 9, no. 6, p. 1403-1412. 2008. We explored the effects of recent forest fragmentation on fine-scale patterns of population structuring and genetic diversity in populations of White-ruffed Manakins (Corapipo altera) inhabiting premontane forest fragments of varying size in southwestern Costa Rica. Habitat fragmentation is a major conservation concern for avian populations worldwide, but studies of the genetic effects of fragmentation on Neotropical birds are limited. We sampled 159 manakins from nine forest fragments of varying size within an 18 km radius, and genotyped these birds at 13 microsatellite loci. Bayesian clustering methods revealed that birds from all fragments comprised a single genetic population, and an MCMC approach showed that the fragments were likely to be at migration-drift equilibrium. F-statistics showed only modest levels of differentiation between forest fragments. We calculated allelic diversity indices for each fragment but found no correlation between genetic diversity and fragment size. These results suggest that manakins may retain substantial connectivity via inter-fragment dispersal despite habitat fragmentation. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-8554. Publicación no.: 317 The effects of forest fragmentation on bee communities in tropical countryside [Efectos de la fragmentación del bosque en las comunidades de abejas en un paisaje rural tropical] / Brosi, Berry J; Daily, Gretchen C; Shih, Tiffany M; Oviedo-Brenes, Federico; Durán, Guillermo. (Stanford

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University. Department of Biological Sciences, Center for Conservation Biology, Stanford, CA 943055020, US <E-mail: bbrosi@stanford.edu> <E-mail: gdaily@stanford.edu>). En: Journal of Applied Ecology (ISSN 0021-8901), v. 45, no. 3, p. 773-783. 2008. 1. Despite ongoing concerns and controversy over a putative 'global pollination crisis' there is little information on the response of bees, the most important group of pollinators, to land-use change. In particular, there are no published studies ofthe effects of tropical forest fragmentation on entire bee communities. 2. We examined bee community responses to forest fragment size, shape, isolation and landscape context (forest variables) by sampling foraging bees at ground level using aerial netting within, and in pastures adjacent to, 22 forest fragments ranging in area from c. 0.25 ha to 230 ha, in southern Costa Rica. We sampled each site 13 times in total, in both wet and dry seasons. 3. Although there were no effects of forest variables on bee diversity and abundance, we did find strong changes in bee community composition. In particular, tree-nesting meliponines (social stingless bees) were associated with larger fragments, smaller edge:area ratios and greater proportions of forest surrounding sample points, while introduced Apis showed opposite patterns. 4. Community composition was also strikingly different between forests and pastures, despite their spatial proximity. In forests, even in the smallest patches, meliponines comprised a much larger proportion of the apifauna, and orchid bees (euglossines) were common. In pastures, Apis was much more abundant and no euglossine bees were found. 5. These results agree broadly with other studies that have found contrasting responses to habitat fragmentation from different bee groups. Conserving meliponine bees, important for pollination of coffee and other crops, and euglossine bees, critical in long-distance pollen transport, will require forest. 6. Synthesis and applications. In the first study of the effects of tropical forest fragmentation on entire understorey bee assemblages, we found bee community resilience to land-use change, as deforested sites and small forest fragments can have a diverse component of bees. While bees as a whole show some degree of resilience to land-use change, there are taxon-specific responses and, in our study area, there is clear value to conserving native forest, particularly for the ecologically and economically important meliponine and euglossine bees. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-8593. Publicación no.: 318 Evaluación de la biodiversidad de mariposas diurnas presentes en sistemas agroforestales modernos con café en el Corredor Biológico Volcánica Central-Talamanca, Costa Rica [Evaluation of the butterflies biodiversity in modern coffee agroforestry systems in the Volcánica CentralTalamanca Biological Corridor, Costa Rica] / Pérez-García, Oscar. Turrialba: CATIE, 2008. 68 p. Thesis, Mag. Sc. en Agroforestería Tropical, Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Turrialba (Costa Rica). Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-8656.pdf The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the biological diversity of butterflies in different structural coffee agroforestry systems in a fragmented landscape of the Volcánica Central-Talamanca Biological Corridor, Costa Rica. We also evaluated the influence of surrounding forest fragments on the species richness and abundance of butterflies in the coffee plantations. A significant correlation between surrounding forest cover (radius of 25 to 150 m)and fruit feeding butterflies of coffee plantations has been found but there was no correlation with regard to nectar feeding butterflies or habitat preferences of butterflies. It can be concluded that an increment in structural complexity of coffee agroforestry systems (CPL) is favoring more diversity of butterflies than systems with less

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complexity (CPM and CP). In addition, forest fragments surrounding the coffee plantations have an influence on the presence of butterflies which are typical for forest habitats like fruit feeding butterflies. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-8656. Publicación no.: 319 Herramientas para el diseño, gestión y monitoreo de corredores biológicos en Costa Rica / Canet-Desanti, Lindsay. Turrialba: CATIE, 2007. 217 p. Thesis, Mag. Sc. en Manejo y Conservación de Bosques Tropicales y Biodiversidad, Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Turrialba (Costa Rica). Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-8657.pdf The present investigation proposed to create tools that contribute to orientating and to standardizing the processes of BC management and in this way to fulfill the conservation aims for which they were proposed. These tools were created from theoretical foundations and the practical experience of participatory management of eleven successful BC in the country. The processes were reconstructed using the methodology of systematizing experience and analyzed by means of the framework of community capitals. As a result, three types of tools were elaborated: methodological guidelines for the design and establishment of BC, the necessary contents of scientific baseline documents and finally, a standard for monitoring BC in different phases of management. All these products were developed under the principles of the ecosystem approach and they are articulated in such a way that the agents of the BC are allowed to follow a coherent process of development and integration. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-8657. Publicación no.: 320 Habitat fragmentation lowers survival of a tropical forest bird [La fragmentación del hábitat reduce la supervivencia de un ave del bosque tropical] / Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Viviana; Gavin, Thomas A; Dhondt, André A. (Cornell University. Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, Bird Population Studies, 159 Sapsucker Woods Road, Ithaca, N.Y. 14850, US <E-mail: vr45@cornell>). En: Ecological Applications (ISSN 1808-0251), v. 18, no. 4, p. 838-846. 2008. Population ecology research has long been focused on linking environmental features with the viability of populations. The majority of this work has largely been carried out in temperate systems and, until recently, has examined the effects of habitat fragmentation on survival. In contrast, we looked at the effect of forest fragmentation on apparent survival of individuals of the White-ruffed Manakin (Corapipo altera) in southern Costa Rica. Survival and recapture rates were estimated using mark-recapture analyses, based on capture histories from 1993 to 2006. We sampled four forest patches ranging in size from 0.9 to 25 ha, and four sites in the larger 227-ha Las Cruces Biological Station Forest Reserve (LCBSFR). We found a significant difference in annual adult apparent survival rates for individuals marked and recaptured in forest fragments vs. individuals marked and recaptured in the larger LCBSFR. Contrary to our expectation, survival and recapture probabilities did not differ between male and female manakins. Also, there was no support for the existence of annual variation in survival within each study site. Our results suggest that forest fragmentation is likely having an effect on population dynamics for the White-ruffed Manakin in this landscape. Therefore, populations that appear to be persisting in fragmented landscapes might still be at risk of local extinction, and conservation action for tropical birds should be aimed at identifying and reducing sources of adult mortality. Future studies in fragmentation effects on reproductive success and survival, across broad geographical scales, will be needed before it is possible to achieve a clear understanding of the effects of habitat fragmentation on populations for both tropical and temperate regions.

