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UNIVERSITATEA Titu Maiorescu Facultatea de Psihologie

TITLUL CURSULUI:
CURS PRACTIC – LIMBA ENGLEZĂ Fundamente de gramatică şi voca ular

Limba engleză - “English for Social Sciences”
Curs pen ru !n"ă#ăm$n la %is an#ă

Asist!univ! &'(IEL' (ICULESCU- )&RE(*+E'

I(TR,&UCERE

"!Coor%ona orul cursului este asist!univ!#aniela Niculescu$%drenghea& titular la Facultatea de Psihologie a Universită'ii Titu Maiorescu& autoare a numeroase traduceri a numeroase studii de s(ecialitate! )!Tu orii : asist!univ! Mihaela *te+ănică& asist!#aniela Niculescu!

CURSUL
-.In ro%ucere ♦ """ este un curs de un semestru şi este cotat cu , credite!

/.0rescriere ♦ -ursul constă .n (re/entarea unor modalită'i de comunicare şi inter(retare .n lim a engle/ă!

1.Con#inu ♦ 0n acest curs vor +i studiate (rin intermediul unor +işe 1 numerotate de$a lungul cursului 1 modalită'i de comunicare .n lim a engle/ă& structuri gramaticale& to(ică& (rin numeroase e2em(li+icări utile studiului individual! 2.,biec i"ele cursului ♦ -ursul de lim a engle/ă (entru .nvă'ăm3nt la distan'ă .şi (ro(une să sedimente/e elemente de lim a engle/ă do 3ndite .n +ormarea (reuniversitară a studentului I#& elemente lingvistice şi de inter(retare necesare unei deschideri a studentului I# către lumea ştiin'i+ică interna'ională! Pentru o anali/ă gramaticală şi inter(retarea de te2te& sunt +olosite tematici cu (redilec'ie din (sihologie 4inclusiv (sihologie socială& (sihologia comunicării etc!5! #e asemenea& (rin acest curs se urmăreşte +ormarea de(rinderilor orale şi scrise utile .n activitatea socio$(ro+esională& .n vederea că(ătării unei autonomii valide de in+ormare şi comunicare .n lim a engle/ă ! ♦ -erin'e 6 "!demonstrarea unor a ilită'i de anali/ă& sinte/ă şi inter(retare 7 )!(artici(are la activită'ile anun'ate .n calendaruldisci(linei! )

I.,3IECTI4E 'LE CURSULUI

89IE-TIVE :ENERA;E6 #e/voltarea de com(eten'e .n utili/area lim ii engle/e (entru comunicare şi in+ormare .n general & ca şi .n domeniul ştiin'elor sociale şi .n s(ecial al (sihologiei& ast+el .nc3t studen'ii să +ie ca(a ili 6  Să .n'eleagă du(ă au/ enun'uri .n +lu2 ver al7  Să .n'eleagă enun'uri& te2te citite .n lim a engle/ă7  Să comunice ver al un mesa<& enun' .n lim a engle/ă7  Să e2(rime .n cuvinte (ro(rii .n lim a engle/ă& .n scris& un mesa<=enun'!

89IE-TIVE AP;I-ATIVE6 "!(ronun'area de diverse enun'uri cu intona'ia corectă7 )!.n'elegerea sensului glo al al unui mesa< ascultat7 ,!ra(ortarea in+orma'iei ascultate la lim a<ul şi e2(erien'a culturală (ro(rie7 >!ada(tarea +ormulelor conversa'ionale la conte2tul dat 4+ormal& in+ormal57 ?!sus'inerea de dialoguri re+eritoare la sine şi la universul (ro(riu7 @!descrierea de (ersoane& locuri& activită'i7 A!identi+icarea unită'ilor de con'inut ale unui te2t7 B!e2(rimarea .n'elesului glo al al unui te2t7 C!recunoaşterea şi utili/area +ormelor s(eciale de cores(onden'ă7 "D!valori+icarea de(rinderilor acumulate (entru (er+ec'ionarea com(eten'elor de lim ă engle/ă!

II. E5I*E(6E 7I CRITERII &E E4'LU'RE 0'R6I'L8 7I 9I('L8

Se vor (ractica următoarele +orme de evaluare6  Test (redictiv la .nce(utul cursului  Teste de (rogres 4lunar5  Teste (entru evaluarea semestrială 4semestrul I& redactarea unui eseu .n care să +ie descrisă o (ersoană7 semestrul II& traducerea unui te2t de a(ro2imativ )DD cuvinte .n lim a rom3nă şi e2amen oral5!

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8PIN: RE.# I #8 N Unit "" #E-ISI8N MAPIN: Unit ") :8NE LITI TIE LAVE . Unit " LIM PSM-I8.-RITERII #E EVA. SI(.ATI8NSIIPS Unit .8:M N Unit ) #EVE.8PMENT Unit @ 8N 9E-8MIN: A PERS8N Unit A FUTUR8.3SER4'6II 0RI4I(& STRUCTUR' CURSULUI > .UARE6 Pentru eseu a! Utili/area de ad<ective care descriu caracterul (ersoanei 4outs(oEen&shF&unsure&a((roacha le&(oised&sel+$ con+ident&reticent&thicE$ sEinned&outgoing&vulnera le&sensitive&outstanding&remarEa le& tough& a!s!o!5 ! Utili/area tim(urilor (re/ente şi a trecutului sim(lu 4ver e sugerate6 taEe (art& learn& ecome& attend& e +ormed& GorE5 c! Format6 "! rie+ summarF o+ li+e& )! childhood and=or teenage Fears& .n următoarele (ro(o/i'iiH -orecta'i greşelile din următorul te2t 4grammar& voca ularF& s(elling& a!s!o!5 III.8:M& TIE S-IEN-E 8F T8M8RR8L Unit B P8LER Unit C EMPATIM Unit "D LIAT SI8U. STRUCTUR' CURSULUI. INTERESTS AN# ATTITU#ES Unit > PARA#8OI-A.0SIS TE:'TIC. 9EIAVI8UR Unit ? -AREER #EVE.! +irst success&>! +amilF li+e&?! career develo(ment& @! conclusion! d! E2(resii de legătură6 As a result o+H&As Gell as& It Gas throughH& IavingH& A+terH& 9FH& Not onlFH& #es(iteH Pentru e2aminarea orală 1 ti(uri de su iecte     -onversa'ie de ? minute (e o tematică dată 4<o s& ho ies& ha itual activities& +uture career& a!s!o!5 Ver e modale 4+ill in the ga(s using the right modal ver 5 Utili/a'i JmaEeK sau JdoK .

& (ages >$@ .8:MK& . PSM-I8. Activită'ile de (re/entare de noi con'inuturi 4reactuali/are5 sunt com inate cu activită'i (ractice& (artici(area activă a studen'ilor de'in3nd un rol +undamental!  Fiecare ca(itol 4unit5 este alcătuit din două cursuri!  Fiecare curs con'ine te2t4e5 din domeniul ştiin'elor sociale şi a(lica'ii (e te2t4e5 (e (ro leme de voca ular& gramatică& ortogra+ie şi (ronun'ie& elemente de cultură şi civili/a'ie ritanică şi americană! UNIT " .9 REL'TI.*<= -8URSE ": WHY STUDYING PSYCHOLOGY? Te2t "6 +rom J:ENERA.(S+I0.! :rou( Gith grou(& e!g!& adolescent gang Gith rival gang& nation Gith nation& >! Person Gith o <ect& e!g!& driver Gith automo ile& scientist Gith atom& ?! 8 <ect Gith o <ect& e!g!& earth Gith moon& +i er glass Gith curtain& ? .e S u%> 0s>cholog> JInterest in the studF o+ (sFchologF groGs out o+ a +elt need to gain a etter understanding o+ (eo(le! The (ur(ose o+ an elementarF or +irst course in (sFchologF is to give the student an o((ortunitF to ecome acSuainted at +irst hand Gith the +unctional as(ects o+ (sFchological (rinci(les& to correct misconce(tions he maF have had concerning his oGn and other (eo(leTs attitudes and ehaviour& and to come to a((reciate the various areas o+ (sFchological studF! 9unc ions of ps>chological s u%> An individual o+ anF age is +aced Gith (ro lems that have (sFchological im(lications! From earlF childhood through old age& everFone e2(eriences situations involving one or more s(eci+ic +orm o+ relationshi(! Iis a ilities& motives and mode o+ thinEing maF e inadeSuate +or success$achieving ehaviour unless he is hel(ed to gain a etter understanding o+ all the +actors inherent in the situation! The (rimarF concern o+ (sFchologF is human ad<ustment! An individual is stimulated to action F +orces Githin or outside himsel+! Ie e2(eriences needs& Gants& or interests& and seeEs GaFs o+ +ul+illing them! Peo(le and o <ects in his environment ecome motivators o+ the Eind o+ ehaviour Ghich he e2hi its! A (ersonTs entire li+e consists o+ series o+ res(onses that are either satis+Fing or unsatis+Fing to himsel+ and that earn either a((roval or disa((roval +rom his associates! In other Gords& as a child& an adolescent& or an adult& a (erson constantlF is engaging in the (rocess o+ ada(ting himsel+ or ad<usting to inner strivings or outer demands! Lithout some EnoGledge or understanding o+ a situation& the individual F chance maEes a good ad<ustment7 too o+ten the ad<ustment is ad and maF even ecome serious malad<ustment! The (sFchologistTs +unctions are to discover the asic (rinci(les o+ good ad<ustment and then to hel( (eo(le a((lF these (rinci(les in everF (hase o+ human relationshi(s so that theF ecome Gell$ad<usted& constructive mem ers o+ their various grou(s! A +urther res(onsi ilitF o+ (sFchologists is to recogni/e the overt sFm(toms o+ malad<ustment& trace its causes& and utili/e such methods as maF seem a((ro(riate to e++ect an im(roved ad<ustment! 'RE'S . An individualTs (ro lem o+ ad<ustment maF concern the relationshi( o+& "! 8ne (erson Gith another& e!g!& teacher$child& hus and$Gi+e& )! 8ne (erson Gith a grou(& e!g!& GorEer$+elloG GorEers& child$si lings 4+ra'i sau surori cu un (ărinte comun5& .h> .+< 0S<C+.L.ittle+ield& Adams Q -o!& NeG RerseF& "C@.

CUS NeG Voca ularF6 gain& earn& Gin7 (ur(ose& goal& aim& target7 to ecome acSuainted7 4in5 adeSuate7 to trace7 to achieve& accom(lish& to +ul+il7 area& domain& +ield7 +oregoing7 to arouse7 4mal5ad<ustment7 4dis5a((roval7 to a((roach& to tacEle7 average7 4un5sEilled7 (eers7 +urther7 hence7 thoroughlF& in detail7 concern7 regard4less57 thus7 to evolve7 in terms o+! 0rac ice :rou( LorE6 #ecide u(on .atin and :reeE 4dat um$data& addendum$addenda& thesis$theses& sFnthesis$ sFntheses& analFsis$analFses& asis$ ases& +ocus$+oci& genius$genii& stimulus$stimuli& trauma$ trauma a& schema$schema a& (henomen!"$(henomena& criteri!"$criteria# matri$%matri&es# a((endi$%a((endi&es57 nouns that have the same +orm oth in the singular and in the (lural6 series$ series& s(ecies$s(ecies& means$means! 0rac ice: Insert the missing noun +orms 4either (lural or singular5 in the ta le eloG6 SIN:U. a5 analFsis H 5 H addenda c5 H diagnoses @ .URA.AR P.$A EeF Gords in the te2t Fou have read! TrF to give Four (ersonal meaning to these Gords! #iscuss the meanings Fou have assigned to them! STRUCTURES The Noun6  irregular (lural o+ nouns 4child 1 children& o2Uo2en& manUmen& GomanUGomen& +ootU+eet& toothUteeth& gooseUgeese& louseUlice& mouseUmice7 H57  s(elling irregularities 4Nouns Ghich receive J$esK at the (lural +orm& end in 6 a5$sh6 +lash1+lashes7 5$ss6 Eiss$Eisses7 c5$ch6 Gatch$Gatches7 d5$26 o2$ o2es7 e5$/6 u//$ u//es7 + +5$consonant V WoX6tomato$tomatoes7 g5$consonant V JFK 4F→i56+lF$+lies7 h5$+=$+e 4+→v56 Gi+e$Gives& lea+$leaves!  nouns orroGed +rom .@! Sel+ Gith sel+& e!g!& (ersonal honestF Gith loFaltF& immediate desire Gith long range goal! Each o+ the +oregoing (ro lems$arousing relationshi(s re(resents manF in+luencing +actors! It is the +unction o+ (sFchologF to assist the individual to analFse these +actors& recognise their relative signi+icance& and (attern his ehaviour in such GaF as to solve the (ro lem satis+actorilF!K 0re-rea%ing I! #iscuss the +olloGing Suestions in grou(s6 "!LhF do Fou Gant to studF (sFchologFN Suggested motives6 • 9ecause Ge liEe the domain7 • 9ecause Ge can get good <o s7 • 9ecause Ge can earn a good living7 • 9ecause ITd liEe to understand mFsel+ and the others etter! :ive at least +ive motives& and grou( them under the right heading6 "! e2trinsic motives7 )! intrinsic motives! )!Ias anFone 4a +amilF mem er& a +riend& H5 in+luenced Fou in maEing such a decision N Rea%ing L'(*U'*E 9.

E PRESENT I )! Mou )! Ie=She=It )!es Le )! Mou )! TheF )! III!5IAVE SIMP.E PRESENT I *a+e Mou *a+e Ie=She=It *as Le *a+e Mou *a+e TheF *a+e A H H H +oci (henomena H& H H a((endices H H teeth H children H H H series H SIMP.CUS Au2iliaries 9E& #8& IAVE I59E SIMP.E PAST I 'as Mou 'e(e Ie=She=It 'as Le 'e(e Mou 'e(e TheF 'e(e SIMP.E PAST I *a) Mou *a) Ie=She=I *a) t Le *a) Mou *a) TheF *a) .E PAST I )i) Mou )i) Ie=She=It )i) Le )i) Mou )i) TheF )i) SIMP.d5 (rioritF e5 (rocess +5 hF(othesis g5 H h5 H i5 genius <5 schema E5 H l5 datum m5 li+e n5 H o5 Goman (5 H S5 stimulus r5 (hone$ ooth s5 letter$ o2 t5 H u5 millenium Irregular Ver s6 understand& e& maEe& give& thinE& have& read! 0R.(U(CI'TI.(6 inherent& coherent *R'::'R 9.E PRESENT I am Mou a(e Ie=She=It is Le a(e Mou a(e TheF a(e II!5#8 SIMP.

'a-s HHH HHH HH!!! HH!!! HHH HHH DY HHH Form6 A++irmative 4no au2iliarF Z56 Add J$sK or J$esK to the short in+initive o+ the ver & at the . rd (erson singular! Ver s Ghich receive J$esK at the .The Simple Present Use6 • Ia itual& re(eated actions in the (resent7 • Permanent situations7 • :eneral truths7 • Timeta les= o++icial (rogrammes 4Gith +uture meaning5! Time E2(ressions6 4e2(ressing +reSuencF5 never& alGaFs& sometimes& o+ten& usuallF& seldom 4rarelF57 everF daF=GeeEH! 0rac ice Arrange the e2(ressions o+ time in the right (lace on an a2is Ghich has JDYK marEed at one end& and J"DDYK at the other end& to e2(ress +reSuencF! "DDY a.$B& sau B .ongman& "CC.e(s!" si"/u.rd (erson singular& end in 6 a5$sh6 Gash1Gashes7 5$ss6 miss$misses7 c5$ch6 search$searches7 d5$26 mi2$mi2es7 e5$/6 u//$ u//es7 +5$consonant V WoX6do$does7 g5$consonant V JFK 4F→i56+lF$ +lies! :ive the sim(le (resent *i() .a( +orm o+ the +olloGing ver s6 a5 Smile7 g5 -rF7 m5 Scratch7 5 Fi27 h5 PraF7 n5 TrF7 c5 Travel7 i5 Teach7 o5 Admit7 d5 Match7 <5 -rash7 (5 #enF7 e5 :o7 E5 FrF7 S5 SaF7 +5 -aress7 l5 #o7 r5 Iiss! 0rac ice 4 i liogra(hF? :rammar e2ercises +rom6 :! :ălă'eanu& E2erci'ii de gramatică engle/ă& Editura Al atros& "CBD 4sau reeditări mai recente5& (aginile @$A& sau V! Evans& Round$u( >& .& (aginile .

IPE A PSM-I8.N!-oe& :rammar S(ectrum .8:IST A++ectivitF= Feelings HHHHHH! PersonalitF Positive thinEing HHHHHH!! There+ore he needs some6 -reativitF Em(athic a((roach SPI.S -ritical thinEing HHHHHH Pro lem solving A ilitF to investigate HHHHH!! Rea%ing Te2t6 LIAT IT TAPES T8 TIINP .& 82+ord Univ! Press& "CC?& (aginile @$A& sau alte volume cu e2erci'ii de gramatică! "!-hoose the most a((ro(riate Gords underlined6 a5 A (ersonTs li+e consist=consists o+ series o+ res(onses to stimuluses=stimuli! 5 Each area o+ human relationshi( reSuires=reSuire intensive and e2tensive studF ased on some hF(othesis=hF(otheses! c5 The (sFchologistTs +unctions is=are to discover the asic (rinci(les o+ (sFchological (henomena=(henomenons! d5 The research datums=data shoGs=shoG overt sFm(toms o+ malad<ustment! -8URSE )6 THIN0ING LI0E A PSYCHOLOGIST 0re-rea%ing Lord$Ge 6 A (sFchologist has to deal Gith6 49rainstorming5 Stages o+ groGth Interests and attitudes Perce(tion PSM-I8.8:IST 4From #ecem er "CC? American PsFchological Association Monitor5 C ..

! *esis !( *a 5s easi.e e)u&a e)# i 5s '*e *e( *e.em%s!.s (a"s3e( i" ! .'a-s see2 i"3!(ma i!" *a &!" (a)i& s *ei( H-.&a" as2 *e (i/* 4ues i!"s a") use e+i)e"&e ! a"s'e( *em##8 he said! JI+ theF havenTt learned that& theF havenTt learned anFthing use+ul!K In his introductorF classes& even the tests are theorF$ ased! Ie maF& +or e2am(le& asE students to critiSue PiagetTs stages o+ childrenTs intellectual develo(ment +rom an evolutionarF (sFchologF (ers(ective! "D . a i u)e#StricEer saFs! JLe need to conveF a message that thinEing liEe a (sFchologist means alGaFs asEing Foursel+ hoG Fou EnoG something&K he saFs! Loo@ing for con ra%ic ions Teaching students to (ractice scienti+ic thinEing at all levels o+ (sFchologF ena les them to ecome more com(etent (ro+essionals& saFs (sFchologist #iane Ial(erne& Ph#& o+ -ali+ornia State UniversitFUSan 9ernardino! Ial(erne served as critical thinEing consultant to the National Education :oals Panel& Lhich in "CC) charged educators Gith increasing the num er o+ college graduates Gith a%"ance% s@ills in cri ical hin@ing an% problem-sol"ing! Ial(erne Geaved critical thinEing into her teaching F encouraging students to looE +or oth e"i%ence an% lac@ of e"i%ence. e("a i+e &!"&.) a.) 3!&us !" *e . i!"s a") .'a-s a.!!2e) !( !mi e)& Ial(erne teaches! I+ a student Gere Griting a (a(er on Ghether e2ercise reduces de(ression& she Gould advise the student to also consider Ghether e2ercise increases de(ression& and to looE +or data su((orting oth arguments! -onsistent Gith the scienti+ic method& Ghich is essentiallF the a((lication o+ logic& s&ie" i3i& *i"2e(s &!"s a" .4ues i!" *ei( !'" assum. Theor> "s.e 3a& s a") *e!(. I"+es i/a !(s s*!u.(!1. Imagine (ractitioners Gho are so sure theF EnoG Ghat causes (atientsT trou les& theF search automaticallF the diagnostic categories& automaticallF tFing an2ietF to childhood trauma or de(ression to a ad marriage! ItTs a distur ing (ros(ect& Fet an entirelF (ossi le one +or someone Ghose academic training Gas strong on +acts& ut GeaE on critical$thinEing sEills needed to KthinE liEe a (sFchologist&K saFs 9oston -ollege (sFchologist Peter :raF& Ph#! A (sFchologF student Gith the (ro(er training EnoGs to vieG the an2ietF or de(ression as a scienti+ic (ro lem 1 to consider a road range o+ (ossi le causes and treatments& saFs :raF& Gho Grites on critical thinEing and hoG to teach it! ThinEing liEe a (sFchologist is thinEing scienti+icallF& saFs :eorge StricEer& Ph#& o+ Adel(hi UniversitFTs Institute o+ Advanced PsFchological Studies! ItTs a((roaching everF (ro lem as a neG one! P(!1.ems 'i * a" i"4ui(i"/ a") s2e.!3 e" &*a"/e# StricEer (oints out! 9ut not all o+ todaFTs (sFchologF students are encouraged to thinE scienti+icallF& saF :raF& StricEer and other (sFchologF (ro+essors! These educators are concerned that unless more em(hasis is (ut on thinEing criticallF and scienti+icallFUthe +undamental traits o+ GhatTs needed to e a good (sFchologistUthe +ield runs the risE o+ (roducing ad$(re(ared (ro+essionals! To ensure that theFTre turning out critical thinEers& e)u&a !(s s*!u.a i!" !3 3a& s *a ma2es .ea&* i"s ea) !3 (ea i"/ *em as . fac s In undergraduate (sFchologF& educators can hel( students thinE liEe (sFchologists F cen ering classes aroun% heories an% i%eas B ra her han fac s an% echnical ermsB saFs :raF! 7I 5s "! *e a&&umu..Some psychology educators fear that graduate programs neglect to teach the critical thinking skills students need to succeed. i&a.(emises 3!( mem!(isa i!"# theF advise! Most im(ortantlF& e)u&a !(s s*!u..!+e(..) ea&* s u)e" s ! a..usi!"s a") )is&!"3i(mi"/ e+i)e"&e& she saFs6The method involves the basics of an> scien ific eAperimen B such as h>po hesesB con rol "ariablesB me ho%olog>B s>s emic obser"a ions an% s a is ical anal>sis..(!a&* .e!.!!2 3!( a.+i"/ s2i.!/i& a") e+i)e"&e 1e*i") *e &!"&e.(a& i&e# '*i. s *e.

