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2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 1 SUBJECT: Manual for Bridge Evaluation, Section 1, Article C1.

4 TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-18 Bridge Management, Evaulation and Rehabilitation
REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 12/07/09 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC

AGENDA ITEM: Add the following paragraph after the last paragraph in Article C1.4: Further information and details regarding QC/QA for Bridge Inspection can be found in NCHRP 20-07(252), Guidelines for Implementing Quality Control and Quality Assurance for Bridge Inspection.

OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None

BACKGROUND: NCHRP 20-07(252), Guidelines for Implementing Quality Control and Quality Assurance for Bridge Inspection was published in 2009. This report documents both QC and QA practices that are presently implemented in the United States. The report serves as a resource for bridge owners that are developing, improving and/or implementing QC/QA practices.

ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: Gives a reference document to bridge owners. Implementation NCHRP report guidance may improve bridge inspection practice.

REFERENCES: None

OTHER: None

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2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 2 SUBJECT: Manual for Bridge Evaluation: Section 6, Table of Contents TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-18 Bridge Management, Evaluation and Rehabilitation
REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 01/31/10 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC

AGENDA ITEM: Revise the Table of Contents as follows:

Section 6: Load Rating
TABLE OF CONTENTS 6.1 Scope---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6-1 6.1.1 Assumptions----------------------------------------------------------------------------6.1.2 Condition of Bridge Members-------------------------------------------------------6.1.3 Evaluation Methods-------------------------------------------------------------------6.1.4 Bridges with Unknown Structural Components----------------------------------6.1.5 Component Specific Evaluations---------------------------------------------------6.1.5.1 Decks------------------------------------------------------------------------6.1.5.2 Substructures---------------------------------------------------------------6.1.6 6.1.7 Evaluation of Complex Structures------------------------------------------------Nonredundant Structures-----------------------------------------------------------

6.1.8 Qualifications and Responsibilities-----------------------------------------------6.1.9 Documentation of Load Rating---------------------------------------------------PART A - LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR RATING 6A.1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................ 6A.1.1 General ........................................................................................................ 6A.1.2 Scope .............................................................................................................. … 6A.1.3 Philosophy.....................................................................................................

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6A.1.4 Assumptions................................................................................................................. 6A.1.5 Application of AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications..................................... 6A.1.6 Evaluation Methods....................................................................................................... 6A.1.7 Load and Resistance Factor Rating................................................................................ 6A.1.7.1 Design Load Rating.......................................................................................... 6A.1.7.2 Legal Load Rating........................................................................................... 6A.1.7.3 Permit Load Rating.......................................................................................... 6A.1.8 Component-Specific Evaluation................................................................................... 6A.1.8.1 Decks ............................................................................................................... 6A.1.8.2 Substructures................................................................................................... 6A.1.9 Evaluation of Complex Structures................................................................................. 6A.1.10 Qualifications and Responsibilities.............................................................................. 6A.1.11 Documentation of Load Rating ………………………………………………………… 6A.2 LOADS FOR EVALUATION...................................................................................................... 6A.2.1 General........................................................................................................................... 6A.2.2 Permanent Loads and Load Factors............................................................................... 6A.2.2.1 Dead Loads: DC and DW................................................................................ 6A.2.2.2 Permanent Loads Other than Dead Loads: P.................................................. 6A.2.2.3 Load Factors.................................................................................................... 6A.2.3 Transient Loads............................................................................................................. 6A.2.3.1 Vehicular Live Loads (Gravity Loads): LL...................................................... 6A.2.3.2 Applications of Vehicular Live Load.............................................................. 6A.2.3.3 Dynamic Load allowance: IM.......................................................................... 6A.2.3.4 Pedestrian Live Loads: PL............................................................................... 6A.2.3.5 Wind Loads: WL and WS................................................................................. 6A.2.3.6 Temperature Effects: TG and TU..................................................................... 6A.2.3.7 Earthquake Effects: EQ................................................................................... 6A.2.3.8 Creep and Shrinkage: CR and SH................................................................... 6A.3 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS........................................................................................................... 6A.3.1 General.......................................................................................................................... 6A.3.2 Approximate Methods of Structural Analysis............................................................... 6A.3.3 Refined Methods of Analysis........................................................................................ 6A.3.4 Analysis by Field Testing.............................................................................................. 6A.4 LOAD-RATING PROCEDURES....................................................................................................

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6A.4.1 Introduction................................................................................................................... 6A.4.2 General Load-Rating Equation...................................................................................... 6A.4.2.1 General................................................................................................................... 6A.4.2.2 Limit States............................................................................................................ 6A.4.2.3 Condition Factor: φc .............................................................................................. 6A.4.2.4 System Factor: φs ............................................................................................... 6A.4.3 Design-Load Rating ..................................................................................................... 6A.4.3.1 Purpose ................................................................................................................ 6A.4.3.2 Live Loads and Load Factors .............................................................................. 6A.4.3.2.1 Live Load .............................................................................................. 6A.4.3.2.2 Live-Load Factors ................................................................................ 6A.4.3.3 Dynamic Load Allowance ................................................................................... 6A.4.4 Legal Load Rating ....................................................................................................... 6A.4.4.1 Purpose ................................................................................................................ 6A.4.4.2 Live Loads and Load Factors ............................................................................... 6A.4.4.2.1 Live Loads ............................................................................................ 6A.4.4.2.1a Routine Commercial Traffic............................................................ 6A.4.4.2.1b Specialized Hauling Vehicles.......................................................... 6A.4.4.2.2 Live-Load Factors ................................................................................ 6A.4.4.2.3 Generalized Live-Load Factors: γL ...................................................... 6A.4.4.2.3a Generalized Live-Load Factors for Routine Commercial Traffic.... 6A.4.4.2.3b Generalized Live-Load Factors for Specialized Hauling Vehicles. 6A.4.4.3 Dynamic Load Allowance: IM .............................................................................. 6A.4.4.4 Rating in Tons ...................................................................................................... 6A.4.5 Permit Load Rating ...................................................................................................... 6A.4.5.1 Background .......................................................................................................... 6A.4.5.2 Purpose.................................................................................................................. 6A.4.5.3 Permit Types.......................................................................................................... 6A.4.5.3a Routine (Annual) Permits...................................................................... 6A.4.5.3a Special (Limited Crossing) Permits ...................................................... 6A.4.5.4 Live Load and Load Factors ................................................................................. 6A.4.5.4.1 Live Load ............................................................................................. 6A.4.5.4.2 Load Factors..........................................................................................

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6A.4.5.4.2a Routine (Annual) Permits .............................................................. 6A.4.5.4.2b Special (Limited-Crossing) Permits ................................................ 6A.4.5.5 Dynamic Load Allowance: IM .............................................................................. 6A.4.5.6 Exterior Beams ..................................................................................................... 6A.4.5.7 Continuous Spans ................................................................................................. 6A.5 CONCRETE STRUCTURES ......................................................................................................... 6A.5.1 Scope ...................................................................................................................... 6A.5.2 Materials .................................................................................................................. 6A.5.2.1 Concrete .................................................................................................. 6A.5.2.2 Reinforcing Steel ..................................................................................... 6A.5.2.3 Prestressing Steel ..................................................................................... 6A.5.3 Resistance Factors ........................................................................................................ 6A.5.4 Limit States .................................................................................................................. 6A.5.4.1 Design-Load Rating .............................................................................................. 6A.5.4.2 Legal Load Rating and Permit Load Rating ......................................................... 6A.5.4.2.1 Strength Limit State .............................................................................. 6A.5.4.2.2 Service Limit State ............................................................................... 6A.5.4.2.2a Legal Load Rating ......................................................................... 6A.5.4.2.2b Permit Load Rating ....................................................................... 6A.5.5 Assumptions for Load Rating .................................................................................... 6A.5.6 Maximum Reinforcement ............................................................................................ 6A.5.7 Minimum Reinforcement ............................................................................................. 6A.5.8 Evaluation for Flexural and Axial Force Effects .......................................................... 6A.5.9 Evaluation for Shear .................................................................................................... 6A.5.10 Secondary Effects from Prestressing ......................................................................... 6A.5.11 Concrete Bridges with Unknown Reinforcement ....................................................... 6A.5.12 Temperature, Creep, and Shrinkage Effects .............................................................. 6A.5.13 Rating of Segmental Concrete Bridges....................................................................... 6A.5.13.1 Scope................................................................................................................... 6A.5.13.2 General Rating Requirements.............................................................................. 6A.5.13.3 Application of Vehicular Live Loads................................................................... 6A.5.13.4 Design Load Rating............................................................................................. 6A.5.13.5 Service Limit State ............................................................................................. 6A.5.13.5.1 Legal Load Rating...............................................................................

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...........5...................... 6A.............5......... 6A........6....................6.......................................................…………….................. 6A......... 6 ........................ 6A..3 Resistance Factors .9....... 6A..........10 Evaluation for Shear ….......................................................3 Non-Composite Sections .........4...……………………....6..4......6 STEEL STRUCTURES .................. ……….... 6A.......6.....................................2 Materials .….....12..6 Tension Members ...6...................13........................... 6A..12 Evaluation of Critical Connections ……….............. 6A...................2.........…… 6A.........6.........7 Diaphragms and Cross-Frames ………………………………………………… 6A.1 Strength Limit State ........................6.........................6.6.....2...............……………………......…………………..........4............................................................13.. 6A......................................……….. 6A..........6..9..2 Permit Load Rating...........9....2......................6 Riveted Members ………..................5.... 6A......................................................................2.1 General .6............... 6A............... 6A.......................6 System Factor: φs....... 6A................……………......1 Links and Hangers ..................3 Wrought Iron ...............……….... 6A.........................6........................................................................................... 6A.................................................………………….................2 Pins .1 Structural Steels ......…………….... 6A.....................................9.....9..........1 General............5 Effects of Deterioration on Load Rating ..................................6....... 6A.........6..............................................7 Evaluation for Shear and Torsion .................2 Legal Load Rating and Permit Load Rating ...............6....................................……….................................6A........................9.........………..................................... 6A....11........................………..11 Box Sections in Flexure ..........2 Eye Bars .......5 Cross-Section Proportion Limits ....1 Diaphragms and Cross-frames …………………………………………………. 6A........6..................................……………………….....6.................... 6A... 6A..................................6....................................... 6A............………...……….......................6........6................6..........................................4 Limit States .....6......6.. 6A........... 6A....................……………………..........................6.........4 Encased I-Sections ..........................................6..............………...............6................………..........…………………......6....................................................1 Scope ...............................................……….......1 Design-Load Rating .........................6.... 6A...........…………...........2.....................................................................…………………................6....8 Combined Axial Compression and Flexure ...... 6A...................................6............ 6A...............................................................................13.………..................................9..5.....9 I-Sections in Flexure .......................... 6A................. 6A.................................................……………........................7 Non-Composite Compression Members ...2 Composite Sections ............…………………….6...................…………....4...............6................... 6A..............2 Service Limit State ......................

6A.. 6B..……….. 6A... ………………………………………………….………….……………………….………...1 GENERAL ……………….……………………………….2 Bearing-Type Connections .……. 6A.……………………………….……….………………………………..………...3 Posting Analysis ..……….…. 6B.……………………………….1.12.4 Limit States . PART B ....……………………..12...…………. …….……….6..……………………..7.……………. ……….8..1.12.6.…………………. …………………………………………………………..……..………...…….. 6A...7. 6A.12.12.……..………………………………….7.……....………... 6A..……….……….......6A..7. 6A.………..……….1.…………………….………………………………...………. 6A.………...……………………………….6..……...12.. ………………………………………………….………..…………………………..….………..1..…….………………….………...……..……. 6A..... 6A.4..………………………….……….9...………………….……………..5....…. 6A.2 Legal Load Rating and Permit Load Rating ..1 General ……..…….6.1 Assumptions…………………………………………………………….……………..……………………. 6A..1 Design-Load Rating .…....………………………………….…………………………….…..... 6A.………. ……….1.7.. 6A.3 Allowable Stresses in Masonry….5 Speed Limits …...……..………...8.…………………….4...……. 6B....…...………. .9..3 Resistance Factors .………..7 WOOD STRUCTURES ………………………….9...8..……..………. 7 .………………...………………………………….8.…………..5 Dynamic Load Allowance ...………………………..……………………....…….9. 6A.3 Safety Criteria………………………………….2 Posting Loads .8.....1 Rivets in Shear ..1 General ………………………….....……..... …….……………….4 Pinned Connections ………...6..……………………………….……...…………………………………...………………....7.... 6A..3 Slip-Critical Connections ….....……………………….………………………………..…..……….6.7.……………………………....1.... 6A...……….2 Historic Bridges …………………………. 6A.....2 Rivets in Shear and Tension ……………....……………….6 Evaluation of Critical Connections ….……………………..……….9.……………………....8 POSTING OF BRIDGES . ……..……….2 Method of Analysis ……………...2 Substructure Consideration………………….1 Scope …………...7.......…………………...……….………………………………...……. 6A.5 Riveted Connections …… ..........………………………………. 6A.1 Evaluation of Unreinforced Masonry Arches ………………………….……………………..………………. 6A. 6A.…….... 6A..…….. 6A.5..……………………. 6A..ALLOWABLE STRESS RATING AND LOAD FACTOR RATING 6B.…. ……..………...9 SPECIAL TOPICS ..…………………….…. ……….2 Materials . 6A.4 Regulatory Signs ......

..1 Structural Steel ………………………………………………………….6.……. 6B.…... 6B. Shear (Diagonal Tension) …………………………….6.2 Reinforced Concrete ………………….. 6B. 6B.1 6B. 6B.6.5 Bridges with Unknown Structural Components …….….6.5.….4.1. 6B.… 6B.2.3 Load Factor ……………………………………………………….4 Condition of Bridge Members ………………………………….4 Application of Standard Design Specifications ……………………….……………… 6B. Batten Plate Compression Members…………………. 6B. Columns ………………………………………………….5 Nonredundant Structures …………………………………………………….6 NOMINAL CAPACITY (C) …………………………………………………………….3 Reinforcing Steel ………………………………………………….6.1 Inventory Rating Level………………………………………………………….. 8 .6.5.3 Load Factor Method ………………………………………………………………. 6B. 6B.1 General ……………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………….….…...6B.2 Allowable Stress Method ………………………………………………………....6.5 RATING EQUATION…………………………………………………….. 6B.1 Structural Steel ……..4.2 QUALIFICATIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES…………………………………..2.5 Prestressed Concrete ……………………………………………….……………………………………………………….2.4.6. 6B. 6B.2 Allowable Stress…………………….6.… 6B.6.5.1 General ………………………………………………………………………….1.. 6B.2..……………….6.3 RATING LEVELS…………………………………………………………………..….2.1 6B.2 Operating Rating Level……………………………………………………. ………………………………………………….6 Masonry …………………………………………………………….6.3.5.6.4.… 6B..2.2. 6B.……………………………….1 Allowable Stress (AS) ……………………………………………………………..……..…….2 Load Factor (LF) …… …………………………………………………………….2. 6B...………………………………….….3.………………….1....4.1.7 Timber …………….2 6B.6.6.6.……………………………. 6B.…. 6B. 6B...…………. 6B.………………….1..………….4 RATING METHODS……………………………………………………………….………....4 Concrete ….3..….2.2..2 Wrought Iron…………………………………………………………….………………………………….....2. 6B. 6B.2.3.5..….…….3 Bending ……………………………………………. 6B..6.. 6B. 6B.2 Combined Stresses ……. 6B. 6B.6 Load Rating for Complex Structures ………….