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Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-8592. Publicación no.: 321 Nesting success of Costa Rican lowland rain forest birds in response to edge and isolation effects [Exito de anidamiento de aves del bosque lluvioso costarricense de las tierras bajas en respuesta a los efectos de borde y el aislamiento] / Young, Bruce E; Sherry, Thomas W; Sigel, Bryan J; Woltmann, Stefan. (NatureServe, 1101 Wilson Boulevard, 15th Floor, Arlington, Virginia 22209, US <Email: bruce_young@natureserve.org>). En: Biotropica (ISSN 0006-3606), v. 40, no. 5, p. 615-622. 2008. Although open-cup nesting birds generally face increased risk of nest depredation from forest edge predators and brood parasites in fragmented temperate landscapes, little information exists to assess such risks in tropical birds. We compared nestingsuccess of real birds? nests in large and small forest fragments to a control site in Caribbean lowland wet forest of Costa Rica. Pooling across species, nesting success was significantly greater in unfragmented forest than in either small, isolated fragments or the La Selva Biological Reserve, which is at the tip of a forest "peninsula" embedded in a largely deforested landscape. Nesting success in isolated fragments did not vary according to distance from edge, suggesting that predators in fragments act throughout these forest patches. The case for increased nest predation as a plausible mechanism to explain the documented decline of forest interior bird populations in this fragmented tropical landscape is enhanced by a simple demographic model that suggests nesting success is likely too low to maintain populations at La Selva and in the fragments. The fact that the large ( 1000 ha) La Selva forest reserve is experiencing nest predation rates similar to those in much smaller fragments is cause for concern. Our results make a strong case for additional studies to document the identities of nest predators in both fragmented and unfragmented forests in such tropical forest landscapes. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-8761. Publicación no.: 322 Efecto de la complejidad estructural y el contexto paisajístico en la avifauna de sistemas agroforestales cafetaleros [The effect of structural complexity and landscape context in the avifauna of coffee agroforestry systems] / Florian-Rivero, Elena M; Harvey, Celia A; Finegan, Bryan; Benjamin, Tamara Jo; Soto-Muñoz, Gabriela. (CATIE, Apartado 7170, Turrialba, CR <E-mail: eflorian@catie.ac.cr> <E-mail: c.harvey@conservation.org> <E-mail: bfinegan@catie.ac.cr> <E-mail: tamara@catie.ac.cr> <E-mail: gabisoto@racsa.co.cr>). En: Ornitología Neotropical (ISSN 1075-4377), v. 19, Suppl. S, p. 541-548. 2008. Numerous studies have shown the importance of coffee agroforestry systems for avifauna biodiversity. However, there is still little known on how the structural complexity of coffee agroforestry systems and landscape context affect composition in these systems. This study explored the relationships between structural complexity, landscape context (surrounding forest cover), and bird communities present in these systems within the Volcánica Central - Talamanca Biological Corridor (CBVCT), Costa Rica. We examined the structural, floristic and management characteristics of 20 shade coffee farms with Erythrina poeppigiana (CE) and 20 shade coffee farms with E. poeppigiana and Cordia alliodora (CEC). The percentage of forest cover around each farm was calculated at distance radius of 500 m, 1000 m and 1500 m in order to examine the effect of landscape context. Birds were sampled in the 40 coffee farms and five forests by using point counts. A total of 1687 individuals (101 species) were observed in coffee farms, the majority of which were generalist species. A total of 1064 individuals (85 species) were registered in CEC farms and 623 individuals (56 species) were registered in CE farms, indicating greater

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species richness, abundance and bird diversity in coffee farms with greater structural complexity explained by the presence of a timber tree species such as C alliodora, epiphytes and a higher canopy. The surrounding forest cover had a negative effect in the overall, abundance, species richness, and diversity of generalist birds, but had a positive effect on forest specialists, indicating that coffee agroforestry systems with greater structural complexity and high surrounding forest cover can harbor some bird species with a high conservation value. Increasing the structural complexity of coffee agroforestry systems and forest cover around coffee plantations can aid bird conservation efforts in anthropogenic landscapes. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-15993. Publicación no.: 323 Foraging ecology of parrots in a modified landscape: Seasonal trends and introduced species [Ecología de forrajeo de cotorras en un paisaje modificado: Tendencias estacionales y especies introducidas] / Matuzak, Greg D; Bezy, M. Bernadette; Brightsmith, Donald J. (10090 Skyline Dr, Grass Valley, CA 95945, US <E-mail: gmatuzak@hotmail.com>). En: The Wilson Journal of Ornithology (ISSN 1559-4491), v. 120, no. 2, p. 353-365. 2008. We studied the diet and foraging ecology of a community of six psittacines in western Costa Rica. All had a varied diet with clear seasonal changes in preferred food items, mostly due to changes in plant phenology. There was a significant relationship between parrot mass and food types: larger-bodied parrots consumed more seeds and smaller-bodied parakeets consumed more fruit pulp. Leaves, bark, and lichen were also consumed by most psittacines. Most parrots consumed more plant species in the dry season when food availability was at its peak. Levins' niche breath showed varying levels of diet specialization among species and, for some species, variation among seasons. There was less similarity in seasonal psittacine diets when compared to overall diets. Scarlet Macaws (Ara macao) under study were captive raised and released which may have contributed to their narrow diet breadth as they may have lacked the knowledge or experience to exploit additional food sources. Non-native and cultivated species comprised 76% of the diet of Scarlet Macaws, and averaged 28% for all other species. This suggests that foraging parrots may have increased conflicts with humans as landscapes become increasingly modified. Forest restoration strategies should augment the abundance of food species consumed when overall food supply is at its annual low. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-8848. Publicación no.: 324 Effects of artificial roosts for frugivorous bats on seed dispersal in a neotropical forest pasture mosaic [Efectos de refugios artificiales para murciélagos frugívoros sobre la diseminación de semillas en un mosaico bosque-pastos neotropical] / Kelm, Detlev H; Wiesner, Kerstin R; von Helversen, Otto. (Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research. Evolutionary Ecology Research Group, PF 601103, 10252 Berlin, DE <E-mail: kelm@izw-berlin.de> <E-mail: helver@biologie.uni-erlangen.de>). En: Conservation Biology (ISSN 1523-1739), v. 22, no. 3, p. 733-741. 2008. In the Neotropics ongoing deforestation is producing open and heavily fragmented landscapes dominated by agriculture, mostly plantations and cattle pastures. After some time agriculture often becomes uneconomical and land is abandoned. Subsequent habitat regeneration may be slow because seed inputs are restricted by a lack of incentives - such as suitable roost sites - for seed dispersers to enter deforested areas. Increasing environmental awareness has fostered growing efforts to promote reforestation. Practical and cost-efficient methods for kick-starting forest regeneration are, however, lacking. We investigated whether artificial bat roosts for frugivorous bat species can attract these key