A *e /(a)ua e . *i"2i"/ )i33i&u.P UN F9I TV 9A UNES-8 MSN I9M Ii$Fi PIF "" ! 9 9achelor o+ Arts :eneral Meeting #octor o+ Philoso(hF Television The United Nations Educational& Scienti+ic Q -ultural 8rganisation VerF Im(ortant Person 9ritish 9roadcasting -or(oration .rganise inferencesCStudents need to looE at all (ossi le reasons +or a (ro lemTs occurrence instead o+ eing draGn in F the most emotionallF com(elling one! For e2am(le& i+ a child re+uses to attend school& it could e di++icultF learning to read rather than se(aration an2ietF +rom the mother& that is causing the (ro lem! &is inguish he le"el of cer ain >C Educators must teach students hoG to se(arate EnoGn +acts +rom s(eculation& instead o+ <um(ing to conclusions! For e2am(le& in a se2$a use case& a childTs an2ietF is not necessarilF evidence o+ a use7 it maF e due to the trauma o+ eing removed +rom the home and intervieGed F strangers! :anage he %a a collec ion processCStudents must learn to collect all relevant data a out the client& instead o+ taEing shortcuts! For e2am(le& neglecting to taEe a com(lete medical historF +rom a client Gith a memorF disa ilitF means neglecting the role o+ the clientTs (ast alcoholism in the disorder! Use @noDle%ge of groups o un%ers an% beha"iour of he in%i"i%ualC Educators should teach students hoG to assess clients& Githout generalising and stereotF(ing the clientTs ehaviour! For e2am(le& the elie+ that most divorcing s(ouses are hostile to one another is un+ounded ecause most divorcing cou(les are Gilling to negotiate out o+ court! 7T*e /!!) .68 L'(*U'*E 9..ass *e es a") 3!(/e i 9us as 3as 6 IaliEias elieves (sFchologF (ro+essors can reaE students +rom narroG$minded thinEing and (re(are them +or (ractice F teaching them to6 .!/is *as '! 3a&es#8 sa-s Ha.e+e.ong$(laFing record Program In+ormation File The Microso+t NetGorE 9asic In(ut=8ut(ut SFstem International 9usiness Machines . 1e&ause *e-5+e /(!'" a&&us !me) ! mem!(isi"/ 3a& s& saFs Lilliam IaliEias& Ph#& a (sFchologF instructor at Antioch NeG England :raduateSchool! T*e.s-&*!.CUS6 NeG Voca ularF6 4under5graduate7 to neglect7 to succeed vs to +ail7 (ractice 4Gord +amilF57 road vs! narroG7 to tie& to connect& to linE7 GeaE& +ee le vs! strong7 (ro(er& suita le7 to <um( to conclusions 7 to e due to7 shortcut7 to +ocus 7 evidence 4cognate57 to groG accustomed7 to inSuire7 4dis5 order7 to occur$ occurence7 to assess4to evaluate57 to Geave7 to overlooE7 to miss the marE7 to challenge7 to engage in7 +acultF7 tool7 trial7 to (ut on the stand7 s(ouse4Gi+e or hus and57 de iasing7 +orensic GorE7 lacE o+7 to lacE7 to run a risE7 to ena le 4Gord +amilF5! 0R.(: Alcoholism7 sEe(ticism7 hostile7 dou t! 0rac ice I!Match the a reviations in column A to their e2(lanations in column 96 A 99T9 .i2ias6 7O"e is .(U(CI'TI.!i" e) ! *e i")i+i)ua.ea(" *e ma e(ia. a") *e ! *e( ! *e /(!u.# s u)e" s !3 e" 3i") &(i i&a. ! .

ocator 4address o+ a document on the Ge 5 8 <ect .ist o+ <o s related to (sFchologF6 human resource manager7 (sFchiatrist 4shrinE57 (sFchothera(ist7 <o counsellor7 +amilF counsellor7 school counsellor! *R'::'R 9.inEing and Em edding II! :rou( LorE Imagine a situation in Ghich a (atient=client needs hel( +rom a (erson Gho graduated +rom the School o+ PsFchologF! 8ne o+ the students in each grou( (resents the situation! The others trF to esta lish Ghat Eind o+ <o should have the (erson Gho can etter serve the (atientTs needs 4see the list eloG5 . 8.e P(ese" Form6 I" e((!/a i+e6 #o=#oes V Su <ect V Ver HHN Ne/a i+e6 Su <ect V do=does V not V Ver 4short +orm6 donTt=doesnTt5! 0rac ice Lrite=SaF at least +our things that Fou usua.9I8S VIP :M Ph# UR.-# !3 e"# a..CUS Sim..E P#F Tu erculosis The United Nations The Federal 9ureau o+ Investigation Iigh +idelitF Porta le #ocument Format Uni+orm Resource .'a-s do& and other +our that Fou donTt do="e+e( do! Exercises "!MaEe u( a++irmative& interrogative or negative sentences as suggested F the hints eloG6 a5 She=alGaFs=a((roach=a hF(othesis=thoroughlF! 5 H=his (arents=a((rove o+= his ehaviourN c5 Lhat Eind o+ data H=she=o tain=Ghenever=she=a((lF=such a testN d5 A child=Hnot evolve=normallF in an aggressive environment! e5 Ie=seldom=s(eaE=in terms o+=his oGn li+e e2(erience! +5 A researcher=usuallF=shoG=s(ecial interest in the ad<ustment (ro lems! ") .

UNIT ) &E4EL. .IPIN: AN# .!This (erson is the sort o+ (erson I Gould liEe to e! >!I Gould +orgive this (erson +or (racticallF anFthing! ?!I have great con+idence in this (ersonTs good <udgment! "..0I(* REL'TI."! a a.-6 AnsGer them +irst Gith a good +riend in mind and then thinEing o+ a (ossi le (artner! STATEMENT FRIEN# PARTNER "!This (erson is one o+ the most liEa le (eo(le I EnoG! )!I +eel I am con+ident in this (erson a out virtuallF everFthing! .(S+I0S -8URSE " HUMAN ATTACHMENT Spea@ing A student draGs a +amilF 4as he=she imagines it5 on the lacE oard! The other students are asEed to Grite sentences 4in the (resent (rogressive tense6 am= is= are V ver $ing5 to descri e the mimic and the gestures o+ the student at the lacE oard as he=she is draGing! Lords at the studentsT dis(osal6 Smile& +roGn& GithdraG& sad& ha((F& shocEed& hidden& hold hands& Eee( at a distance& Garm& cold& indi++erent& looE +orGard& looE at one another& looE doGnGards& have +un& together& staF isolated& in +ront o+& ehind& ne2t to& ecome tense& ecome rela2ed& +rustrated& smug4arrogant5 undecided& hurt& thought+ul& (u//led& con+ident& <oF+ul& relieved& +rightened& guiltF& misera le& o(en$hearted& sus(icious& indi++erent& childish& generous& egoistic& im(ulsiveH Then the student at the lacE oard is asEed to descri e his=her draGing using the (resent (rogressive! Such tests are a((lied in (sFchothera(F and counselling! 0rac ice I! .8VIN: Test 4+rom Social PsFchologF7 (age )@D& ta le @!)!5 AnsGer each o+ the +olloGing Suestions on a scale +rom :.& to :<.. ! a.

& Social PsFchologF5 &ifferen T>pes of Lo"e : +oD &o I Lo"e Thee = 9oth Ru in and -larE see an im(ortant di++erence etGeen a relationshi( that is not love 4liEing& e2change relationshi(s5 and one that is 4loving& communal relationshi(s5! 9ut love itsel+ is not some sim(le& unitarF& (sFchological state! As Eli/a eth 9arrett 9roGning e2(ressed it her +amous (oem& Ge e2(erience manF Einds o+ loving6 W IoG do I love theeN .et me count the GaFs! X A((arentlF& the count can e Suite high! :eorge .e 5s >ami.CUS T*e P(ese" P(!/(essi+e Use6 The (resent (rogressive is used to e2(ress6  an action in (rogress at the moment o+ s(eaEing7  a tem(orarF action in the (resent 4I am attending an English course!57  +i2ed arrangements in the near +uture 4SheTs +lFing to Paris the daF a+ter tomorroG!5  annoFance or criticism 4Gith JalGaFsK56 IeTs alGaFs talEing too much! Time Adver ials6 noG7 at the=this moment! Form6 A33i(ma i+e: Su <ect V am=is=are V ver $ingH! I" e((!/a i+e: Am=is=are V Su <ect V ver $ing!!N Ne/a i+e: Su <ect V am=is=are V not V ver $ingH4short +orm6 isnTt=arenTt5! 0rac ice: "! TalE a out things that are ha((ening noG! )! Fill in the lanEs Gith the correct +orm o+ the ver in racEets6 a5 Le 4go5HHHHH on a cam( to the mountains ne2t GeeEend! 5 The irds 4sing5HHHHH!& the sun 4shine5& and I 4+eel5HHHH!into2icated noG that I 4thinE5HHHH!!a out the u(coming holidaFs! c5 Some neigh ours HH!alGaFs 4maEe5HHH! too much noise! d5 She 4GorE5HHHH!!at the neG (ro<ect this month! Rea%ingE Te2t HOW DO I LO=E THEE ? 4Part "& (age )@"$)@.ia( ?u! a i!"s than anF "> .!+e has more entries in Ba( .@!I Gould do almost anFthing +or this (erson! A! Sum o+ Four res(onses to Suestions "V.USI8NS Short te2t 4(age )@D5 JTheF +ound that casual daters re(orted more liEing than loving! 9ut among those in more committed relationshi(s& liEing and loving did not di++er!K #o these conclusions a((lF to our situation=conte2t N *R'::'R 9.evinger 4"CBB5 notes that .V?[ 9! Sum o+ Four res(onses to Suestions )V>V@[ Lhich is greaterN A or 9N Lhat Eind o+ relationshi(s have Fou een thinEing a out6 4ticE the right ansGer5  -asual dating H  E2clusive datingH  Engaged cou(leH  Married cou(leH I! RU9INTS -8N-.

other Gord e2ce(t ma"! Poets& novelists& (hiloso(hers& and theologiansUamong othersUhave all tried to de+ine love and count its varieties! So have social (sFchologists! The most common a((roach in social (sFchologF divides all love into tGo tF(es6 the intenselF romantic passiona e lo"e& and the more sta le (artnershi( o+ companiona e lo"e 4Iat+ield& "CBB7 Peele& "CBB5! Passionate love is a state o+ high arousal6 eing loved F the (artner is ecstasF7 eing re<ected is agonF! -om(anionate love& on the other hand& is a secure& trusting attachment! This asic dichotomF runs throughout several more ela orate classi+ications! In their (ers(ective on love& Phili( Shaver and his colleagues 4"CBB5 (ro(ose that the GaF in Ghich a (erson interacts Gith signi+icant others& called a achmen s >le& maF e relativelF constant across the li+e s(an! A (ersonTs attachment to a romantic (artner should& there+ore& resem le the sort o+ attachment he or she e2(erienced as a child in relation to (arents! 9asing their a((roach on research e2amining (arent$child relationshi(s 4AinsGorth et al!& "CAB5! -indF Ia/an and Shaver 4"CBA5 asEed adult su <ects Ghich o+ three attachment stFles est descri ed their e2(eriences and +eelings! The three alternatives su <ects chose +rom are listed in the ta le eloG! Su <ects also res(onded to a varietF o+ more s(eci+ic Suestions a out the nature and SualitF o+ their romantic relationshi(s! Table: ' achmen S >les Lhich o+ these descri(tions est characterises Four adult attachmentsN Question: Lhich o+ the +olloGing est descri es Four +eelingsN A! I +ind it relativelF easF to get close to others and am com+orta le de(ending on them and having them de(end on me! I donTt o+ten GorrF a out eing a andoned or a out someone getting too close to me! 9! I am someGhat uncom+orta le eing close to others7 I +ind it di++icult to trust them com(letelF& di++icult to alloG mFsel+ to de(end on them! I am nervous Ghen anFone gets too close& and o+ten& love (artners Gant me to e more intimate than I +eel com+orta le eing! -! I +ind that others are reluctant to get as close as I Gould liEe7 I o+ten GorrF that mF (artner doesnTt reallF love me or GonTt Gant to staF Gith me! I Gant to merge com(letelF Gith another (erson& and this desire sometimes scares (eo(le aGaF! The +irst tF(e o+ attachment stFle is descri ed as Jsecure&K the second as Javoidant&K and the third as Jan2ious=am ivalent!K L'(*U'*E 9.CUS Archaic +orms o+ the (ersonal (ronoun6 thee& thine& thou& thF& etc! Su++i2es6 J$shi(K& as in Jrelationshi(J! :ive other e2am(les! E2(ressing similarities6 J9othHandHK4see also Pe"".U(& (age C& -om(aring things5 0rac ice: Use the structure 7B! * @a")@#8 and the hints eloG to maEe com(arisons6 a5 I = mF +elloG students = studF at universitF! 5 A shrinE = a (sFchothera(ist = have studied (sFchologF! c5 A cat = a dog = are mammals! d5 Freud = Rung = are Gell$EnoGn (sFchoanalFsts! NeG Voca ularF6 entrF 4a out dictionaries57 arousal7 attract vs re<ect7 4in5secure7 dichotomF7 s(an7 res(ond& ansGer& re(lF! Pre(ositions6 9ETLEEN 4Ghen Ge re+er to tGo things5 vs AM8N: 4Ghen Ge re+er to more than tGo things5! :ive e2am(les! Ad<ectives6 T88 V A#RE-TIVE 4ta le a ove5 E!g!6 Jtoo closeK! :ive at least three e2am(les! "? .

ee& JIoG manF colors o+ \\\\\\\\\\10 are there NAs manF as there are (ossi le mi2tures and com inations& as in color itsel+K!4.ee uses color as a \\\\\\\\\\\\\3 +or love! Three tF(es o+ love $$ \\\\\\\\\\\\\\4 he calls eros& ludus& and storge 1 are \\\\\\\\5 (rimarF colors7 theF +orm the asis +or \\\\\\\\\6 com inations! .0rac ice: Match the de+inition in the +irst column to the right conce(t in the second column 4conce(ts6 (assionate love& attachment stFle& com(anionate love5 F draGing arroGs to connect them! &efini ion Concep Attachment stFle  a secure& trusting attachment Passionate love  the GaF in Ghich a (erson interacts Gith signi+icant others& maF e relativelF constant across the li+e s(an! -om(anionate love  a state o+ high arousal6 eing loved F the (artner is ecstasF7 eing re<ected is agonF -8URSE ) >EELINGS AND THE SEL> 0re-rea%ing I! Fill in the lanEs Gith the suita le Gords +rom the o2 eloG6 Lhich & love& the& other& meta(hor& trulF& according to& em(hasis& liEe secondarF& For Rohn .e o+ attachment est descri ed the e2(eriences and +eelings! Around )? (ercent o+ su <ects chose the a+!i)a" descri(tion& and a out )D (ercent selected the a"$i!usAam1i+a.e" characterisation! This distri ution is Githin the range o+ that o tained +or children in a num er o+ di++erent cultures 4van I</endoorn and Proonen erg & "CBB5! Among children& hoGever& the secure attachment stFle is usuallF a more (revalent& and the an2ious=am ivalent stFle more rare! Adults Gho re(orted a secure stFle o+ attachment descri ed their romantic relationshi(s as involving ha((iness& +riendshi(& and trust! Those Gith the avoidant stFle em(hasised a +ear o+ closeness! Individuals Gith an an2ious=am ivalent attachment stFle re(orted a love li+e +ull o+ emotional e2tremes& o sessive (reoccu(ation& se2ual attraction& desire +or union Gith the "@ .ee also descri es three \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\7 tF(es 1 called mania& aga(e& and (ragma 1 although \\\\\\8 (otential num er runs much higher! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\9 .ee 4"CAA5& love is \\\\\\\\1 a JmanF s(lendored thing&K Gith the \\\\\\\\\\\\2 on ma"-! .ee& "CBB& (!>C5! Rea%ing: II! Te2t 4(art )5 8+ the adults Gho (artici(ated in this research& ?@ (ercent indicated that the se&u(e s -.

CUS recFcling Present Sim(le vs Present Progressive "! Put the ver s in racEets into the (resent sim(le or the (resent continuous 4(rogressive56 a5 Moung (eo(le 4 ecome5HHHHH!!less Gilling to assume commitment through marriage! i 5 According to Phili( Shaver and his colleagues 4"CBB5 the GaF in Ghich a (erson 4interact5 HHH!!!Gith signi+icant others 4 e5H!! called a achmen s >le! c5 Ie H alGaFs 4avoid5HHHH (eo(le Gho donTt looE u( to him and (raise him e2cessivelF! d5 The documentarF JFocus on Attachment StFlesK 4 egin5 HHHHtomorroG at ? (!m!! e5 RerrF 4GorE5HHHH! at a (sFchological research institute in Vienna! +5 9ut this GeeE he 4(artici(ate5HHHHHH to an international colloSuium in 9erlin! g5 Le 4go5HHHHHH! to the li rarF +or the ne2t cou(le o+ daFs! h5 As Rohn .(U(CI'TI.(artner& desire +or reci(rocation +rom the (artner& and love at +irst sight! Thus& the an2ious=am ivalent attachment stFle in adults resem les (assionate love& Ghile the secure adult attachment stFle is similar to com(anionate love! L'(*U'*E 9.ee 4(ut5HHH!!it& there are three tF(es o+ love! )! Match the e2(ressions eloG $$that denote the use o+ each ver tense$$ in the sentences in e2ercise ) a ove to the letter o+ the sentence and s(eci+F Ghat ver tense 4(resent sim(le or (resent continuous=(rogressive5 is used 4as in the e2am(le56 A! tem(orarF situation=action7 9! annoFing re(eated situation=action7 -! changing situation7 #! commentaries& revieGs& narratives7 E! general truths& laGs o+ nature7 F! o++iciallF (rogrammed actions=+uture meaning7 :! in+ormallF (lanned actions=+uture meaning7 I! (ermanent situations=actions! E!g!6 Sentence Use Sim(le Present 4see e2ercise)5 Present -ontinuous a5 -! $$ v 5 c5 d5 e5 +5 g5 g h "A .CUS NeG Voca ularF6 to avoid& avoidant& avoidance& avoida le7 at +irst sight7 la el7 ottom vs to(7 to de(end on7 to manage& to merge& to com ine& to K ecome oneK7 to scare aGaF7 reluctant& unGilling& disinclined to7 to (artaEe7 storge7 to commit to& maEe onesel+ res(onsi le +or7 commitment& (ledge& 4un5commited& (romise7 undertaEing7 to +ocus 4ver 5 1 +ocus 1 +oci=+ocuses 4noun57 according to& as O (uts it=suggests7 to consist o+ V enumeration& e made u( o+6 to consist in& have as the chie+ or onlF element 1 E!g!6 JThe ha((iness o+ a countrF consists in the +reedom o+ its citi/ens!K7 to involve vs to evolve7 to de(ict& to (resent& to deal Gith7 ma<or vs minor7 (attern& structure& model! 0R.(6 9eloved [bi′lΛvid] 0rac ice: Match the conce(ts in column A to their right de+initions in column 9 4ta le @!?& (age )@>& Social PsFchologF5! *R'::'R 9.