7.7 6B. Routine Permits ……………………………………………………………………..3. 6B.3 Lane Loads ………..7.2 Truck Loads ……… …………………………………………………… 6B..7.………………………………………………………………….2.3 6B. Posting Analysis . Dead Load (D) ……………………………………………………………………. 6B...……………………………………………………………….10 PERMITS …………………………………………………………………………………. 6B.2. Rating Live Load …………………………………………………………………. Posting Loads ….9.5 6B.2 6B..10.………………………………… 6B. 6B.5 Ice Pressure …………………………………………………………….7.1 6B.7.6 6B.7.7.4 6B.7.4 Stream Flow ……………………………………………………………. 6B.3 6B.1 Wheel Loads (Deck) …………………………………………………… 6B.6..6 Permanent Loads Other Than Dead Loads …………………………….9..1 Wind …………………………………………………………………….7.2.5 6B. …………………………………………………………….7. …………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………. …………………..9.…………………………………………………………………….3 Prestressed Concrete ………………………………………………….10.. Controlled Permits .8 DOCUMENTATION OF RATING …………………………………………………………..7... 6B.1 6B. 6B. Escorted Permits ..………………………………… 6B.7...2.2 LOADINGS ……………………………………………………………………….4 Sidewalk Loadings .7.2 6B.7..…………………………………………………………… 6B. Speed Limits .4 6B. 6B.………………………………………………………………….4 General …………………………………………………………………………….7.7.. General …………………………………………………………………………….7.5 Live Load Effects (L) …………………………………………………… 6B.10..1 6B..2 Earthquake .7.6B.…………………………………………………………….9 POSTING OF BRIDGES …………………………………………………………………….7.2.………………………………………………….. Environmental Loads ……………………………………………………………… 6B.7..7. 6B.3 Thermal Effects .10..7.9.3 6B. Longitudinal Loads … …………………………………………………………….7.. Impact (I) ………….………………….9. 9 ...7. Deflection ………….7 Distribution of Loads …………. 6B. Regulatory Signs ………………………………………………………………….

eliminate potential confusion. and reduce future editing effort. This would avoid conflicts. Items 1 through 12 include articles have been pulled out of Part A and Part B into a common section in front of Section 6. Items 13 through 35 pertain to revisions to or deletions of related Articles in Part A and Part B on account of their inclusion in the new up front section. Refer to 2010 Agenda Item 3. This modification to the articles will make Part A and Part B load rating provisions consistent. BACKGROUND: The Manual for Bridge Evaluation (MBE) combines into a single Section 6 provisions for Load and Resistance Factor Rating (LRFR) method (Part A) from the Manual for Condition Evaluation and Load and Resistance Factor Rating of Highway Bridges and the Allowable Stress and Load Factor rating methods (Part B) from the Manual for Condition Evaluation of Bridges (MCE). The LRFR and ASR/LFR Specifications in Section 6 have many articles that are independent of the load rating method and should therefore be identical. provide consistency between the Specifications. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: Clarifies load rating requirements that apply equally to all load rating methods.OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: Portions of Section 6 will need to be renumbered to coincide with the new section headings. REFERENCES: None OTHER: None 10 . If this item passes this will be done prior to the interim being published.

ice. to reflect any relevant changes in condition or loading noted during the inspection. flood. vessel collision. wind. Evaluation and Rehabilitation REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 11/15/09 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Item #1 In Article 6. or fire are not included herein.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 3 SUBJECT: Manual for Bridge Evaluation: Section 6. delete the 4th paragraph as follows: Bridge load ratings are based on information in the bridge file. including as-built construction plans and shop drawings. Item #2 In Article 6. movable bridges.1: The specific load ratings are used in identifying the need for load posting or bridge strengthening and in making overweight-vehicle permit decisions.1. Item #3 Add the following paragraphs to the end of Article 6. bridge load ratings should be reviewed and updated as necessary. load postings. and permit decisions. Part B provides safety criteria and procedures for the Allowable Stress and Load Factor methods of evaluation. As part of every inspection cycle. Various Articles TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-18 Bridge Management.1. Load ratings reported to the NBI shall be in accordance with this manual and in conformity with FHWA reporting requirements. and other complex bridges may involve additional considerations and loadings not specifically addressed in this Section and the rating procedures should be augmented with additional evaluation criteria where required. 11 . Any of these three methods identified above may be used to establish live load capacities and load limits for purposes of load posting. Rating of longspan bridges. delete the last sentence in the 1st paragraph as follows: This Section sets forth criteria for the load rating and posting of existing bridges and provides a choice of load rating methods. Load ratings are routinely reported to the NBI for national bridge administration and are also used in local bridge management systems. No preference is placed on any rating method. This Section is intended for use in evaluating the types of highway bridges commonly in use in the United States that are subjected primarily to permanent loads and vehicular loads. Methods for the evaluation of existing bridges for extreme events such as earthquake. Part A incorporates provisions specific to the Load and Resistance Factor Rating (LRFR) method developed to provide uniform reliability in bridge load ratings. and the results of a recent field inspection.

the bridge is assumed to be subject to inspections at regular intervals. 12 .1. material properties. and Improves bridge safety through early discovery of deterioration or signs of distress that could signal impending failure. Hydraulic considerations (scour/ice/debris). which may be of substandard grade or where the material is weathered or otherwise deteriorated. or site traffic conditions could require re-evaluation. the review of a permit application should not necessitate a special inspection of the bridge. In determining the load rating criteria for a bridge.1. To maintain this capacity. Extreme events have a very low probability of occurrence but impart very high-magnitude forces on a structure. However. there are some cases where judgment must be exercised in making an evaluation of a structure and the condition factors and safety criteria may be adjusted based on site conditions and/or structure conditions as recorded in the most recent inspection report. consideration should be given to the types of vehicles using the bridge routinely. and any reductions in area due to deterioration have been considered. or.3. In general.1. This determination of the safety criteria (safety factors) most commonly applies to timber. and traffic conditions at the bridge site. not to exceed the maximum interval cited in Article 4. but should be considered under unique circumstance and structure types. Guidance on data collection for the purpose of load rating a bridge is provided in Article 4.1—Assumptions The load rating of a bridge is based on existing structural conditions.1 Load rating of a bridge should not be undertaken without a recent thorough field inspection. Minimizes the possibility of the evaluator making a gross error in assessing the capacity of a component or connection. It is important that Bridge Owners and evaluators recognize the vulnerabilities to these other failure modes so that a comprehensive safety assurance program may be developed for in-service bridges on a consistent and rational basis. The procedures for computing load rating of concrete bridges are based on the assumptions that materials and construction are of good quality and there is no loss of material design strength. the material strength has been established by testing. material properties.1: Primary focus of this Section is the assessment of the safety of bridges for live loads (including overloads) and fatigue. when warranted. In ordinary cases. and the evaluation may be based on the results of the most recent inspection. All data used in the determination of the load rating criteria should be fully documented.Item #4 Add the following paragraph to the end of Article C6.13. loads. Every effort should be made to minimize hardships related to economic hauling without jeopardizing the safety of the public. temperature effects collision and the effects of creep and shrinkage are generally not considered in the load rating of bridges.1.1 as follows: C6. wind loads. Changes in existing structural conditions. the condition factors for LRFR and the safety criteria (safety factors) for ASD and LFR to be used should be taken from this Manual. Item #6 Add the following new Article C6. The vulnerability to extreme events is an important bridge design consideration but it holds even greater significance in the overall safety assessment of existing bridges.1 as follows: 6. Item #5 Add the following new Article 6. loads. the field inspection: • • • Provides the condition data and other critical noncondition data necessary for evaluation.

The actual amount of capacity reduction depends on the type of deterioration and its location. As necessary. in addition to the physical condition. Where steel is severely corroded. or cracking that change the member neutral axis. The above examples are not a comprehensive list of indicators but highlight the importance of observing. Such defects will have a great effect on the load-carrying capability of a member and may be the controlling factor in the loadcarrying capacity of the entire structure. Determine if deep pits. size. nicks. delaminations. and for the capacity when force or moment is chosen for use in the basic rating equation. or other defects exist that may cause stress concentration areas in any structural member. Item #8 Add the following new Article C6. This information will normally be taken from plans when they are available. quantifying. Also. Item #7 Add the following new Article 6. but should be determined in the field otherwise. The rating of an older bridge for its load-carrying capacity should be based on a recent thorough field investigation. or kinks in compression members should be measured carefully.1. Deterioration of concrete components does not necessarily reduce their resistance.2 as follows: C6. Loss of cover due to spalling might not have a significant influence on the member resistance if the main load-carrying reinforcing steel remains properly anchored and confined.1.1.2—Condition of Bridge Members The condition and extent of deterioration of structural components of the bridge should be considered in the computation of the dead load and live load effects when stress is chosen as the evaluation approach. concrete deteriorated. Any misalignment. The following defects also have the potential for loss of critical strength: • • • • Loss in concrete cross-sectional area. The effective area should be adjusted for rivet or bolt holes in accordance with the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications or Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. bends. Note any damaged or deteriorated sections and obtain adequate data on these areas so that their effect can be properly evaluated in the analysis. Loss in cross-sectional area of load-carrying reinforcing steel. and Degradation of the bond between reinforcing steel and concrete resulting in inadequate anchorage or development. number. Also. material sampling and testing should be considered to assess concrete strength and quality.1. and assessing losses in order to accurately determine load ratings. or timber decayed. The effective area of members to be used in the calculations shall be the gross area less that portion which has deteriorated due to decay or corrosion. examine the connections of compression members carefully to see if they are detailed such that eccentricities are introduced which must be considered in the structural analysis.2 as follows: 6. Loss in cross-sectional area of shear or confinement reinforcing steel. make a determination of the loss in a cross-sectional area as closely as reasonably possible. and relative location of bolts and rivets through tension members should be determined and recorded so that the net area of the section can be calculated. Lowering load capacities below those otherwise permitted or other remedial action may be necessary if such conditions exist.Loss of concrete strength can occur if there has been appreciable disintegration of the concrete matrix and the separation of aggregates due to chemical agents or other causes. threaded members such as truss rods at turn-buckles should be checked to see if the rod has been upset(check the diameter at the smallest diameter of the rod) so that the net area will be properly calculated. All physical features of a bridge which have an effect on its structural integrity should be examined as discussed in Section 4. In such cases.2 The effective cross-section properties used in determining the resistance or strength of the section to applied 13 .

3 as follows: 6. Other analytical methods are discussed in Part B.3 as follows: C6. Bridge Owners may consider nondestructive proof load tests to establish a safe load capacity for such bridge.4 as follows: C6.1. A concrete bridge with unknown details need not be posted for restricted loading if it has been carrying normal traffic for an appreciable period and shows no distress.) Item #11 Add the following new Article 6.1. Item #13 Add a new Article 6. Load and Resistance Factor Rating of bridges.1. Item #9 Add the following new Article 6. is discussed in Part A of Section 6. Item #12 Add the following new Article C6.3—Evaluation Methods This Manual provides analytical and empirical methods for evaluating the safe maximum live load capacity of bridges or for assessing their safety under a particular loading condition.4 as follows: 6. Safety assessment of a bridge using structural reliability methods may be used in special cases where the uncertainty in load or resistance is significantly different from that assumed in this Manual. the member should be evaluated based on the least cross-section area available to resist the applied tension force. such as reinforcement in a concrete bridge.forces should be based on the gross cross-section less that portion which has deteriorated. (Reference: NCHRP Report 454.1. and live load history may be used to provide a basis for assigning a safe load capacity. the current condition of the structure. For instance.5 heading as follows: 6.1.4—Bridges with Unknown Structural Components For bridges where necessary details.3 Load testing may be used as an alternative method to directly assess the load capacity of a bridge when analytical methods of evaluation are not applicable or need verification.1. Item #10 Add the following new Article C6. in a steel tension member. and load testing is discussed in Section 8.1. are not available from plans or field measurements. Only the specific analytical method.5—Component-Specific Evaluation 14 .1. Empirical methods are load ratings by load testing. a physical inspection of the bridge by a qualified inspector and evaluation by a qualified engineer may be sufficient to establish an approximate load rating based on rational criteria. The bridge shall be inspected regularly to verify satisfactory performance. Calibration of Load Factors for LRFR Bridge Evaluation.4 Knowledge of the live load used in the original design.1. Load tests may be helpful in establishing the safe load capacity for such structures.1.

There is significant reserve strength in concrete decks designed by the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. but internal arching or membrane action.2 Examples of distress that could trigger a load rating of substructure components include: a high degree of corrosion and section loss.2—Substructures Members of substructures need not be routinely checked for load capacity.1—Decks Stringer-supported concrete deck slabs and metal decks that are carrying normal traffic satisfactorily need not be routinely evaluated for load capacity.5.5. The bridge decks should be inspected regularly to verify satisfactory performance. Where deemed necessary by the Owner.1. Substructure elements such as pier caps and columns should be checked in situations where the Owner has reason to believe that their capacity may govern the load capacity of the entire bridge.1. but neglecting other transient loads such as wind or temperature.5.1 as follows: 6. Where longitudinal stability is considered inadequate. Item #17 Add the following new Article C6. Careful attention shall be given to substructure elements for evidence of distress or instability that could affect the load-carrying capacity of the bridge. As necessary. Item #16 Add the following new Article 6. Timber decks that exhibit excessive deformations or deflections under normal traffic loads are considered suitable candidates for further evaluation and often control the rating.1. Item #15 Add the following new Article C6.Item #14 Add the following new Article 6. the structure may be posted for restricted speed.5. piers. Capacity of timber plank decks is often controlled by horizontal shear.1. The permanent load factors shall be chosen so as to produce the maximum factored force effect.5. Heavily spalled and deteriorated concrete decks may be checked for punching shear under wheel loads.1. changes in column unbraced length due to scour. and walls.1.5. or columns with impact damage. changes in column end conditions due to deterioration. should be done using all permanent loads and loads due to braking and centrifugal forces.1 as follows: C6.2 as follows: 6.5.2 as follows: C6.1 Test data indicates that the primary structural action of concrete decks is not flexure.5. such as abutments. main elements and components of the substructure whose failure is expected to cause the collapse of the bridge shall be identified for special emphasis during inspection.1. 15 . load rating of substructure elements and checking of stability of substructure components.1.

1. and curved girder bridges. Redundancy in Highway Bridge Superstructures.1.6 The definition of Complex Bridges as defined in Section 1 is intended to be consistent with NBIS requirements for inspection. may require special analysis methods and procedures. Special considerations of these nonredundant components may be required in load rating the structure. There are many types of complex structures that may require special analysis methods and procedures to determine the load carrying capacity.Item #18 Add the following new Article 6.1. critical components whose failure would be expected to result in the collapse of the bridge. The engineering expertise necessary to properly evaluate a bridge varies widely with the complexity of the bridge.1.1. the analytical models should be sufficiently conservative so that member forces used in the rating are adequate to cover any increased uncertainty in calculating load effects.7—Nonredundant Structures There may exist in a structure. 16 . When the structure being evaluated is of a type not covered in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.6 as follows: 6. A multi-disciplinary approach that utilizes the specialized knowledge and skills of other engineers may be needed in special situations for inspection and office evaluation.1.8—Qualifications and Responsibilities A registered Professional Engineer shall be charged with the overall responsibility for bridge-capacity evaluation. Item #20 Add the following new Article 6. Item #22 Add the following new Article 6.1. Item #19 Add the following new Article C6.7 as follows: C6. cable-stayed bridges.7 as follows: 6.1.1. Item #21 Add the following new Article C6. Further guidelines in this area are provided in NCHRP Report 406.6—Evaluation of Complex Structures The computation of load-carrying capacity of complex structures.6 as follows: C6.7 This Section introduces the importance of redundancy in the evaluation and rating of bridges.8 as follows: 6. Regardless of structural complexity. such as suspension bridges.1. General guidance is available in this Manual but more complex procedures must be used for the actual determination of the load rating. the checking of capacity is always done on a member basis.

Rating of longspan bridges. the input data file should be retained for future use.1. wind. Earthquake can also be a significant failure mode for bridges in regions considered to be seismically active. all supporting computations.8 as follows: C6. Item #27 In Article C6A. Item #24 Add the following new Article 6. If a computer model was used. delete the 2nd paragraph as follows: Part A is intended for use in evaluating the types of highway bridges commonly in use in the United States that are subjected primarily to permanent loads and vehicular loads. The vulnerability to extreme events is an important bridge design consideration but it holds even greater significance in the overall safety assessment of existing bridges. The specific load ratings are used in identifying the need for load posting or bridge strengthening and in making overweight-vehicle permit decisions. Bridges over navigable waterways with inadequate pier protection may be highly vulnerable to failure by vessel collision.1. including all background information such as field inspection reports.1. delete the 2nd paragraph as follows: Part A’s primary focus is the assessment of the safety of bridges for live loads (including overloads) and fatigue. Extreme events have a very low probability of occurrence but impart very high-magnitude forces on a structure. Item #25 In Article 6A. delete the last two sentence in the 1st paragraph as follows: 6A. Study of past bridge failures indicates that failure due to hydraulics (scour/ice/debris) is the most common failure mode across the United States. Item #26 In Article 6A. or fire are not included herein.1. ice.9 as follows: 6.1.Item #23 Add the following new Article C6. Load ratings are routinely reported to the NBI for national bridge administration and are also used in local bridge management systems. vessel collision.8 Engineer qualifications are also subject to requirements specific to a State or Bridge Owner. flood. Methods for the evaluation of existing bridges for extreme events such as earthquake.9—Documentation of Load Rating The load rating should be adequately documented. and a clear statement of all assumptions used in calculating the load rating.2.1. 17 . movable bridges.1.1. and other complex bridges may involve additional considerations and loadings not specifically addressed in this Section and the rating procedures should be augmented with additional evaluation criteria where required. material and load test data.2.1. It is important that Bridge Owners and evaluators recognize the vulnerabilities to these other failure modes so that a comprehensive safety assurance program may be developed for in-service bridges on a consistent and rational basis.1—General The load and resistance factor rating procedures of Part A provide a methodology for load rating a bridge consistent with the load and resistance factor design philosophy of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.

1.1.4 Item #29 Delete Article C6A.1.6 Item #32 Delete Article 6A.1.1.1.8 Heading Item #33 Delete Article 6A.9 Item #38 Delete Article C6A.1.8.10 Item #40 Delete Article C6A.1 Item #34 Delete Article C6A.2 Item #37 Delete Article 6A.8.1.1.9 Item #39 Delete Article 6A.8.1.4 Item #30 Delete Article 6A.1.1 Item #35 Delete Article 6A.2 Item #36 Delete Article C6A.Item #28 Delete Article 6A.10 Item #41 Delete Article 6A.11 18 .1.1.8.1.6 Item #31 Delete Article C6A.

2 Item #50 Delete Article 6B.1.1 Item #48 Delete Article 6B.1.5 Item #43 Delete Article C6A.1.11 Item #46 In Article 6B.1.5.1.5 Item #44 Delete Article 6A.5.5.5.5 Item #52 Delete Article C6B.3 Item #51 Delete Article 6B.Item #42 Delete Article 6A.5 Item #53 Delete Article 6B.1.2 19 . delete the 1st paragraph as follows: Bridge Owners should implement standardized procedures for determining the load rating of bridges based on this Manual.6 Item #54 Delete Article 6B.1.11 Item #45 Delete Article C6A.1. Item #47 Delete Article 6B.2 Item #49 Delete Article C6B.

4 Item #57 Delete Article C6B.Item #55 Delete Article C6B.7.2 Item #56 Delete Article 6B. eliminate potential confusion.5 Item #60 Add the following new Article 6B. Item #61 Add the following new Article C6B. and reduce future editing effort.5. provide consistency between the Specifications.8 as follows C6B.4 Item #58 Delete Article 6B.7.8 —Permanent Loads Other Than Dead Loads Secondary effects from post-tensioning shall be considered as permanent loads.8 In continuous post-tensioned bridges. secondary moments are introduced as the member is stressed.5.8 OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: The Manual for Bridge Evaluation (MBE) combines into a single Section 6 provisions for Load and Resistance Factor Rating (LRFR) method (Part A) from the Manual for Condition Evaluation and Load and Resistance Factor Rating of Highway Bridges and the Allowable Stress and Load Factor rating methods (Part B) from the Manual for Condition Evaluation of Bridges (MCE).7.7.5 Item #59 Delete Article C6B. The LRFR and ASR/LFR Specifications in Section 6 have many articles that are independent of the load rating method and should therefore be identical. This would avoid conflicts.8 as follows: 6B.5. Item #62 Delete Article 6B. Items 13 through 35 pertain to 20 . Items 1 through 12 include articles have been pulled out of Part A and Part B into a common section in front of Section 6.5.