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seed dispersers to deforested areas, thereby increasing seed rain. We installed artificial bat roosts in a forest-pasture mosaic in the Costa Rican Atlantic lowlands and monitored bat colonization and seed dispersal. Colonization occurred within a few weeks of installation, and 10 species of bats occupied the artificial roosts. Five species of frugivorous or nectarivorous bats colonized artificial roosts permanently in both primary habitat and in deforested areas, in numbers similar to those found in natural roosts. Seed input around artificial roosts increased significantly. Sixty-nine different seed types, mostly of early-successional plant species, were transported by bats to artificial roosts in disturbed habitats. The installation of artificial bat roosts thus successfully attracted frugivorous bats and increased seed inputs into degraded sites. This method is likely to speed up early-vegetation succession, which in turn will attract additional seed dispersers, such as birds, and provide a microhabitat for seeds of midland latesuccessional plants. As well as supporting natural forest regeneration and bat conservation, this costefficient method can also increase environmental awareness among landowners. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-8788. Publicación no.: 325 The impact of land-use change on larval insect communities: Testing the role of habitat elements in conservation [El impacto del cambio de uso del suelo en las comunidades de larvas de insectos: Prueba de la función de los elementos del hábitat en la conservación] / Ngai, Jacqueline T; Kirby, Kathryn R; Gilbert, Benjamin; Starzomski, Brian M; Pelletier, Aimee J.D; Conner, J. C. Ross. (University of British Columbia. Department of Zoology, Biodiversity Research Center, 6270 Univ Blvd, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, CA <E-mail: ngai@zoology.ubc.ca>). En: Ecoscience (ISSN 1195-6860), v. 15, no. 2, p. 160-168. 2008. Conservationists have proposed that maintaining key elements of the original land-cover type in modified landscapes may mitigate the detrimental effects of land-cover change on residual species. We tested this hypothesis for aquatic insect communities in tank-forming bromeliads in forested and nonforested habitats in Costa Rica. Bromeliad tanks hold much of the standing water in this region and therefore provide an important resource for insects with aquatic larval stages. We quantified the relative importance of land-use type and the bromeliad-specific "local" environment on the insect community, and also the effect of land-use type on this local environment. Insect species responded to both land-use type and the local environment, with these variables explaining a total of 36% of species densities. The local environment independently explained 19% of insect densities, while land-use type explained 17%, mainly through its modification of the local environment. Local environmental conditions were strongly correlated to land-use type (r² = 0.64), with non-forest habitat having a higher average temperature, a greater variation in temperature, and a lower density of bromeliads. Our results indicate that the land-use type in which bromeliads occur influences the relative densities of insects by altering the local environment of bromeliads. Therefore, maintaining bromeliads under land-use conversion will not necessarily maintain the bromeliad insect community of the original forested habitat. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-8931. Publicación no.: 326 En busca de un enfoque común para el Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano [Defining common ground for the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor] / Miller, Kenton R; Chang, Elsa; Johnson, Nels. (World Resources Institute, 1709 New York Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20006, US). Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute, 2001. 49 p. ISBN: 1-56973-486-0. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-9040.pdf

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El Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano es una iniciativa lanzada en América Central y el sur de México, cuyo objetivo es conservar la diversidad biológica de la región, al tiempo que fomenta el desarrollo sostenible. Se trata de un esfuerzo particularmente significativo por el alcance y la complejidad de sus metas, y por el rango de instituciones y actores sociales que involucra. Estas características entrañan la gran promesa del CBM, pero al mismo tiempo presentan enormes desafíos que deberán ser abordados si se quiere que la iniciativa tenga un impacto positivo en la región. Específicamente, el éxito de este esfuerzo exige que se desarrolle una visión común de sus metas y funciones, es decir, una visión que reconozca las necesidades divergentes que están en juego e identifique los intereses comunes de todos los actores en torno al logro de la sostenibilidad ecológica y socioeconómica. En últimas, la capacidad de despertar confianza entre los varios grupos con intereses en el CBM determinará su destino. Se espera que este documento contribuya a desarrollar esta visión común, pero no mediante la prescripción de soluciones sino proponiendo temas y sugiriendo procesos dentro de los cuales se puedan abordar tales temas. Existe la necesidad urgente de dar una respuesta global a los problemas ambientales de Mesoamérica. La región figura entre las más ricas del mundo en materia de recursos biológicos, pero la viabilidad de estos recursos se encuentra amenazada por la falta de desarrollo económico, la ausencia de equidad y las presiones demográficas. Se ha generado un círculo vicioso de degradación ambiental y estancamiento económico. Sin embargo, durante la última década estos temas han sido objeto de atención por parte de los responsables por la toma de decisiones a nivel regional, una tendencia que culminó precisamente con el lanzamiento del CBM. Esta iniciativa se ha convertido en el foco de flujos significativos de ayuda financiera proveniente de las agencias donantes y ha inspirado muchos proyectos en el terreno. Con todo, los grupos de interés y los responsables por la formulación de políticas permanecen divididos, dudosos con respecto a las metas y beneficios del CBM, y preocupados por los impactos que éste pueda tener en sus propios intereses. La lógica que subyace al CBM surgió de la conciencia cada vez mayor de los biólogos conservacionistas de la región sobre la necesidad de mantener la conectividad entre las áreas de hábitat biológico con el fin de asegurar la sobrevivencia de las especies. Tal reconocimiento ha estimulado el desarrollo de un enfoque holístico aplicable a la relación entre los terrenos silvestres y aquéllos impactados por la acción humana. Este enfoque apunta a maximizar las funciones de conservación que cumplen las áreas silvestres mediante la promoción de formas de uso de la tierra en un paisaje ampliado que ofrezcan tanto la posibilidad de lograr beneficios de conservación como formas sostenibles de ganarse la vida. Guiados por esta lógica, los planificadores del CBM han apoyado la utilización de cuatro zonas diferenciadas de ordenamiento territorial: zonas núcleo, zonas de amortiguamiento, zonas de corredor y zonas de usos múltiple. En este documento se discuten las características de cada tipo de zona, así como los criterios que se deben utilizar para acotarlas según el terreno. Las zonas núcleo son aquellos lugares designados como áreas protegidas, es decir, hábitats seguros para la fauna y flora silvestres. Las zonas de amortiguamiento rodean a las áreas protegidas y operan como filtro frente a los impactos negativos que lleguen y salgan de aquéllas. Las zonas de corredor conectan a las zonas núcleo unas con otras, sea conservando su cubierta silvestre original o bajo un manejo orientado a asegurar que las actividades humanas que allí se llevan a cabo son compatibles con un alto grado de conectividad biológica. Finalmente están las zonas de usos múltiples que, aunque se dedican principalmente a las actividades humanas, son manejadas con el fin de facilitar la creación de paisajes más amplios que acojan a las especies silvestres. Como parte de un sistema integrado de ordenamiento territorial regional, cada tipo de zona proporciona beneficios tanto ecológicos como socioeconómicos. La planificación y puesta en práctica del CBM requerirá enfrentar una serie de desafíos estratégicos.