K& (!"D$""& or other grammar ooEs! '%%i ional 'c i"i ies: I! #escri ing (eo(leTs a((earance! 4see also 9!R! Thomas& Advanced Voca ularF Q Idiom& .III to maEe u( another (oem! JIoG do I love theeN .h5 9i liogra(hF6 :! :ălă'eanu& E2erci'ii de gramatică engle/ă& (!?) sau J:rammar S(ectrum .et me count the GaFs& I love thee to the de(th and readth and height "B . suit and a redHHH!!!> Iis trousers arenTt HHHH! ?An inch o+ HHH!@shoGs +rom each o+ his HHHHHA Iis greF shoes areHHHHH! B From the GaF heTs ending& he seems to e looEing +or something! single-breas e% croo@e% slee"es slim cuff polishe% Dell-presse% ie 0ic ure / IeTs a HHH!"man GithHHHH)shoulders and a slimHHH.ongman "CBC& (!A"$A) 1 Lhat are theF Gearing N +or +urther (ractice5 -om(lete each (assage eloG Gith the correct Gords +rom the list a ove it to maEe an accurate descri(tion o+ one o+ the (eo(le in the illustration! Picture" Picture) Picture . Ier short HHHH!>hair is light roGn! She isHHHHH!?dressed! SheTs Gearing aHHHHH@FelloGHHHHHAand aHHHHHBdarE green sEirt! SheTs standing in +ront o+ her usiness colleagues! plain hir >sh Da"> blouse nea l> shor -slee"e% slen%er figure II! Re$arrange the lines o+ the +olloGing (oem +rom JSonnets +rom the PortugueseK O. 0ic ure IeTs a tallHHHHH!"man! Ie has greF hair and a HHHH)nose! IeTs Gearing a lueHHHH . Ie has no eard or moustache7 heTsHHHHH!!> IeTs Gearing a light lueHHHH!?& (inEHHHH!@& greFHHHH!Aand light lueHHHHH!!B Ie has got a HHCround his head and s(orts cu++s at hisHHHH"Das tennis (laFers have! IeTs holding a tennis racEet in his right hand! broa% >oung Dris ban% Dais rainers shor s T-shir clean-sha"en soc@s 0ic ure 1 SheTs Foung& maF eHHHH!!" She has a HHHH!!) HHHHH!.

MF soul can reach& Ghen +eeling out o+ sight For the ends o+ 9eing and Ideal :race! I love thee to the level o+ everF daFTs Most Suiet need& F sun and candlelight! I love thee +reelF& as men strive +or Right7 I love thee (urelF& as theF turn +rom Praise7 I love thee Gith the (assion (ut to use In mF old grie+s& and Gith mF childhoodTs +aith7 I love thee Gith a love I semed to lose Lith mF lost saints& $$ I love thee Gith the reath& Smiles& tears& o+ all mF li+eZ 1 and& i+ :od choose& I shall ut love thee etter a+ter death! 4Eli/a eth 9arrett 9roGning5 Re(lace the underlined Gords=(hrases Gith other Gords o+ Four choice to +olloG in Eli/a eth 9roGningTs +ootste(s! "C .

I(TERESTS '(& 'TTITU&ES -8URSE " DI=ERGENCE O> INTERESTS Spea@ing: -hain StorF 4sim(le (ast5 Students choose a Gord +rom the recentlF learnt voca ularF! Each student contri utes to the telling o+ a storF started F the teacher! The sentence must contain the chosen Gord! Rea%ing: Te2t J#anger o+ Too :reat #ivergence o+ InterestsK& :eneral PsFchologF& (age "@? Although a (erson should have more than one interest Ghich has ecome ha itual Gith him& there is danger in the (ossession o+ too manF interests& in that none o+ them can e develo(ed success+ullF! An illustration o+ this danger maF e seen in the storF o+ a man Gho Gas e2tremelF versatile! This man (ainted a little&7 he sang a little7 he tooE (art in several success+ul motion (ictures7 he Gas one o+ the +irst to e2(lore artistic (hotograhF7 he Gas dee(lF religious& and he devoted time +reelF to oFsT organisations! Ie seemed intenselF interested in each o+ these activities at the time o+ engaging in it& ut he Gas una le to staF Gith anF one o+ them long enough to develo( more than moderate success! This man is noG old and disillusioned& Githout anF de+inite interest +or his old age! 8+ten a right student is interested in so manF +ields that he +inds it di++icult to decide u(on his vocation or his ma<or in college! Ie maF choose one +ield o+ interest and sGitch to another! For a student o+ this Eind the advisa le thing to do might e to choose a vocation or (ro+ession Ghich is in line Gith his a ilities and interests& and Ghich also re(resents a de+inite occu(ational need o+ his communitF! Ie then can s(ecialise in that +ield& and direct some o+ his other interests into a$vocational or leisure$time activities! .UNIT . her In eres 9ac ors Sometimes our interests are in+luenced F communitF& national& or Gorld conditions! In Gartime& +or e2am(le& a (erson maF develo( an interest Ghich Gould e com(letelF lacEing during (eacetime! RecentlF& manF Gomen have develo(ed interests in an e2(anding list o+ vocational activities! Among these are such as air hostessing& research& and various armed service activities! These interests re(resent a changed attitude o+ Gomen toGard the Gorld o+ GorE and their (lace in it! Earlier& manF o+ these interests Gere held F a +eG Gomen or Gere com(letelF lacEing! In liEe manner& manF (ersons Gho in the (ast Gere onlF moderatelF interested in (olitical& economic& or international matters& have develo(ed& as a result o+ recent Gorld conditions and (ro lems& a Eeen and enlightened interest in manF o+ these areas! )D .

!E2(ress liEe or disliEe regarding the +olloGing activities6 a5 (laFing soccer7 5 studFing (sFchologF7 c5 Gatching TV7 d5 (laFing chess7 e5 collecting things7 +5 gardening! *R'::'R 9.a( A)9e& i+es Positive -om(arative Su(erlative good etter 4than5 4the5 est ill= ad Lorse Gorst much More most manF More most little .!!A)9e& i+e B 7e"!u/*8 .ove #isliEe hate .ong enough 9ig enough Strong enough )" .CUS The Ad<ective "!I((e/u.L'(*U'*E 9.CUS NeG Voca ularF6 right& intelligent& clever7 dee( vs shalloG7 versatile& interested in and clever at manF di++erent things& having various uses7 success vs +ailure7 leisure$time activities7 avocation& occu(ation that is not a (ersonTs ordinarF usiness& im(ro(erlF& vocation7 to sGitch to& to move to! 0rac ice E2(ressing 4dis5liEe! "! Lhat are Fou interested in N 4use the gerund +orms6 ver $i"/5 ITm mostlF Interested in Reading ooEs mainlF -ollecting stam(s&H )! ITm verF +ond o+ V ver $ing I liEe Ver $ing En<oF .ess least +ar +urther=+arther +urthest=+arthest old 8lder=elder oldest=eldest near nearer nearest=ne2t )!S*!( A)9e& i+es 4"$) sFlla les5 Positive -om(arative Su(erlative +ast Faster 4than5 4the5 +astes nice Nicer nices heavIeavier heavies thi" Thi""er thi""es .

>!7T*a"8 +e(sus 7 *e"8 E!g!6 Jmore thanK& J etter thanK 4the com(arative57 JthenK 1 to e2(ress time 4a+terGards5 ?!!A)+e(1s '*i&* e") i" 7%.-! 0rac ice "!Provide the reSuired +orms 4as s(eci+ied a ove the arroG5 o+ the +olloGing6 com(arative " a5 old 5 old c5 ill com(arative com(arative ) su(erlative d5 manF su(erlative e5 manF com(arative +5 hot su(erlative g5 easF su(erlative h5 little adver i5 im(ro(er noun <5 occu(F adver E5 good su(erlative l5 good ad<ective m5 success adver n5 success ad<ective o5 use adver (5 use (ast 4second +orm5 S5 do (ast 4second +orm5 r5 have (ast 4second +orm5 s5 t5 e (ast (artici(le 4third +orm5 e )) .-7 dee(.-8 Ad<ective V J$lFK6 eauti+ul.-7 +ree.-& success+ul.

ightning 5 Proud )5 Toast c5 ]uicE .)!Match the Gords in the tGo columns eloG to maEe u( the a((ro(riate set (hrases 4structure6 as B a)9e& i+e B as B "!u"C6 as a%Fec i"e as a noun a5 Mad "5 .ast GeeEendN ).5 Feather d5 .ead g5 Lhite A5 PeacocE h5 SGeet B5 SnoG i5 -old C5 :old <5 :ood "D5 IoneF E2am(le6 4a5 ? 4 5 4c5 4d5 4e5 4+5 4g5 4h5 4i5 4<5 "5 @!Simple 0as Use6 • Activities in the (ast7 • Past state or ha it7 • Past actions Ghich ha((ened one a+ter the other! Time E2(ressions6 • 4the daF e+ore5 FesterdaF7 • last SundaF=GeeE=month=RulF=Fear7 • three Fears=a +ortnight ago7 • in "CB?7 on the "st o+ #ecem er "C"B7 • then7 • JLhenHNK7 JIoG long agoHNK Form6 A33i(ma i+e:  Regular ver s6 Su <ect V ver $e) 4s(elling6 short ver s7 ver s Ghich end in cons! V F5  Irregular ver s6 Su <ect V ver at the )nd +orm I" e((!/a i+e: #id V S V ver 4short in+initive5HN Ne/a i+e:S V did V not 4didnTt5 V ver H 0rac ice I! Find 4 F sEimming through the te2t5 the ver s in the Past Tense and Grite them under the right heading 6 Regular Ver s Irregular Ver s HHHHHHH! HHHHHHHH II! AnsGer the Suestions 6 IoG do Fo UsuallF=o+ten=sometimes=alGaFs s(end Mour GeeEendsN u did $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ S(en . .ight >5 Ice e5 IeavF ?5 Iatter +5 Larm @5 .

) A1use8& +rom JSocial PsFchologFK& (ages .E IV! AsE Suestions and give ansGers according to the hints eloG 4add anF necessarF Gords56 "5 Lhen = meet = -arlF N Fortnight ago! )5 Mou = have a good time = togetherN Mes&H .-D a 3!( "i/* a/!D "!'D se.)!mD (a(e.(i.1e3!(e -es e()a-D "e+e(D !" A.ongitudinal research 9ehaviour intended to in<ure another (erson AngrF aggression 9ehaviour intended to in<ure another (erson to o tain something o+ value Aggression Im(ulsive& emotional ehaviour intended to in<ure another (erson Instrumental Regarding someone as less than human and there+ore not deserving o+ aggression com(assionate treatment 49andura& "CA?5 -Fcle o+ +amilF StudFing the same su <ects over a (eriod o+ time so that changes in ehaviour violence can e o served #ehumani/ation The transmission o+ aggressive ehaviour across generations II!Voca ularF Ste(s Arrange the +olloGing nouns 4to shoG that theF graduallF di++er in terms o+ meaning5 on imaginarF ste(s6 +urF& anger& crueltF& rage& grudge& resentment& out urst 4o+ anger5! Rea%ing Te2t6 7C*i.-D i" E<<<D "!'a)a-sD *e )a.5 Ielen = <oin FouN No& H= can = ecause = have to = a F$sit = +or her ne(heGs! >5 IoG long ago = last = go to a +airN . *e 3i(s :FFED W*e"@?D *ese )a-sD H!' .! *e( )a-D "!' a") *e"D s!me imesD .d III! Put the ime e$.as Su")a-D a *e m!me" # *e"6 PRESENT -8NTINU8US PRESENT SIMP.B"$..B) )> .!"/ a/!666?D !3 e"D e+e(.ong enough! = "CC? = Ghen = graduate +rom high school! -8URSE ) AGGRESSION 0re-rea%ing I!Match the conce(t=(hrase to its de+inition6 -once(t #e+inition .E PAST SIMP.(essi!"s in italics under the right heading in the ta le eloG 4to saF Ghat ver tense each is used Gith56 Usua.

D& "CBC& Stein erg Gas convicted o+ +irst$degree manslaughter! The amount o+ media attention given to .isa lived Gith Stein erg and Iedda Nuss aum& a +ormer editor o+ children ooEs! According to Nuss aum& Stein erg terrori/ed oth her and .ongman& "CBC& (ages >>$>?& e2ercises @ Q A5! *R'::'R 9.se+e(e violence has declined! This decline does mean& hoGever& that Ge should e2(ect reduced re(orts o+ child a use to (olice and social agencies! Increased re(orting and decreased incidence& at least o+ e2treme a use& are liEelF to go hand in hand as (eo(le ecome more aGare o+ the (ro lem and more determined to do something a out it! The -on+lict Tactics Scale used in StrausTs tGo surveFs e2amines onlF a limited num er o+ a usive ehaviors toGards children! It does not& +or e2am(le& asE a out se2ual a use! There are some im(ortant di++erences etGeen (hFsical and se2ual a use! Mothers are more liEelF than +athers to (hFsicallF a use their children& and most victims are oFs 4Straus et al!& "CBD5! In contrast& +athers are more liEelF than mothers to se2uallF a use their children& and most o+ these victims are girls 4Russell& "CB>5! #es(ite these di++erences& certain +actors are associated Gith oth tF(es o+ a use6 stress& social isolation& marital con+lict& and having een a used as a child 4Russell& "CB>6 Straus et al!& "CBD7 Lol+e& "CB?5! L'(*U'*E 9.#K Use6 to talE=Grite a out ha itual=+reSuent activities in the (ast 0rac ice: I! Underline the +reSuentative JGouldK +orms o+ the ver s in the te2t eloG! II! Lrite a short com(osition 4o+ ?D$"DD Gords5 a out -hristmas and=or Easter! 4See JThanEsgiving on the FarmK& +rom Patricia Lilco2 Peterson&J-hanging Times& -hanging TensesK& U!S!In+ormation AgencF& Lashington #!-!& "CC)& (age CD5! TIANPS:IVIN: 8N TIE FARM )? .Chil% 'buse Lhen si2$Fear$old .isaTs death is unusual! Un+ortunatelF& the tragedF o+ child a use is not! The a use o+ children is Gides(read in the United States& as indicated F the result o+ tGo surveFs conducted F Straus and his colleagues! Although levels o+ overall violence toGard children have remained sta le across the decade& the incidence o+ oth se+e(e and +e(.CUS NeG Voca ularF6 outrage7 dis arred attorneF7 4the5 +ormer vs 4the5 latter7 vicious 4attacE57 to convict7 manslaughter7 amount7 Gides(read7 surveF7 gra(h7 overall& glo al7 increase vs decrease7 in+late vs de+late7 to e= ecome aGare o+!!!7 determined7 to in<ure& to Gound& to hurt7 JlaFK vs JlieK 4see 9!R! Thomas& Advanced Voca ularF and Idiom& .CUS I!IA9ITUA. PAST Juse) !K V ver Use6 to talE a out things Ge did in the (ast& ut Ge no longer do in the (resent! 0rac ice: Lrite a out& and then tell the other students at least three things that Fou used to do in the (ast& ut no longer do! E!g!6 JLhen I Gas a child I used to HK II!FRE]UENTATIVE JL8U.isa Gas le+t lFing on the athroom +loor +or nearlF tGelve hours! 9F the time Stein erg and Nuss aum called +or medical assistance& .isa F re(eated eatings! A+ter one vicious attacE& .isaTs rain in<uries Gere irreversi le! She died! 8n RanuarF& .isa Stein erg died in the +all o+ "CBA& the Ghole countrF reacted Gith outrage! IllegallF ado(ted F Roel Stein erg& a dis arred attorneF& .

atan^ and Rohn #arleF 4"CAD5 Gere not convinced& hoGever& that the stresses and strains o+ citF li+e +ullF e2(lain GhF these individuals didnTt get the hel( theF needed! So& these researchers set out to see i+ theF (roduce unres(onsive Fstanders in the cool& calm environment o+ a (sFchologF la oratorF! 8ne studF Gent this GaF! Lhen a su <ect arrived& he or she Gas taEen to one o+ a series o+ small rooms located along a corridor! S(eaEing over an intercom& the e2(erimenter e2(lained that he Ganted su <ects to discuss (ersonal (ro lems that college students o+ten +ace! Su <ects Gere told tat to (rotect con+identialitF the grou( discussion Gould taEe (lace over the intercom sFstem and the e2(erimenter Gould not e listening! Partici(ants Gere reSuired to s(eaE one at a time taEing turns! Some su <ects Gere assigned to tGo$(erson dFads7 others to larger grou(s o+ three or si2 (eo(le! Although the o(ening moments o+ the conversation Gere unevent+ul& one (artici(ant did mention that he had a sei/ure disorder that Gas sometimes triggered F studF (ressures! 9ut soon an une2(ected (ro lem develo(ed! Lhen it came his turn to s(eaE again& the (erson Gho su++ered +rom a sei/ure disorder stuttered adlF& had a hard time s(eaEing clearlF& and sounded in a serious trou le! I could reallF$er$use some hel( so i+ some odF Gould$er$give me a little h$hel($uh$er$er$er$er c$could some odF$ er$er$hel($er$uh$uh$uh 4choEing sounds5H!ITm gonna die$er$er$ITmHgonna die$er$hel($er$er$sei/ure$er 4choEes& then Suiet5! )@ .e ..5IC'L 3E+'4I. C(!')8& +rom JSocial PsFchologFK& (ages .istening to Sounds 4see PennF Ur& o(! cit!& (age >@5 Students close their eFes and listen to the sounds theF maF hear7 then theF Grite and tell 4using the sim.UR -8URSE " THE UNHELP>UL CROWD 0re-rea%ing: .(!/(essi+e5! E!g!6 There Gas a car! It Gas going (ast& accelerating! Some odF dro((ed something! Some odF closed a doorHH! Rea%ing: Te2t 4(art "5 7T*e U"*e.I remem er our ThanEsgivings on the +arm! Lhen I Gas groGing u(& Ge lived on a +arm near the toGn! There Gere manF other relatives Gho lived near us! EverF Fear theF Gould all come& +rom other +arms and +rom the toGn to e Gith us! LeTd GorE +or daFs to (re(are +or the holidaF! Mother and the girls Gould clean everF (art o+ the house& and theFTd get all the e2tra rooms readF +or the relatives! Then theFTd Gash all our est clothesUGe call these dresses and suits our JSundaF est!K The men Gould cut e2tra Good +or all the cooEing& +or Ge had an old Good$ urning stove! Father Gould alGaFs Eill the iggest turEeF& and then heTd clean the ird! FinallF& the Ghole +amilF Gould drive into toGn to uF the +ood that Ge couldnTt (roduce on the +arm& liEe co++ee and sugar! 8n ThanEsgiving morning the Gomen Gould get u( earlF to egin cooEing! Mother Gould stu++ the turEeF Gith read and onions& and then sheTd roast it! Aunt Ellen Gould maEe a do/en (um(Ein (ies! Aunt Ann Gould (icE autumn +loGers +rom the garden +or the center o+ the ta le! SheTd also ring in vegeta les to eat Gith the turEeF and the (ies! The older children Gould hel( set the ta le Ghile the tGin a ies (laFed in their high chair! 9ut I liEed to (laF Gith the cat& Gaiting +or some odF to give me (ieces o+ +ood! All this time our old dog Gould lie under the Garm stove& Gatching the activitF! UNIT > 0'R'&.as and the .">$.3u..as ."?! PittF :enovese& AndreG Mormille& and the eighteen$Fear$old sGitch oard o(erator Gere at a serious disadvantage in needing s(ontaneous emergencF hel( in ur an environment! 9i .