REFERENCES: None OTHER: None 21 . This modification to the articles will make Part A and Part B load rating provisions consistent. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: Clarifies load rating requirements that apply equally to all load rating methods.revisions to or deletions of related Articles in Part A and Part B on account of their inclusion in the new up front section.

Take the largest of Type 3. For all span lengths the critical load effects shall be taken as the larger of the following: • • For all load effects. If the ADTT is less than 500. a lane load of 0.4. OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: The revision clarifies that Type 3-3 or state legal loads can be used when using the lane load model for negative moments and reactions at piers and for span lengths greater than 200 ft. Dynamic load allowance shall be applied to the AASHTO legal vehicles and state legal loads.2 klf combined with two AASHTO Type 3-3 vehicles or state legal loads multiplied by 0. For negative moments and reactions at interior supports.2.4.1a TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-18 Bridge Management. Type 3S2. critical load effects shall be created by: • AASHTO Type 3-3 or state legal load multiplied by 0.1a as follows: The AASHTO legal vehicles and lane-type load models shown in Figures D6A-1 thru D6A-5 shall be used for load rating bridges for routine legal commercial traffic. or state legal loads and plus lane loads.0 if.2 klf. but and not the lane loads. it is warranted. In addition. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: More consistency in load ratings when using the lane load model. Type 3S2. in the Engineer’s judgment.75 factor changed to 1. AASHTO legal vehicles (Type 3. 22 . Evaluation and Rehabilitation REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 12/22/09 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Revise Article 6A. Type 3-3 vehicles. for span lengths greater than 200 ft. the lane load may be excluded and the 0.75 heading in the same direction separated by 30 ft.4.75 and combined with a lane load of 0.4. Article 6A.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 4 SUBJECT: Manual for Bridge Evaluation: Section 6. The lane load model is common to all three truck types. applied separately) or sState legal loads. Type 3-3.2.

NCHRP 12-63 Calibration Report OTHER: None 23 .REFERENCES: NCHRP Report 575.

0 for the load effects. For an optimal evaluation of these grandfathered trucks.2. The maximum moment and shear load effects of the NRL approaches 1.4.2.5 times the corresponding load effects of the AASHTO legal trucks. whose load effects are bounded by load effects depicted by the NRL model should preferably be load rated using live load factors for SHV trucks in Table 6A. as described in Part C of the NCHRP 12-63 Calibration Report.4.3a. More optimal load ratings can be obtained with the proposed revision. The use of load factors in Table 6A. 24 . States may have grandfathered trucks where the maximum ratio of load effects could approach 2.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 5 SUBJECT: Manual for Bridge Evaluation: Section 6.3b-1 is conservative for these trucks.4.4.0 times the corresponding AASHTO legal trucks.4.2. especially single unit trucks under 80 K. States with grandfathered trucks under 80 kips. may be extended to cover a range up to 2. Evaluation and Rehabilitation REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 11/15/09 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: In Article C6A. the calibration of SHV load factors. which is based on predicting the maximum expected live load.4. Legal loads of a given jurisdiction having gross vehicle weights that are significantly greater than the AASHTO legal loads should preferably be load rated using load factors provided for routine permits in this Manual. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: Improved load ratings for state legal loads that represent grandfathered trucks. OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: The MBE Section 6 Part A provides calibrated live load factors for LRFR ratings only for vehicles considered to be representative of the Formula B configurations. which are excluded from federal weight laws and Formula B. do not comply with Formula B requirements.3b-1. Use of these same live load factors calibrated for the AASHTO trucks for rating exclusion vehicles may be conservative resulting in lower load ratings.4.4.3a TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-18 Bridge Management. Many State legal loads. revise the 2nd paragraph as follows: The generalized live load factors are intended for AASHTO legal loads and State legal loads that have only minor variations from the AASHTO legal loads. Article C6A.2.

REFERENCES: NCHRP Report 575. NCHRP 12-63 Calibration Report OTHER: None 25 .

The method assumes that the WIM data is assembled over a sufficiently long period of time to ensure that the data is representative of the tail end of the truck weight histograms. A normal distribution fit can usually be obtained for the top 5 percent of data points. NCHRP Project 12-76 has proposed a more consistent approach for using WIM data for live load modeling. including the actual configurations and the actual percentage of side-by-side crossings. which takes into consideration the actual distribution of the truck traffic data. • The standard deviation of the best fit Normal: σevent=1/m. The process begins by assembling the measured load effects histograms (moment effect or shear force effect) for single lane events and two-lane events for a suite of simple and continuous spans. The slope m and intercept n of the best fit regression line provides the statistics for the normal distribution that best fits the tail end of the distribution.3a TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-18 Bridge Management. Then calculate cumulative distribution function for each load effect and obtain the standard deviate of the cumulative function. The one implemented herein is based on the assumption that the tail end of the histogram of the maximum load effect over a given return period approaches a Gumbel distribution as the return period increases. Calculation of Lmax for each span using equations in closed form for statistical projections can be performed as follows: • The mean of Normal that best fits the tail end of the distribution: μevent = -n/m. Studies performed in NCHRP 12-76 have shown that these simplifying assumptions may not be valid in all cases.4. Evaluation and Rehabilitation REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 11/15/09 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Add the following after the last paragraph in Article C6A. A plot is made of the upper 5 percent of the values of the normal deviate versus the load effect X.2.3a: Alternate Approach to Deriving Site Specific Load Factors from WIM Data The commentary above on Site Specific Live Load Factors describes a simplified procedure for calculating load factors using the statistics for the heaviest 20 percent of the truck weight spectra to model the maximum load effects expected on typical bridges.2. Equations in closed form for statistical projections can be utilized provided the tail of the load effect histogram for the original population of trucks approaches the tail end of a Normal distribution. Calculating of Maximum Load Effect Lmax The estimation of the maximum load effect Lmax expected over a 5-year bridge evaluation period can be executed through a variety of methods.4. Article C6A. 26 .4.4. It assumes that the heaviest trucks follow a Normal distribution and that 1 in 15 trucks will cross the bridge side–by–side.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 6 SUBJECT: Manual for Bridge Evaluation: Section 6.

3a-3) • The dispersion coefficient for the Gumbel distribution that models the maximum load effect Lmax is given as: 2 ln(N ) αN = • σ event (C6A.4.2.3 ⎣ LE2 ⎦ (C6A.4.4.4.577216 αN (C6A.3a-7) where: Lmax1 Lmax2 LE1 LE2 = = = = Maximum single lane load effect expected over a 5-year period Maximum two or more lane load effect expected over a 5-year period Maximum load effect from one 120 K.4.4.4.8 > 1.2. 3S2 truck Maximum load effect from two 120 K.8 > 1.3a-5) The next step in the derivation of live load factors applies the projected maximum load effect Lmax from the WIM data in Equations 30 and 34 contained in NCHRP Report 454: Calibration of Load Factors for LRFR Evaluation.4.2. uN.4.4.3a-4) The mean value of Lmax is given as: Lmax = μ max = u N + 0.2.2. 3S2 trucks side by side OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None 27 .8 ⎣ LE1 ⎦ (C6A. The general expressions for site specific live load factors for the Strength I limit state. for the Gumbel distribution that models the maximum value in 5 years Lmax is given as: ⎡ ln(ln( N )) + ln(4π )⎤ u N = μ event + σ event × ⎢ 2 ln( N ) − ⎥ 2 2 ln( N ) ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (C6A. following the same format as the derivation of the LRFR load factors are: Two or more lanes loading case: γL = ⎢ ⎡ Lmax 2 ⎤ ⎥1.• Let nday = total number of trucks per day • For 5-years: N= nday*365*5 • The most probable value.3a-6) One lane loading case: γL = ⎢ ⎡ Lmax 1 ⎤ ⎥1.

Transportation Research Board.BACKGROUND: The calibration of the AASHTO LRFD and LRFR Specifications is based on the Ontario truck weight database. NCHRP Project 12-76 protocols recommend a calibration approach that focuses on the maximum live load variable. REFERENCES: NCHRP 12-76 Final Report. Lmax for updating the load factor for current traffic conditions using a normal distribution fit for the top 5% of data points. This approach is more robust and more accurate than the prior calibration approach. NCHRP Web Only Document 135 OTHER: None 28 . ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: Provides an improved procedure for deriving site specific live load factors for LRFR ratings.

Article 6A. The bridge can remain open to non-truck traffic or to other state legal loads that may be different from the three AASHTO trucks.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 7 SUBJECT: Manual for Bridge Evaluation: Section 6. Item #2 In Article 6A.3 for those trucks. then that vehicle type should not be allowed on the span. 1 6A. When RF falls below 0. 1 6A. then the span should be considered for closure.8. OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: The sentence that is being deleted implies that the bridge should be closed to all traffic if RF < 0.3 TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-18 Bridge Management.8.8. delete the 2nd sentence as follows: When the RF for any vehicle type falls below 0.3.8. Evaluation and Rehabilitation REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 11/15/09 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Item #1 In the 4th paragraph of Article 6A. but bridges not capable of carrying a minimum gross live load weight of three tons must be closed.3: A Bridge Owner may close a structure at any posting threshold.3.3 should not be allowed on the span. the previous sentence is very clear in stating that “When the RF for any vehicle type falls below 0.3. This makes clear that only vehicles for which RF < 0. but the gross weight of the State’s legal vehicle shall be substituted in the posting equation.3. Additionally. When States use their own legal loads which are different from the AASHTO legal loads. Item #3 Add the following paragraph to the end of Article 6A.3-1 shall be taken as 80 kips.3-1 may be used for the posting load.3 for all three AASHTO trucks.3 for all three AASHTO legal trucks. Deleting this sentence avoids this confusion. revise the 5th paragraph as follows: Where the RF is governed by the lane load shown in Figures D6A-4 and D6A-5. Eq. if the RF ≥ 0.8. then that vehicle type should not be allowed on that span”.8. then the value of W in Eq. 29 .

REFERENCES: None OTHER: None 30 . The inserted sentence is taken from Article 6B.The sentence that is added at the end of Article 6A. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: Clarifies load posting and bridge closure requirements in LRFR and provides consistency in bridge closing criteria between Part A and Part B of Section 6.1 first paragraph and provides consistency in the minimum requirement for bridge closure among all three load rating methods.3 provides consistency between Part A (LRFR) and Part B (ASR/LFR) with regard to bridge closing requirements based on a minimum safe load capacity.9.8.

therefore C = 1.1 – 2 × 0.5.75 = = 51.12 = 71. D = d – 2tf (Clear distance between flanges) = 33.3 tw 0.39 in.39 = = 54.0 tw Fyw where k = 5 for unstiffened web D 29.2-4 51.12 tw 0.75 in.1.1.4—Nominal Shear Resistance. therefore C =1.580 D 31.0 then: 31 . 6.580 1.9.12 ≤ 71.12 with k= 5 for unstiffened web.1. Web Depth clear of fillet = 29. Vn (LRFD Design 6. If D Ek ≤ 1.4 as follows: A1A.39 in.1 Fyw 36 54.2) W33 × 130 Rolled section.3.5. Evaulation and Rehabilitation REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 01/19/10 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Item #1 Revise Example A1A.10.855 = 31.12 Ek 29000 × 5 = 1. C = 1.3 ≤ 71.1. Appendix A.0 LRFD Design Eq. Total Depth – 2 (Flange thicknesses) = 31. Illustrative Examples A1 TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-18 Bridge Management.10. no stiffeners.9.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 8 SUBJECT: Manual for Bridge Evaluation.

6 78.8. Live Load + Impact 952.1.1-1 Item #4 Revise Example A1A.580 360.9 Dist. kips Item #3 Revise Example A1A.75 Table 6A.5 as follows: A1A.626 gv = 78.6.0 LRFD Design MBE Eq. 6.15 kips Revise Example A1A.8—Design Load Rating (6A.3 380.10.1.1) Capacity C = ( ϕc )( ϕ s ) ( ϕ ) Rn RF = ( ϕc )( ϕs ) ( ϕ ) Rn − ( γ DC ) ( DC ) − ( γ DW ) ( DW ) ( γ L )( LL + IM ) ( ϕ )( ϕs ) ( ϕ ) Rn − ( γ DC ) ( DC ) − ( γ DW ) ( DW ) RF = c ( γ L )( LL + IM ) A1A.4.0 27.2-1 32 .8. 6.3 380.1. kip-ft Shear.V n = Vcr = CV p where V p = 0. 6A.9.58 × 36 × 29.2-1 LRFD Design Eq.2.6 as follows: A1A.4.5.9 Nominal Capacity 2873.15 439.1—Strength I Limit State (6A.1.2-2 = = Item #2 1.6—General Load-Rating Equation RF = C − ( γ DC ) ( DC ) − ( γ DC ) ( DW ) − ( γ DW ) ( DC ) ± ( γ P )( P ) C − ( γ DC ) ( DC ) − ( γ DW ) ( DW ) ± ( γ P )( P ) RF = ( γ L )( LL + IM ) ( γ L )( LL + IM ) Dead Load DC2 129.1.5—Summary for Interior Stringer Dead Load DC1 Moment.39 × 0.2.10.1.75 31.0 x 0.1.4.1a—Inventory Level Load DC LL Load Factor γ 1.5.58 F yw Dt w LRFD Design Eq.3) A1A.8 as follows: A1A.0 8.0 360.25 1.1.9.4.0 Live Load Distribution Factor gm = 0.

49 ) (1.21 34.4.25)(439 +129) – (1.0)(1.30 1.6) Note: The remainder of this Example is unchanged.2a.0)(1.75)(952.21 OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: The purpose of this agenda item is to correct some errors that were discovered in Example A1 in the MBE. revise the indicated calculations as follows: γLL = = RF = = 1.25 1. the load factor for these loads will be taken from the load case DC. RF = (1.8.3)(14. Item #5 In Example A1A.2.0) ( 2873) – (1.75 The dead load demands established for load cases DC1 and DC2 are permanent loads and therefore.2 − (1.Load Factors γDC γDW γLL 1.0 )(11.50 1. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: None REFERENCES: None OTHER: None 33 .2-1 1.50)(0) (1.42 ) γDC = 1.1.0 Table 6A.

This AASHTO Guide Manual for Bridge Element Inspection builds on the element level condition assessment methods developed in the AASHTO Guide for Commonly Recognized Structural Elements. The AASHTO Guide Manual for Bridge Element Inspection provides a comprehensive set of bridge elements that is designed to be flexible in nature to satisfy the needs of all agencies. Evaluation and Rehabilitation REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 02-28-10 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: New “AASHTO Guide Manual for Bridge Element Inspection ” (See Included CD) OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: This agenda item is to replace the AASHTO Guide to Commonly Recognized Elements (CoRE) published in 1994 with a new improved AASHTO Guide Manual for Bridge Element Inspection. condition assessment. Existing CoRe element level inspection data migration for AASHTO PONTIS users (42 states) will be available with a software utility built into the software. Improvements have been made to fully capture the condition of the elements by reconfiguring the element language to utilize multiple distress paths within the defined condition states.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 9 SUBJECT: AASHTO Guide Manual for Bridge Element Inspection TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-18 Bridge Management. inspector training.2 software. Continued input from the FHWA and the User Community will be incorporated through the T-18 Technical Committee. and bridge management in the United States. enhanced examples. The approval of this guide manual will help facilitate the start of a multi-year transition period to provide time to develop training courses. data migration procedures. The combined set of both National and Bridge Management elements captures the components necessary for an agency to manage all aspects of the bridge inventory utilizing the full capability of a Bridge Management System (BMS). 34 . This guide manual is presented as a state-of-the-art tool for bridge owners to manage their bridge inventories.2 software. The use of this new guide manual is not mandated and the requirements of the National Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS) are still in effect. The AASHTO PONTIS taskforce has been planning for these changes and has written the requirements for development of the new PONTIS 5. and development of the PONTIS 5. Approval of this ballot item is a positive step in advancing bridge inspection.

CORE-1-I1. The guide manual incorporates a number of suggested improvements from bridge inspectors. bridge management engineers and bridge owners to improve the ease of field measurement. REFERENCES: FHWA.S. Supports flexibility for agencies to develop elements. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: The new AASHTO Guide Manual for Bridge Element Inspection will result in better condition assessments that will allow local. Standardizes the number of condition states at four. Washington. Federal Highway Administration. As the use of element level inspection techniques has expanded the need for improvements has been identified. the standardization of the number of condition states. Recording and Coding Guide for the Structure Inventory and Appraisal of the Nation’s Bridges. AASHTO. A presentation will be made at the T-18 technical committee meeting and again at the main session in Sacramento.The new guide manual provides the following benefits: • • • • • • • Establishes a set of National Elements to be used as a minimum standard. Bridge owners nationwide have recognized the benefits of detailed condition assessments through the use of the raw inspection information. This guide manual is not intended to supplant proper training or the exercise of engineering judgment by the inspector or professional engineer. Department of Transportation. The introduction of element inspection condition methods in the early 1990’s represented a significant advancement in the bridge inspection practice and has been employed by the vast majority of all State Transportation Departments in the United States. 35 . American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. increased traffic demands and funding shortfalls have placed a greater emphasis on the need for effective bridge management. There has been an increased focus on the management of our nation’s bridge inventory. DC. Establishes a set of expanded Bridge Management Elements that can be used to capture additional condition data to fully utilize a Bridge Management System. This guide manual is a building block for the future of bridge condition assessment and decision making. Separates protective coatings (paint) from steel elements. the development of a protective coating element. DC. and the incorporation of expanded element defect flags. expanded performance measures and bridge management system deterioration forecasting and evaluation. The target audience of this guide manual is primarily field inspectors. Guide for Commonly Recognized (CoRe) Structural Elements. the development of a wearing surface element. condition assessment and presentation of the bridge element condition information. Age. The proper assessment of the condition of bridge elements is the cornerstone of sound bridge management. U. Separates wearing surfaces from deck and slab elements. 2002 with Interims. This guide manual incorporates improvements through changes in the measurement units of decks and slabs. The goal of this guide manual is to capture the condition of bridges in a simple way that can be standardized across the nation while providing the flexibility to be adapted to both large and small agency settings. The impact of this improvement will be better decision making. state. Washington. The condition data will be utilized by bridge managers for improved decision making and economic evaluation. better trade-off analysis and better representation of bridge needs. Changes the units for decks and slabs to area based units. and federal agencies to more accurately report the condition of the bridge inventory in the United States. 1995.