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Fragmentación del hábitat y corredores biológicos: una bibliografía anotada
Febrero 2013

Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-9040. Publicación no.: 327 Opportunities for conserving biodiversity within agricultural landscapes in Central America: lessons from the FRAGMENT project [Oportunidades para conservar la biodiversidad entre paisajes agrícolas en Centroamérica: lecciones del proyecto FRAGMENTO] / Harvey, Celia A; Sinclair, Fergus L; Sáenz-Méndez, Joel Cris; Ibrahim, Muhammad A; Villanueva-Najarro, Cristóbal; Gómez, René; López, Marlon; Montero, Jorge; Medina, Arnulfo; Sánchez-Merlo, Dalia; Vílchez-Mendoza, Sergio J; Hernández, Blas. (Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Dr, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22202, US <Email: c.harvey@conservation.org> <E-mail: f.l.sinclair@bangor.ac.uk> <E-mail: jsaenz@una.ac.cr> <Email: mibrahim@catie.ac.cr> <E-mail: cvillanu@catie.ac.cr> <E-mail: ctecnico@ns.uca.edu.ni> <E-mail: lopezm@catie.ac.cr> <E-mail: artibeus@prodigy.net.mx> <E-mail: arfitoria@yahoo.com> <E-mail: dsanchez@catie.ac.cr> <E-mail: tipitapa13@hotmail.com> <E-mail: reise3us@yahoo.com>). Integrated Management of Environmental Services in Human Dominated Tropical Landscapes, Turrialba (CATIE), CR, November 2005, p. 21-26. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-8978.pdf Introduction: In Central America, where large areas of land have been deforested and converted to cattle production, most landscapes now consist of mosaics of small forest patches interspersed within a matrix of pastures and crop fields (Harvey et al. 2005). Although agricultural landscapes are often seen as biological wastelands, they usually retain a conspicuous and abundant tree cover in the form of small forest patches, riparian areas, live fences and dispersed trees in fields (Harvey et al. 2004). This tree cover may play important roles in maintaining both local and regional biodiversity by serving as important habitat and resources for both plant and animal species, and by maintaining a certain degree of landscape connectivity. At the same time, this on-farm tree cover plays important roles in farm productivity, providing products and services to farmers. In order to manage tree cover in agricultural landscapes for both conservation and production, it is important to understand the existing patterns of on-farm tree cover within agricultural landscapes, their roles in maintaining farm productivity, and their importance for biodiversity conservation. It is also is critical to understand how farmers make decisions about on-farm tree cover, as these decisions determine the structure and composition of tree cover in agricultural landscapes, which in turn, influence their value for the conservation of biodiversity. In this talk, I present an overview of the main results of research project ‘Assessing the impacts of trees on farm productivity and biodiversity conservation in fragmented landscapes’ (FRAGMENT project), in which we characterized on-farm tree cover, documented its value for farm production, explored farmer local knowledge and decision-making about tree cover, and assessed the role of on-farm tree cover for biodiversity conservation in 4 contrasting landscapes in Costa Rica and Nicaragua. On the basis of this information, I highlight the importance of on-farm tree cover, both for farm production and biodiversity conservation, and identify key opportunities for conserving biodiversity within agricultural landscapes in the region. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-8978. Publicación no.: 328 The effects of forest fragment age, isolation, size, habitat type, and water availability on monkey density in a tropical dry forest [Efectos de la edad de fragmentación del bosque, aislamiento, tamaño, tipo de hábitat y disponibilidad de agua en la densidad de monos en un bosque seco tropical] / DeGama-Blanchet, Holly Noelle; Fedigan, Linda M. (University of Calgary. Department of Anthropology, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, CA <E-mail: fedigan@ucalgary.ca>).

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En: New perspectives in the study of Mesoamerican primates: distribution, ecology, behavior, and conservation. Estrada, Alejandro; Garber, Paul A; Pavelka, Mary S. M; Luecke, LeAndra (eds.) New York: Springer, 2005. p. 165-188. ISBN: 038725854X. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-9156.pdf In summary, forest fragment age is an important explanatory variable for capuchin and howler density (higher densities were found in older areas of forest), whereas it makes no contribution to explaining the density of spider monkeys. The presence of evergreen forests in ACG is also important for explaining the absolute density of all three species, as there were higher densities in fragments containing evergreen forest. Transects where water was available in the dry season had higher capuchin densities; water availability appears to be more important for this species than for the spider monkeys and howlers. Forest fragment isolation and size made little contribution to explaining the density of any primate in ACG, probably due to the large size of forest fragments surveyed. Based on these findings, we conclude that older fragments of forest with dry season standing water, and a substantial amount of evergreen forest should be preferentially protected to enhance the conservation of white-faced capuchins, black-handed spider monkeys, and mantled howlers in Costa Rica. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-9156. Publicación no.: 329 Corredores biológicos de Costa Rica / Rojas, Luis A (comp.); Chavarría-Espinoza, María Isabel (comp.). San José: MINAE / SINAC / Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano, 2005. 215 pp. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-9000.pdf El tema de corredores biológicos en Costa Rica y en Mesoamérica plantea grandes retos e interrogantes en torno a la conservación de la biodiversidad. Ha pasado de ser un tema solamente de la acción gubernamental a la participación activa de diversos actores de la sociedad costarricense, al generar una amplia discusión sobre el papel de las áreas silvestres protegidas (ASP) y de las fincas privadas en la conservación de los ecosistemas, y al plantear la necesidad del encuentro, la comunicación y por ende la coordinación, hacia la toma de decisiones en un marco de manejo compartido de los recursos de la biodiversidad. Es donde instituciones gubernamentales, propietarios privados, organizaciones comunales, organizaciones internacionales, universidades y municipios, empiezan a participar en este proceso, convirtiéndose en un tema de convergencia entre los intereses privados con los intereses públicos en torno al establecimiento de conectividades entre ASP. Si bien el inicio del Proyecto Consolidación del Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano, a partir de 1999, ha facilitado estos procesos nacionales, binacionales y regionales hacia el establecimiento de corredores biológicos, no podemos dejar de mencionar que en Costa Rica el proceso se inició durante la década de los ochenta con el establecimiento de al menos cuatro corredores biológicos de protección absoluta, como son: la conectividad entre la Estación Biológica La Selva, en Sarapiquí, con el Parque Nacional Braulio Carrillo; la conectividad entre las ASP del Area de Conservación Guanacaste, el corredor biológico Tortuguero, y la conectividad entre el Parque Nacional Tapantí-Macizo de la Muerte, el Parque Nacional Chirripó y el Parque Internacional La Amistad, con las reservas indígenas del Caribe y con la Reserva Biológica HitoyCerere. El presente documento pretende compartir una serie de descripciones y reflexiones sobre el tema de los corredores biológicos, que incluyen la experiencia del proceso impulsado por el Proyecto para la Consolidación del Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano y su papel como puente para la conservación de la vida y como reto para el desarrollo; dos artículos sobre el papel de los corredores biológicos, un artículo sobre el Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva -uno de los más desarrollados del país-, y una síntesis de las 35 fichas técnicas de las iniciativas de corredores biológicos identificadas en