atan^ and #arleF to a chilling conclusion6 the more Fstanders there are& the less liEelF the victim Gill e hel(ed! In the Fstander e++ect& the (resence o+ others inhi its hel(ing! 9e+ore the (ioneering GorE o+ .ongman "CC)& (ages "))$")?7 or :rammar S(ectrum& 8!U!P!& "CC?& (ages B>$B@ or other similar ooEs5! Em(hatic JdoK in a++irmative sentences 4im(erative& sim(le (resent& sim(le (ast5! E!g!6 JPlease& )! come inZK 0rac ice: :ive the em(hatic +orm o+6 a5 Ie (re+ers (laFing on the com(uter! 5 Iel( Fourselves& (lease! c5 TheF liEed their neG neigh ourhood! JThe V com(arative H the V com(arativeHK6 E!g!6 7 *e s!!"e(# *e 1e e(68D 7T*e m!(e# *e me((ie(68 The 0as 0rogressi"e: Use6 to e2(ress6  an action i" .B (ercent never even le+t the room and those Gho did go +or hel( tooE longer to get out the door than su <ects in smaller grou(s! This research led .e"i"/ at a stated time in the (ast7  tGo or more actions Ghich Gere ha((ening at the same time in the (ast 4simu.CUS Pre(ositions6 along& over! Pre(ositions that shoG time& (lace and manner! 4see Virginia Evans& Round u( >& .as D  an action that Gas i" *e mi)).atan^ and #arleF overturned this common$sense assum(tion and (rovided a care+ul ste($ F$ste( analFsis o+ the decision$maEing (rocess involved in emergencF interventions! L'(*U'*E 9.(!/(ess at a &e( ai" m!me" i" *e .CUS NeG Voca ularF6 environment& setting7 ur an vs rural7 stress and strain7 to set out7 Fstanders7 cool and calm7 to +ace something7 event& event+ul & unevent+ul& event+ullF7 to assign7 to taEe turns7 sei/ure7 disorder7 triggered F& to trigger& a trigger7 to stutter7 to choEe7 to dash 4out5o+7 cu icle7 to turn out7 lead$led$led& leading& leader& leadershi(7 crisis& crises7 chilling 4conclusion57 to e liEelF=(ro a le7 to lend$lent$lent vs to orroG7 to rush7 assum(tion& to assume7 to overturn7 to (rovide7 to maEe a decision! -ognates 4+alse +riends56 actuallF& eventuallF! *R'::'R 9.e !3 *a. a"e!us a& i!"s57  to descri e the 1a&2/(!u") to the events in a storF! Time E2(ressions6  FesterdaF at ? (!m!7 )A .atan^ and #arleF& most (eo(le Gould have assumed <ust the o((osite! IsnTt there sa+etF in num ersN #onTt Ge +eel more secure rushing in to hel( Ghen others are around to lend their su((ortN ...Lhat Gould Fou doN Lould Fou interru(t the e2(eriment& dash out o+ Four cu icle& and trF ti +ind the e2(erimenterN As it turns out& su <ectsT res(onses to this emergencF stronglF in+luenced F the si/e o+ their grou(! ActuallF& all su <ects Gere (artici(ating alone& ut ta(e$recorded material led them to elieve that others Gere (resent and that there Gas a crisis! A. the su <ects Gho thought theF Gere involved in a tGo$(erson discussion le+t the room SuicElF to trF to get hel(! In the larger grou(s& hoGever& su <ects Gere less liEelF and sloGer to intervene! Among su <ects in the si2$(erson grou(s& .

A5! 8n the road +rom Rerusalem to Rericho& three (eo(le (assed a man lFing hal+$dead F the roadside6 a (riest& a ."?$.uEe "D6)?$.evite& and a Samaritan! The onlF one Gho hel(ed Gas the Samaritan& a social and religious outcast in ReGish societF o+ that time! The storF (oints out that (eo(le Gith loG status are sometimes more virtuous than those Gith high status and (restige! LhFN Perha(s in (art ecause high$status individuals tend to e usF (eo(le& (reoccu(ied Gith their oGn concerns! Such sel+$concerns maF (revent them +rom noticing a victim in need o+ assistance! Rohn #arleF and #aniel 9atson 4"CA.5 (ut this inter(retation o+ the 9i lical (ara le to an ingenious test! TheF asEed seminarF students (artici(ating in their studF to thinE a out Ghat theF Ganted to saF in an u(coming talE Gas to e ased on the (ara le o+ the :ood Samaritan7 the other hal+ Gas e2(ected to discuss the <o s seminarF students en<oF most! All su <ects Gere then instructed to GalE over to a near F uilding Ghere the s(eech Gould e recorded! At this (oint& su <ects Gere told either that theF Gere running ahead o+ schedule& that theF Gere right on time& or that theF Gere alreadF )B . in the middle o+ the street& Ghile she 4crF out5 HHH!!>+or hel(& and the criminal 4sta 5 HHHHH!!? her& manF Fstanders 4Gatch5 HHHHHHH!@ (assivelF! EventuallF& the victim 4 e Eilled5HHHH! A It 4turn out5HHHHH! B that Ghenever such things 4ha((en5HHHHHH! C no one Gould taEe the res(onsi ilitF o+ hel(ing ecause everF odF 4e2(ect5 HHHH!"D others to act! )! Lhat Gere the Fstanders thinEingN 4e2(ress at least three ideas5 TheF Gere thinEing that6 "HHHHH!! )HHHHH!! ."@! The +irst ste( is to "! i&e that someone needs hel( or& at least& that something out o+ the ordinarF is ha((ening! -learlF& su <ects in the sei/ure studF could not hel( ut notice the emergencF! In manF situations& hoGever& the (ro lem isnTt alGaFs (erceived! The (resence o+ others can e distracting and can divert attention aGaF +rom indications o+ victimTs (light! As noted earlier& (eo(le maF +ail to notice that someone needs hel( Ghen theF are caught u( in their oGn sel+$concerns! -onsider the 9i lical (ara le o+ the :ood Samaritan 4.    at this time last MondaF7 then7 at that time7 the daF e+ore FesterdaF& +rom "D to ") a!m!! Form6 A33i(ma i+e: Su <ect V Gas=Gere V ver $i"/H! I" e((!/a i+e: Las=Lere V Su <ect V ver $i"/@N Ne/a i+e: Su <ect V Gas=Gere V not V ver $i"/@64short +orm6 GasnTt=GerenTt5! 0rac ice 9i liogra(hF6 :rammar e2ercises +rom the alreadF mentioned volumes! "! Fill in the lanEs Gith the right +orms o+ the Gords in racEets6 PittF :enoveseTs case su((orts the theorF that the 4manF5HHH!!" the Fstanders& the 4little5 HHH) liEelF to hel( the victim! Lhen she 4 e attacEed5HHHHHHH!!.HHHHH!! -8URSE ) NOTICING THAT PEOPLE NEED HELP 0re-rea%ing: Lhat did=Gas doing Mrs! 9roGn FesterdaF N 4:!:ălă'eanu& o(! -it! e2ercise CC& (age A"5! Rea%ing Te2t 4(art )5& WSocial PsFchologFX& (age .

! Match the conce(ts in column A to their a((ro(riate de+inition in column 96 -8N-EPT A! sel+$actuali/ation 9! sel+$assertion -! sel+$com(osed #! sel+$con+idence E! sel+$esteem F! sel+hood #EFINITI8N "! uniSue identitF& individualitF )! reliance on oneTs ca(acities .PR8-ESSES! )!Iuman Sounds 4see 9!R!Thomas& Intermediate Voca ularF& (age >D5! *R'::'R 9.! 9! -! #! E! F! :! 0rac ice "!Lord$Ge TrF to design a Gord$Ge +or the EeF conce(t PSM-II.384e!g!6 sel+$concern7 sel+$aGareness7 sel+$hood7 sel+$ (reservation7 sel+$assertion7 sel+$esteem7 sel+$de(endence7 sel+ con+idence7 sel+ aggrandi/ing attitudes7 sel+$control! )! 9rie+lF discuss a out the Freudian inter(retation o+ PERS8NA.a +eG minutes ehind schedule! 8n the GaF to the other uilding& all su <ects (assed a research con+ederate slum(ed in a doorGaF& coughing and groaning! Lhich o+ these +uture ministers sto((ed to lend a hel(ing handN Sur(risinglF& the to(ic o+ the u(coming s(eech had little e++ect on hel(ing! The (ressure o+ time& hoGever& made a real di++erence! 8+ those Gho thought theF Gere ahead o+ schedule& @.! the (rocess o+ understanding onesel+ and develo(ing oneTs oGn ca(acities and talents 4coined F A raham MasloG5 >! having oneTs emotions under control ?! the a ilitF to e2ercise the Gill so as to (revent onesel+ +rom e2(ressing strong emotion or acting im(ulsivelF @! ehaviour asserting oneTs claims or rights& e2(ressing con+idence in oneTs (ro(er merit or aggressivelF asserting the su(erior SualitF o+ oneTs oGn mind and odF A! oneTs good o(inion o+ oneTs dignitF or Gorth :! sel+$control E!g!6 A! .CUS NeG Voca ularF6 to notice vs to o serve a rule7 at least7 ordinarF& common& usual& customarF& ha itual7 to (erceive& (erce(tion7 to distract7 to divert attention7(light4o+ a victim57 to e caught u( in7 an outcast7 to (oint out vs! to underline7 to em(hasi/e7 u(coming& +olloGing7 to cough7 to groan7 to slum(7 e=run right on time= ehind schedule=ahead o+ schedule! The Jsel+K conce(t "! :ive e2am(les o+ com(ounds Gith 7se.CUS "!T*e Re3.*a i& P(!"!u" )C .ITM6 the three selves6 the id&the ego& the su(erego 4the ideal sel+5! . (ercent o++ered hel(Ucom(ared Gith >? (ercent o+ those Gho elieved theF Gere on schedule and onlF "D (ercent o+ those Gho had een told theF Gere late! In descri ing the events that tooE (lace in their studF& #arleF and 9atson noted that Jon several occasions a seminarF student going to give his talE on the (ara le o+ the :ood Samaritan literallF ste((ed over the victim as he hurried on his GaFZK L'(*U'*E 9.e$i+e a") *e Em.

AR MFsel+ ourselves Foursel+ Fourselves Iimsel+=hersel+=itsel+ themselves P.!!2 V (re(osition6  to looE +orH[ trF to +ind7 .CUS "!The ver . E6Pas Sim.D .e +s6Pas P(!/(essi+e Formative Evaluation! $recFcling! UNIT ? C'REER &E4EL.URA.0:E(T -8URSE " GOBS AND EMPLOYMENT 0re-rea%ing TalE a out the advantages and disadvantages o+ the <o s Fou are eing (re(ared +or! Rea%ing Te2t6 Rane Smith has een out at the su(ermarEet& to do the sho((ing! SheTs <ust come acE home! SheTs ought a neG louse to cheer hersel+ u( ecause the +irm sheTs een em(loFed at is almost anEru(t! She hasnTt removed the tag +rom the acEside o+ the louse& and she rushes to tear it aGaF! She has alreadF (ut the louse on Ghen the (ostman rings at the door! Five minutes later! Rane is u(set! SheTs <ust o(ened a letter Ghich has rought her ad neGs! SheTs lost her <o Z For the (ast Fear sheTs GorEed as a ooEEee(er at a +irm! NoG the ma<oritF o+ the +irm shares have een ought F another +irm! The manager has EindlF suggested looEing +or another <o ! 9eing given the (inE sli( so soon& has taEen her F sur(rise! She has recentlF ought some +urniture and hasnTt (aid +or it Fet! NoG she maF not e a le to (aF at all& ecause she hasnTt saved anF moneF latelF! L'(*U'*E 9..CUS NeG Voca ularF6 tag7 anEru(t4cF57 to tear 1tore 1torn 4aGaF57 u(set& sad& grieving7 ooEEee(er7 account4ancF5& accountant& to account +or& accounta le +or7 share 49!E!5=stocE 4A!E!5& shareholder7to e given the (inE sli(& to e given the a2e& to e +ired7 (aF$(aid$(aid7 to save 4moneF=time5! *R'::'R 9.SIN:U.

rd +orm o+ the ver H I" e((!/a i+e: Iave=Ias V S V .rd +orm o+ the ver H4short +orm6 havenTt=hasnTt5! 0rac ice "!Identi+F the (resent (er+ect +orms o+ the ver s in the te2t and the e2(ressions o+ time Ghich accom(anF 4and reSuire5 such ver +orms! )!Ro s Lhat does a (oliceman doN :ives +ines&H laGFer re(orter +oot all (laFer (hFsicist (hFsician . to irres(onsi le (eo(le even i+ theF looEed H! >to her! )! U"&!u" a1.!Pa( i i+e .*(ases used Gith uncounta le nouns6 an item o+7 a (iece o+7 a ar o+7 a loa+ o+H >!T*e P(ese" Pe(3e& Use6 to e2(ress6  an action e+ore another (resent action or moment7  a com(leted action Ghose results are e++ective in the (resent7  actions Ghich ha((ened at an unstated time7  (ersonal e2(eriences or changes Ghich have ha((ened7  em(hasis on num er 7  a recentlF com(leted action! Time Adver ials6 ever& never& <ust& alreadF& Fet& latelF& recentlF& so +ar& u( to=till noG& this month=FearH& +orH&sinceH& IoG longHN ]uestions! Form A33i(ma i+e: S V have=has V . to looE u(=doGn to some odF [ to res(ect& admire=to des(ise7  to looE a+ter [ to taEe care& (rotectH7  to looE out [ to e care+ul! Fill in the correct (article4s56 MF sister$in$laG is looEing H!!"a good a F$sitter Gho Gould looE H!!)her tGo$Fear$old daughter! She looEs HH!.!Lhat has <ust ha((ened N 4PennF Ur& (age C)5 MaEe u( sentences to match the cues6  8hZ  8hN  -ongratulationsZ  LelcomeZ  :ood FeZ  ThanE goodnessZ 2.Lrite a resume using the ResumeGhin s? eloG." .e "!u"s6 +urniture7 neGs7 in+ormation7 advice7 luggage7 read7 soa(7 +lourH .rd +orm o+ the ver HN Ne/a i+e: S V have=has V not V . RI-I AN#RELS .

>?$@ABC b PI8NE 4").(ese" a i+e  Tri(led division revenues +or each sales associate!  E2(anded sales to include mass marEet accounts!  E2(anded sales team +rom ?D to "DD re(resentatives! E#U-ATI8N Southridge& S- "CA"1"CA? Southridge State UniversitF Southridge& S 9!A!& 9usiness Administration and -om(uter Science!  :raduated Summa -um .Y! "CB?1"CCD Ferguson and 9ardell Southridge& SDis (i& Sa.5 >?@$ABCD FAO 4").es Re.>? MAIN STREET b ANM -ITM& STATE 8R PR8VIN-E ").?D million!  Managed )?D sales re(resentatives in "D Lestern states!  Im(lemented training course +or neG recruits U s(eeding (ro+ita ilitF! "CBD1"CB> #u++F VineFards Se"i!( Sa. Sa.es Ma"a/e(  Increased sales +rom a?D million to a"DD million!  #ou led sales (er re(resentative +rom a? million to a"D million!  Suggested neG (roducts that increased earnings F ).aude! INTERESTS Southridge 9oard com(uters! TIPS o+ #irectors& running& gardening& car(entrF& Select te2t Fou Gould liEe to re(lace& and tF(e Four in+ormation! H.5 DCB$A@?> b E$MAI. MEcMM-8MPANM!-8M .89RE-TIVE _-licE here and tF(e o <ective` EOPERIEN-E "CCD1"CC> Ar or Shoe Southridge& SNa i!"a.es Ma"a/e(  Increased regional sales +rom a)? million to a.Co"er Le er Ghin s?! ").) .

)A.@"5.. 2013 [Click here and type ret"rn address] [Click here and type recipient’s address] Dear Sir or adam! TF(e Four letter here! For more details on modi+Fing this letter tem(late& dou le$clicE 4! To return to this letter& use the LindoG menu! Sincerely.D@C& Fa26 4.ongman& "CCA5! ?!Lrite a cover letter to a human resource manager <o entrF advertised F the -oca -ola -om(anF in J-otidianulK a GeeE ago! @!Lrite a +a2 4mind the +ormatZ5 to the -entral Euro(ean UniversitF& Nador u! C& 9uda(est& IungarF "D?"& Tel6 4. [Click here and type yo"r name] [Click here and type #ob title] .!All in all& I am inclined to +eel that I am a +ailure! >!I am a le to do things as Gell as most other (eo(le! ?!I +eel I do not have much to e (roud o+! @!I taEe a (ositive attitude toGard mFsel+! A!8n the Ghole& I am satis+ied Gith mFsel+! Agree " " " " " " " .Company Name Here 21 November.@"5.")>& to Mrs! :a riella Ivacs& to asE +or in+ormation a out the summer courses organised in the Fear )D\\ +or (ostgraduate students! -8URSE ) SEL>%ESTEEM AND SOCIAL SUCCESS 0re-rea%ing "!E2(ress Four agreement=disagreement to the "D statements o+ the Rosen erg JSel+$Esteem ScaleK 4"C@?5 eloG! Statement "!I +eel that I am a (erson o+ Gorth& at least on an eSual (lane Gith others! )!I +eel that I have a num er o+ good Sualities! .etter Rum le 4(age )"& Practise Advanced Lriting& MarF Ste(hens& . #isagree ) ) ) ) ) ) ) .)A.

!"ses a(e am1i/u!usHa") *e.eme" a(.?ues i!" Lhat is Four o(inion a out the SualitF o+ the testN Rea%ing Te2t6 JIoG Is Mour Sel+$EsteemNK& SociologF& (age ">)! JThe ten Suestions in the o2 a ove maEe u( the Rosen erg Sel+$Esteem Scale 4"C@?5& GidelF used F (sFchologists and sociologists to measure sel+$esteem 49ohrenstedt Q Fisher& "CB@7 Shamir& "CB@5! Some have criticised the scale ecause it Gas high social desira ilitF ias7 (eo(le maF distort their ansGers to (rovide more (ositive images! This is not a (ro lem& hoGever& ecause the Suestion at issue is not Ghether (eo(le reallF do have anFthing to e (roud o+ or Ghether theF reallF are a success or +ailure! Rather our concern is hoG theF +eel a out themselves! Since Ge are asEing a out su <ective inter(retations rather than o <ective +acts& this is one scale in Ghich everF odF reallF can e a ove average! Some o+ the more im(ortant research +indings on sel+$esteem are the +olloGing6 "!Le alGaFs thinE etter o+ ourselves than others do 4LFlie& "CAC5! In this sense& the looEing$ glass sel+ is alGaFs a little distorted in our oGn +avour! )!Sel+$esteem turns out to e verF sta le! Even loGs to ma<or role identities& such as the loss o+ a high status <o & maF not result in much loss o+ sel+$esteem 4Shamir& "CB@5! This sta ilitF o+ sel+$ esteem testi+ies to the sEill most o+ us have in negotiating our sel+$conce(ts! ..ist three or +our o+ Four ma<or roles and imagine Foursel+ a +ailure in each o+ them in turn! Lhat ste(s could Fou taEe to (rotect Four sel+$esteemN Are there anF roles Ghere +ailure could not e rationalised& Ghere +ailure Gould damage Four sel+$esteemN )!Lhere do Fou stand on the sel+$esteem scaleN 4Students calculate their score and com(are them to those o tained F other students in their grou(5! Su.!Peo(le Gith high sel+$esteem are more con+ident and hence more o(en to neG ideas and neG relationshi(s! Peo(le Gith loG sel+$esteem& on the other hand& are de+ensive and an2ious& a+raid to challenge themselves or others 4Michener et al!& "CB@5! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ W*e" ! *e(s5 (es.a(e# 'e 9us 1e.> ..B!I Gish I could have more res(ect +or mFsel+! C!I certainlF +eel useless at times! "D!At times I thinE I am no good at all! " " " ) ) ) Te2t6 JIoG Is Mour Sel+$EsteemNK& SociologF& (age ">)! Iues ions o consi%er "!..usua..ie+e '*a 'e 'a" !6 \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Le cannot all e a ove average! Met studies on to(ics +rom intelligence to (hFsical attractiveness shoG that hardlF anF odF thinEs he or she is eloG average and large ma<orities thinE theF are a ove average! IoG do (eo(le manage to (rotect their sel+$esteem N TheF do so F6 "5 Using the identitF salience hierarchF to em(hasise roles theF do Gell7 )5 9eing verF care+ul a out their choice o+ looEing glasses 4Rosen erg& "CAC57 and .

essons IomeGorE IouseGorE An e2ercise 8neTs est Lith4out5 something A +avour Rustice The Gashing u( The sho((ing 8neTs corres(ondence 8neTs hair :ood=harm The cooEing 8neTs dutF 9usiness Gith someone The car(ets 8neTs room The dishes Fine=Gell The grand=(olite J#o as Fou Gould e done!K JIoG do Fou doK ..CUS NeG Voca ularF6 ias7 to distort7 scale7 average7 rather7 a ove vs eloG7 looEing glass& mirror7 con+ident7 hence7 to challenge7 Fet 4in various conte2ts57 salient& salience7 to su((ort7 am iguous! 0rac ice Uses o+ MAPE versus #8! MAPE An attem(t MistaEes Noise A com(laint A +uss -o++ee=tea 9reaE+ast 4meal5 Furniture 4an o <ect5 8neTs ed A decision An e2cuse U( oneTs mind An o++er A mess A (hone call A +ortune MoneF Trou le Plans A living arrangements damage (rogress Someone rich=(oor Gonders sense A s(eech An im(ression A Gill A Gish A remarE Room +orH A tri(=<ourneF=voFage A gesture=a discoverF Some odF angrF=ha((F A +resh=neG start #8 .? .5 Sim(lF inter(reting othersT res(onses in GaFs that su((ort a (ositive sel+$image! Lhen othersT res(onses are am iguousUand theF usuallF are& Ge <ust elieve Ghat Ge Gant to 4Felson& "CB?5!K L'(*U'*E 9.