“BRIDGIT” Bridge Management System Users Manual and Technical Manual. DC. Washington. Transportation Research Board.AASHTO. Transportation Research Board. Federal Highway Administration. American Association of State Highway and FHWA. Department of Transportation. Washington. Washington. NCHRP. U. 2007. Transportation Officials. Washington. OTHER: None 36 . 2009. NCHRP Report 590. 1999. NCHRP. DC. Bridge Inspector’s Reference Manual. 2006.S. Multi-Objective Optimization for Bridge Management. “PONTIS” Release 5. NCHRP Project 12-28 (A and B1). National Research Council. User’s Manual. DC. National Research Council. DC.1.

5 Bridge Welding Code TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-17 Welding REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 01/20/10 ADDITION NEW DOCUMENT CONSTRUCTION SPEC MOVABLE SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC OTHER D1. welding operators. a vision acuity test should be performed. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: None REFERENCES: None OTHER: None 37 .2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 10 SUBJECT: Revision to Section C5 of the D1.5 Committee and AWS D1 Main Committee. OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: Change approved by AASHTO/AWS D1. If it appears that an individual is having difficulty seeing properly. Testing is not a guarantee that their vision will continue to remain acceptable.5 Bridge Welding Code AGENDA ITEM: Add the following to Part B end of 2nd paragraph: Vision acuity is important and necessary for welders. and tack welders to perform their jobs in an acceptable manner.

250.3 and 12.8 H16 H4 H8 H16 H4 70 100 120 180 40 50 80 140 40 70 90 150 50 80 110 160 40 40 70 120 HI > 2. 50.0 H8 50 80 110 160 Heat Input (as calculated by 5. 12.7 and all references to the tables in other sections will be revised editorially. The two new additional tables result from separating SI and Metric units.4.8 H8 40 50 80 140 Thickness t.14) 1.3.5 will be re-numbered 12.5 Bridge Welding Code TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-17 Welding REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 01/20/10 ADDITION NEW DOCUMENT CONSTRUCTION SPEC MOVABLE SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC OTHER D1. 50S Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperatures.12) kJ/mm 2.14) 30 < HI ≤ 50 H8 125 175 225 325 Heat Input (as calculated by 5. 36. Table 12.6. 345. in t ≤ 3/4 3/4 < t ≤ 1-1/2 1-1/2 < t ≤ 2-1/2 t > 2-1/2 H4 100 150 200 300 H4 100 100 150 250 H16 100 150 200 300 38 . mm t ≤ 20 20 < t ≤ 40 40 < t ≤ 60 t > 60 H4 40 70 90 150 H16 40 70 90 150 Table 12. 345S Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperatures.12) kJ/in 50 < HI ≤ 70 H16 H4 H8 H16 150 200 250 350 100 125 175 275 100 150 200 300 125 175 225 325 HI > 70 H8 100 125 175 275 Thickness t.2 < HI ≤ 2.3 M270M (A 709M) Gr.5 and 12. °F (see 12.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 11 SUBJECT: Revision to Section 12 of the D1.5 Bridge Welding Code AGENDA ITEM: Delete Existing Tables 12.4 M270 (A 709) Gr.4 and replace with the following proposed Tables 12. Existing Table 12.0 < HI ≤ 2. °C (see 12. 12.

Return to “first principles” and regenerate the tables. °C (see 12.5 Committee and AWS D1 Main Committee. 345W. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: None REFERENCES: None OTHER: None 39 . mm t ≤ 20 20 < t ≤ 40 40 < t ≤ 60 t > 60 H4 40 90 150 180 H16 40 90 150 180 Table 12.5 M270M (A 709M) Gr.0 H8 50 110 160 190 Heat Input (as calculated by 5. HPS 50W. 2. °F (see 12.14) 30 < HI ≤ 50 H8 125 225 325 375 Heat Input (as calculated by 5.8 H16 H4 H8 H16 H4 70 120 180 200 40 80 140 160 40 90 150 180 50 110 160 190 40 70 120 150 HI > 2. Users of D1. Editorially separate the two sets of units into different tables to avoid inappropriate comparison between the two systems. HPS 485W Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperatures.0 < HI ≤ 2.14) 1. and even possible typographical errors.12) kJ/mm 2.5 have been confused by apparent inconsistencies in Tables 12.5 is rarely used.6 M270 (A 709) Gr. including different committee philosophies at the different times the two sets of numbers were “tweaked” and finalized.4. HPS 345W. The proposed revisions are twofold: 1.2 < HI ≤ 2.) Much of the confusion is caused by different rounding conventions between the SI and U. 50W. HPS 70W Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperatures.Table 12. but a review of the tables indicates that there are other sources of inconsistency as well. (Table 12. in t ≤ 3/4 3/4 < t ≤ 1-1/2 1-1/2 < t ≤ 2-1/2 t > 2-1/2 H4 100 200 300 350 H4 100 150 250 300 H16 100 200 300 350 OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: Change approved by AASHTO/AWS D1.12) kJ/in 50 < HI ≤ 70 H16 H4 H8 H16 150 250 350 400 100 175 275 325 100 200 300 350 125 225 325 375 HI > 70 H8 100 175 275 325 Thickness t. Customary units.3 & 12.S.8 H8 40 80 140 160 Thickness t.

3. OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: The proposed change is intended to allow the use of the captive DTI/nut.3.5: Load-indicating devices which are incorporated into assemblies with hardened heavy hex AASHTO M 291 (ASTM A 563) Grade DH nuts shall be considered permissible for use.3. Article 6.4. REFERENCES: None 40 .5: An assembly comprised of a load-indicating device affixed to a hardened heavy hex structural nut by the fastener manufacturer is also referred to as a captive DTI/nut. Item #2 Add the following paragraph to the end of Article C6.5 TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-14 Steel REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 01/30/10 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Item #1 Add the following to the end of the 1st paragraph of Article 6. or an assembly comprised of a loadindicating device (DTI) affixed to a hardened heavy hex structural nut by the fastener manufacturer. provided both the load-indicating device and heavy hex nut meet the mechanical property requirements of their respective ASTM standards. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: Allow the use of the new captive DTI/nut in highway bridge structures.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 12 SUBJECT: LRFD Bridge Design Specifications: Section 6.4. A joint companion item sponsored by the T-4/T-14 Committees proposes changes to Section 11 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications related to the use and verification testing of captive DTI/nut assemblies.4.

OTHER: None 41 .

U should not be applied in the design of tension members at the fatigue limit state.6. TX. U.3: (Note: see Condition 2.2 for welded angle or tee section member connections to gusset or connection plates). shall be used when investigating the tension fracture check specified in Article 6.1..1.2 at the appropriate locations (see Attachment A).H. 2009.8.8. December 2009.8.6.2 as follows: The shear lag reduction factor. Add the following to the end of the “Description” for Condition 7. Articles 6. University of Texas at Austin.1. Frank.2 TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-14 Steel REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 01/31/10 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Item #1 In Table 6. Austin.1 at the strength limit state.S.2.3 and 6. “The Fatigue Performance of Angle Cross-Frame Members in Bridges.5 for bolted angle or tee section member connections to gusset or connection plates).3-1 make the following additions/revisions: Add the following to the end of the “Description” for Conditions 2. 42 . Delete the bottom right figure in the “Illustrative Example” column under Condition 7.2.5 and 7.2.1. and K. 2. Item #2 Revise the 1st paragraph of Article 6.” Ferguson Structural Engineering Laboratory Report FSEL No: 09-1.2. Add new Conditions 2.2 and 2. Item #3 Add the following reference to the Reference List: McDonald. G.1: (Note: see Condition 7.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 13 SUBJECT: LRFD Bridge Design Specifications: Section 6.

6.3. U and x in the Notation list. REFERENCES: McDonald.3 (6. OTHER: None 43 . and also as lateral bracing members.2.S. 2009.3) to the definition of the terms Ag. TX. December 2009..1. Angles and tees are commonly used in cross-frames or diaphragms connecting adjacent girder lines.Item #4 Add the following definition to Article 6.4c) OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: The present specification does not directly address the fatigue strength of angle or tee section members attached to gusset plates or connection plates by longitudinal fillet welds.13.3) (6. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: Provides a simple and more rational method of checking the fatigue strength of these members. University of Texas at Austin. as noted. G. add the following reference to Article 6. The ballot item provides the Engineer with a simple method to determine the fatigue strength of these members without having to consider the effect of the moment due to the eccentricities inherent in the connection.2. effective flange area (in.1. These members can experience significant live load forces in horizontally curved and/or or skewed steel-girder bridges. “The Fatigue Performance of Angle Cross-Frame Members in Bridges. and are subject to combined axial compression/tension and flexure under fatigue loading due to the eccentricities of the applied axial load in the member.H.2) (6.6. An. Revise the definition of Ae in the Notation list as follows: Ae = effective net area (in. Austin. Item #5 In Article 6.2). and K.2: Effective Net Area—Net area modified to account for the effect of shear lag. The method is also applicable to determine the fatigue strength of angle or tee section members attached to gusset plates or connection plates with bolted connections. Frank.1.2.” Ferguson Structural Engineering Laboratory Report FSEL No: 09-1. L.6.6.1.

in which U=(1. x is the distance from the centroid of the member to the surface of the gusset or connection plate and L is the outto-out distance between the bolts in the connection parallel to the line of force. x L c. 2009). Ae = UAg. in computing the effective net area according to the preceding equation and use the appropriate fatigue category for that connection type specified for Condition 2. as applicable L c. x 44 . See applicable Category above See applicable Constant above See applicable Threshold above Through the gross section near the hole.g.g.ATTACHMENT A – 2010 AGENDA ITEM 13 .5 Base metal in angle or tee section members connected to a gusset or connection plate with high-strength bolted slip-critical connections.T-14 Description Category Constant A (ksi3) Threshold (ΔF)TH ksi Potential Crack Initiation Point Illustrative Examples 2. The fatigue category shall be taken as that specified for Condition 2. as applicable.3.2 or 2. For all other types of bolted connections. The fatigue stress range shall be calculated on the effective net area of the member. replace Ag with the net area of the member.1. An. The effect of the moment due to the eccentricities in the connection shall be ignored in computing the stress range (McDonald and Frank.x /L) and where Ag is the gross area of the member. or in the net section originating at the side of the hole.

x L 45 . L c. in which U=(1. The fatigue stress range shall be calculated on the effective net area of the member.5 Toe of fillet welds in connected element L L x c.x /L) and where Ag is the gross area of the member.g.2 Base metal in angle or tee section members connected to a gusset or connection plate by longitudinal fillet welds along both sides of the connected element of the member cross-section.g. x is the distance from the centroid of the member to the surface of the gusset or connection plate and L is the maximum length of the longitudinal welds. Ae = UAg. The effect of the moment due to the eccentricities in the connection shall be ignored in computing the stress range (McDonald and Frank. E 11x108 4.7. 2009).

2. Where discontinuous intermediate diaphragm or cross-frame lines are employed normal to the girders in the vicinity of interior supports.7. elimination of the diaphragms or cross-frames along the skewed interior support line may be considered at the discretion of the Owner. a skewed or normal diaphragm or cross-frame should be matched with each bearing that resists lateral force. intermediate diaphragms or cross-frames shall be normal to the girders and may be placed in contiguous or discontinuous lines. care must should be taken to match a diaphragm or cross-frame with each bearing that resists lateral force. the effect of the lateral 46 .2 TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-14 Steel REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 01/31/10 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Item #1 In Article 6. it may be advantageous to place the intermediate diaphragms or cross-frames oriented normal to the girders in discontinuous lines in such a manner that the transverse stiffness of the bridge is reduced. Where supports lines are skewed more than 20 degrees from normal. Where supports lines are skewed more than 20 degrees from normal. Ddetailing of the intersections of diaphragms or cross-frames along the skewed support line with intermediate diaphragms or cross-frames oriented normal to the girders is complex. 5th and 6th paragraphs as follows: Where supports lines are not skewed more than 20 degrees from normal. Where discontinuous intermediate diaphragm or cross-frame lines are employed normal to the girders in the vicinity of that support line. revise the 4th . Article 6. particularly in the vicinity of the supports.7. the placement of diaphragms or cross-frames along the skewed support line is not generally recommended. Where a support line at an interior pier is skewed more than 20 degrees from normal. intermediate diaphragms or crossframes may be placed in contiguous skewed lines parallel to the skewed supports lines. the normal diaphragms or cross-frames alone should be sufficient to resist any lateral components of force that develop at the bearings. Item #2 Revise the first two sentences of the 3rd paragraph of Article C6. Diaphragms or cross-frames are not required along skewed interior supports if diaphragms or cross-frames normal to the girders are provided at bearings that resist lateral forces.4. Item #3 Revise the 4th paragraph of Article C6.2 as follows: At severely skewed interior supports support lines at interior piers. Otherwise.7. and in many cases.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 14 SUBJECT: LRFD Bridge Design Specifications: Section 6.7.4.2 as follows: Allowance of skewed intermediate diaphragms or cross-frames where supports lines are not skewed more than 20 degrees from normal is consistent with past practice.4.4.

For such cases. whenever any bearing along that support line is not matched with a diaphragm or cross-frame. lateral bearing reactions and lateral flange bending. The connection plate must be able to transfer force between the girder and the bracing without undue distortion. More detailed guidance is also provided in the specification and commentary for the case where discontinuous intermediate diaphragm or cross-frame lines are employed normal to the girders in the vicinity of skewed interior support lines. connection plates should be oriented in the plane of the transverse bracing. Welding of skewed connection plates to the girder may be problematic where the plate forms an acute angle with the girder. the provision of diaphragms or cross-frames along the skewed support line may be necessary. and/or in the vicinity of. the elimination of the diaphragms or cross-frames along the skewed interior support line may be considered at the discretion of the Owner. severely skewed interior support lines is considered. lateral bearing reactions and lateral flange bending whenever removal of diaphragms or cross-frames along. OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: Clarifications are proposed to the specification and commentary language related to evaluating the need for diaphragms or cross-frames along severely skewed support lines at interior piers when those lines are skewed more than 20° from normal. Refined analysis is recommended to allow for a more detailed examination of cross-frame forces. In this case. For skewed diaphragms or crossframes. Commentary language is added to indicate that refined analysis is recommended whenever the elimination of diaphragms or cross-frame along.moment induced in the bottom flange due the eccentricity between the intermediate diaphragm or cross-frame and the bearing should be considered. and/or in the vicinity of. diaphragms or cross-frames along the skewed support line alone may be sufficient. Where a bearing does not resist lateral forceAlso. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: None REFERENCES: None OTHER: None 47 . The specification language has been revised to indicate that for the case where an interior support is skewed more than 20° from normal. intermediate diaphragms or cross-frames placed normal to the girders may would likely be too close together introducing significant lateral bending into the girder flanges. For skews not exceeding 20 degrees from normal. care must be taken to ensure that the bottom flange of the girder is adequately braced. severely skewed interior support lines is being contemplated to allow for more detailed examination of cross-frame forces.

5.4.5.2. Item #4 Revise the 1st sentence of the 4th paragraph of Article 11.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 15 SUBJECT: LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications: Section 11.6: Load-indicating devices which are incorporated into assemblies with hardened heavy hex AASHTO M 291 (ASTM A 563) (AASHTO M 291M (ASTM A 563M)) Grade DH nuts shall be considered permissible for use.3. shall be installed in properly aligned holes and tensioned and inspected by any of the installation methods described in Articles 11.4.1-1.3.1 as follows: To perform the calibrated wrench verification test for short grip bolts.6 An assembly comprised of a load-indicating device affixed to a hardened heavy hex structural nut by the fastener manufacturer is referred to herein as a captive DTI/nut.5.3.7 to at least the minimum tension specified in Table 11. The DTI or captive DTI/nut lot shall be first verified with a longer grip bolt in the Skidmore-Wilhelm Calibrator or an acceptable equivalent device.6. Item #3 Revise the 1st two sentences of the 3rd paragraph of Article 11. located as required below.2. direct tension indicators (DTI) or captive DTI/nuts with solid plates may be used in lieu of a tension-measuring device.5.4 through 11.2.5. Various Articles TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-14 Steel/T-4 Construction REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 12/22/09 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Item #1 Add the following to the end of the 1st paragraph of Article 11.6.6.4. Item #2 Add new Commentary to Article 11.1 as follows: Bolts and nuts together with washers or captive DTI/nuts of size and quality specified in the contract documents. 48 .4. provided both the load-indicating device and heavy hex nut meet the mechanical property requirements of their respective ASTM standards.6.4.6.6 as follows: C11.