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Costa Rica, con información que corresponde con el grado de avance que ha alcanzado cada uno de ellos. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-9000. Publicación no.: 330 Contribuciones de las cercas vivas a la estructura y la conectividad de un paisaje fragmentado en Río Frío, Costa Rica / Chacón-León, Mario; Harvey, Celia A. (Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE). Departamento de Agricultura y Agroforestería, Apdo. 7170, Turrialba, CR <E-mail: mchacon@catie.ac.cr> <E-mail: c.harvey@conservation.org>). En: Evaluación y conservación de biodiversidad en paisajes fragmentados de Mesoamérica. Harvey, C.A; Sáenz-Méndez, J.C. (eds.) Santo Domingo de Heredia: Editorial INBio, 2007. p. 225-248. ISBN: 978-9968927-29-1. Forest fragmentation leads to the reduction and deterioration habitats, the interruption of landscape connectivity, and the creation of islands of forest vegetation in areas dominated by agriculture and cattle production. Many of these agricultural landscapes contain live fences. In order to understand the contribution of live fences to the structure and connectivity of agricultural landscapes, 377 fences in 500 ha (located in five blocks of 1 km x I km) were measured and characterized in the agricultural landscape of Rio Frío, in the Atlantic region of Costa Rica. Forty-five percent of the existing fences consisted of live fences and 55.5% were dead fences (consisting of wooden fence posts). The mean length of live fences was 147.8 m (+7.9) and the main species present in the live fences were Erythrina costaricensis and Gliricidia sepium. More than 50% of the live fences were situated in pastures and/or adjacent to roads or home gardens. The contribution of live fences to landscape structure and connectivity was investigated using ArcView tools and landscape simulations. The simulated landscapes consisted of a landscape in which all live fences were eliminated, and another simulated landscape in which all wooden fences were replaced with live fences. Live fences had an important impact on the composition and structure of agricultural landscapes, transforming extensive areas of pastures into smaller units, increasing the total area beneath tree cover, increasing the connectivity of forest patches and riparian forests, and creating a network of live fences across the landscape. In addition, the presence of live fences reduced the mean distances between tree canopies of live fences and forest patches, thereby increasing the structural connectivity of the landscape. Although additional studies are necessary to determine if the presence of live fences also increases the functional connectivity of agricultural landscapes, we suggest that live fences offer an interesting opportunity to increase habitat availability and maintain some degree of landscape connectivity in agricultural landscapes. Localización: Biblioteca OET: 333.9516 E92. Publicación no.: 331 Efectos de la fragmentación del hábitat sobre la variabilidad genética en tropas de mono aullador (Alouatta palliata) del Área de Conservación Tempisque, Costa Rica / Quan-Rodas, Claudia Lorena. (Universidad Nacional. Instituto Internacional en Manejo y Conservación de Vida Silvestre, Apdo. 1350-3000, Heredia, CR <E-mail: alouatta18@hotmail.com>). En: Evaluación y conservación de biodiversidad en paisajes fragmentados de Mesoamérica. Harvey, C.A; Sáenz-Méndez, J.C. (eds.) Santo Domingo de Heredia: Editorial INBio, 2007. p. 475-509. ISBN: 978-9968927-29-1. This chapter describes the habitat fragmentation in the Tempisque Conservation Area (TCA) of Costa Rica and evaluates the effects of fragmentation on the genetic variability of howler monkey troops that live in this region. With the help of geographic information systems, seven landscape variables and index

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of habitat compatibility for howler monkey movement were estimated and used to determine the connectivity of different areas in the TCA. The minimum cost routes that connect the main remaining forests were identified and these were compared to the current location of land under environmental services payment schemes, protected areas and proposed corridors, as well as special protection zones. The habitat in the TCA is severely fragmented, particularly in the lowlands that are well suited for agriculture. Pastures cover 41.8% of the area and forests cover 36.4%. The main areas considered to be of high mobility for howler monkeys are found in protected areas or zones with steep slopes greater than 15%. To examine the effects of habitat fragmentation on howler monkey genetic variability, two microsatellite loci were evaluated for 22 individuals from five locations in Palo Verde National Park (a continuous and relatively large habitat) as well as for 14 individuals in 5 forest fragments outside protected areas. In fragmented zones, the howler monkey troops had a lower number of genotypes and fewer alleles than monkeys in Palo Verde. Genetic flow and diversity were lower among monkeys in fragments (0.387 and 0.233) compared to troops in large forest areas like Palo Verde National Park (1.595 y 0.513). The results suggest that there are both natural and anthropogenic barriers to the dispersal of the howler monkeys. Riparian forests act as natural corridors across the landscape and their protection and enrichment is therefore very important for primates in this region. The fragmentation and the loss of genetic diversity could threaten the survival of howler’s monkeys in the TCA in the medium or long-term. However, the howler monkey's great adaptability could help to maintain its populations if adequate management activities are implemented. Localización: Biblioteca OET: 333.9516 E92. Publicación no.: 332 Diversity, natural history and conservation of amphibians and reptiles from the San Vito region, southwestern Costa Rica [Diversidad, historia natural y conservación de anfibios y reptiles de la región de San Vito, suroeste de Costa Rica] / Santos-Barrera, Georgina; Pacheco, Jesús; Mendoza-Quijano, Fernando; Bolaños-Vives, Federico; Cháves-Cordero, Gerardo A; Daily, Gretchen C; Ehrlich, Paul R; Ceballos, Gerardo. (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Facultad de Ciencias, Museo de Zoología, A.P. 70-399, C.P. 04510, México D. F, MX <E-mail: gsantos@miranda.ecologia.unam.mx><E-mail: bolanosv@biologia.ucr.ac.cr> <E-mail: gdaily@stanford.edu> <E-mail: pre@stanford.edu> < E-mail: gceballo@miranda.ecologia.unam.mx>). En: Revista de Biología Tropical (ISSN 0034-7744), v. 56, no. 2, p. 755-778. 2008. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-9391.pdf We present an inventory of the amphibians and reptiles of the San Vito de Coto Brus region, including the Las Cruces Biological Station, in southern Costa Rica, which is the result of a survey of the herpetofauna occurring in mountain forest fragments, pastures, coffee plantations, and other disturbed areas. We found 67 species, included 26 species of amphibians and of 41of reptiles. We describe the distribution patterns of the community on the basis of the life zones, elevation, fragmentation, and degree of anthropogenic impact. We also provide some nouvelle data on the systematics of some select taxa, their geographical ranges, microhabitats, activity, and other relevant ecological and natural history features. Finally, we comment on the present conservation status of the herpetofauna in the region. Previous literature and collection records indicate a higher number of species occurring in this area, which suggests that some declines have occurred, especially of amphibians, in last decades. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-9391.