@ .( 6 hierarchF! FolloG$u( activities6 SociologF& (age ">)& 4]uestions to -onsider5! "! .It oneTs usiness A guess at 8nesel+ at home Sure o+ JTo maEe a mountain out o+ a molehill!K JTo maEe oth ends meet!K JTo maEe haste sloGlF!K JMaEe haF Ghile the sun shines!K 0rac ice Fill in the lanEs using either MAPE or #8 at the right tense! "! She has alreadFHHHH!!dinner! )! ItTs hard to HHH!a decision at such short notice! .(U(CI'TI.! Patience HHH!Gonders 4miracles5! >! Mou shouldnTtHHHH!the (olite i+ Fou donTt +eel that GaF! ?! I hateHHHHHthe Gashing u(! @! HH!as Fou Gould e done! A! I havenTt HHHHu( mF mind as to Ghat I shouldHHne2t! B! SheHH!!her hair at the hairdresserTs last LednesdaF! C! LhF havenTt FouHHHFour homeGorE! "D! HHHthe houseGorE is eSuivalent to chores 4A!E!5 = chares 49!E!5! ""! She HHalGaFsHHH!a mountain out o+ a molehill! ")! HHHhaF Ghile the sun shines! ".CUS "!The ver u(" V (re(osition6  Turn against [ start disliEing someone=something7  Turn doGn [ "!reduce the volume o+H7 )!re+use a reSuest7  Turn o++ [ maEe something sto( GorEing7  Turn on [ maEe something GorE7  Turn u( [ increase the volume o+H 0rac ice Fill in the correct (articles6 .ist three or +our o+ Four ma<or roles and imagine Foursel+ a +ailure in each o+ them in turn! Lhat ste(s could Fou taEe to (rotect Four sel+$esteemN Are there anF roles Ghere +ailure could not e rationalised& Ghere +ailure Gould damage Four sel+$esteemN )! Lhere do Fou stand on the sel+$esteem scaleN *R'::'R 9.! HHHhaste sloGlF! ">! HHHFourselves at home! "?! #onTtHHsuch a +ussZ 0R.

the volume o+ the -# (laFer Ghile the oss Gas talEing to him! 8n the contrarF& a+ter a +eG minutes he even turnedHHH>the volume! The oss got angrF and turned the (laFerHH!!? Met& Rim immediatelF did the o((osite& turned itHH!@and declined the o++er! )!The structures JLhetherHor not=LhetherHor GhetherK4see the te2t5! 9rie+lF comment on JLhat a distressing contrast etGeen the radiant intelligence o+ the child and the +ee le mentalitF o+ the average adult!K 4S! Freud5 using these structures 4JLhetherHor not=LhetherHor GhetherK5! .!.! She stillHHHHHHHH!to lean the ladder against a tree& though she is tired! a! Gant7 ! Gants7 c! Ganted! >! #ro((ing out is not her stFle! So& sheHHH!stillHHHHHHher est to +inish the <o ! a! has done7 ! has een doing7 c! is doing! Time E2(ressions6 +or& since& hoG long! Form6 A33i(ma i+e: Su <ect V have=has V een V ver $i"/H I" e((!/a i+e: Iave=Ias V Su <ect V een V ver $i"/@? Ne/a i+e: Su <ect V have=has V not V een V ver $i"/@6 0rac ice Lrite a letter to a +riend telling him=her a out the things that have changed in Four li+e over the last Fear! .A .The GaF Rim turned!HH!"the o++er& eventuallF made the oss turnHHHH!)him! Ie didnTt either listen or at least turnHHH!.ong Ad<ectives #egrees o+ -om(arison Positive -om(arative Su(erlative care+ul More care+ul than The most care+ul o+=in e2(ensive E2(ensive e2(ensive demanding demanding demanding -ross out the unnecessarF Gords6 a5 Ie is as verF a sent minded as his sister! 5 Iis insight on the issue Gas more dee(er than e2(ected! c5 The environment Gas the manF most com+orta le one availa le at the time! d5 The side e++ects Gere the less im(ortant +or the chemical reaction! e5 The sooner the u(coming session the more +aster the (ro lem is GorEed out! >!T*e P(ese" Pe(3e& P(!/(essi+e +s *e P(ese" Pe(3e& Use6 to e2(ress6  an action Ghich has started 1e3!(e another (resent action=moment& and has continued u( to the moment o+ s(eaEing& and maF continue even a+terGards7  a +inished action e+ore another (resent action=moment& to em(hasise the idea o+ duration7  actions Ghich have visi le results in the (resent7  irritation& anger& annoFance& e2(lanation or criticism! -hoose the right item6 "! Aunt Ellie is out o+ reath ecause sheHHHHHHHHin the orchard +or a cou(le o+ hours! a! GorEed7 ! has GorEed7 c! has een GorEing! )! SheHHHHHH!manF do/ens o+ +ruit so +ar! a! (icEed7 has (icEed7 has een (icEing! .

( '(& T+E SEL9 -8URSE " HUS0Y HAD BEEN =ERY HEALTHY 0re-rea%ing TalEing a out health and diseases 4contagious& chronic& common disease5! The human odF! Rea%ing Te2t6 HUS0Y HAD BEEN =ERY HEALTHY# (ages"DB$"""& -hanging Times& -hanging Tenses! IusEF MelloGhair is a little oF on the Nava<o Indian Reservation in Ari/ona! ItTs di++icult +or his +amilF to get to a doctor& ecause theF donTt have a car or a tele(hone! Their closest neigh ours live ten milesd aGaF! .UNIT @ E&UC'TI.B .ast month IusEF had caught a cold! IeTd +elt sicE +or three daFs& so his mother Ganted to ring him to a doctor! SheTd Ee(t him in ed the Ghole time& and sheTd given him medicine everF daF +or three daFs! Still& he didnTt +eel anF etter! 8n the third daF& he develo(ed a +ever! At that time& IusEFTs (arents asEed some +riends to taEe them to the hos(ital! At the hos(ital& IusEF tried to slee(! Ie (ut his head in his motherTs la(! From time to time he looEed +or the doctor& ut he didnTt reallF Gant to see him! IusEF had alGaFs een a+raid o+ doctors .

V (re(osition! To Eee( u( [ :o +orGard on [ continue o++ [ maintain a distance In4Gith some odF5 [ remain on good terms Gith out [ avoid 0rac ice Fill in the lanEs Gith the suita le (re(ositions 4mind the e2(lanations in bol% in the racEets56 8ne strange ha((ening caughtH!!4became popular5 Gith do/ens o+ (eo(le! TGo tomatoes Gere <ogging in the street! 8ne o+ them& some ste(s ehind the other& criedHH! 4eAclaime%5& JPee(HH!4con inue5 <oggingZ ITll Eee(HH!4main ain a %is ance5 +or a +eG seconds! And Eee(HHHH4a"oi%5 trou le! ITm a it out o+ reath! ITll catchHHHHH!4reach he same s age5 Fou!K The tomato ahead couldnTt Eee(HH4remain in goo% erms5 Gith the one ehind$$a+ter their recent maEe u(U ecause a iEe ridden astraF roughtHH!!4cause%5 a horri le accident that sim(lF smashed the latter! _(laF on Gords6 JEetch u(K vs Jcatch u(K`! >!The Article6 #e+inite 4JtheK57 Inde+inite 4JaK=KanK57 %ero! 4see grammar re+erence5! Fill in the lanEs Gith 7a8A8a"8A8 *e8 Ghere an article is necessarF6 "5 Ie is HH!"undergraduate student! )5 Ie goes toHH!)universitF in HH!.!The ver 2ee.C .5 Iis +riend came to HH>universitF FesterdaF to ring him HH!?EeFs that he had +orgotten atH!!@home! >5 FortunatelF& HHAKT!M!K UniversitF is not verF +ar +rom HHBdistrict theF live in! ?!T*e Pas Pe(3e& Te"se Use6 to e2(ress an action 1e3!(e another (ast action=moment! .and hos(itals! U( to that time& IusEF had een verF healthF& so he hadnTt seen manF doctors! As he Gas Gaiting& he greG more a+raid! The +amilF had Gaited +or an hour Ghen the doctor came! The Foung doctor +ound the (ro lem immediatelF! The cold had gone to IusEFTs ears& and heTd develo(ed an ear in+ection! Although it GasnTt a serious disease& it had caused the (ain and the +ever! Lith stronger medicine& IusEF Gould e Gell soon! d "& @DC! .CUS Voca ularF6 sicE& disease& ill4ness57 a +ever& haF +ever& +everish7 la(& la(to(7 health4F57 to catch 4a cold57 to (icE u( an in+ection! *R'::'R 9.morning everF daF +rom MondaF to FridaF! . metres L'(*U'*E 9.CUS "!The ver &a &* V (re(osition! To catch U( [ 9ecome eSual to others Gith on [ ecome (o(ular 8n to [ understand U( on [ ring=come u( to date )!The ver 1(i"/ V (re(osition! To ring along [ to +etch Gith on [ cause out [ (roduce u( [ educate=rear=raise children .

rd +orm o+ the ver H! I" e((!/a i+e: Iad V S V .Time E2(ressions6 e+ore& +orH& sinceH& a+ter & <ust& alreadF& Fet& ever never& till=until& Ghen& F& F the time! Form6 A33i(ma i+e: S V had V .B.5 LeHHcranEF ecause o+ the ad Geather FesterdaF! a! are7 ! Gas7 c! Gere! >5 The o/one laFerHHHHHH!!thinner and thinner! a! gets7 ! is getting7 c! get! -8URSE ) BALANCING E?UITY AND EICELLENCE 0re-rea%ing: :rou( LorE6 Mention at least ? shortcomings o+ the Romanian educational sFstem in terms o+ eSuitF 4eSual o((ortunities and access5 and e2cellence 4com(etitive (rocess and results& creativitF5! 9rie+lF comment on this issue! Rea%ing: Te2t6 SociologF& (age.0.5 higher standards +or school achievement! :enerallF& the call +or e2cellence in education has een Gell received! 9F "CB>& "A states had instituted com(etencF testing +or high school graduation and A more Gere in the (rocess o+ im(lementing it! IncreasinglF& hoGever& (olicF maEers are +acing the dilemma (osed F the (otentiallF con+licting demands o+ eSuitF and e2cellence 4Ale2ander et al!& "CB?5! T+E &R. (ercent o+ all "A$Fear$olds and as much as >D (ercent o+ minoritF Fouths are +unctionallF illiterate! In a com(arison o+ U!S! students Gith students +rom )" other nations& Americans scored the Gorst on A o+ "C achievement tests and never came in either +irst or second! The commission argued that the (ro lem Gas caused not F +actors eFond our control ut sim(lF F lacE o+ insight and Gill! The solutions recommended included6 "5 a more demanding seSuence o+ asic courses7 )5 longer school daFs and school Fears& and .3LE: #es(ite the shar( e2(ansion in education in the last decades& a su stantial minoritF o+ the (o(ulation has not graduated +rom high school! In "CB>& +ullF "> (ercent o+ all Foung adults )?$)C had not graduated +rom high school7 this +igure is )" (ercent among lacEs and >" (ercent among Iis(anic Foung adults! These dro(outs (ose a (otentiallF ma<or social and economic (ro lem! As one studF summarised the issues6 >D .rd +orm o+ the ver H!N Ne/a i+e: S V had V not V .& an "B$mem er National -ommission on E2cellence in Education issued a re(ort that Gas e2tremelF critical o+ U!S! education! The re(ort indicated that ".UT 0R.rd +orm o+ the ver H!4short +orm6 hadnTt5! -hoose the a((ro(riate ver +orm6 "5 IeHHHHHH!!aGaF the old Gorn out hat tGo GeeEs e+ore he Gent sho((ing +or another one! a! has throGn7 ! had throGn7 c! threG! )5 The client said heHH!!alreadFHHHa shrinE e+ore! a! had seen7 ! saG7 c! has seen! .! BALANCING E?UITY AND EICELLENCE In "CB.

!3 i")i+i)ua.ea+i"/ is ass!&ia e) 'i * i"&(ease) e$.!-me" a") (ai"i"/6 JS ei"1e(/ e a.a") i s i"s i u i!"s# a") su1s a" ia.!ss !3 .s a") 3ami.(!/(ammes 3!( .i3e ime6 >!( s!&ie -# .!ses su&* as em.# 3ai.6# :FKL:::MC68 For all these reasons& the dro(out (ro lem is a social (olicF issue! It is an issue that the re(orts on e2cellence ignore altogether! An im(ortant Suestion +or (olicF maEers is Ghether ste(s made to increase e2cellenceUhigher standards& more asics& longer school Fears or school daFsUGill increase the dro(out (ro lem! I+ im(osition o+ higher standards increases the SAT scores o+ those students Gho remain ut dou les the dro(out rate& es(eciallF among minoritF or disadvantaged students& Gill Ge have gainedN 8r& as one recent re(ort claims& Gill this e a J lue(rint +or +ailureKN 4Mc#ill et al!& "CB@6".u(..ongman& "CBC& (age @5! II6 T*e Pas Pe(3e& P(!/(essi+e Use6 to e2(ress6  an action continuing u( to a s(eci+ic time in the (ast7  a continuous& (ast action Ghich had visi le results or e++ect in the (ast! Time E2(ressions6 e+ore& +or!!& sinceH& a+ter & <ust& areadF& Fet& ever never& till=until& Ghen& F& F the time! Form6 A33i(ma i+e: S V had V ver $ingH! I" e((!/a i+e: Iad V S V ver $ingH!N >" .C5! L'(*U'*E 9.u(e ! &!m.e")i u(es 3!( /!+e("me" assis a"&e ! i")i+i)ua.i"/ !u !3 *i/* s&*!!. is ass!&ia e) 'i * .. i"&!me !+e( *is !( *e( .e(s!"a.%.. a") s!&ia. a") e&!"!mi& .(ema u(e s&*!!..CUS To issue& an issue7 4il5literate& 4il5literacF7 achieve4ment57 Fouth4s57 to argue& argument7 eFond7 lacE o+ insight and Gill7 Gill& testament7 demanding7 seSuence7 call +or e2cellence7 (olitics vs! (olicF7 to (ose7 to dro( out& a dro(out7 arraF7 disen+ranchisement7 loss vs! gain7 income7 e2(enditure7 to maintain& maintenance7 costlF& e2(ensive& dear7 altogether7 to im(ose& im(osition7 to taEe the +loor7 com(ulsorF7 eel7 sSuirrel7 nervous reaEdoGn7 to dou le vs! to tre le7 to claim7 lue(rint7 to sGee( 4over5 1sGe(t 1 sGe(t7 tide7 mediocre& mediocritF7 tough7 trend& tendencF7 to attem(t7 shar( e2(ansion7 des(ite& in s(ite o+! 0unc ua ion mar@s:  comma &  +ull sto( !  semicolon 7  colon 6  inverted commas J K  hF(hen $  Suestion marE N  e2clamation marE Z  dots H *R'::'R 9..CUS I6 T*e P(ese" Pe(3e& a") *e Pas Pe(3e& 4recFcling5! 0rac ice "!Identi+F the (resent (er+ect and the (ast (er+ect +orms o+ the ver s in the te2t a ove! )!IoG much +reedom should children haveN 49!R! Thomas& Advanced Voca ularF and Idiom& .(!s. &!s s6 >!( *e i")i+i)ua.imi e) !&&u. is ass!&ia e) 'i * a" a((a.e& s# )ise"3(a"&*iseme" 3(!m s!&ie .a i!"a.ies# *i/*e( (a es !3 &(ime# a") mai" e"a"&e !3 &!s . .e e *i/* s&*!!.7D(!.

isten to JThe Animal SchoolK +a le and +ind the +laGs that such a school has& +rom the (oints o+ vieG o+ eSuitF and e2cellence 4see the ta(e scri(t5! Also comment on JThe +amilF that learns together& earns together!K Ta. The Animal School 8nce u(on a time& an animal meeting Gas held in the +orest! The issue at staEe Gas animal education! The animals Gere going to set u( a school! An Animal School 9oard Gas elected! #es(ite some sti+led (rotest& the Animal School 9oard decided on a common curriculum +or all the animals! The +our com(ulsorF curriculum areas Gere6 Running& -lim ing& SGimming& and FlFing! There Gere no o(tional su <ects! All the animal students had to attend all these +our tF(es o+ classes! 9ut& no matter hoG dedicated e++orts the students made& some di++iculties Gere encountered! The ducE Gas verF good at SGimming& even etter than the teacher& ut it got (oor grades at FlFing7 and the Running classes Gere a disaster as the ducE hurt its legs ecause o+ over$e2ercise so that even the (er+ormance at SGimming got loGer! The sSuirrel Gas e2cellent at -lim ing ut had some (ro lems Gith taEing o++ +rom the ground at FlFing as it e2(ressed (re+erence to +lF doGn +rom a tree! 9ecause o+ the stress o+ all the SGimming lessons it had a nervous reaEdoGn and dro((ed out! Some similar e2(eriences had the ra itUthough it Gas a rilliant student at Running! EventuallF& it had to see an animal (sFchothera(ist ecause o+ the enormous e++ort made at the other classes! AnFGaF& F the end o+ the school Fear& a common eel ended u( valedictorian as it could sGim Gell& Gas a le to clim & craGl and +lF a little& no matter hoG small and insigni+icant it Gas! 4ada(ted +rom the +a le Suoted F Ste(hen -oveF5 >) .e s&(i.5 Ie is GearF! IeHHHHHHH!at the oring (ro<ect all daF! a! has een GorEing7 ! has GorEed7 c! had GorEed! >5 TheF Gere Gorried! The (oliceHHHHHH!+or their Eidna((ed children +or a +ortnight Githout +inding a clear lead! a! had looEed7 ! has een looEing7 c! had een looEing! ?5 IeHHHHH!!all the (ossi le assum(tions until FesterdaF morning Ghen he had that illumination! a! had e2hausted7 ! had een e2hausting7 c! has e2hausted! Lis ening .Ne/a i+e: S V had V not V ver $ingH!4short +orm6 hadnTt5! -hoose the correct item6 "5 SheHHHHHin a sta le +amilF e+ore she got married in )DDD! a! has een rought u(7 ! Gas rought u(7 c! had een rought u(! )5 IarrFHHH!!an uglF accident a cou(le o+ Fears e+ore theF moved house! a! had7 ! had had7 c! has had! .