5. i. shall be computed using a value of P equal to the turn test tension taken as 1.e.15 times the bolt required fastener tension. The following shall apply: • • Except as modified herein.1-2 after snugging.4. The minimum frequency of testing shall be two assemblies per rotational-capacity assembly lot.4. The torque value shall conform to the following: (11.5.5.6. A rotational-capacity lot number shall have been assigned to each combination of component lots tested.1-2 without stripping or failure. In a tension-measuring device.250PD where: 49 . they need not be included in the assembly lot testing or lot identification.6. torque < 0.4. For bolts that are long enough to fit in a Skidmore-Wilhelm Calibrator. the rotational-capacity test shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of AASHTO M 164 (ASTM A 325) (AASHTO M 164M (ASTM A 325M)). The assembly shall be tightened. Bolts that are too short to test in a Skidmore-Wilhelm Calibrator may be tested in a steel joint.6.2 as follows: 11. Assemblies specified as galvanized shall be tested after galvanizing. The tension requirement. installation tension. Each qualified combination of component lots shall be assigned a unique rotational capacity assembly lot number.6. shall be equal to or greater than 1. need not apply. and washer assembly shall be assembled in a Skidmore-Wilhelm Calibrator or an equivalent device.5.4. After the required installation tension listed above has been exceeded.250PD.5. two times the required number of turns indicated in Table 11.6.e. in the section below. Washers shall be required as part of the test even though they may not be required as part of the installation procedure. The maximum torque requirement.2 Rotational-Capacity Tests Rotational-capacity testing is required for all fastener assemblies.6. nut lot (or captive DTI/nut lot).2-1) • • • • • • • Torque ≤ 0.. Minimum rotation for bolt and captive DTI/nut combination assemblies shall be the required number of turns indicated in Table 11. i.6. nut (or captive DTI/nut). Where washers are not required by the installation procedures. The tension reached at the rotation below.4. the bolt.5. one reading of tension and torque shall be taken and recorded.. except for lock-pin and collar type fastener assemblies.1-1. Each combination of bolt production lot.6. it shall be verified that the maximum torque requirement has not been exceeded.5.4.15 times the bolt tension in Table 11. shown in Table 11.4.4. the turn-test tension. the minimum rotation from an initial tension of ten percent of the minimum required tension shall be two times the required number of turns indicated in Table 11.5.1-2 beyond the turn after the gaps in the DTI are closed. and washer lot comprise one ‘assembly lot’ for the purposes of testing and shall be tested as an assembly.Item #5 Revise Article 11. After the required turn has been completed.1-1.

This provides performance requirements similar to those of fastener assemblies without the captive DTI/nut. and washer. Item #7 Revise the last sentence of Article 11. Since the DTI is integral part of the nut in the captive DTI/nut.4.4. nut. ft (mm) Add the following paragraph at the beginning of Article C11. REFERENCES: None OTHER: None 50 . changes to the rotational capacity test requirements were needed since the closing of the gaps of the DTI requires additional rotation.5.Torque = P = D = Item #6 measured torque ft⋅lb (N·mm) measured bolt tension.7 as follows: Installation of a DTI under the turned element may only be permitted if either a washer is used to separate the turned element from the DTI. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: Allow the use of the new captive DTI/nut in highway bridge structures.6. Any change in component lots warrants additional testing of the assembly lots into which the component lots are integrated. OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: The majority of the proposed changes are intended to allow the use of the captive DTI/nut.6. The change requires one full installation rotation after the gaps are closed for the captive DTI/nut.2: An assembly lot is defined as a combination of fastener components of different types which are configured as they are to be installed in the steel. Each component in an assembly lot will have come from a production lot of similar components. Minor editorial changes are also proposed to clarify the specification. Preinstallation verification testing must also still be performed to verify that the assemblies function properly before use in the structure. or verification testing in accordance with the provisions of this article and the manufacturer’s instructions demonstrates satisfactory performance without the washer under the turned element. An example would be a bolt.5. or an assembly comprised of a load-indicating device (DTI) affixed to a hardened heavy hex structural nut by the fastener manufacturer. lb (N) bolt diameter. Language is also proposed to allow the use of DTIs under the turned element without having to use a hardened washer between the turned element and the DTI provided that the proper preinstallation verification testing is performed to ensure that each lot performs properly before they can be assembled and used in the structure in this manner/configuration.

00 1.00 N/A 1.50 0.05 0.00 0.00 1.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 16 SUBJECT: LRFD Bridge Design Specifications: Sections 3. Article 3.35 1.90 0.30 1.90 N/A 1.35 1.90 0. O’Neill and Reese (1999) Method DW: Wearing Surfaces and Utilities EH: Horizontal Earth Pressure • Active • At-Rest • AEP for anchored walls EL: Locked-in Construction Stresses EV: Vertical Earth Pressure • Overall Stability • Retaining Walls and Abutments • Rigid Buried Structure • Rigid Frames • Flexible Buried Structures other than Metal Box Culverts • Flexible Metal Box Culverts and Structural Plate Culverts with Deep Corrugations • Flexible Buried Structures o Metal Box Culverts and Structural Plate Culverts with Deep Corrugations o Thermoplastic culverts o All others ES: Earth Surcharge Load Factor Maximum Minimum 1.9 0.30 1.50 0. α Tomlinson Method Piles.25 0.1 and Section 12.9 0.4.75 51 .35 1. Various Articles TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-13 Culverts/T-5 Loads REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 01/25/10 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Item #1 Revise Table 3.3 1.5 1.90 1.95 1.50 1.50 1.90 0.90 0.35 1.65 1.25 1. Foundation Type.95 1. and Method Used to Calculate Downdrag DC: Component and Attachments DC: Strength IV only DD: Downdrag Piles. λ Method Drilled shafts.4 0.90 1.50 0.4.25 0.90 0.35 1.1-2 as follows: Type of Load.9 0.

add the following after the 19th paragraph: The earth load factor for thermoplastic culverts is set to 1. for compaction criteria of soil backfill for flexible and rigid culverts.Item #2 In Article C3. Item #5 Add the following paragraph to the end of Article C12. Such materials are difficult to work with.4. These silty and clayey materials should never be used in a wet site. If so.4.4. Item #3 In Article 12.3. and do not provide support comparable to coarser or more-broadly-graded materials at the same percentage of maximum density.00 0. and 30 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications. are sensitive to moisture content. A-2-5. φf 1.3.1. respectively.1.5-1 under the row “Thermoplastic Pipe” as follows: Thermoplastic Pipe PE and PVC pipe: • Thrust.1.00 52 . bedding and backfill materials: A-1. and 27. Item #4 In Article C12. an earth-load-installation factor is introduced later in these specifications as part of the implementation of NCHRP Report 631.5. add the following bullet to the end of the existing bullet list: • For thermoplastic culverts. revise the 1st paragraph as follows: Refer to Sections 26. This factor may be adjusted based on field control of construction practices. A maximum of 50 percent of the particle sizes may pass the No. φT • Soil stiffness. Increased inspection levels should be considered if such a plan is approved. 100 sieve and No. 200 sieve for thermoplastic culverts are intended to eliminate uniform fine sands for use as pipe embedment. Item #6 Revise Table 12. The engineer may permit exceptions to these restrictions in special cases. 200 sieve.00 0.3: The restriction on materials passing the No. to preserve the overall safety at the same levels as historical specifications. a suitable plan should be submitted for control of moisture content and compaction procedures.4. φs • Minimum wall area and buckling • Global buckling.70 1. or A-3 soils. φbck • Flexure.90 1. A-2-4.3. 100 sieve and a maximum of 20 percent may pass the No.1. however.

G. 4. NCHRP Report 631 2009 “Updated Test and Design Methods for Thermoplastic Drainage Pipe” by T.D.3. Vol.D. (2005) have shown that the significant thermal expansion in thermoplastic pipe can affect pavement performance under shallow fills. Moore. revise the 8th row as follows: Thermoplastic Pipe General Under pavement Item #10 Add new Commentary to Article 12.0 in.6. DC. No.3 McGrath et al. Simpson Gumpertz & Heger Inc. Moore.5: The new thermoplastic design method evaluate more load conditions than prior specifications.6. Separate resistance factors are provided for each mode of behavior.6..L." International Journal of Solids and Structures. ID/8 ≥ 12.Y. HM-29. The resistance factor for buckling is set at 0. 29th Edition.3 as follows: 12. Item #8 Revise the title of Article 12.6.12 as shown in Attachment A. and Beaver. Standard Specifications for Transportation Materials and Methods of Sampling and Testing. Item #11 Replace Article 12. which are also available individually in downloadable form.5.6.5.J. Hsuan. Performance of Thermoplastic Pipe Under Highway Vehicle Loading.Thermoplastic Pipe Item #9 In Table 12. McGrath. Oakdale. I. Includes AASHTO M. 2005.5. McGrath. 26. "Three-Dimensional Response of Elastic Tubes. Item #12 Add the following additional references to Section 12: AASHTO. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.Item #7 Add the following paragraph to the end of Article C12.6. R. and T standards.7 and preserves the same level of safety as prior editions of these Specifications with the inclusion of the Installation Factor of Article 12. J. 2009. ID/2 ≥ 24. Buckling is an undesirable failure mode for culverts.3-1.. Research Report to Minnesota DOT.3 Flexibility Limits and Construction Stiffness .6.6. 53 .3 as follows: C12.0 in. I. T. Buckling can result in near total collapse of the culvert and blockage of the waterway.J.12. 1990. MN.5. Washington.

D. I. which considers the low hoop stiffness of thermoplastic pipe and the load reduction resulting from that low stiffness. REFERENCES: NCHRP report 631 “Updated Test and Design Methods for Thermoplastic Drainage Pipe” by T. however. 5. 6. which considers non-elliptical deformation due to non-uniform bedding. The load factor for earth load is reduced to the same values as rigid pipe. OTHER: None 54 . Moore. 3. the feasibility of which has been demonstrated in full-scale field testing.Y. this is presented as a reasonability check for selecting appropriate backfill and compaction levels. 4. The recommendation include the following: 1. 2. Contractor field control is ultimately responsible for limiting deflection under construction. Material modulus values for a 75-year design period have been added. to preserve the traditional safety for thermoplastic pipe installations.J. Designers are allowed to reduce the installation factor if specific guidelines for monitoring installation quality are met. however.OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: These agenda items are a result of the new design recommend ions of NCHRP report 631. Earth loads are calculated using the current AASHTO method. Guidelines for computing bending strain have been improved with the addition of better guidance for the shape factor. G. Provisions are added to estimate the expected field deflection. but provides enhancements where necessary. McGrath. an “installation factor” is incorporated into the design method. Design for local buckling is largely unchanged except that the compression capacity of a pipe determined through the stub compression test can be used in lieu of the capacity calculated with the design equations. Hsuan. This will allow substantial increases in depths of fill. The design method is drawn largely from prior methods. the feasibility of which has been demonstrated in full-scale field testing. Tests and computer modeling have shown that the low hoop stiffness of profile wall HDPE can result in reduced bending strains relative to pipe with higher hoop stiffness. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: The new provisions will allow substantial increases in depths of fill. A simplified design method for thermoplastic pipe that should be suitable for evaluating thermoplastic pipe for most design conditions.

12—THERMOPLASTIC PIPES 12.12.12 — 2010 AGENDA ITEM 16 — T-13/T-5 THERMOPLASTIC PIPE 12.12.2. Corrugated—AASHTO M 294.1—General The provisions herein shall apply to the structural design of buried thermoplastic pipe with solid.ARTICLE 12. The following specifications are applicable: For PE: Solid Wall—ASTM F 714.1—General The allowable maximum localized distortion of installed plastic pipe shall be limited based on the service requirements and overall stability of the installation.12. corrugated.2. C12. C12.12. For PVC: Solid Wall—AASHTO M 278. Deflections resulting from conditions imposed during pipe installation should also be considered in design. Profile—ASTM F 894.3.2—Service Limit States 12. or profile wall. manufactured of PE or PVC.1 The allowable long-term strains should not be reached in pipes designed and constructed in accordance with this Specification.ATTACHMENT A . The net tension strain shall be the numerical difference between the bending tensile strain and ring compression strain. The extreme fiber tensile strain shall not exceed the allowable long-term strain in Table 12.3-1. 1 55 . Profile—AASHTO M 304.12. 12.1 These structures become part of a composite system comprised of the plastic pipe and the soil envelope.12.

evaluated at pipe springline (psi) Thrust and hoop strain in the pipe wall are defined positive for compression.12. A value of 1.2-4) where: εsc = service compressive strain due to thrust.) deflection lag factor . Δt.10 is typical soil prism pressure (EV). shall be determined as: Δt = K B D L Psp + C L PL D o 1000 E p I p R + 0.12. The construction specifications set the allowable deflection. However.10 to account for inconsistent haunch support. This check should be completed to determine that the expected field deflection based on thrust and flexure is lower than the maximum allowable deflection for the project.083 for full support to 0.12.12. The highest values are for installations with quality backfill and low initial deflections and do not generally control designs.2. Values from 1. however.1c and taken as positive for compression service thrust per unit length (lb. feasibility of a specified installation needs to be checked prior to writing the project specifications.12. rather than the reduced load used to compute thrust. as specified in Article 12. (in.3. The bedding coefficient. Ts = DL = KB = Psp = 2 56 .2.0 to 6. a value of 0. as the soil property. reduction of vertical diameter (in. Haunching is always specified to provide good support. Ms.2-3) ⎛ ⎞ Ts = Ps ⎜ Do ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ (12.2. ΔA. The Engineer may allow alternate deflection limits for specific projects if calculations using the design method in this section show that the pipe meets all of the strength-limit-state requirements. There are no standard values for the deflection lag factor.2. shall be less than the allowable deflection. it is still common to use a value of KB equal to 0. Note that the soil prism load is used as input.5 provides some allowance for increase in deflection over time for installations with initial deflection levels of several percent.12.2.061 M s ( ( ) 3 ) + ε sc D (12. KB varies from 0.) total allowable deflection of pipe. 12.2-1) total deflection of pipe expressed as a reduction of the vertical diameter taken as positive for reduction of the vertical diameter and expansion of horizontal diameter.110 for line support at the invert. for thermoplastic pipe at five percent as a generally appropriate limit.10.2-2) in which: Eq.2 Deflection is controlled through proper construction in the field. ε sc = Ts 1000 A eff E p ( ) (12.2-2 uses the constrained soil modulus./in.12. and construction contracts should place responsibility for control of deflections on the contractor.12. as follows: C12.12.2.) ΔA = Total deflection.2—Deflection Requirement Total deflection.2. Δt ≤ ΔA where: Δt = (12.5 is typical bedding coefficient .0 have been recommended. ΔA. a value of 1. calculated using Spangler’s expression for predicting flexural deflection in combination with the expression for circumferential shortening.

CL = PL =

live load distribution coefficient design live load pressure including vehicle, dynamic load allowance, and multiple presence effect (psi) outside diameter of pipe (in.) as shown in Figure C12.12.2.2-1 short- or long-term modulus of pipe material as specified in Table 12.12.3.3-1 (ksi) moment of inertia of pipe profile per unit length of pipe (in.4/in.) radius from center of pipe to centroid of pipe profile (in.) as shown in Figure C12.12.2.2-1 diameter to centroid of pipe profile (in.) as shown in Figure C12.12.2.2-1 secant constrained soil modulus, as specified in Article 12.12.3.5-1 (ksi) design service load (psi) effective area of pipe wall per unit length of pipe as specified in Article 12.12.3.10.1b (in.2/in.)
Figure C12.12.2.2-1—Schematic for Thermoplastic Pipe Terms

Do = Ep = Ip R D = = =

Ms = Ps = Aeff =

12.12.3—Safety Against Structural Failure 12.12.3.1—General C12.12.3.1

Buried thermoplastic culverts shall be investigated at the strength limit states for thrust, general and local buckling, and combined strain.
12.12.3.2—Section Properties

Total compressive strain in a thermoplastic pipe can cause yielding or buckling, and total tensile strain can cause cracking.
C12.12.3.2

Section properties for thermoplastic pipe, including wall area, moment of inertia, and profile geometry should be determined from cut sections of pipe or obtained from the pipe manufacturer.

Historically, the AASHTO Specifications have contained minimum values for the moment of inertia and wall area of thermoplastic pipe; however, these values have been minimum values and are not meaningful for design. This is particularly so since provisions to evaluate local buckling were introduced in 2001. These provisions require detailed profile geometry that varies with manufacturer. Thus, there is no way to provide meaningful generic information on section properties. A convenient method for determining section properties for profile wall pipe is to make optical scans of pipe wall cross-sections and determine the properties with a computer drafting program.

3

57

12.12.3.3—Chemical and Mechanical Requirements

C12.12.3.3

Mechanical properties for design shall be as specified in Table 12.12.3.3-1. Except for buckling, the choice of either initial or long-term mechanical property requirements, as appropriate for a specific application, shall be determined by the Engineer. Investigation of general buckling shall be based on the value of modulus of elasticity that represents the design life of the project.

Properties in Table 12.12.3.3-1 include “initial” and long-term values. No product standard requires determining the actual long-term properties; thus, there is some uncertainty in the actual values. However, pipe designed with the Table 12.12.3.3-1 values for 50-year modulus of elasticity have performed well, and the properties are assumed to be reasonably conservative. Estimated values for a modulus of elasticity for a 75-year design life have been estimated from relaxation tests on PVC and PE in parallel plate tests. The tests were conducted for over two years and show that the modulus of elasticity reduces approximately linearly with the logarithm of time. Further, with a log-linear extrapolation, the differences between 50year and 75-year modulus values are very small. These values should be reasonably conservative, with the same reliability as the 50-year values. Pipe and thermoplastic resin suppliers should be asked to provide confirmation of long-term modulus values for any particular product. Values should meet or exceed those provided in Table 12.12.3.3-1. Where service life is in excess of 75 years, test data may be used for the desired life. The service long-term tension strain limit and the factored compression strain limit in Table 12.12.3.3-1 need to be multiplied by the appropriate resistance factors to obtain the strain limits.