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Publicación no.: 333 Planted trees as corridors for primates at El Zota Biological Field Station, Costa Rica [Árboles sembrados como corredores para primates en la Estación Biológica de Campo El Zota, Costa Rica] / Luckett, Jerimiah; Danforth, Elizabeth; Linsenbardt, Kim; Pruetz, Jill D. (Franklin College. Department of Biology, Franklin, IN 46131, US). En: Neotropical Primates (ISSN 1413-4705), v. 12, no. 3, p. 143-146. 2004. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-9557.pdf Introduction: We conducted a study at the privately owned El Zota Biological Field Station in Costa Rica to assess the effects of forest management techniques on primate ecology and behavior. While many conservation-oriented studies note the need for 'corridors' to promote dispersal between isolated habitat fragments, few studies provide quantitative information on their use by primates. From July to August 2002, we studied the three primate species that occur at the El Zota Biological Field Station in Costa Rica - Cebus capucinus, Ateles geoffroyi, Alouatta palliata - to compare their use of planted versus naturally forested areas. We collected approximately 25 hours of data to quantify the general activities exhibited by primates in these types of habitat. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-9557. Publicación no.: 334 Caracterización de la vegetación en la cuenca hidrográfica del río Savegre, Costa Rica / Acevedo-Mairena, Heiner (ed.); Estrada-Chavarría, Armando (ed.); Jiménez-Madrigal, Quírico (ed.); Murillo-Rodríguez, Fabiana (ed.). (Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Apdo. Postal 22-3100, Santo Domingo de Heredia, CR <E-mail: hacevedo@inbio.ac.cr> <E-mail: museohn@racsa.co.cr>). Santo Domingo de Heredia: INBio / Museo Nacional de Costa Rica, 2001. 116 p. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-9689.pdf En este documento se presentan los resultados de caracterización de la vegetación de la cuenca hidrográfica del río Savegre, realizado por el Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio) y el Museo Nacional de Costa Rica, durante el período de setiembre del 2000 a julio del 2001. El estudio brinda información sobre las características biofísicas de los diferentes ecosistemas presentes en la cuenca y sobre la riqueza florística de cada uno de ellos y de la cuenca en general. Además, se presenta información sobre la fragmentación de la cobertura boscosa y se identifican los principales ecosistemas de interés para la conservación de la cuenca. La información presentada en este documento constituye un aporte básico y actualizado para la elaboración de un plan de ordenamiento territorial de la cuenca; el cual procura racionalizar la utilización de los recursos y asegurar la protección de la biodiversidad. Este estudio se enmarca dentro del componente de biodiversidad del Proyecto de Desarrollo Sostenible de la Cuenca Hidrográfica del Río Savegre, el cual forma parte del Programa regional Araucaria, que tiene como fin la conservación de la diversidad biológica y el desarrollo sostenible en Iberoamérica. Este programa es auspiciado por la Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional, la cual, en conjunto con el Ministerio de Ambiente y Energía, como institución rectora y responsable de la conservación y uso sostenible de los recursos naturales en el país, son los ejecutores responsables de este Proyecto. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-9689. Biblioteca OET: Tesis 505. Publicación no.: 335 Bats of the La Gamba region, Esquinas rainforest, Costa Rica: species diversity, guild structure and niche segregation [Murciélagos de la región de la Gamba, bosque lluvioso Esquinas, Costa Rica: diversidad de especies, estructura gremial y segregación de nichos] / Landmann, Armin; Walder, Christoph; Vorauer, Anton; Boh, Sonja; Winbeer, Moritz. (University of Innsbruck. Institute of

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Fragmentación del hábitat y corredores biológicos: una bibliografía anotada
Febrero 2013

Zoology, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck, AT <E-mail: armin.landmann@uibk.ac.at> <E-mail: christoph.walder@aon.at> <E-mail: anton.vorauer@utanet.at> <E-mail: mw7gmx.de>). En: Stapfia (ISSN 0252-192X), v. 80, p. 423-440. 2008. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-9636.pdf The Piedras Blancas National Park in south-west Costa Rica harbours some of the most species-rich habitats in Central America. We give a first overview of its bat fauna and investigate differences of species diversity and bat community structures between habitats with different levels of disturbance for a representative sub-area at the eastern edge of the park. With 49 species, the small 6 km² investigation area around La Gamba exhibits a very high bat diversity including many species considered rare or uncommon in Costa Rica. A total of 1702 bats were captured in mist nets over 59 nights from January to March 1997 and 2004. Capture rates were higher at gallery woodlands and at secondary forest margins than at primary rainforest sites, but the latter showed higher species numbers and a more balanced dominance structure. Primary habitats also had the highest number of foraging guilds and especially gleaning insectivores and nectarivores were mostly found in mature forests. Understorey gleaning frugivores (Carollia spp.) and a few aerial insectivores, on the other hand, made up a high proportion of total captures in the cultivated landscape. There, gallery woodlands, live fences and shaded plantations proved to be important flyways and foraging places for a surprisingly diverse bat fauna (30 species recorded). Differences in average capture heights at ground level mist nets indicate fine-tuned spatial niche segregation between some aerial insectivores, but only to a low extent for members of frugivorous guilds. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-9636. Publicación no.: 336 Campaña binacional sobre la ecología de Ara ambigua, Nicaragua-Costa Rica / Chassot, Olivier; Figueroa, Alfredo; Monge-Arias, Guisselle; Ruiz-Meléndez, Antonio; Mariscal-Pueyo, Teresa; Kjeldsen, Jørgen Peter. (Centro Científico Tropical. Proyecto de Investigación y Conservación de la Lapa Verde (Ara ambiguus), Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva, Apdo. 8-3870, 1000 San José, CR <Email: lapa@cct.or.cr> <E-mail: pjoern@prinzapolka.dk>). Actas del I Simposio Mesoamericano de Psittaciformes, La Ceiba HN 22-23 Nov. 2005. En: Red Mesoamericana de Conservación de Psittácidos. Chassot, Olivier; Monge, Guisselle; Lezama, Martín (eds.), 2006. p. 118-123. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-9914.pdf Important fragments of primary and intervened forest in the El Castillo-San Juan-La Selva Biological Corridor (southeastern Nicaragua and northern Costa Rica) are being threatened by timber extraction and agricultural expansion. Since 2000, bonds between the Fundación del Río (Nicaragua) and the Tropical Science Center (Costa Rica) have been strengthened, resulting in a binational campaign focused on promoting the awareness of the ecology of the Great Green Macaw (Ara ambigua) in the lowlands of the San Juan River. The primary objectives of the campaign have been: to conduct workshops on the biology, importance, threats and conservation of the Great Green Macaw and its habitat; to strengthen natural resources management by the environmental authorities of both countries using alliances built around the establishment of local and international biological corridors; and the organization of joint symbolic activities. The most outstanding results to date have been the understanding, acceptance and concern of the major stakeholders regarding the challenges faced by the Great Green Macaw, and the urgent need of cooperative ventures to protect it from extinction in both countries. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-9914.