9 T. . -8URSE " THE >UTURE O> OUR WORLD IN THE NEIT MILLENIUM 0re-rea%ing: "!Lord Le 6 Gords related to the EeF Gord JFUTUREK 4E!g!6 antici(ate& +orecast& +oretell& (redict& (rognosis&H5! )!#ialogue etGeen an o(timist and a (essimist 4(ages ").RR.UNIT A 9UTUR.$")>& -hanging Times& -hanging Tenses5! Fill in the dialogue 4use the right re(lies5! Rea%ing Te2t JThe -ar o+ the FutureK& 4-hanging Times& -hanging Tenses& (ages ")D$")"5! >.:..L.*< J T+E SCIE(CE .

ie+e# I5m a3(ai)# I5m su(e# I 2"!'# I *i"2 .e& # *!.-C7  a (rediction or a +uture action or event Ghich maF or maF not ha((en! Time E2(ressions6 tomorroG& tonight& ne2t GeeE=Fear=!!& in tGo daFs& the daF a+ter tomorroG& soon& in a GeeE=+ortnight& on the "st o+ Rune& in )DD.!si i!": a+ter [ to resem le doGn [ to Grite=record +or [ to mistaEenlF assume that s =sth! Is s !=sth! else For granted [ to assume as a +act that does not need anF con+irmation In [ to receive& admit7 to reduce the si/e o+7 to include=com(rise o++ [ to remove7 to de(art 4aero(lanes5 over [ to taEe control=(ossesion o+H to [ to ado(t as a ha it=(ractice=ho F 0rac ice :rammar e2ercises 4:! :ălă'eanu& o(! cit!& Ed! Al atros& "CBD& $ v! şi alte edi'ii& (ag! )"@$))B5 +rom various grammar ooEs or +rom the suggested re+erences! Spea@ing 9rie+lF e2(ress 4in a((ro2imatelF )DD Gords5 hoG Fou imagine the +uture o+ (sFchologF in the ne2t millenium! 4grou( or individual GorE& as est suita le5! Suggestions6 machinerF develo(ment and human rain& co(ing Gith (hFsical im(airments6 dea+ness& dum ness& lindness& mental retardness& a!s!o!! -8URSE ) WOMEN – PAST AND >UTURE >> .L'(*U'*E 9.CUS NeG Voca ularF6 to e in trou le& asE&=looE +or trou le& trou lesome& trou lemaEer=shooter& to get someone into trou le& trou lous& distur ed& to +ish in trou led Gaters7 air conditioning7 gas 4A!E!5 vs (etrol 49!E!57 lights& headlight& light vs darEness& light=darE colour 4 lue5& light 4ad<!5 vs heavF7 +oot 1 +eet 4goose& tooth57 " mile [ Em7 to e short o+& shortage7 su((lF& to su((lF! *R'::'R 9.(essi"/ 3u u(e ime I! T*e Sim.e# 1e.& a!s!o!! Form6 A33i(ma i+e: S V shall=Gill V ver H!4short +orm6 ell5! I" e((!/a i+e: Shall=Gill V S V ver H!N Ne/a i+e: S V shall=Gill V not V ver H!4short +orm6 shanTt=GonTt5! M6 T*e +e(1 7 a2e8 B .e >u u(e Use6 to e2(ress6  an action Ge are not sure a out 4use o+ J(ro a lFK57  ho(es& +ears& threats& on$the$s(ot decisions& o++ers& (romises& Garnings& (redictions& comments 4Gith e$.(e.CUS "!E2(ressing com(arison Gith6 7as B a)9@6as B "!u"86 4see PennF Ur& o(! cit!& (age ?A5! E!g!6 Jas thin as iceK& Jas Ghite as snoGK! )!E$.(!1a1..

0re-rea%ing In Ghich GaF do Fou thinE the condition o+ Gomen has changed latelF 4+or etter=Gorse5N :ive arguments! Rea%ing Te2t JPsFchoanalFsis and LomenK 49ooE RevieG on JThe PsFchologF o+ Lomen6 PsFchoanalFtic Pers(ectives&K F Arnold Richards and PhFllis TFson5 This ooE com(ares FreudTs theories Gith thenUcontem(orarF theories a out the mind o+ Gomen! Valua le historF is contained in the (ages o+ this ooE 1 oth the historF o+ Freud and his relationshi(s Gith Gomen and the historF o+ various theoretical trends in e2amining the (sFchologF o+ Gomen! Other topics include o <ect choice in Gomen& ise2ualitF& the meaning o+ (erineal activitF& and genital an2ietF! More than )> analFsts contri uted to the )D cha(ters in the ooE7 most o+ the contri utors are +rom the US& ut the ooE also includes ) cha(ters +rom 9ritish training analFsts associated Gith the 9ritish PsFchoanalFtical SocietF! This volume reflects a relativelF homogeneous (ers(ective a out certain Gomen! It descri es Gomen Gho are trou led Gith con+licts a out desire& Ghere desire is misunderstood as dangerous! Lhich Gomen are descri edN Ranice . to ? Fears (assionatelF desires his mother and vieGs his +ather as a com(etitor! 8ut o+ his oGn innate aggression& FreudTs theorF continues6 the son Gishes to destroF his +ather! Lhen the son recognises that his +atherTs su(erior strength could turn against him& he su++ers the castration an2ietF! This an2ietF& according to Freud& causes the child to give u( his desire +or his mother& to reconstruct his desire as dangerous& and +inallF to identi+F Gith his +atherTs aggression! An alternative inter(retation& one emerging +rom an understanding o+ attachment ehaviours and +rom earlF mother$in+ant o servation research& is that the son reaches out in innocence to his mother& loving out o+ his oGn nature the one that his +ather also ha((ens to love! The son has neither se2ual desire +or his mother nor murderous rage +or his +ather! _H` A((lFing the alternative inter(retation o+ desire to the daughter& the daughter reaches out in innocence to her mother& loving out o+ her oGn nature the one Ghom her +ather loves! "urthermore# she reaches out in innocence to her +ather& loving out o+ her oGn nature the one Ghom her mother loves! JIn initial attunement& oth identi+ication and a++ection are united and +ocused on the (rimarF caregivers regardless o+ the gender o+ the caregivers or the in+antH Undi++erentiated e2(eriences Githin the caregiverTs=in+antTs attunement are e2(erienced as (hFsical or odilF events and thus are internalised Githout aGareness o+ se(arateness or con+lict and are maintained Gith a strong sense o+ securitF!K >? .ie erman states& JThese art GorEs +or the most (art shoG Gomen still in con+lict at +in de sifcle& not com(letelF resolved as to the acce(tance o+ their odies or rolesK! It is these trou led Gomen Ghom the authors descri e in their clinical o servations! Lhat is the (ers(ective o+ the authorsN Their predominant (sFchoanalFtic perspective (resents Gomen as having J(rimarF +eminitF&K that is& K+emale develo(ment (roceeds along lines that generate an2ietF _called +emale genital an2ietF` a out damage and loss similar to the +ear o+ castration that trou les malesK! #isa((ointing is the +act that this (ers(ective and the Jre$+ormulations and more innovative neG +ormulations o+ FreudTs ma<or theories o+ +emale (sFchologFK reca(itulate FreudTs asic misunderstanding o+ desire! In other ords& the authors EnoG that FreudTs (sFchologF o+ Gomen is inaccurate& and theF argue against FreudTs (ers(ective! !o ever& their contri utions do not +urther the readerTs understanding o+ the (sFchologF o+ Gomen! Instead& theF (er(etuate old vieGs F a((lFing FreudTs misunderstanding to trou led Gomen! FreudTs misunderstanding o+ desire& for example& is e2(ressed in his conce(tualisation o+ the 8edi(us com(le26 Freud (ro(osed that a soon at the age o+ .ie erman ansGers this Suestion in her commentarF on the art chosen to illustrate in @ sections o+ the ooEUFreud and the Feminine& The TheorF o+ the PsFchologF o+ Lomen& The 9odF in the PsFchologF o+ Lomen& Motherhood& The PsFchologF o+ Iomose2ualitF& and Lomen and Training and Research! .

I+ the daughterTs tenderness is +ostered& she Gill strengthen her identi+ication Gith mother and her ond o+ a++ection Gith +ather! JIn di++erentiation a+ter "B months o+ age& oFs retain a++ection +or the +irst caregiver 4mother5 ut shi+t identi+ication to the +ather! :irls retain identi+ication Gith the +irst caregiver ut shi+t a++ectional ties to the +ather! The shi+ted +unction& Ghether it is the shi+t o+ identi+ication or the shi+t or a++ection& must relF on mental images! Mental images are develo(ed Gith greater aGareness o+ se(arateness etGeen the child and the (arentH The +unction 4identi+ication or a++ection5 that is shi+ted ecomes more highlF invested and more vulnera le to shame ecause it is e2(erienced as less secure than the earlier state Ghere the +unctions Gere +used and e2(erienced Githout aGareness o+ emotional se(arateness! Although the child gives u( a degree o+ emotional securitF& di++erentiation and the shi+t o+ +unction increase (sFchological autonomFH For girls& then& gender identitF occurs through the integration o+ ongoing identi+ication Gith mother! For oFs& gender identitF is esta lished as eing di++erent +rom mother! L'(*U'*E 9.CUS "!The ver /i+e V (re(osition in [ to hand in=give smth to an authori/ed (erson=surrender o++ [ to release=(roduce 4va(our5 out [ to ecome e2hausted 4su((lies&(oGer57 to announce7 to +ail=colla(se u( [ to leave=a andon=surrender7 to no longer (rotect! )!The >u u(e P(!/(essi+e Use6 to e2(ress6  an action in (rogress at a certain time in the +uture! Time E2(ressions6 tomorroG at ? (!m!& tonight +rom A to C (!m!& a!s!o!! Form6 A33i(ma i+e: S V shall=Gill V e V ver $ingH!4short +orm6 ell5! I" e((!/a i+e: Shall=Gill V S V e V ver $ingH!N Ne/a i+e: S V shall=Gill V not V e V ver $ingH!4short +orm6 shanTt=GonTt5! 0rac ice "!Finish u( the +olloGing te2t 4+rom a teenagerTs (oint o+ vieG& using the sim(le +uture and the +uture (rogressive5! Lhen MF a out to #ivorce Parents Lill 9e in -ourt MF (arents have received a su (oena +or their +irst divorce session! So& tomorroG at "D a!m!& theF Gill e trFing to reach a consensus& and their laGFers Gill e argaining the terms o+ divorceHH )!The -areer Loman Fill in the ta le eloG to descri e the e2istential situation o+ career Gomen noGadaFs6 Issue a s a2e #raG acEs Advantages 9uilding a +amilF li+e -hildren 1 u( ringing and education Su((orting their hus ands a!s!o! >@ .CUS NeG Voca ularF6 to reach out attunement7 caregiver& caretaEer7 Jregardless o+K vs JregardingK7 to shi+t& a shi+t& shi+ted7 to relF on=u(on& relia le Geather=(erson7 to +use7 to give u(7 to +oster7 tender4ness57 strong& strength& to strengthen7 gender7 degree vs ranE or grade7 to occur& occurrence7 ongoing 4ad<!5! *R'::'R 9.

M N PoGer "! a! -oercion )! ! AuthoritF ..! c! Traditional authoritF >! d! >A .UNIT B -8URSE " 0.ER POWER AND LEADERSHIP 0re-rea%ing Lhat is a leader going to do i+ he (re+ers using6 CONCEPT #EFINITI8 FAV8URITE REP.

acE o+ legitimacF can e a (ro lem +or oth democratic and authoritarian sFstems! ManF o+ the democratic governments o+ South America& +or e2am(le& have +oundered ecause their citi/ens did not share strong norms a out the su(erioritF o+ rational$legal authoritF! .) -!u ! m!' *e o+ their resistance7 includes coercion and . me routines! m!' *e .a'"68 authoritF! Not (oGer& ut a ilitF to (ersuade others to 7I is -!u( u(" ! m!' *e .-C6 AuthoritF ased on sanctitF o+ time$honoured 7I )!"5 3ee.a'"?8 AuthoritF ased on su mission to a set o+ 7D! i !( e.a'"68 o+ leader! PoGer su((orted F norms and values! 7I 2"!' -!u )!"5 'a" ! m!' *e .IES E2ercise o+ (oGer through +orce or threat o+ +orce! 7I 2"!' -!u5+e 1ee" '!")e(i"/ *!' -!u mi/* se(+e me# @8Ju".C"& SociologF 0oli ical Ins i u ions JPoGer ineSualities are uilt into almost all social institutions! In institutions as varied as the school and the +amilF& roles associated Gith status (airs such as student=teacher and (arent=child s(eci+F uneSual (oGer relationshi(s as the normal and desira le standard! In a verF general sense& poli ical ins i u ions are all those institutions concerned Gith the social structure o+ (oGer! This general de+inition includes manF o+ the institutions o+ societF! The +amilF& the GorE(lace& the school& and even the church or sFnagogue have structured social ineSualitF in decision maEing! The most (rominent (olitical institutions& hoGever& is the state! The S a e as he &ominan 0oli ical Ins i u ion The s a e is the social structure that success+ullF claims a mono(olF on the legitimate use o+ coercion and (hFsical +orce Githin a territorF! Legi imac> of he S a e The sta ilitF o+ anF (olitical sFstem& democratic or authoritarian& de(ends on the degree to Ghich it is su((orted F societFTs norms and values! I+ the legitimacF o+ the sFstem is GidelF su((orted& then it can govern F authoritF! ..a'"D I )i) i .se68 rationallF esta lished rules! A ilitF to get others to act as one Gishes in s(ite 7I5m -!u( 3a *e( a") I !.. !)a-D '!u.a'"# 1u -!u *a+e ! )! i a"-'a-68 Rea%ing Te2t (age . +e(.CUS NeG Voca ularF6 4in5eSualitF7 similes7 a (air o+7 coercion7 charisma7 threat& menace7 to su mit to& su mission7 to (ersuade& to convince7 to moG the laGn7 dutF& to e on dutF& to do oneTs dutF& dutF$ +ree7 oneTs turn! >B .'e.i2e.-harismatic authoritF ?! e! Rational$legal authoritF @! +! In+luence A! g! Match the conce(ts to their corres(onding de+initions and to their suita le re(lies 4see the tGo columns eloG5! #EFINITI8NS REP.as change their decisions! 'ee268 AuthoritF ased on e2traordinarF characteristics 7I is -!u( )u .) -!u *e.! m!' *e .acEing these norms& theF o++ered little su((ort +or democratic governments and little resistance Ghen militarF <untas or other dictators tooE the reins o+ government!K L'(*U'*E 9.

RUN F8R TIE M8NEM EverF Fear at least "DDD runners egin their marathon race around cities in the Gorld! Most o+ them usuallF staF in the race to the end! The (ri/e is moneF! The runners Gill +inish the race at di++erent times! Some Gill have run +or three hours7 some Gill have run +or three and one$hal+ hours7 and some Gill have run +or much longer! Each runner Gill have used his oGn s(ecial method to Eee( going! There are old athletes Gho Gill have run everF marathon race +or thirtF Fears! TheF havenTt ever Gon anF (ri/es +or s(eed& ut theFTll have +inished more races than other (artici(ants! >C ..!E2(ressing +ormallF (lanned +uture actions Gith the Sim.CUS NeG Voca ularF6 tuition7 sta++7 range7 accomodation7 outstanding& remarEa le7 e++ective7 race 4s(eed contest7 categories o+ (eo(le and animals Gith the same (hFsical traits5! To (raise Price Pri/e To advertise Advertisement [ ad C.a oratorF $ la 0rac ice "!Identi+F the ver +orms that e2(ress +uture time in the advertisements eloG and talE a out their use! TeA .e P(ese" ! >! E2(ressing in+ormallF (lanned +uture actions Gith the P(ese" P(!/(essi+e! -8URSE ) AD=ERTISEMENTS 0re-rea%ing #iscuss a out the SualitF and the (sFchological im(act o+ advertisements on ordinarF (eo(le! 4in grou(s or individuallF5! Rea%ing Advertisements 4see the te2ts eloG5! L'(*U'*E 9..*R'::'R 9.e) '!()s Re+rigerator 1 +ridge Auto us 1 us Advertisement $ ad .CUS "!E2(ressing intention a out the +uture6 J e going toK +uture! 0rac ice Lhat are Fou going to do Ghen Fou graduate +rom universitF N 4Mention at least three things5! )!E2(ressing actions in the immediate +uture6K e a out toK +uture! 9olloD up 'c i"i >: Pictures +rom Maga/ines Lhat are theF a out to doN IeTs=sheTs a out toH!! .i.

E:E -ENTRE F8R E(*LIS+ 8R:ANI%ES -8URSES F8R RUNI8RS 4aged @$"A5 AN# A#U.TS 4"BV5 2 hours ui ion mornings highlF Suali+ied s aff Gide range o+ teaching techniSues e2cellent famil> accomo%a ion -ourses s ar on $une# the %&th.)!AsE Suestions starting Gith6 Lhen GillHH!!HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHN IoG longHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH!!!N IoG o+tenHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH!!!N TeA / RIP8FF -8. TeA 1. 8 <ects in virtual realitF are (roduced F a com(uter& and theF a((ear three$dimensional! Virtual realitF in video games and cartoons is alreadF GidelF used! In the +uture& Ge Gill see more serious uses o+ it! An outstanding surgeon is (lanning to (ractise an o(eration on a virtual (atient! Virtual$(atient surgerF is a out to ecome a method +or the e++ective training o+ medicine students and +or research in this +ield or in the related ones.. Engineers and architects are going to use virtual realitF to maEe their oGn (ro<ects to GorE etter! 9olloD-up ac i"i > Lrite an essaF a out the im(act Ghich virtual realitF Gill have on the social sciences 4(sFchologF5 o+ the +uture! UNIT C! E:0'T+< -8URSE " DOES ALTRUISM EIIST ? ?D .

. =e(1s E$.D) 4Part "5! L'(*U'*E 9.# V PERFE-T For (ast a ilitF& Ghen the I could have given Fou a hel(ing hand! INFINITIVE action Gas not (er+ormed7 LhF didnTt Fou let me EnoG in due timeN Lhen Ge donTt EnoG The caEe has JvanishedKZ Lho could Ghether it Gas (er+ormed or have taEen it N not7 Mou could have antici(ated it Z To e2(ress irritation at or re(roach +or the non$ (er+ormance o+ an action! 0rac ice "!Identi+F the modal ver s in the given te2t and s(eci+F Ghat theF e2(ress! )!IoG manF things can Fou thinE o+ that6  Im(ressed FouN  Made Fou ha((FN  9othered FouN  AnnoFed FouN ?" .0re-rea%ing Lhat do Fou thinE Jem(athFK actuallF re+ers toN Rea%ing Te2t #8ES A.E T8 +uture ut F the end o+ the universitF Fear ITll e a le to use it (er+ectlF! I+ Fou Eee( u( learning throughout the course& FouTll e a le to master English! -8U.E T8 A ilitF in the (ast TGo Fears ago& Rane could hardlF s(eaE A ilitF in the (ast +or :erman& ut noG she can s(eaE it verF re(eated actions Gell! Ie could=Gas a le to sGim a lot Ghen he Gas Foung! -8U.CUS NeG Voca ularF6 Gel+are7 to con+ine& to limit7 an account7 doGntrodden& to tread7 to stress& to em(hasise7 to draG a ottomline7 nevertheless7 to em(athise7 to assist& assistance& assistant7 (light7 distress7 instead o+! 0rac ice MaEe u( at least +ive sentences Gith Jout o+H!K! 4E!g!6 She hel(ed him out o+ (itF!5 *R'::'R 9.#=LAS A9.(essi"/ a1i.CUS "!Ad<ectives descri ing character6 4un5sel+ish& altruistic& socia le& 4un5relia le& easF$going& cheer+ul& +riendlF& surlF& GithdraGn& o(timistic& (esimistic& +un$loving& ossF& shalloG7 o(en$hearted& tight$ +isted& narroG$minded&H! )!M!)a.E T8 Gallet! I LI.TRUISM EOIST N & Social PsFchologF& (!.i .4sEill and achievement5! Modal ver To e2(ress E2am(les -AN A ilitF in the (resent or IoG Gell can Fou s(eaE :ermanN +uture -8U.=L8NTT 9E SEill and achievement in the I canTt use the com(uter verF Gell Fet& A9.#NTT=LASNTT For re(eated or single actions :randma couldnTt=GasnTt a le to +ind her A9.