Table 12.12.3.3-1—Mechanical Properties of Thermoplastic Pipe
Type of Pipe Minimum Cell Class Service LongTerm Tension Strain Limit, FactoredCom pr. Strain Limit, εyc (%) 4.1 Initial Fu min (ksi) 3.0 E min (ksi) 110.0 50-Year Fu min (ksi) 1.44 E min (ksi) 22 75-Year Fu min (ksi) 1.40 E min (ksi) 21

εyt (%)
Solid Wall PE Pipe – ASTM F714 Corrugated PE Pipe – AASHTO M294 Profile PE Pipe – ASTMF894 ASTM D3350, 335434C ASTM D3350, 435400C ASTM D3350, 334433C ASTM D3350, 335434C ASTM D1784, 12454C ASTM D1784, 12364C ASTM D1784, 12454C ASTM D1784, 12364C 5.0

5.0

4.1

3.0

110.0

0.90

22

0.90

21

5.0 5.0 5.0 3.5 5.0 3.5

4.1 4.1 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6

3.0 3.0 7.0 6.0 7.0 6.0

80.0 110.0 400.0 440.0 400.0 440.0

1.12 1.44 3.70 2.60 3.70 2.60

20 22 140 158 140 158

1.10 1.40 3.60 2.50 3.60 2.50

19 21 137 156 137 156

Solid Wall PVC Pipe – AASHTO M278, ASTM F679 Profile PVC Pipe – AASHTO M304

4

58

12.12.3.4—Thrust

C12.12.3.4

Loads on buried thermoplastic pipe shall be based on the soil prism load, modified as necessary to consider the effects of pipe-soil interaction. Calculations shall consider the duration of a load when selecting pipe properties to be used in design. Live loads need not be considered for the long-term loading condition.
12.12.3.5—Factored and Service Loads

Because of the time-dependent nature of thermoplastic pipe properties, the load will vary with time. Time of loading is an important consideration for some types of thermoplastic pipe. Live loads and occasional flood conditions are normally considered short-term loads. Earth loads or permanent high groundwater are normally considered long-term loads.
C12.12.3.5

The factored load, Pu, in psi shall be taken as:
Pu = η EV γ EV K γE K 2 VAF Psp + γ WA P W + η LL γ LL P L CL

(

)

(12.12.3.5-1)

The service load, Ps, in psi shall be taken as:

Ps = K 2 VAF Psp + P L CL + P W in which:
⎛ SH - 1.17 ⎞ VAF = 0.76 - 0.71 ⎜ ⎜ + 2.92 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ SH ⎠

(12.12.3.5-2)

(12.12.3.5-3)

For η factors, refer to Article 12.5.4 regarding assumptions about redundancy for earth loads and live loads. The factor K2 is introduced to consider variation in thrust around the circumference, which is necessary when combining thrust with moment or thrust due to earth and live load under shallow fill. K2 is set at 1.0 to determine thrust at the springline and 0.6 to determine thrust at the crown. The term PL is also modified for this reason in later sections. Figure C3.11.3-1 shows the effect of groundwater on the earth pressure. Psp does not include the hydrostatic pressure. Psp is the pressure due to the weight of soil above the pipe and should be calculated based on the wet density for soil above the water table and based on the buoyant density for soil below the water table. See Table 3.5.1-1 for common unit weights.

SH =

φs M s R EpAg
LW ≤ 1.0 Do

(12.12.3.5-4)

CL =

(12.12.3.5-5)

L W = W0 + 12 ⋅ LLDF(H ) where:

(12.12.3.5-6)

In computing LW, add axle spacing (and increase total live load) if depth is sufficient for axle loads to interact.

5

59

KγE

=

installation factor typically taken as 1.5 to provide traditional safety. Use of a value less than 1.5 requires additional monitoring of the installation during construction and provisions for such monitoring shall be provided on the contract documents.

The factor KγE is introduced to provide the same safety level as traditionally used for thermoplastic culverts. Designers may consider using values of KγE as low as 1.0 provided that procedures are implemented to ensure compliance with construction specifications. For culvert designs completed with an installation factor less than 1.5, the designer is required to specify additional minimum performance measures such as testing, monitoring, construction controls, gradation and backfill requirements including active monitoring of the backfill gradation and compaction (see Article 30.7.4 of AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications). The construction controls include deflection measurements and shall require the Contractor to submit and get approval from the Owner's Engineer for his/her construction plan to be used to achieve the more stringent performance measures which allowed for the use of a smaller installation factor in the design. Backfill placement and monitoring shall be done at levels along the side of the culvert and includes measurement of change in vertical pipe diameter when the backfill reaches the top of the pipe. As the backfill nears the top of pipe the vertical pipe diameter should be greater than the vertical diameter prior to backfilling, but not more than three percent greater than the vertical diameter prior to backfilling.

K2

= = =

coefficient to account for variation of thrust around the circumference 1.0 for thrust at the springline 0.6 for thrust at the crown vertical arching factor The use of the vertical arching factor is based on the behavior, demonstrated by Burns and Richard (1964), that pipe with high hoop-stiffness ratios (SH, ratio of soil stiffness to pipe hoop stiffness) carry substantially less load than the weight of the prism of soil directly over the pipe. This behavior was demonstrated experimentally by Hashash and Selig (1990) and analytically by Moore (1995). McGrath (1999) developed the simplified form of the equation presented in this Section. The VAF approach is only developed for the embankment load case. No guidance is currently available to predict the reduced loads on pipe in trench conditions. The only trench load theory proposed for flexible pipe was that by Spangler, which does not have good guidance on selection of input parameters. It is conservative to use the VAF approach as presented for embankments. If evaluating the short-term load condition, then use the initial modulus of elasticity to compute SH. Similarly, if evaluating the long-term loading condition, then use the long-term modulus of elasticity to compute SH.

VAF

=

SH

=

hoop stiffness factor

6

60

PW CL LW

= = =

hydrostatic water pressure at the springline of the pipe (psi) live load distribution coefficient live load distribution width in the circumferential direction at the elevation of the crown (in.) depth of cover (ft.) load modifier as specified in Article 1.3.2, as they apply to vertical earth loads on culverts load factor for vertical pressure from dead load of earth fill, as specified in Article 3.4.1 soil prism pressure (EV), evaluated at pipe springline (psi) load factor for hydrostatic pressure, as specified in Article 3.4.1 load modifier as specified in Article 1.3.2, as they apply to live loads on culverts load factor for live load, as specified in Article 3.4.1 live load pressure (LL) with dynamic load allowance (psi) resistance factor for soil stiffness secant constrained soil modulus as specified in Table 12.12.3.5-1 (ksi) The term φs appears in Eq. 12.12.3.5-4 to account for variability in backfill compaction. A lower level of compaction increases the applied thrust force on the pipe. For selecting values of the constrained soil modulus, Ms, prior editions of the specifications contained the commentary “Suggested practice is to design for a standard Proctor backfill density five percent less than specified by the contract documents.” This statement is not considered necessary with the addition of post-construction inspection guidelines to the LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications, which should provide reasonable assurance that the design condition is achieved.

H ηEV γEV Psp γWA ηLL γLL PL φs Ms

= = = = = = = = = =

7

61

For culverts in embankment or wide trench installations under depths of fill up to 10.12. and lateral stiffness.2.or long-term modulus of pipe material as specified in Table 12.0 ft.1. the soil type and density selected from Table 12. For culverts in trench installations under depths of fill greater than 10. The Fiberglass Pipe Design Manual..3-1 (ksi) gross area of pipe wall per unit length of pipe (in.6.3. during the excavation process.5-1. If the backfill is uncompacted (dumped) crushed stone.2. Linear interpolation between soil stress levels may be used for the determination of Ms.) outside diameter of pipe (in. values for Sn-100 may be used.) factor for distribution of live load through earth fills in Article 3. For culverts under depths of fill greater than 10. The width of structural backfill is an important consideration when the in situ soil in the trench wall or the embankment fill at the side of the structural backfill is soft. The constrained modulus may also be determined experimentally using the stress-strain curve resulting from a uniaxial strain test on a sample of soil compacted to the field-specified density.12.3.. the soil type and density selected shall be representative of the conditions for a width of one diameter on each side of the culvert.3. are predictive of adequate vertical and lateral stiffness. Ms.5 (in.R Ep Ag Do W0 = = = = = radius from center of pipe to centroid of pipe profile (in. The constrained modulus is the slope of the secant from the origin of the curve to a point on the curve corresponding to the soil prism pressure. Narrow trenches yield a desirable level of conservatism. Currently. Psp. on each side of the culvert. Stable trench walls. Installation in narrow trenches reduces the vertical load.3. use the modulus values for Sn-90.6 LLDF = In the absence of site-specific data. The minimum trench widths provided in the LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications are set to provide adequate space.6.0 ft. may be selected from Table 12. provided the in-situ soil has adequate vertical. the secant constrained soil modulus. only AWWA Manual M45.0 ft.2/in.0 in.12.) width of live load ground-surface contact area parallel to flow in pipe as specified in Article 3. addresses this issue. Ms.3. since the transfer of the load to in-situ trench wall is not considered in flexible pipe design. but never less than 18.5-1—Schematic One-Dimensional Stress-Strain Curve of Soil Backfill 8 62 .5-1 based on the backfill type and density and the geostatic earth pressure. evaluation of the values of Ms for in-situ soil for a width one diameter either side of the pipe is not necessary. Figure C12.5-1 shall be representative of the conditions for a width of one-half diameter each side of the culvert. While it is not common practice to monitor density of crushed stone backfills.1. If the structural backfill material is compacted crushed stone. Figure C12.. then the secant constrained soil modulus.) short. Psp. as represented by the vertical arching factor (VAF) in the design method and adequate space is preserved at the side of the pipe to place and compact backfill. provided vertical stiffness of the soil is adequate to carry the load that is distributed around the pipe due to arching.12.12. experience has found that a modest compaction effort improves culvert performance and allows the use of the compacted values.

based on ASTM D 2487 and AASHTO M 145. The soil types are defined by a two-letter designation that indicates general soil classification. 2.12. Specific soil groups that fall into these categories.230 0. The numerical suffix to the soil type indicates the compaction level of the soil as a percentage of maximum dry density determined in accordance with AASHTO T 99.200 0.0 10.300 Sn-95 (ksi) 2.500 9.390 0.415 1.650 0.090 Sn-90 (ksi) 1.520 0.250 5.0 60.255 0.500 1.0 5.130 0.0 5.000 3.12.000 Si-95 (ksi) 1. Sn for sands and gravels.450 4. Si for silts and Cl for clays.625 0.100 2.5-1—Ms Based on Soil Type and Compaction Condition Psp Stress level Sn-100 (ksi) 2.670 1.0 10.0 40.320 0.500 7.350 3.740 0.0 20.670 0.750 0.880 2.900 Sn-85 (ksi) 0.3.285 0.5-2.0 Psp Stress level (psi) 1.815 0.450 4.200 5.000 Si-85 (ksi) 0.0 60.0 40.500 Si-90 (ksi) 0.175 0.430 0. are listed in Table 12.740 0.895 Cl-90 (ksi) 0.800 2.400 0.Table 12.0 60.360 0.690 0.770 1.0 Psp Stress level Cl-95 (ksi) 0.825 1.530 0.470 0.355 0.0 1.345 (psi) 1.395 0.275 1.790 0.525 Cl-85 (ksi) 0.570 0.0 5.3.0 20.600 3.510 (psi) 1.0 20.460 0. 9 63 .0 10.000 2.0 40.625 1.

40 sieve shall not be used as backfill for thermoplastic culverts unless specifically allowed in the contract documents and special precautions are taken to control moisture content and monitor compaction levels. 200 sieve CL.3. SP (2) GW. VAF.3.12.Table 12. in.7 The soil-prism load shall be calculated as a pressure representing the weight of soil above the pipe springline.11. The correlations to other soil types are approximate. SC also GC and SC with more than 20% passing a No.3.7—Soil Prism C12. MH. multiple conditions may need to be evaluated.12. 200 sieve AASHTO M 145 A1. In cases where the water table fluctuates.5-1.3. Uniformly graded materials with an average particle size smaller than a No. ML) Cl (Silty clay.6-1) I E S = = = moment of inertia (in. 12.) initial modulus of elasticity (ksi) diameter of pipe (in.5.3.11 o ⎟ ⎜ 12 ⎠ ⎝ Psp = 144 • (12.3. A5.12.12. 12. SW) Si (Sandy silt. A-2-7. ML also GC and SC with less than 20% passing a No. 2. A-2-5./kip shall be taken as: FF = where: S EI 2 (12. The soil prism calculation needs to consider the unit weight of the backfill over the pipe. Use the wet unit weight above the water table and the buoyant unit weight below the water table.12.3. A3 (2) A-2-4. See Table 3.4/in.3-1 shows the effect of groundwater on the earth pressure.12. The pressure shall be calculated for three conditions: • If the water table is above the top of the pipe and at or above the ground surface: D ⎞ ⎛ ⎟γ b ⎜ H + 0.7-1) The soil prism load and vertical arching factor.6.6—Handling and Installation Requirements The flexibility factor.5-2—Equivalent ASTM and AASHTO Soil Classifications Basic Soil Type (1) Sn (Gravelly sand. Figure C3.3. serve as a common reference for the load on all types of pipe. FF. The soil classification listed in parentheses is the type that was tested to develop the constrained soil modulus values in Table 12. A4 A-2-6.1-1 for common unit weights. shall be limited as specified in Article 12. If the water table is above the top of the pipe and below the ground surface: 10 64 .5. FF. A6 1. GC.12.) The flexibility factor. GP sands and gravels with 12% or less fines GM. CL) ASTM D 2487 SW. SM.

11 12 ⎝ P sp = 144 where: Psp = Do = γb H = = (12.7-2) ⎥ Do ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ ⎟γ s ⎥ ⎜ ( H .⎡⎛ ⎢⎜ ⎜ (HW 1 ⎢⎝ Psp = 144 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ • - ⎤ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟γ b + ⎥ ⎠ ⎥ (12.24 ) .3. C12.) wet unit weight of soil (lb/ft3) C12.8-1) Hydrostatic loading due to external water pressure should be calculated in all cases where water table may be above the pipe springline at any time. where: PW = γW = Kwa = hydrostatic water pressure at the springline of the pipe (psi) unit weight of water (lb/ft3) factor for uncertainty in level of groundwater table There is often uncertainty in the level of the groundwater table and its annual variations. evaluated at pipe springline (psi) outside diameter of pipe ( in.8 Hw = γs = 12.12.12. NCHRP Project 15-29 to revise this is nearing completion.12.3.3. The live load magnitude shall be based on the design vehicular live load in Article 3. dynamic load allowance.3.) depth of water table above springline of pipe (ft.H W ⎟ ⎥ ⎠ ⎝ ⎦ Do D ) + 0.3.12.8—Hydrostatic Pressure The pressure due to ground water shall be calculated as: PW = γ w K wa H w 144 (12. Live load calculations are included here to demonstrate the computation of live load thrust at the crown and springline.9—Live Load The live load shall be determined as a pressure applied at the pipe crown.7-3) soil-prism pressure (EV). and distribution through cover soils.12.12.11 o 24 12 If the water table is below the top of the pipe: ⎞ ⎟ ⎟γ s ⎠ Do ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ H + 0.) unit weight of buoyant soil ( lb/ft3) depth of fill over top of pipe (ft.2 and shall include modifiers for multiple presence/overload.6.3 to account for this uncertainty or may select conservative values of Hw with a lower value of Kwa but not less than 1.3.3. This load contributes to hoop thrust but does not affect deflection.9 12. 11 65 .1.12. This project is proposing no changes to the live load distribution. The designer may use the factor Kwa with values up to 1.

12. profile-wall pipe geometry shall be idealized as specified herein and an effective area determined in accordance with the following provisions.1.1a—General Elements of profile wall pipe shall be designed to resist local buckling.1.10—Wall Resistance 12. 0 for live load at the crown of the pipe D0/2 for live load at the springline Increase as necessary if depth is sufficient for wheels and/or axles to interact.6.2 (%) multiple presence factor as specified in Table 3. 12 66 .3.9-1) where: PL P IM m L0 = = = = = service live load on culvert (psi) design wheel load as specified in Article 3.3. the load continues to spread longitudinally along the pipe as it attenuates from the crown to the springline.10.6.5 (in.6.3.) factor for distribution of live load through earth fills as specified in Article 3. To determine local buckling resistance. PL. Add axle spacing if depth is sufficient for axles to interact.6.2 (lbs) dynamic load allowance as specified in Article 3.5 (in. shall be taken as: PL = P (1 + IM / 100 ) m ( L0 + (12 H + K 1) LLDF ) (W0 + (12 H + K1 ) LLDF ) (12.2.12.2.) depth of fill over top of pipe (ft. Using the term K1 = D0/2 provides a means to account for this.10.12.The live load pressure.1.6.) coefficient to consider design location.1. H LLDF W0 = = = K1 = = = 12.1.6.6 width of live load ground surface contact area parallel to flow in pipe as specified in Article 3. Setting the term K1 to 0 is the normal assumption in distributing live loads to the pipe and accounts for the load attenuating to the top of the pipe. however.1—Resistance to Axial Thrust 12. Add wheel spacing if depth is sufficient for wheels to interact.2-1 length of live load surface contact area parallel to pipe diameter as specified in Article 3.1.2.12.3.2.