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Publicación no.: 337 Riparian corridors enhance movement of a forest specialist bird in fragmented tropical forest [Los corredores ribereños mejoran el movimiento de un ave especialista en bosques tropicales fragmentados] / Gillies, Cameron Scott; Clair, Colleen, Cassady St. (University of Alberta. Department of Biological Sciences, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E9, ). En: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (ISSN 0027-8424), v. 105, no. 50, p. 19774-19779. 2008. Riparian corridors and fencerows are hypothesized to increase the persistence of forest animals in fragmented landscapes by facilitating movement among suitable habitat patches. This function may be critically important for forest birds, which have declined dramatically in fragmented habitats. Unfortunately, direct evidence of corridor use has been difficult to collect at landscape scales and this limits support for corridors in conservation planning. Using telemetry and handheld GPS units, we examined the movement of forest birds by translocating territorial individuals of barred antshrikes (Thamnophilus doliatus; a forest specialist) and rufous-naped wrens (Campylorhynchus rufinucha; a forest generalist) 0.7-1.9 km from their territories in the highly fragmented tropical dry forest of Costa Rica. In each translocation, the directly intervening habitat comprised 1 of 3 treatments: forested riparian corridor, linear living fencerow, or open pasture. Antshrikes returned faster and with greater success in riparian corridors relative to pasture treatments. This species also traveled more directly in riparian corridor treatments, detoured to use forested routes in the other 2 treatments, and did not use fencerows even when they led directly to their home territories. By contrast, wrens were more likely to use fencerows when returning, and return time and success were equivalent among the 3 treatments. Both species crossed fewer gaps in tree cover during riparian corridor treatments than in fencerow or pasture treatments. We conclude that antshrikes, which may be representative of other forest specialists, use forested corridors for movement in this landscape and that fencerows are avoided as movement conduits. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-10109. Publicación no.: 338 Seed dispersal by birds in active and abandoned pastures in Costa Rica: implications for tropical forest regeneration [Diseminación de semillas por las aves en potreros activos y abandonados en Costa Rica: consecuencias para la regeneración del bosque tropical] / Werner, Frederick Reuben. (Cornell University. Department of Natural Resources, Ithaca, NY 14851, US <E-mail: frw4@cornell.edu>). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, 2004. 92 p. Thesis, M.Sc., Cornell University, Graduate School, Ithaca, NY (USA). In the face of ongoing tropical deforestation, interest is growing in reforestation and forest regeneration. Birds disperse the seeds of 50-75% of Neotropical forest trees, and the absence of birddispersed. seeds is a key obstacle to restoring tropical forests on cleared lands. I examined seed dispersal by birds in Costa Rica and found a diverse avifauna carried a diverse load of seeds through both active pastures and young secondary growth. Using mist nets in forest fragments, active pasture, and two-year-old secondary growth, I recorded 1752 captures of birds, including 1062 seed dispersers, or frugivorous birds that deposit whole, viable seeds from at least some of the fruit they eat. I collected fecal samples from 723 birds, 427 of which contained viable seeds. These samples represent 65 bird species dispersing 99 plant species. Seeds from more than five plant species were found in the feces of 17 bird species, all but one of which were captured at least once in open pasture. I also observed an additional 19 species of seed-dispersing birds in the pastures and young secondary growth. The absence

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Fragmentación del hábitat y corredores biológicos: una bibliografía anotada
Febrero 2013

of seeds in pastures documented by various seed trap studies may be due to the defecation behavior of small frugivores that may defecate preferentially while perching. My results support earlier suggestions that the behavior of seed-dispersing birds in the vicinity of abandoned pastures may be a key to regenerating tropical forests. Localización: Biblioteca OET: Tesis 435. Publicación no.: 339 Dispersal limitation in epiphytic bromeliad communities in a Costa Rican fragmented montane landscape [Limitación de la diseminación en comunidades de bromelias epífitas en un paisaje costarricense fragmentado] / Cascante-Marín, Alfredo M; von Meijenfeldt, Noemi; de Leeuw, Hanneke M.H; Wolf, Jan H.D; Oostermeijer, J. Gerard B; den Nijs, Joannes C.M. (Museo Nacional de Costa Rica. Departamento de Historia Natural, Apdo 749-1000, San José, CR <E-mail: alfredo.cascante@gmail.com> <E-mail: jhdwolf@worldonline.nl>). En: Journal of Tropical Ecology (ISSN 0266-4674), v. 25, no. 1, p. 63-73. 2009. Transformation of tropical forests is likely to affect seed-dispersal patterns and influence the composition of epiphytic plant communities in human-altered habitats. We tested this hypothesis by carrying out a comparative study of seed influx, survival and growth of transplanted seedlings of epiphytic bromeliads among isolated trees in six pasture areas, six forest edges and six forest sites in a montane area in Costa Rica. In total, 72 traps trapped 1.285 seeds over a 2-mo period in the dry season of 2003. For all four investigated bromeliad genera, Catopsis, Guzmania, Tillandsia and Werauhia, the number of trapped seeds in each habitat followed a pattern similar to the number of fruiting individuals in the vicinity of the traps. Traps in forest edges (30) were 1.9 times more likely to collect seeds than traps at forest interiors (30) and pasture trees (12), the latter showing similar probabilities of catching seeds. After 1 y, survival and growth of 3660 transplanted seedlings from three bromeliad species was significantly higher in forest interiors, providing no explanation for the lower abundance of fruiting adults in that habitat. These results suggest that the successful establishment of epiphytic bromeliads in forest: interiors is mainly dispersal-limited. If corroborated, differences in abundance among species at each habitat are likely related to differences in growth rates and reproductive success. Further Studies on the growth and mortality of seedlings up to the flowering stage, however, are needed. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-10243. Publicación no.: 340 The effects of forest fragmentation on euglossine bee communities (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) [Los efectos de la fragmentación de los bosques en comunidades de abejas euglossinas (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini)] / Brosi, Berry J. (Stanford University. Department of Biology, 385 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, US). En: Biological Conservation (ISSN 0006-3207), v. 142, no. 2, p. 414-423. 2008. Despite scientific ant, media attention on pollinator declines, there is still only a rudimentary understanding of the response of bees-the most important group of pollinators worldwide-to ongoing land use changes. Euglossine bees are an ecologicallyimportant Neotropical clade of forest-dependent pollinators. Despite the fact that euglossines are well studied relative to other groups of tropical bees, only three previous studies, all from Brazil, address the response of euglossines to forest fragmentation. In this study, I tripled the maximum sample size of previous efforts by sampling male euglossines in 22 forest fragments ranging in area from 0.25 ha to 230 ha in southern Costa Rica, using chemically baited Van Somerer, traps. Abundance of euglossine bees was significantly positively related to forest fragment size, negatively related to shape (edge:area ratio), and marginally related to fragment isolation.