CUS NeG Voca ularF6 to state& to assert& to a++irm& to insist& to maintain& to claim7 J8ut o+ sight& out o+ mind!K7 sFm(athF7 (u//le 4ver Q noun5& (u//led7 (ro(osition& to (ro(ose& (ro(osal7 so long 4leave$ taEing +ormula5! 0rac ice :ive suita le leave$taEing +ormulas +or the +olloGing conte2ts 4mind the +ormal and in+ormal GaFs o+ addressing to (eo(le5!  MouTve een talEing to a Pro+essor at the UniversitF7 FouTre in a hurrF ecause Fou have an a((ointment and FouTre leaving!  MouTre in another room in the studentsT hostel7 itTs late at night& and Fou Gant to go to Four oGn room!  Mou need to leave the auditorium earlier than Fou should& and Fou have to a(ologi/e +or that and to saF good$ Fe to Four (eers 4+elloG students5! *R'::'R 9.-8URSE ) DOES ALTRUISM EIIST ? 4Part )5! 0re-rea%ing Match the <um led (hrases to restore the (rover s6 No neGs isH Is lost! 8ut o+ sight&H Lithout +ire All that glittersH :roG +onder! Lhere there is a GillH .D)& Social PsFchologF 4Part )5! L'(*U'*E 9.ooE e+ore FouH 9e+ore the horse! Lhen in RomeH SorrF! MaEe haF Ghile H 8ut o+ mind! #onTt (ut the cartH :ood neGs! Mou canTt have Four caEe andH The est teacher! 9etter sa+e thanH Is not gold! E2(erience isH Run dee(! The more Fou have&H Eat it! ThereTs no smoEeH The more Fou Gant! A sence maEes the heartH There is a GaF! Still GatersH Lhile the sun shines! Ie Gho hesitatesH! #o as the Romans do! Rea%ing Te2t& (!.CUS E$.ea(! .# 9E -AN As an alternative o+ MAM=MI:IT 9E (ossi ilitF ?) Rohn maF e acE tomorroG! TheF might come here +or -hristmas this Fear! Ie maF=might visit his (arents ne2t summer! She maF=might have gone on a tri( to Ireland! FranE could still e in the li rarF ! Ie is a ooEGorm! I Gonder the cat is! It maF=might=could e in the Eitchen Gith its (aG in the +ish oGl! I canTt (lunge in the sGimming (ool! There isnTt enough Gater in it! .# (ossi ilitF -8U.i MAM Perha(s& verF (ossi le MI:IT Slight (ossi ilitF MAM=MI:IT V Possi ilitF in the (resent Present In+initive or +uture MAM=MI:IT V In s(eculations a out (ast Per+ect In+initive actions -8U.a") .(essi"/ .!ssi1i.(!1a1i.i .

8R#ER A! ! :etting a length eFond our tedious selves7 9! Is it not sGeet to die N +or& Ghat is death& "! -! S(illing our Goes& crushing our +ro/en ho(es& #! Then& i+ the odF +elt& Ghat Gere its sense7 E! 9ut sighing that Ge neTer maF sigh again& F! 9ut tram(ling the last tear +rom (oisonous sorroG& :! Turning to daisies gentlF in the grave& I! In love and the enamelled +loGer o+ song N I! And (assing liEe an incense out o+ man N R! I+ not the soulTs most delicate delight P! Lhen it does +iltrate& through the (ores o+ thought& Insert num ers under the heading JNo!=.INES No!=.E# . 8R#ERK! The +irst line has een alreadF identi+ied +or Fou& as an e2am(le! Mou maF get several logicallF valid GaFs o+ reconstructing the (oem! This maF mean that Fou have Four oGn (oetic sEills and outlooE& id est 4[that is5& Fou are creative Foursel+! IoGever& Fou maF +ind out the order o+ the lines o+ the (oem& as the (oet himsel+ imagined them +rom the ta le eloG! A! 9! -! #! E! F! :! I! I! R! P! .8:I-A.-AN -ANTT MUST 0rac ice "!A stract (icture! Lhat MaF 9eN Might -ould -an 8ccasional (ossi ilitF It does not seem (ossi le!=I donTt thinE! It is almost certain!=I thinE! Scarlet +ever can e Suite dangerous! Mou have rested a lot latelF! Mou canTt e GearF! Ie looEs cross! Ie must have (ro lems at home! )!Invisi le o <ect! #raGing in the air an o <ect and then guessing Ghat it6  MaF=  Might=  -an=  -ould e! .8:I-A. .! "! ?! A! )! >! B! "" @ C "D! ! ! ! ?.!Rearrange the lines o+ the (oem J#eath SGeetK& F Thomas .ovell 9eddoes& in a logical order& to reconstruct the (oem6 RUM9.

+'T S+.UL& I &.UNIT "D . = PRO>ESSIONAL ETHICS -8URSE " 0re-Dri ing Mention a +eG things that Fou are=are not alloGed to do Ghen Fou (er+orm Four (ro+ession o+ (sFchologist=(sFchothera(ist=shrinE& a!s!o!! :ive +urther suggestions 4added to those in the ta le eloG5! Y!u ma.) )!Amus )! Y!u ma."! )! Thorough investigations7 #ivulge Four (atientsT secrets7 :ain the (atientsT con+idence7 Iarm Four (atientTs sel+ through Four actions7 Trans+er Four (atientTs a++ection toGards Engage into close a++ective relationshi(s Gith Four another o <ect i+ he=she clings too much to (atients7 Fou7 ?> .)!As*!u.

#=LAS&LERE A.CUS E$.# MAM MI:IT -8U.8LE# T8 MUSTNTT -ANTT USE In+ormal! More (olite Formal More +ormal Permission in the (ast #enFing (ermission F laG=norms=rules Re+using (ermission EOAMP.(essi"/ .#o Four est to arouse Four (atientTs res(onsi ilitF +or his=her oGn choices7 9e alanced7 9e neutrallF enevolent! Recommend=advise GaFs o+ actions& according to Four Gill& to Four (atients7 .ES -an I orroG Four car& #ad N -ould I oroG Four car& #ad N MaF I use Four (hone N Might I see Four identitF card& Sir N 8n GeeEends Ge Gere alloGed to staF u( late! Mou mustnTt sto( Four car here Z Mou canTt enter unless Fou are Gearing a tu2edo! 0rac ice "!.ri ing6 Mou are in a universitF cam(us! #escri e Four li+e in the cam(us! Mention at least +ive things Fou maF do in the cam(us& and +ive that Fou maF not=mustnTt do! )!Situational #ialogue #raG an ideal=imaginarF universitF cam(us! Place Foursel+ someGhere in the cam(us! Then& asE Four (eers to give Fou directions to another (lace in the cam(us! Use the (hrases in the o2 eloG! AsEing +or directions  E2cuse me& hoG can=could I get toH  I canTt +ind mF GaF in the cam(us! -ould Fou tell me hoG to get toHH!! :iving directions  Mou maF go straight ahead  Turn right=le+t a+ter the H  ItTs o((osite theH  ItTs near F theH  ItTs on the right=le+t side o+ the street!  Huntil Fou get toH! ?? .E NE-ESSARM -8MPU.S8RM4MAN#AT8RM5 PR8II9ITE# HH H! H!! H!! H!! *R'::'R 9.ose tem(er7 TalE too much Foursel+& instead o+ creating conditions +or Four (atient to talE a out his=her (ro lems! Rearrange the courses o+ actions listed in the ta le a ove 4including those Fou have added5& under the right heading in the chart eloG6 -8URSE 8F A-TI8N PERMITTE# #ESIRA9.e(missi!" Formal and in+ormal GaFs o+ e2(ressing (ermission! M8#A.. VER9 -AN -8U.

! J#onTt get Four child into the ha it o+ Gaiting -! To a andon a ha it until someone else GorEs out his (ro lemsZK >! JLe almost alGaFs act +rom +orce o+ ha it!K #! To maEe someone acSuire a ha it ?! JIe is in the ha it o+ talEing too much Ghen he E! To do things ecause ha it has ecome isnTt su((osed to!K more (oGer+ul than oneTs Gill! Rea%ing Te2t JIa it FormationK& +rom J:eneral PsFchologFK& ((!)D>$)D?! +abi 9orma ion ManF +orms o+ ehaviour have ecome so automatic through (ractice that theF a((ear to e natural! Ia it +ormation egins earlF in li+e! 9F the time an individual reaches adulthood he has JlearnedK the ha it! The 9unc ioning of +abi . ManF ha its are attained unconsciouslF through imitation7 others re(resent (lanned and (ractised sEills! In general& the ha its utilised in everFdaF living are valua le to the individual in that theF +ree him +rom concern a out (ettF details! Ie is ena led there F to devote his time and energF to creative activitF! Some ha its re(resent un(leasant& non$constructive ehaviour that maF e harm+ul +or the individual (ossessing the ha it as Gell as +or his associates Gho ecome the victims o+ his ad ha it! Some J adK ha its are6 e2cessive use o+ hard liSuor& sGearing& la/iness& lFing& non$(lanned stealing& (roneness to out ursts o+ rage Githout cause! The (sFchologist Lilliam Rames o++ered suggestions +or the uilding o+ ha its! These suggestions are es(eciallF ada(ta le to the reaEing o+ undesira le ha its and the acSuiring o+ neG ones! The im(ortant (rinci(les include6 "! )! .aunch the neG ha it Gith as strong and decided initiative as (ossi le! Never (ermit an e2ce(tion to occur till the neG ha it is securelF rooted in Four li+e! The need +or securing success at the outset is im(erative! A ru(t acSuisition o+ the neG ha it is the est GaF& i+ there is a real (ossi ilitF o+ carrFing it out! JSei/e the verF +irst (ossi le o((ortunitF to act on everF resolution Fou maEe& and on everF emotional (rom(ting Fou maF e2(erience in the direction o+ the ha its Fou as(ire to gain!K JPee( the +acultF o+ e++ort alive in Fou F a little gratuitous e2ercise everF daF!K The suggestions given F Rames can e su((lemented F three others! Utilise voluntarF (ractice to reaE an involuntarF ha it! Utilise the conditional res(onse method to su stitute a neG ha it +or an old one! Esta lish de+inite mental s(eci+ications +or the neG ha it! ?@ . ManF everFdaF ha itual +orms o+ ehaviour serve an individual Gell as time and energF savers! From the hour he arises until he goes to ed he (roceeds +rom one activitF to another! In GaFs acce(ta le to his (articular cultural environment& he engages in certain ha itual activities& such as GalEing& talEing& dressing& GorEing& eating& driving an automo ile& reading the neGs(a(er& listening to a radio (rogramme or Gatching television! It is onlF Ghen a neG situation arises or an emergencF occurs reSuiring non$ha itual ehaviour a((roaches that ha it +ails to +unction adeSuatelF! Then conscious and s(eci+ic reactions are needed! 0s>chological 0rinciples In"ol"e%.! .! >! ?! @! "! )! .-8URSE ) HABIT >ORMATION 0re-rea%ing Match the de+initions in column 9 to the (hrases Gith Jha itK in column A! No! -olumn A! -olumn 9! "! J#onTt let Foursel+ get=+all into ad ha itsZK A To have the ha it o+H )! JItTs hard to get out o+ a ha itZK 9! To acSuire a ha it4a out onesel+5 .

CUS "!T*e +e(1 7&a((-8 B .!to s(end time57 to e (rone to& (roneness to7 out urst7 out reaE7 root 4noun and ver 57 outset 4noun57 to (rom(t7 resolution& resolute! 0rac ice Add the suita le "e/a i+e .(essi"/ a)+i&e M8#A.CUS NeG Voca ularF6 ha it& ha itual& ha itat& ha ita le 4+it to e lived in5& ha itation 4living in5& to ha ituate onesel+& to attain a ha it7 to (roceed7 to arise7 (ettF7 there F7 to save 4"!to rescue7 )!to Eee( moneF7 .CUS NeG Voca ularF6 to delaF& to cancel& to (ost(one& to (ut o++ 4JNever (ut o++ till tomorroG& Ghat Fou can do todaF!K57 to reveal& to unravel& revelation7 (art$time& +ull$time activitF7 to denF& denial7 remote& +ar o++=aGaF7 to varF Gith! 0rac ice Fill in the suita le ver +orms=tenses o+ JmaEeK and JdoK! 4recFcling5! ?A .$"@>! 4Part "5! L'(*U'*E 9.(e.!si i!" -arrF V H Meaning 8ut Ful+il& achieve 8n -ontinue& conduct& manage AGaF -ause to lose sel+ control 8++ Lin& succeed Through Iel( 4through di++iculties5 Fill in the sentences Gith the right ver (hrases o+ the ver JcarrFK! )!E$.( :'KI(* -8URSE " INTERESTS AND DECISION MA0ING 0re-rea%ing Lhen Fou maEe decisions are Fou mainlF interested in their e++ects6  in the short run N  in the long run N Rea%ing Te2t #ecision MaEing and #uration o+ Interest& +rom :eneral PsFchologF& ((!"@.ES Mou should see a dentist! Ie shouldnTt sGim in the sea at such a loG tem(erature! Mou shouldnTt have gone to that (artFZ 0rac ice The (sFchologist Lilliam Rames 4see last (aragra(h& (age )D> in the te2t5& named some (rinci(les o+ reaEing undesira le ha its! Re(hrase them F using the modal ver structures6 Jshould V ver K or Jought to V ver K& in order to e2(ress advice! UNIT "" &ECISI. VER9 Should=ought to=had etter ShouldnTt Should4nTt5 have=ought4not5 to have USE Advice -riticism -riticism a+ter the event EOAMP.L'(*U'*E 9.(e3i$es 4un$& in$& il$& im$& non$& dis$5 to the +olloGing Gords6 desira le& constructive& de+inite& (ossi le& legi le& literate& (leasant& im(ortant& EnoGn& (ro a le& relevant& res(onsi le& +ormal& (ersistent! *R'::'R 9.

*R'::'R 9,CUS E$.(essi"/ !1,i/a i!" a") "e&essi M8#A; USE VER9 Must Strong o ligation or (ersonal +eelings o+ necessitF Iave to E2ternal necessitF ITve got to In+ormal& itTs necessarF

EOAMP;ES All citi/ens must o serve the laGs o+ a countrF! I have to attend all the lectures and seminars! 4others decide it is necessarF5! ITve got to +inish mF assignment todaF!

E2ercises 4suggested re+erence6 MiEe LatEins& Practise Mour Modal Ver s& ;ongman& "CC@5! -8URSE ) INTERESTS AND PERSONALITY

0re-rea%ing In Ghat Eind o+ terms can Fou see the relationshi( etGeen (ersonal interests& micro$grou( interests& macro$grou( interests N Lhat (art do laGs (laF Githin such a conte2t N Rea%ing Te2t 4Part )5! L'(*U'*E 9,CUS NeG Voca ularF6 science& scientist& man o+ science& scienti+ic4al54lF57 under circumstances7 to inter+ere7 outcome& result7 great vs ig vs large7 an2ious& an2ietF! 0rac ice Fill in JgreatK& J igK& or JlargeK& as reSuired F the conte2ts eloG6 "!She didHHHin her e2ams and everF odF congratulated her! )!The room Gas so HHH that Ge Gondered hoG theF could (ossi lF heat it in Ginter! ,!SuddenlF& a HH! ear came u( right ehind them! >!Ie made a HH!mistaEe to let her doGn in such a GaF! ?!She Gas a HH!!sEier and she en<oFed the HH!s(aces that rolled u( in +ront o+ her in the mountains Ghile she Gas sEiing! *R'::'R 9,CUS E$.(essi"/ a1se"&e !3 "e&essi - !( .(!*i1i i!" MustnTt Prohi ition Mou mustnTt do drugs! -anTt Prohi ition Mou canTt enter the room i+ Fou are not a mem er o+ the clu ! NeednTt It is not necessarF Mou neednTt (ut on thicE clothes! ItTs getting Garm! #onTt It is not necessarF in the Mou donTt need=have to +inish the <o right aGaF! need=have to (resent=+uture #idnTt It Gas not necessarF in the Ie didnTt need to go to universitF FesterdaF ecause need=have to (ast theF didnTt have anF lectures or seminars! 0rac ice "!TicE or cross in the slots under the right modal ver heading +rom the grid eloG +or each o+ the +olloGing (hrases Ghich re+er to the rights o+ children6 P*(ases '*i&* (e3e( ! *e (i/* s !3 &*i,)(e": "! e +orced to GorE in order to earn a living7 )! s(oil me7 ,! e2(ress Garmth& honestF& and understanding7 >! encourage me Ghen I seem terri lF scared o+ something7 ?! e +orced to eg in order to earn moneF7 @! (unish me too hard7 A! relate to me as i+ I Gere one o+ Four +riends7 ?B

B! teach me not to have the +eeling that ITm good +or nothing7 C! e given to ado(tion unless in his=her oGn interest7 "D! over(rotect me +rom the conseSuences o+ mF deeds7 ""! avoid (atroni/ing me7 ")! e (unished +or anFthing& unless (roved guiltF7 ",! ansGer to mF sillF Suestions7 ">! e (hFsicallF a used7 "?! e (ushed to doing drugs7 "@! learn +rom mF oGn e2(erience7 "A! use ver al +orce to convince me7 "B! maEe (romises and then +orget to Eee( them7 "C! maEe me +eel that mF mistaEes are JsinsK7 )D! maEe me do things mFsel+& in order to ecome a res(onsi le (erson! TicE and cross in the grid ne2t to the num er o+ the (hrase 4the num ers +rom "! to )D! Ghich Fou maF notice in +ront o+ each o+ the (hrases a ove56 No! Must Should MustnTt ShouldnTt "! 2 2 v 2 )! ,! >! ?! @! A! B! C! "D! ""! ")! ",! ">! "?! "@! "A! "B! "C! )D! UNIT ") -8URSE " “*,(E ;IT+ T+E ;'4E” GROUP THIN0

0re-rea%ing :ive as manF Gords as Fou can Ghich are +ormed Gith the (re+i2 JoverK! E!g!6 overrule& overestimate& overdo& overcome& overreact& overdraG& over+loG& overlooE& overload& over(aF& overtaEe& overGhelm& overGorE& a!s!o!! Rea%ing Te2t6 :rou( ThinE& +rom Social PsFchologF& (!?D@& 4+rom JRanis diagnosesHK to JHcut out o+ the loo(K5! HRanis diagnoses the causes o+ grou(thinE in terms o+ three ma<or +actors6 grou( cohesiveness& grou( structure& and the situational conte2t! Since highlF cohesive grou(s are more liEelF to re<ect mem ers Gith deviant o(inions& theF are more susce(ti le to grou(thinE than more +ragmented grou(s that can tolerate a Gider range o+ o(inion among their mem ers! :rou( structure is also ?C

im(ortant! :rou(s that are com(osed o+ (eo(le +rom similar acEgrounds& isolated +rom other& directed F a strong leader& and lacEing in sFstematic (rocedures +or maEing and revieGing decisions are (articularlF liEelF to +all (reF to grou($thinE! FinallF& stress+ul situations can (rovoEe grou(thinE! Under stress& urgencF overrules accuracF& and the reassuring su((ort o+ other grou( mem ers ecomes es(eciallF desira le! Individuals di++er in hoG susce(ti le theF are to grou(thinE in the +ace o+ stress& Gith some eing more resistant than others 4-allaGaF et al!& "CB?5! 8nce grou(thinE egins to dominate the decision$maEing (rocess& a rash o+ ehavioural sFm(toms reaEs out! These sFm(toms can e classi+ied into three ma<or categories!  O+e(es ima i!" !3 *e /(!u.6 Mem ers maintain an illusion o+ invulnera ilitF and an e2aggerated elie+ in the moralitF o+ the grou(Ts (ositions! #id PennedF and his advisers su++icientlF Suestion the Gisdom o+ the invasion (lan theF had inherited +rom the EisenhoGer administrationN 8r did theF thinE that& as the J est and rightest&K theF could surelF (ull o++ a little invasionN  C,!se)%mi")e)"ess: Mem ers rationalise the correctness o+ the grou(Ts actions and elieve stereotF(es a out the characteristics o+ the targets o+ these actions! #id Ni2on and his advisers ever thinE realisticallF a out Ghat Gas a((ro(riate +or (olitical activities in a democracFN 8r Gere theF convinced that anFthing goes against Jthe enemFKN  I"&(ease) .(essu(es !'a() u"i3!(mi -6 The (ressures to sustain grou( cohesiveness groG increasinglF strong! :rou( mem ers censor their oGn thoughts and act as Jmind$guardsK to discourage deviant thoughts F other grou( mem ers! Those Gho re+use to con+orm are e2(elled +rom the grou(! #id Reagan and those Gho su((orted the Iran e2change seriouslF listen to those Gho o((osed itN 8r Gere o++icials 4liEe the Secretaries o+ #e+ense and StateK Gho GouldnTt <oin the team and su((ort the (olicF sim(lF Jcut out o+ the loo(KN L'(*U'*E 9,CUS NeG Voca ularF6 cohesive4ness5& cohesion [tendencF to sticE together7 to cohere [ to sticE together& coherence& coherencF& coherentlF7 deviant[di++erent in moral and social standards +rom Ghat is normal and acce(ted& to deviate& deviation 4+rom5& deviationist& deviationism7 acEground[setting7 to +all (reF7 accuracF& accurate7 insure& ensure& assure& reassure7 rash7 (ull vs! (ush7 inherit& inheritance& heritage& hereditF7 (ro(er& a((ro(riate7 enemF[+oe7 to sustain7 to censor4shi(57 to e2(el4$l$5 +rom7 to cut out o+ the loo(7 to <oin in=u(d 4dthe armF5! 0R,(U(CI'TI,(: cohesion& coherent& inherent& to deviate& heritage!