12. it should include: • • The actual total area. the element still has substantial post-buckling strength at the edges where the element is supported.3. Figure 12. profile wall pipe shall be idealized as straight elements.10.3.673 λ=⎜ ⎟ ⎝ t ⎠ k (12.1b-1. The effective area of the profile shall be determined by subtracting the ineffective area of each element from the gross section area. Aeff.10.3.12.1b-4 must be repeated for each element in the idealized profile. the profile is idealized into a group of rectangular elements.b )t e ω (12.10.12.12.1b-1.12. If the crest element is curved. C12.12.10.10.1b—Local Buckling Effective Area For the determination of buckling resistance. for local buckling effects.3.12. See McGrath et al (2009) for guidance on other profile types.1b-1—Effective Width Concept The local buckling evaluation reduces the capacity of pipe wall sections with high ratios of width to thickness. it should be idealized at the centroid of the curvature.1b To complete the local buckling calculations.1b-1) The resistance to local buckling is based on the effective width concept used by the cold formed steel industry.3.3.1b-4) Figure C12.12. the area of the profile shall be reduced to an effective area. 12. To complete the idealization.10. as: A eff = A g - ∑ (w . The idealization of a typical corrugated profile should be based on the approximation in Figure 12.1b-1 to 12.1b-3) ⎛ w ⎞ ε yc ≥ 0. The idealized element need not touch the idealized webs.3.10.3.22/λ ) λ (12.0.3.10.3.1b-2) (1 .1b-1—Typical and Idealized Cross-Section of Profile Wall Pipe To evaluate the resistance to axial thrust.12. Each element shall be assigned a width based on the clear distance between the adjoining elements and a thickness based on the thickness at the center of the element.3.10.12.10. This concept is demonstrated in Figure C12.3. The calculations in Eqs. 13 67 .12.10. This theory assumes that even though buckling is initiated in the center of a plate element.12.10. in which: b e = ρw ρ= (12.12.

10.3.3.9 0.43 for unsupported elements.where: Aeff = be ρ λ ω = = = = effective area of pipe wall per unit length of pipe (in.10. the results of the stub compression test. time factor as specified in Table 12.3 0.12.3-1 gross area of pipe wall per unit length of pipe (in.6 0.3.) total clear width of element between supporting elements (in.10.) element effective width (in. may be used. k.) plate buckling coefficient.1b-1 material yield strength for design load duration.10. in column buckling.12.1b -5) in which: Pst = stub compression capacity from T 341-10 ( lb/in).3.2/in. The test data should be readily available from manufacturers and quality control tests.12.12. in which case the effective area Aeff shall satisfy: A eff = Pst K t ≤ Ag Fu (12.5 14 68 . such as free standing ribs The plate buckling coefficient is analogous to the effective length factor.1b-1 factored compressive strain limit as specified in Table 12.3.) as specified in Figure 12. ksi Kt = Fu = Table 12.1b-1—Time Factor Time Period Initial 50 year 75 year (est.25 PVC 0.95 0.) thickness of element (in.) PE 0. εyc = Ag = t w k = = = As an alternate to determining the effective area by the calculation procedure presented above. k=4 for supported elements. k=0.2/in.12.) effective width factor slenderness factor spacing of corrugation (in. AASHTO T 341-10. The stub compression test has been incorporated as a requirement into AASHTO product standards M294 and M304.

10. shall be taken as: ε uc = Tu 1000 A eff E p ( ) ) (12.10.1c-2) in which: ⎛D ⎞ Tu = Pu ⎜ o ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ where: εuc = εsc = Tu = Ts = Aeff = Ep = (12.3.1c-3) factored compressive strain due to thrust service compressive strain due to thrust factored thrust per unit length (lb/in.1d-1) 15 69 .10. and the service compressive strain due to service thrust.2/in.) short-term modulus for short-term loading or long-term modulus of pipe material for long-term loading as specified in Table 12.12.12.5-1 Do = Pu = 12.3-1 (12.12.) service thrust per unit length (lb/in.3.3.3.3.10.12.12.12.12.1d—Thrust Strain Limits The factored compression strain due to thrust. εuc.3-1 (ksi) outside diameter of pipe (in) factored load as specified in Eq.1c-1) ε sc = Ts 1000 A eff E p ( (12. 12.12.) effective area of pipe wall per unit length of pipe (in. shall satisfy: ε uc ≤ φ T ε yc where: εuc = φT = εyc = factored compressive strain due to thrust resistance factor for thrust effects factored compression strain limit of the pipe wall material as specified in Table 12. εuc.3. εsc.10.12.3.12.3.10.1c—Compression Strain The factored compressive strain due to factored thrust.3.

Rh.2/in.12. shall satisfy: ε uc ≤ φ bck ε bck (12.3.1e-3) where: εuc = φbck = εbck = factored compressive strain due to thrust resistance factor for global buckling nominal strain capacity for general buckling The term φs appears in this expression for εbck to account for backfills compacted to levels below that specified in the design. is equal to value at left.3.3.1e The equations for global resistance presented here are a conservative simplification of the continuum buckling theory presented by Moore (1990). The complete theory proposed by Moore (1990) provides variations in Rh that consider nonuniform backfill support.) Aeff = 16 70 .10.55 short.12.3.12.) effective area of pipe profile per unit length of pipe (in.12.10.1 times the span and the modulus of the soil outside of the structural backfill is 0.10.10. Detailed analysis using the full theory may be applied in lieu of the calculations in this section.12.12.3. incorporating local buckling effects. the correction for backfill soil geometry.1e-1) C12.2C n E p I p A eff E p ( 2/3 )1/3 ⎛ ⎞ ( ) φ ν M 1 2 s s ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ (1 .12.10.3-1 (ksi) moment of inertia of pipe profile per unit length of pipe (in. Lower levels of compaction increases the thrust force in the pipe.4 D 11 + 12H (12. then Rh = correction factor for backfill soil geometry Rh = 20 56 + D 12H (C12.10. For designs meeting all other requirements of these specifications and the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications.1e-2) in which: Rh = 11.1e-1) Cn = Ep = Ip = calibration factor to account for nonlinear effects = 0.1 times the modulus of the backfill. The nominal strain capacity for general buckling of the pipe shall be determined as: ε bck = 1.ν )2 Rh ⎟ ⎠ (12. In the extreme case where the width of structural backfill at the side of the culvert is 0.12.4/in. εuc.3.3.1e—General Buckling Strain Limits The factored compression strain due to thrust.or long-term modulus of pipe material as specified in Table 12.

12. The check of combined compression strain.3.3.2b—Combined Strain If summation of axial strain.12.2b The criteria for combined compressive strain is based on limiting local buckling. assume that ultimate tensile strain capacity is 50 percent greater than the service capacities provided in Table 12.12.3-1.12.10. the section is limited by consideration of hoop compression capacity alone.3.3-1 In the absence of a more-detailed analysis. elements. hoop plus bending. While this behavior would be more accurately modeled as an increase in the k factor of Eq.3.3. For thrust capacity.3.12. Elements subjected primarily to bending (such as a web element in Figure 12. This increase is permitted because the web element under flexure has a low stress at The combined strain at the extreme fiber where flexure causes compression shall satisfy: ε f + ε uc < φT 1.10.3.10. where buckling initiates.3-1 ( ) (12.12.12.φs = resistance factor for soil pressure secant constrained soil modulus as specified in Table 12.2b-3) 17 71 .2b-2) εuc = εyt = φf φT εyc = resistance factor for flexure = resistance factor for thrust = factored compression strain limit of the pipe wall material as specified in Table 12. increases in strain due to bending may be ignored. Ms = ν D H = = = 12. εuc.10. with no guidance on ultimate strain limits.) depth of fill over top of pipe (ft.12. which are subjected primarily to bending.5-1 (ksi) Poisson’s ratio of soil diameter to centroid of pipe profile (in. produces tensile strain in the pipe wall.3-1.3.2—Bending and Thrust Strain Limits 12.3.5ε yc where: εf = factored strain due to flexure factored compressive strain due to thrust service long-term tension strain limit of the pipe wall material as specified in Table 12.3. and bending strain. which experience low strains due to bending. the increase in the limiting strain is considered adequate for this simplified design method. the flexural strain may be determined based on the empirical relationship between strain and deflection as: ⎛ c ⎞⎛ Δ ⎞ ε f = γ EV D f ⎜ ⎟⎜ f ⎟ ⎝ R ⎠⎝ D ⎠ (12.3. are less likely to buckle and increase the stability of elements near the crest and valley. may be analyzed only for the effect of hoop compression strains.12. 12.3. thus increasing the stability of elements near the crest and valley.2a—General To ensure adequate flexural capacity the combined strain at the extreme fibers of the pipe profile must be evaluated at the allowable deflection limits against the limiting strain values.10. That is.12.12. Past practice has used tensile strain limits specified in Table 12. For purposes of design calculations. The strain limit for combined compression strain is 50 percent higher than that for hoop compression alone because the web elements. is used to limit the allowable pipe deflection. A higher strain limit is allowed for combined strain because the web elements.2b-1) C12.12.1b-4. such as the web whose centroid is within c/3 of the centroid of the entire profile wall. are not likely to buckle. and theoretical k factors for plates in bending are greater than 20.10. A higher strain limit is allowed under combined bending and compression.10. εf.1b-1 when the pipe is deflected) are not highly stressed near the centroid.10.) Poisson’s ratio is used to convert the constrained modulus of elasticity to the plane strain modulus.3.3.10. 12.12.12. the combined strain at the extreme fiber where flexure causes tension shall satisfy: ε f − ε uc < φ f ε yt (12. To simplify the analysis for combined bending and thrust.

The AASHTO Bridge Construction Specifications currently restrict the allowable total vertical deflection to five percent.4. The shape factors for corrugated PE pipe can be reduced by 1. and allowing it to provide more stability to the crest and valley elements.2b-4) the center of the element.3.12. εSC = Δf = γEV = Df = shape factor as specified in Table 12. reduction of vertical diameter (in. Table 12. Bending strains typically cannot be accurately predicted during design due to variations in backfill materials and compactive effort used during installation.2b-1 and 12. Installation deflection limits are specified in the construction specifications to assure that design parameters are not exceeded. and is lowest in high stiffness pipe backfilled in soils that require little compactive effort (sands and gravels).2b-2. unless extraordinary measures are specified in contract documents to minimize compactive effort and to control deflections.) load factor for vertical pressure from dead load of earth fill. 12.3.0 from the table values to account for the effect of the low hoop stiffness ratio.) c R D = = ΔA = Flexural strains are always taken as positive.2b-1 does not cover all possible backfills and density levels.10. 18 72 .in which: Δ f = Δ A − ε sc D where: εf = factored strain due to flexure service compression strain due to thrust reduction of vertical diameter due to flexure (in.10. as specified in Article 3.12. The factors K1 and K2 should be used in the thrust computations to determine the thrust strains used in Eqs.12.10. Peak flexural stress occurs near the crown for live load conditions and near the haunch/invert region for deep burial cases.) diameter to centroid of pipe profile (in.3.3.12.) total allowable deflection of pipe. and of local deformations during placement and compaction of backfill. reducing the likelihood of buckling.) radius from center of pipe to centroid of pipe profile (in.1 (12. = the larger of the distance from neutral axis of profile to the extreme innermost or outermost fiber (in. It demonstrates that bending strains are highest in low stiffness pipe backfilled in soils that require substantial compactive effort (silts and clays). The use of the factored compressive strain would result in an unconservative flexural strain demand. The empirical shape factor is used in the design of fiberglass pipe and is presented in AWWA Manual of Practice M45 Fiberglass Pipe Design (1996).2b-1.12. Designers should interpolate or extrapolate the Table as necessary for specific projects. The pipe must be designed to permit this deflection. The service compressive strain is used for determination of the factored strain due to flexure instead of the factored compressive strain.3.10. More detailed analyses must consider the likelihood of inconsistent soil support to the pipe in the haunch zone.10. The deflection design limit is five percent reduction of the vertical diameter as specified in the construction specification.

Df.12.” AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications.149 R 0.072 1.018 0.3 Moderate to High (4) 7. 3. 19 73 .5 4.12. ≥ 40% relative density (ASTM D 4253 and D 4254) 12.0 5. based on Pipe Stiffness.5 4. 4. GP. SC. GP-GC and GP-GM per ASTM D 2487 (includes crushed rock) SW.036 0. ksi) = EI / 0.4—Construction and Installation The contract documents shall require that the construction and installation conform to Section 30.009 0.10.5 3.3. GW-GM.8 3.2b-1—Shape Factors. GM and GC or mixtures per ASTM D 2487 <85% of maximum dry density per AASHTO T 99.5 GW. SM. < 40% relative density (ASTM D 4253 and D 4254) ≥85% of maximum dry density per AASHTO T 99.5 4.0 4.0 5. SP.0 6. “Thermoplastic Culverts.Table 12.5 5.0 3. 2. Backfill and Compaction Level Pipe Stiffness (F/Δy. 3 Pipe Zone Embedment Material and Compaction Level Gravel (1) Dumped to Slight (3) 5.5 Sand (2) Moderate to High (4) 8.5 3.8 Dumped to Slight (3) 6. GW-GC.

It is necessary to evaluate the composite system of thermoplastic liner and steel rib for adequacy. The steel ribs are the main load carrying members for the pipe and the thermoplastic material braces the steel ribs from distortion or buckling.2.8: C12. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: Provides design guidance for steel reinforced thermoplastic pipes.0 in. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of the profile that has been calibrated against results for full scale tests are recommended.D.8 TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-13 Culverts REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 10/12/09 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Add the following new commentary to Article C12. The thermoplastic also distributes the load between the ribs. 74 .8 The AASHTO Materials Specifications also include a provisional specification for MP 20-10 for SteelReinforced Polyethylene Pipe (PE) Ribbed Pipe. This agenda item is being proposed to recognize the product in the commentary of these design specifications and provide some guidance for owners that choose to utilize the product. Moore (24” – February 2009. It is important to assure that the tensile strains within the thermoplastic do not exceed the long-term strain capacity for the thermoplastic material used in the construction of the pipe. Article C12. 60” – August 2009).4.4. Technical Committee T-13 Culverts is working with industry to develop a design specification to be incorporated in a future agenda item.0 to 36. 12. diameter.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 17 SUBJECT: LRFD Bridge Design Specifications: Section 12.2. The design specification being developed is based on the research “DuroMaxx Pipe Assessment” by I.2.4. OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: The AASHTO Subcommittee for Materials has balloted and approved a provisional specification for SteelReinforced Polyethylene (PE) Ribbed Pipe. Design specifications for this product will be considered for inclusion in these Specifications when a satisfactory number of instrumented installations are documented to validate performance.

Moore (24” – February 2009.D. 60” – August 2009) OTHER: None 75 .REFERENCES: “DuroMaxx Pipe Assessment” by I.

G. Moore. “Buried Structures and Tunnel Liners.J. Hsuan.D. G.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 18 SUBJECT: LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications: Section 30. The agenda items include the changes proposed for construction.J. I. OTHER: None 76 .Y. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: Improvement of construction specification based on the recommendation of the NCHRP Report 4-26 “Thermoplastic Drainage Pipe. with emphasis placed on post-construction inspection to confirm that deflection levels are within specified limits and line and grade and joints are all as specified. McGrath. I. REFERENCES: NCHRP Report 631 “Updated Test and Design Methods for Thermoplastic Drainage Pipe” by T. BACKGROUND: The agenda items are based on the recommendation of the NCHRP Report 631 “Updated Test and Design Methods for Thermoplastic Drainage Pipe” by T. Moore.D. Various Articles TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-13 Culverts / T-4 Construction REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 01/25/10 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Revise Section 30 as follows – See Attachment B OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: The provisions of AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.Y.1 and Section 12 . Design and Testing”. Hsuan. McGrath.”.4. and the AASHTO product standards for HDPE and PVC culverts will be modified concurrently with these agenda items. Article 3.

ATTACHMENT B – 2010 AGENDA ITEM 18 .T-13 / T-4 SECTION 30: THERMOPLASTIC PIPESCULVERTS 30-i 77 .

as applicable.1—Description This work shall consist of furnishing.” and ASTM D 2321. or F 894. C30.5 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications and Section 30 of this Specification. In general.2—Workmanship and Inspection Importance of Construction Procedures All thermoplastic pipe materials shall conform to the workmanship and inspection requirements of AASHTO M 278.g. Common profiles are solid cylindrical wall with or without a standing rib.. and inspecting buried thermoplastic pipeculverts in conformance with these Specifications and the contract documents. Section 12. Together.1.2 30. Standard Practice for Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Pipe for Sewers and Other Gravity-Flow Applications. Contract documents shall conform to the requirements of Article 12. for additional guidance. is essential.1.1. Section 12.1. “Buried Structures and Tunnel Liners. M 294. or ASTM F 679.12.1. and corrugated with a smooth liner.3-1 and 30. which are then properly placed and compacted. higher compaction levels (e. installing.1. Therefore.3-2 defined below: 78 .3.30-2 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS 30. The embedment material placed around a culvert provides a significant support that is relied upon in the culvert structural design. percentage of maximum density per AASHTO T99 or T190 (ASTM D 2844)) are required to achieve equivalent culvert performance. F 794.” See AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. Satisfactory performance of culverts requires proper control of construction procedures at all times. F 714.1—GENERAL 30. 200 sieve) decreases. corrugated. selection of suitable quality backfill materials.3—Terminology Terminology used in this Specification is illustrated in Figure 30. “Buried Structures and Tunnel Liners. C30. as the quality of backfill (represented primarily by the particle size and the portion of the backfill passing the No. As used in this Specification.1 Plastic pipe is manufactured by a variety of methods with a variety of wall profiles. or M 304. thermoplastic pipe is defined in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.1. 30. the culvert and embedment form an integral soil-structure system.