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Página 273 de 332

Bibliografías Especializadas OET #20

Fragmentación del hábitat y corredores biológicos: una bibliografía anotada
Febrero 2013

Euglossine species richness showed similar, but weaker trends: richness was significantly positively related to the quantity of forest edge, marginally negatively related to fragment area, and not related to fragment isolation. The positive relationship between euglossine richness and abundance and forest fragment edge is consistent with other studies that have found high euglossine density in secondary or disturbed forest. The data suggest that individual euglossines move between forest fragments, as has been shown in other systems. Still, forest fragmentation appears to affect euglossine bees more strongly than other bee groups in the study region. Their large flight range and positive relationship with forest edges may help to buffer the negative effects of fragmentation, allowing euglossines to utilize even the very smallest forest fragments in the study area. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-10425. Publicación no.: 341 Biología de la conservación de la lapa verde, 15 años de experiencia 1994-2009 [Conservation biology of the Great Green Macaw (1994-2009), 15 years of experience] / Monge-Arias, Guisselle; Chassot, Olivier. (Centro Científico Tropical. Proyecto de Investigación y Conservación de la Lapa Verde (Ara ambiguus), Corredor Biológico San Juan-La Selva, Apdo. 8-3870, 1000 San José, CR <Email: lapa@cct.or.cr>). San Pedro de Montes de Oca: Centro Científico Tropical, 2009. 12 p. Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-10464.pdf La lapa verde (Ara ambigua) tiene una distribución limitada en tierras bajas húmedas del Atlántico de Centroamérica desde Honduras hasta el norte de Colombia, con una población aislada en el Pacífico en Esmeraldas y Guayaquil, Ecuador. La población mundial es de aproximadamente 7.000 individuos. En Costa Rica, su rango de anidamiento se limita actualmente a aproximadamente 600 km² de bosque tropical muy húmedo del país, en la zona fronteriza con Nicaragua al norte. Esta majestuosa ave en peligro de extinción depende altamente del almendro de montaña (Dipteryx panamensis) para alimentarse y para anidar. El Proyecto de Investigación y Conservación de la Lapa Verde fue iniciado por el Dr. George V. N. Powell y se dedica desde 1994 al estudio de la biología de conservación de la lapa verde en el norte de Costa Rica y posee la base de datos biológicos más importante sobre esta especie. El Proyecto se beneficia del respaldo administrativo del Centro Científico Tropical desde 1997. La preocupación del Dr. Powell era bien acertada cuando la primera fase del estudio determinó que el área de distribución de la lapa verde en Costa Rica se había reducido en un 90% desde principios del Siglo XX. Con los estudios preliminares se pudo comprobar que la distribución limitada de la lapa verde, en combinación con su dependencia a un complejo arreglo de recursos alimenticios implicaba que la protección de su hábitat y recursos beneficiaría a una multitud de otras especies de los bosques donde la lapa vive. La capacidad de esta especie de ejercer un ?efecto sombrilla? para la flora y fauna del hábitat que ocupa, hace que estudiarla sea de importancia crítica para establecer prioridades de conservación, ya que la zona no contaba con ninguna área protegida importante. La Zona Norte ha sufrido la tasa de deforestación más alta del país en las décadas de los ochenta y noventa, dejando menos de un 30% del bosque en pie. Sin embargo, varios estudios científicos resaltan el alto nivel de biodiversidad de los bosques donde habita la lapa verde, entre los más diversos de Centroamérica. En los primeros años de estudio, estimamos la población de lapa verde en 35 parejas reproductivas y 210 individuos. Nuestras lapas cuentan con la Reserva Biológica Indio-Maíz en Nicaragua, donde ellas encuentran un extenso hábitat propicio a su desarrollo. Sin embargo, se hacen cada día más frecuentes las incursiones de madereros costarricenses al otro lado del Río San Juan, así que esta reserva, una de las más importantes de Centroamérica tampoco está a salvo de las motosierras. Hoy día, nuestra

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Página 274 de 332

Bibliografías Especializadas OET #20

Fragmentación del hábitat y corredores biológicos: una bibliografía anotada
Febrero 2013

población de lapa verde se encuentra en un estado muy precario y muy frágil, en el cual la menor modificación de sus condiciones de vida puede llevarla a la extinción. Localización: Biblioteca OET: NBINA-10464. Publicación no.: 342 Homogeneous genetic structuring and microsatellite allele diversities across White-ruffed Manakin (Corapipo altera) populations in a highly fragmented Costa Rica landscape [Estructuración genética homogénea y diversidades de alelos microsatélites a través de poblaciones del saltarín gorgiblanco (Corapipo altera) en un paisaje altamente fragmentado de Costa Rica] / Barnett, Jacob R. (Cornell University. Ornithology Laboratory, Fuller Evolutionary Biology Program, Ithaca, NY 14850, US). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, 2007. 41 p. Thesis, Undergraduate Honors Thesis in Biological Sciences, Cornell University, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Ithaca, NY (USA). Enlace: http://www.ots.ac.cr/rdmcnfs/datasets/biblioteca/pdfs/nbina-10272.pdf We explored the effects of recent forest fragmentation on fine-scale patterns of population structuring and genetic diversity in populations of White-ruffed Manakins (Corapipo altera) inhabiting premontane forest patches of varying size in southwestern Costa Rica. Habitat fragmentation is a major conservation concern for avian populations worldwide, but studies on the genetic effects of fragmentation on Neotropical birds are limited. We sampled 159 manakins from nine forest fragments of varying size and isolation within an 18 km radius, and genotyped these birds at 13 microsatellite loci. Bayesian clustering methods revealed that birds fro