*R'::'R 9,CUS: "!E$.(essi"/ a)+i&e# &!"&,usi!"s# a") .(e)i& i!"s M8#A; VER9 USE Must #raGing conclusions& deductions Must have -onclusions a out the (ast& deductions Should& ought to& had Advice or Garning etter -anTt Lill -onclusions Predictions @D

EOAMP;ES TheF must e tGins! Ielen must have le+t the EeFs there! Mou should do more gFmnasticsZ Mou had etter leave this (lace at onceZ There+ore& the hF(othesis canTt e veri+ied! The read Gill go stale i+ Fou Eee( it too long!

..(e.!si i!" 9REAP Meaning V AGaF Esca(e& run aGaF +rom7 give u( ideas& +amilF tradition! +rom #oGn PnocE or smash to the ground7 su++er a (hFsical or mental GeaEening7 cease to +unction 4through some mechanical or electrical +ailure5! In Interru(t=<oin in 4a conversation57 accustom sm to a neG routine7 enter F +orce! 8++ End a ru(tlF& and discontinue7 taEe a reaE=(ause7 sto( talEing! 8ut Start suddenlF 4+ire& e(idemic disease& rioting& and Suarrel5! Through MaEe a GaF through 4an enclosure& o stacles57 overcome 4shFness& reserve57 maEe discoveries! U( Smash& demolish& disintegrate7 ecome GeaE7 +inish school e+ore a holidaF7 to scatter=dis(erse 4a demonstration57 come to an end 4a out a relationshi(5! Lith Se(arate +rom7 end association Gith! .)!T*e +e(1 71(ea28 B . *roup hin@: 'n ece%en sB S>mp omsB an% ConseLuences.8 B . U"s-s ema i& .u. V Meaning A(art #emolish& destroF& or criticise severelF! Aside Move to one side 4curtain& masE& or veil5! #oGn #emolish& destroF7 cause to +all to a loGer (osition! In Earn7 +etch to the (olice station +or Suestioning! 8++ Remove& or succeed in achieving=gaining smth! 8ut E2tract& draG out 4tooth& nail5! 8ut o+ Retire& or GithdraG! Through Iel( to recover +rom illness=+aint7 succeed in avoiding di++iculties! Together -om ine e++orts! U( -ause 4car& iEe5 to sto(7 im(rove the (osition o+ sm ! 0rac ice "!Practise the modal ver s a ove to6  draG conclusions using the JAntecedentsK& Fig!"!  maEe (redictions using the J-onseSuencesK& Fig!"!  give advice and Garn using the J-onseSuencesK& Fig!"! 9igure -.!si i!" PU.ea)e(s*i.(!&e)u(es  Stress+ul situations *roup hin@ @" .a i!" Di(e& i+e .(e. According to Ranis& highlF cohesive grou(s Gith liEe$minded mem ers GorEing under stress+ul conditions run a (articularlF high risE o+ grou(thinE! In grou(thinE& agreement Githin the grou( has a higher (rioritF than gathering accurate in+ormation and maEing care+ul decisions! :rou(thinE creates creates a de+ective decision$maEing (rocess that increases the (ro a ilitF that a ad decision Gill result! _9ased on Ranis& "CB)!` 'n ece%en s  Iigh cohesiveness  :rou( structure H!m!/e"e!us mem1e(s Is!.!T*e +e(1 7.

.e& i+e 1ias i" .(e3e((e) &*!i&e >ai.(aise i"i ia.(e9e& e) a.e e su(+e.!3 !19e& i+es >ai.!3 a. e("a i+es P!!( i"3!(ma i!" sea(&* Se.(!&essi"/ i"3!(ma i!" a *a") >ai.a"s  Iigh (ro a ilitF o+ a ad decision )!:ive e2am(les o+ Gords +ormed Gith the su++i2 J$domK! E!g!6 Gisdom& +reedom& Eingdom& oredom& a!s!o!! -8URSE ) 7THE SPEC0LED BAND8 0re-rea%ing :ive Four oGn e2am(les o+ ver s that e2(ress a slight movement caused F certain +eelings or cold& a!s!o!! E!g!6 shiver=trem le Gith cold=+ear! Rea%ing Te2t 4ada(ted +rom JThe S(ecEled 9andK& F Sir Arthur -onan #oFle5! Read the te2t eloG and +ill in the ga(s using suita le Gords 4mind the grammar structures56 Ielen StonerHHHHH"! shivering Ghile she Gas talEing Gith SherlocE Iolmes! The detective thought she HHHHH!)! e cold& so he invited her to sitHH!!.e e su(+e....! the +ire! Ielen Gas a Foung Goman& a out thirtF Fears old& ut her hair Gas alreadFHH!!!HH!>! greF Gith HH!HH!!?! She started telling Iolmes that her tGin sister had died under HHHHH!@! circumstances! Ielen e2(lained that her mother had een a rich Goman& and Ghen she married #r! RoFlott an agreement GasHHHHH!A! a out that moneF! Ie HHHHHHHHB! inherited one thousand (ounds onlF i+ Ielen and her sister Rulia hadnTt got married! Their ste(+ather Gas a verFHHHHH!C! man and he HHHHHH!"D! get angrF SuicElF! #r! RoFlott HHHHHH""! Eilled Rulia& ut SherlocE Iolmes HHHHHH!")! (rove that! *R'::'R 9.u(e !(e%a...u(e ! e$ami"e (is2s !3 ..(e.CUS Ver Phrases Ghich e2(ress change of s a e. :6T*e +e(1 7 u("8 B .!si i!" PREP8SITI8N MEANIN: aGaF Move toGards a di++erent direction7 sto( +acing or looEing at7 re+use hel(=hos(italitF! @) .S>mp oms  8verestimation o+ the grou(  -losed$mindedness  Increased (ressures toGard uni+ormitF ConseLuences  #e+ective decision$maEing I"&!m.u(e ! '!(2 !u &!" i"/e"&. e("a i+es I"&!m.

.earn& discover 4truth& intentions& +acts57 reach& gain access to7 set to GorE on smth!7 4in+ormal5 criticise& +ind +ault Gith7 AGaF Gith 4in+ormal5 go un(unished& not su++er +or 4slander& im(udence and indisci(line57 F Pass an o stacle7 4in+ormal5 e success+ul& e acce(ted7 doGn 9ring doGn& descend& dismount7 Grite& record7 de(ress& reaE the s(irit o+ sm !7 sGalloG Gith di++icultF medicine& (ill& drinE& +ood7 in Enter7 enter the station& arrive 4train57 4cause to5 e elected into o++ 8n out over through :et dressed in& (ut on7 sei/e sm !Ts (ossessions& thoughts& emotions7 -ome doGn 4horse& us train& iEe57 leave& start a <ourneF7 remove& taEe o++7 MaEe (rogress& advance7 mount 4horse& us57 4neGs& in+ormation& secret5 ecome EnoGn& leaE& s(eaE& utter7 -ause to cross=clim 7 (ass over& surmount di++iculties7 recover +rom illness& sur(rise& disa((ointment7 4hel( to5 e success+ul in& (ass7 manage to do& read& Grite! @.!si i!" PREP8SITI8N MEANIN: AGaF +rom -ease to have an easF& loving relationshi( Gith! +rom 4a out +loGers& vegeta les5& germinate! 8n=u(on 9ecome more attractive& gain in+luence over& increase as a ha it 4o+ sm !57 ecome more interesting to=liEed F! 8ut o+ 4a out clothes& shoes5& ecome too ig +or7 a andon& lose 4 ad ha its5 Gith the (assage o+ time7 have as its origin or cause! U( Increase in si/e or height7 ecome adult! M6T*e +e(1 7/e 8 B .!si i!" PREP8SITI8N MEANIN: a out Move +rom (lace to (lace Gith the im(lication o+ overcoming di++iculties& GalE& travel7 4rumour& neGs5 s(read& circulate7 across 4hel( to5 cross 4 ridge& river& street5! Across to MaEe clear& transmit 4to5& ecome clear to7 Along 4Gith5 MaEe (rogress 4Gith57 agree& co$o(erate7 Around=round Avoid 4an o stacle5& +ind a GaF o+ not doing or o eFing7 esca(e +rom7 gain the +avour o+ some odF +or a s(ecial (ur(ose7 at .doGn in Inside out into o++ on out to u( Re+use to acce(t& re<ect 4candidate=o++er57 reduce the loudness& rightness& +orce o+ 4light& gas& sound5! Iand in& deliver 4essaF& e2ercise& article575 4in+ormal5 in+orm on& re(ort u(on7 surrender 4to the (olice& authorities57 4in+ormal5 go to ed! MaEe the inside o+ something +ace outGards7 search thoroughlF! 4cause to5 ecome7 change into7 e changed into! #isconnect& sGitch o++7 change direction! -onnect& start the +loG o+7 sGitch on 4light& gas& radio57 de(end on=u(on! E2tinguish 4light& lam(57 a((ear& e (resent& attend7 develo(& (rogress7 em(tF the contents +rom7 maEe& (roduce7 e2(el 4sm !5 drive out! A((lF to 4+or advice& hel(& in+ormation57 egin to GorE vigorouslF! Find& e2(ose& maEe visi le 4es(eciallF F digging57 a((ear& arrive& e +ound suddenlF or une2(ectedlF7 im(rove& rise& increase! E6T*e +e(1 7/(!'8 B .(e.(e.

.&u.&u.u( AGaEen& rise +rom ed7 stand u(7 carrF u(& clim ! 0rac ice Use the +olloGing ver s to Grite an essaF ased on a real or an imaginarF situation=event=ha((ening6 JTo ama/e& to astonish& to astound& to +la ergast& to sur(rise&K and some o+ the ver (hrases a ove! I4. *RIL' &E E4'LU'RE Tes pre%ic i"6 +ormat Jmulti(le choiceK 8rientativ& "ei"&.a "! a 3i"a.DY din nota +inală! E"aluare la sf$rMi ul semes rului al II-lea: se notea/ă& re(re/ent3nd a(ro2imativ .u"& a9 &a(e +a 3i . .O& cu rol de diagnostic (edagogic7 Elemente de (ronun'ie& su stantivul 4+orme de (lural& de+ectiv5& ad<ectivul 4grade de com(ara'ie5& ver ul 4tim(urile indicativului5& adver e 4de tim(5& (re(o/i'ii! E"aluare forma i"ă G%e progres56 se notea/ă răs(unsurile studen'ilor (e (arcursul +iecărui curs (ractic (e un ta el centrali/ator& o 'in3ndu$se u" .a "! a 3i"a.ua N" &a.DY din nota +inală! @> .us N" &a.O6 E"aluare la sf$rMi ul semes rului I: se notea/ă& re(re/ent3nd a(ro2imativ .

ePO& Editura Al atros& "CAC7  :ălă'eanu& :eorgiana& E$e(&iQii )e /(ama i&O e"/.3I3LI.DY din nota +inală! 4.ongman& "CC@! @? .RIE:  Adamson& #onald& P(a& ise Y!u( Te"ses& .ePO& Editura Al atros& "CBA7  LatEins& MiEe& P(a& ise Y!u( M!)a.ongman& "CC@7  9ădescu& Alice& G(ama i&a . =e(1s& .3LI*'T.*R'9IE .0or ofoliul con'in3nd a(lica'ii (e teme de gramatică şi voca ular şi scurte eseuri& va re(re/enta de asemenea a(ro2imativ .ePe& Editura *tiin'i+ică şi Enciclo(edică& 9ucureşti& "CB> 4sau alte lucrări de gramatică a lim ii engle/e57  :ălă'eanu& :eorgiana& E$e(&iQii )e /(ama i&O e"/.im1ii e"/.

e) Ba") a") O *e( S !(ies& Ieinemann& "CCC7  #e #evitiis& :!& E"/.ei(/ig& "CAB7  Stancu& Victori'a& E"/.a(.ongman& "CC?! 0RE&ICTI4E TEST G&I'*(.& .e&2.is*# VE9 Verlag& .*R'9IE 9'CULT'TI48:  -onan #oFle& Arthur& T*e S.ePa i" e"si+O& Ed! Niculescu& "CCA7  Thomas& 9!R!& I" e(me)ia e =!&a1u.4I.ongman& "CC"7  Evans& Virginia& R!u") u.e& Ed! Echino2& -lu<& "CC"7  :ro/a Fili(& A!& S-"!"-ms i" P(a& i&e# Ed! #acia& -lu<& "CC@7  IeGings& M!& A)+a"&e) G(amma( i" Use& -!U!P!& -am ridge& "CCC7  8T#ell& F!& Mc-arthF& M!& E"/.a") I)i!m# .i" Use# -!U!P!& -am ridge& "CC>7  Peterson Lilco2& Patricia& C*a"/i"/ Times# C*a"/i"/ Te"ses& U!S! In+ormation AgencF& "CC)7  Plant& P6# E+e(-)a.ongman& "CC?7  Thomas& 9!R!& A)+a"&e) =!&a1u.is* =!&a1u.eP (!mR" )e e$.a(-# .STIC TEST? "!C(!ss the odd$(ronunciation Gord 4its (ronunciation is di++erent +rom that o+ the other three Gords5 !u 6 a!tear7 !care7 c! eer7 d! ear! )! -ross the odd$(ronunciation Gord out6 a!cal+7 !hal+7 c!scar+7 d!cart! -hoose the right ansGer 4onlF one ansGer is the right one56 .!Please& go and uF tGoHHH! a! reads& !loa+s o+& c!loaves o+& d!Eilos o+! >!ITd liEe a HHHHHH! a!soa(& !tin o+ soa(& c!soa(s& d! ar o+! @@ .3I3LI.E"/.a(.is* G(amma( 3!( C!mmu"i&a i!"# .(esii +e(1a.ongman& "CC@7  :alea& Ileana& -riveanu& I!& Ivaş& A!& Voia& M!& Di&Qi!"a( e"/.

?!Pollution has determined strangeHHHH!!all over the (lanet! a!(henomena& !(henomenons& c!(henomeni& d!(henomenas! @!Throughout the e2(eriment& some guinea (igs are e2(osed to various tF(es o+HHHHHHH! a!stimulus& !stimuluses& c!stimuli& d!stimula! A!The scientists noticed a HHH!!o+ side e++ects that +olloGed the treatment! a!serie& !series& c!seria& d!serieses! B!She is +eelingHHHH!than FesterdaF! a!good& ! ad& c!ill& d!Gorse! C!Mou should eHHHH!!Ghile crossing the road! a!most care+ul& !more care+ul& c!care+ullF& d!more care+ullF! "D!The scientistHHHH!the solution to the (ro lem! a!EnoG& !EnoGing& c!is EnoG& d!EnoGs! ""!SusanHHHH!!to the disco tonight! a!go& !is going& c!has gone& d!Gent! ")!It HHHa lot last night! a!rain& !Gill rain& c!has rained& d!rained! ".!.ooEHH A car is coming! Z a!on& !in& c!out& d!o++! )>!C(!ss the Gord Ghich has an odd meaning 4its meaning is di++erent +rom the meaning o+ the other three Gords eloG5 !u 6 a!to release& !to unchain& c!to set +ree& d!to re(hrase! )?! -ross the Gord Ghich has an odd meaning out6 a!to shoG& !to em(hasi/e& c!to stress& d!to elicit! )@! -ross the Gord Ghich has an odd meaning out6 a!come around& !occur& c!ha((en& d!taEe (lace! )A! -ross the Gord Ghich has an odd meaning out6 @A .!Lhen he came in& IHHHHon the (hone! a!Gas talEing& !Gere talEing& c!talEed& d!am talEing! ">!IereTs mF essaF! I HHH!it at last! a!has +inished& !have +inished& c!had +inished& d!+inished! "?!Le havenTt seen this movie HHHHH a!<ust& !alreadF& c!never& d!Fet! "@!SheHHHHH! English +or +ive Fears! a!have studF& !studied& c!has een studFing& d!Gill studF! "A!MarF Gas sighing ecause she HHHHH!a lot o+ trou le Gith her children! a!had had& !has had& c!is having& d!has! "B!TheFHHHHHa neG su(ermarEet doGntoGn! a!o(en& !are o(en& c!Gill o(en& d!shall o(en! "CHHHHHFou control Four heart eat Gith Four mind N a!maF& !can& c!should& d!must! )D!I HHHH go to the dentist! a!am alloGed& !am a le& c!must& d!Gould! )"!MouHHHH!!taEe an um rella! It isnTt raining! a!should& !must& c!have to& d!neednTt! ))!The results Fou get& de(end to large e2tentHHH!the e++orts Fou maEe! a!to& !on& c! F& d!in! ).

D (oints 4" (oint +or each correct ansGer5! The total score is divided to .ie(ea )O 1O aie )e &a.!( N" S&!.e &u((i&u. S-s em i" M. to get the +inal grade! LIST8 CU TITLURILE LUCR8RIL.e& volum (u licat .R 7TII(6I9ICE 0U3LIC'TE "!RO O&i O .G!es Eu(!.D! -ross the Gord Ghich has an odd meaning out6 a!concord& !(ur(ose& c!aim& d!goal! Note6 the test Gill e scored Gith .n urma -olocviului Interna'ional PrimarF :oes Euro(e& Viena& Austria& "CCC7 @B .C!u" (-# R!ma"ia& articol a(ărut .ui & din > octom rie "CCC7 )!T*e Eu(!. .n volumul III din P(ima(.i& articol (u licat .n să(tăm3nalul T(i1u"a T"+OQOmR" u.a!(oGer& !strength& c!strong& d!+orce! )B! -ross the Gord Ghich has an odd meaning out6 a!(reeminence& !(rereSuisite& c!(remise& d!assum(tion! )C! -ross the Gord Ghich has an odd meaning out6 a!stage& !(eriod& c!(hase& d!+rameGorE! .(!3es!(i.ea" Dime"si!" i" *e E)u&a i!"a.a(e# &!"si.(i" (e a(ii.

ea" Ri+e(& articol a(ărut .ePa .ui I& coautor6 #oina #aniela Niculescu %drenghea& volum (u licat de Editura Universită'ii Ti u Mai!(es&u# 9ucureşti& )DDD! @C ..!Da"u1e# *e Eu(!.e" (u s u)e"Qii a"u.a U ii"Qe S!&ia.e& volum (u licat .n volumul III din P(ima(.e# &u(s .e" (u S u)e"Qii .n urma -olocviului Interna'ional PrimarF :oes Euro(e& Viena& Austria& "CCC7 >6E"/.G!es Eu(!.