Shoulder—the portion of the culvert between the culvert top and the springline. The topfill is to be the same material as the structural backfill. Embankment—the soil already placed and compacted in layers at the sides of and above the embedment zone. and structural backfill. Haunch—the portion of the culvert between the culvert bottom and the springline. existing (in situ) soil. Culvert Top—the highest point on the outside of the culvert.ATTACHMENT B — SECTION 30: THERMOPLASTIC PIPE CULVERTS 30-3 Bedding—the material on which the structure is seated. Sidefill—the embedment zone between the haunch and the shoulders of the culvert supporting the sides of the culvert. 79 . if such soil meets all necessary requirements. Haunch Zone—the region of the backfill between the bedding or foundation soil and the culvert surface from the culvert bottom to near the springline. Culvert Crown—the highest point on the inside of the culvert. In Situ Soil—the native undisturbed soil existing at the site of the culvert installation. It consists of bedding. sidefill. and initial topfill. or an imported material. It may be in situ soil. Topfill—the embedment zone over the top of the culvert beginning at the shoulders and extending upward to the limit of the structural backfill zone. Foundation Soil—the soil that supports the bedding. It must provide a firm stable surface and may be undisturbed. It occurs at the widest point in the culvert. Embedment Zone—the zone of structural backfill around the culvert. The bedding may be specified as a different material than the structural backfill. replaced and compacted in situ soil. Culvert Bottom—the lowest point on the outside of the culvert for closed shapes. Backfill in the haunch zone is to be the same material as the structural backfill. or imported backfill material. It is a region where hand placement and compaction methods are normally required for the backfill. Springline—the line along the side of the culvert where the tangent to the culvert wall is vertical. Culvert Invert—the lowest point on the inside of the culvert for closed shapes. culvert. haunch material. Structural Backfill—all the material placed and compacted around the culvert to help support the culvert.

1.3-1—Terminology for Culvert Installation 80 .30-4 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS Embankment (placed) Structural Backfill Culvert Bedding Foundation Soil a) Embankment Installation Embankment Zone Structural Backfill Culvert Sloped/Benched Trench Wall In Situ Soil Bedding Foundation Soil b) Trench Installation Topfill Top Shoulder Structural Backfill Culvert Crown Springline Invert Haunch Sidefill Haunch Zone Bedding Bottom c) Embedment Zone d) Culvert Figure 30.

Sufficient copies shall be furnished to meet the needs of the Engineer and other entities with review authority. materials and compaction levels identified at all locations. 30.. Vinyl Chloride or PVC.2—WORKING DRAWINGS When drawings and specifications are not provided in the contract documents the Contractor shall provide to the Engineer Where specified or requested by the Engineer. revision. or ASTM F714 or F894. Polyvinylchloride (PVC) Poly.3. The working drawings shall be submitted sufficiently in advance of proposed installation and use to allow for their review. or ASTM F794.1—Thermoplastic PipeCulverts Polyethylene pipe (PE) shall conform to the material workmanship and inspection requirements of AASHTO M294. C30. i. the Contractor shall provide Manufacturer's installation instructions or working drawings and substantiating calculations in sufficient detail to permit a structural review. if needed. or AASHTO M304.3-2—Foundation Treatment with Placed Bedding where: s = diameter b = bedding width d = bedding depth 30. ASTM F679. The Contractor shall not start construction of any thermoplastic pipe installations for which working drawings are required until the drawings have been approved by the Engineer.ATTACHMENT B — SECTION 30: THERMOPLASTIC PIPE CULVERTS 30-5 s d b Figure 30.3—MATERIALS 30. Such approval will not relieve the Contractor of responsibility for results obtained by use of these drawings or any of the other responsibilities under the contract.1. pipe shall conform to the material workmanship and inspection requirements of AASHTO M278. and approval without delay of the work. and requirements for dewatering during construction.e.2 Complete drawings and specifications include a detailed trench cross-section with all applicable dimensions. 81 .

2.30-6 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS 30. A-2-5. (30 mm).5 in. 30. When CLSM is used.1 Granular backfill has 35 percent or less material by weight finer than the No. 82 . CLSM. A-1. pipes with corrugated or profile walls. C30. typically –3 percent to +2 percent.3. or placement technique.3. stones larger than 1. CDF. backfill gradations should be selected that will permit the filling of the corrugation or profile valleys.2—Bedding Materials and Structural Backfill Bedding and structural backfill shall meet the requirements of AASHTO M 145. Bedding material shall have a maximum particle size of 1. or controlled density fill. (40 mm) in greatest dimension.1. and frozen lumps. Backfill for thermoplastic pipe shall be free of organic material.5 in. trench width can be reduced to a minimum of the outside diameter plus 12.0 in. This will exclude the use of silty sand or silty gravel where freezing temperatures occur. all joints shall have gaskets. Construction of pipes during the winter months may pose potential problems when frozen soils are included in the backfill zone or when frost-susceptible soils are used as backfill material. shall be free of organic material.2. A-2-4.e. With CLSM backfill.1—General Bedding shall be granular material with a maximum particle size of 1. Moisture content shall be in the range of optimum content.2. Flowable fills. weighing. Frost-susceptible soils should not be used in the embedment zone within the frost penetration depth. (300 mm).0 in. the engineer should include provisions for assessing it during construction and importing new bedding material if necessary. Frozen soil will not compact effectively and may result in points of concentrated loads when frozen and regions of inadequate support upon thawing. or frozen lumps. Consideration should be given to the potential for migration of fines from adjacent materials into opengraded backfill and bedding materials. shall have a moisture content within the limits required for compaction. in the greatest dimension.3.. 200 sieve as defined in AASHTO M 145. such as controlled low strength mortar. This is often difficult. since in situ soils are highly variable. may be used for backfill and bedding provided adequate flotation resistance can be achieved by restraints.25 in. the engineer must verify that the in situ material meets the requirements stated in Article 30. While it is economical to use in situ material for bedding pipes. For pipe types that are not smooth on the outside.3. rock fragments larger than 1. If use of in situ material is allowed. Backfill shall be granular materials as specified in the contract documents. or A-3. i. so as to permit thorough compaction.

Alternatively. D50/d50 < 25 where D50 is the sieve-opening size passing 50 percent by weight of the coarser material and d50 is the sieve-opening size passing 50 percent by weight of the finer material. A-2-4. A-2-5. Restricted materials include some A-1-b. Such materials are difficult to work with.3. C30.ATTACHMENT B — SECTION 30: THERMOPLASTIC PIPE CULVERTS 30-7 Bedding and backfill materials shall meet the requirements of AASHTO M145 for A-1. 30.2. Other research has been conducted on this subject e. a suitable plan should be submitted for control of moisture content and compaction procedures. If so.2 Control of migration is based on the relative gradations of adjacent materials. are sensitive to moisture content.g. (1998) indicates that CLSM can be an effective backfill material for thermoplastic pipes.3.2.2. 100 sieve and a maximum of 20 percent may pass the No.3. The restriction on materials passing the No. or A-3 soils. and do not provide support comparable to coarser or more-broadly-graded materials at the same percentage of maximum density.4—ASSEMBLY 83 . may be used to maintain separation of incompatible materials 30. Gradations of in situ bedding. also known as flowable fill. and embankment materials shall be evaluated for compliance with this requirement. The Engineer may permit exceptions to these restrictions in special cases. 2008).3—Controlled Low-Strength Material Controlled low-strength material (CLSM).3 McGrath et al. A-2-4. Increased inspection levels should be considered if such a plan is approved. If not specified in the contract documents. Minimum construction details include methods for control of flotation forces.2—Control of Particle Migration The gradation of bedding and backfill materials shall be selected to prevent particle migration between adjacent materials. may be used as structural backfill. A maximum of 50 percent of the particle sizes may pass the No. backfill. 200 sieve. All A-2-6 and A-2-7 soils display similar characteristics and are eliminated from use as backfill materials. A-3.3. These silty and clayey materials should never be used in a wet site or if significant live loads will be imposed on the pipe. and waiting time between placing CLSM and backfilling over the structure. meeting the requirements of AASHTO M288 for separation. a mix design and complete construction details must be submitted. and A-2-5 soils. 100 sieve and the No. (Folliard et al. 200 sieve is intended to eliminate soils composed of significant amounts of fine sands and silts. a suitable geotextile.2. Acceptable criteria include: D15/d85 < 5 where D15 is the sieve-opening size passing 15 percent by weight of the coarser material and d85 is the sieve-opening size passing 85 percent by weight of the finer material. C30. 30. This criterion need not apply if the coarser material is well graded as defined in ASTM D 2487.

035.5—INSTALLATION 84 . Each joint shall be sealed to prevent infiltration of soil (soiltight).4. 0. 5. and double-bell couplings. Joints are often provided as soiltight or watertight.30-8 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS 30.2. All of these joint types can be supplied with or without gaskets. and 0. 30. Pipe and fittings shall not be rolled or dragged over gravel or rock and shall be prevented from striking rock or other hard objects during placement in trench or on bedding. Available watertightness pressure levels are 2.1—General Thermoplastic pipe units shall be assembled in accordance with the Manufacturer’s instructions and as specified in the contract documents.4. Thermoplastic pipe shall be placed in the bed starting at the downstream end. Damaged pipe or fittings shall not be incorporated into the project.4.2.1 General Joints for thermoplastic pipe shall meet the performance requirements for soiltightness unless watertightness is specified.4. Commonly available pressure capabilities are 2.2 Suitable field joints can be obtained with the following types of connections: • Corrugated bands (with or without gaskets) • Bell and spigot pipe ends (with or without gaskets) • Double bell couplings (with or without gaskets) 30. and 10 psi (0.4. C30. 30.4. 30.2.015. Examples can be found in these Specifications. Field tests may be required by the Engineer whenever there is a question regarding compliance with the contract requirements. and 10 psi. C30.4. Other joint types may be used provided that documentation is provided to demonstrate that the joint meets the project requirements. Section 26 “Metal Pipes. bell-andspigot pipe ends. Copies of the Manufacturer’s assembly instructions shall be furnished to the installation crew. 5.2—Joints Joints for thermoplastic pipe shall comply with the details shown in the contract documents and on the approved working drawings. Care shall be taken to prevent the units from striking rock or other hard objects during placement.070 MPa). Pressure capability of joint shall be based on project requirements. fines (silttight) or water (watertight) as required by the contact documents.2.1 Watertightness shall be based on project requirements.2 Field Joints Joints shall be so installed that the connection of pipe sections will form a continuous line free from irregularities in the flow line. The AASHTO Materials engineers are currently working on joint definition issues. Definitions of soiltight and silttight joints are vague.” Watertight joints are normally specified to meet ASTM D3212.2 Joint types include corrugated bands. Joints shall be installed so that the connection of pipe sections will form a continuous surface free from irregularities in the flow line. All pipes shall be unloaded and handled with reasonable care. C30.

initial backfill. If possible. All construction shall be in conformance to all applicable safety standards.1 Controlling groundwater without violating the assumptions of the pipe design is important. Trenches shall be excavated in such a manner as to ensure that the sides will be stable under all working conditions. Trench walls shall be sloped or supported in conformance with all standards of safety. or otherwise supported to ensure their stability throughout construction in conformance to all applicable safety standards.ATTACHMENT B — SECTION 30: THERMOPLASTIC PIPE CULVERTS 30-9 30. Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer. Sloped walls may be benched to facilitate compaction of backfill against them. If horizontal trench bracing is used. Trenches shall be excavated in such a manner as to ensure that the sides will be stable under all working conditions. and trench width shall be taken as shown in Figure 30. The AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. The Engineer may allow trenches to be left open overnight provided that the excavation is secured in accordance with all applicable safety standards and prevented from accumulating water from rain. haunching. In instances where the depth of fill over the culvert will be significant. FIGURE HERE Figure 30.2—Excavation and Groundwater Control Excavation shall be to the width.1—General Installation Requirements Space shall be provided at the site for storage of the culvert pipes unless they are installed as delivered.5. rocks. 85 . depth. sheeting driven below the top of the pipe elevation shall be left in place and cut off not less than 1. and backfilling shall be in accordance with the stricter of the Manufacturer’s instructions.1-1 Trench Details. but not later than the end of each working day. and grade shown in the contract documents. pipe zone. which consider the stiffness of the material at the site of the pipe. Necessary action to prevent surface runoff from entering the trench shall be taken. The trench shield shall be used in a manner that will not leave voids in the backfill or disrupt compacted backfill as the trench shield is advanced. the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications also provided guidance on trench width. contract documents. the trench walls below the top of the pipe should be vertical. it shall be removed as backfill progresses upward. but not later than the end of each working day shall be opened. C30. C30. Only as much trench as can be safely maintained shall be opened.5.5-1. joining. 30. Trench walls shall be sloped.2 Since trench width has an impact on the performance of the pipe.5. Water conditions shall be controlled so that pipes are laid in dry conditions. provide guidance.5. All trenches shall be backfilled as soon as practicable. Large stones. Where seepage is present sheeting with soiltight joints shall be used to prevent washing out of soil behind the sheeting. and any debris falling into the trench shall be removed. All pipe laying. final backfill. Only as much trench as can be safely maintained and backfill as soon as practicable. or these specifications. Unanticipated ground conditions shall be reported to the Engineer.5 ft above the top of the pipe after backfill has been installed to this elevation. benched. including foundation. A movable trench shield may be used as an alternative to sheeting and bracing to provide a safe working condition in the bottom of a trench. Trench walls should be undisturbed in situ soil at least up to the top of the culvert at the time of backfilling. bedding.5. braced. Trench details. It is often necessary to consult with a Geotechnical Engineer to address drainage issues. the replacement material above the existing ground may need to be structural backfill to provide a suitable embedment zone.

. below the deepest portion of the excavation. If not specified in the contract documents.2 Trench Widths Trench width shall be sufficient to ensure working room to properly and safely place and compact haunching and other backfill materials. Water seeping into the trench from the sides or top shall be removed. such as AASHTO A-1. When the water table is above the bottom of the trench. the water shall be diverted or separated by cofferdams. Trenches shall be kept to the specified width as any increase in trench width will increase the load on the pipe. and the existing ground will be covered with an embankment.3—Groundwater Control Water conditions shall be controlled. granular materials.1. a sump pump shall be used to remove the water. 30.2.5.5. organic or frozen material. or when the culvert is installed in a stream or river bed.0 in. A-2-4 and A-2-5 soils to facilitate better consolidation around the pipe and to minimize the possibility of soil migration and piping of the in-situ soils meet the requirements of Article 30.5.30-10 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS For installations where the top of the culvert extends above or within the rise of the existing ground.3.4— 30. C30. Tthe space between the pipe and trench wall shall should be wider than the compaction equipment used in the pipe zone. thus reducing the needed working room at the side of the culvert. 86 .5 times the pipe outside diameter plus 12. free-draining gravels shall be used as foundation and bedding. Structural backfill shall be comprised of well-graded.5. Under these conditions. but not Minimum trench width shall not be less than 1. This water level shall be maintained until the pipe and sufficient backfill are placed to compensate for the uplift forces. Advance approval of the Engineer shall be obtained if construction must continue in water.0 in.4 Narrower trenches may be allowed if culverts are backfilled with CLSM. CLSM readily flows under and around the culvert to provide good haunch and sidefill support. Sites requiring excavation below the groundwater table shall be dewatered to at least 12. 30. and any soft materials that do not meet the stiffness requirements of the structural backfill for a distance at least equal to the culvert diameter each side of the culvert springline shall be removed and replaced with embankment material. If continuous seepage occurs. quick conditions or instability of the trench bottom can occur in which case the groundwater level shall be lowered to below the trench bottom. vegetation.

compression of the soft material can cause increased load on the pipe due to downdrag. The foundation soil shall be investigated for the full width of the trench. and use a minimum d = 6. Article 12. on each side of the culvert springline. they shall be removed for a width of at least one-half diameter on either side of the culvert to a depth specified by the Engineer and replaced with specified bedding material. • For rock and boulders. or one-half the span of the culvert.5. and unstable soils shall include consideration of the size of the pipe.1. the trench width shall be increased in accordance with the design criteria in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.5 “Factored and Service Load”. it may be considered adequate to serve as the foundation. the stiffness of the backfill and in situ soil. 87 . • If the in situ soil is suitable to support the culvert.5. use b = 2D or the trench width. the foundation shall be uniformly firm and level to support the culvert along its length. Flexible pipe requires soil support at the sides. it shall be compacted as specified. and unstable trench walls are an indication that a wider trench width is required.12. Determination of trench width in soils that are unsupported. Thus. The bottom of the excavation shall be undisturbed in situ material. If boulders. If the foundation is loose. If the foundation is firm under the pipe but soft at the sides. The trench shall be excavated to the width. organic or frozen material. This criterion does not refer to trenches for which trench supports are required only to comply with OSHA. C30. are predictive of adequate vertical and lateral stiffness for this application. the depth of cover and other site-specific conditions as applicable. For soft spots.3. 30. use b = culvert diameter 1D. depth.3.4 “Thrust” 12. a width of 12.5— 30. vegetation. during the excavation process.5.5 A foundation should be provided such that the structure backfill does not settle more than the pipe to avoid downdrag loads on the culvert and to maintain specified pipe invert elevations.ATTACHMENT B — SECTION 30: THERMOPLASTIC PIPE CULVERTS 30-11 If the trench walls do not stand without support. The AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications provide additional guidance on the width of trench backfill in wet native soil conditions. rock. but to not less than 90 percent of maximum density per AASHTO T99 for A-1 or A-3 soils or 95 percent of maximum density for A-2 soils. whichever is smaller. and use a minimum d = 4.0 in.. but not less than twice the corrugation.3 Foundations and Bedding The foundation under the culvert shall be investigated for its adequacy to support the loads. Generally. the foundation quality must be evaluated for a width greater than the pipe.0 in. and grade as indicated on the plans and/or given by the Engineer. The foundation depths specified shall be taken to include the combined foundation and bedding depth.. but not less than the corrugation depth or less than a depth sufficient to reduce the stress on the soft soil to its allowable bearing value.0 in.3-2). or any soft materials that do not meet the stiffness requirements of the structural backfill are present. stable trench walls. before placing the culvert. After compaction. or for wide trench or embankment installations. whichever is larger. The remedies for soft or inadequate foundation soils noted below shall apply to the same widths as investigated (see Figure 30.12.

Proper dewatering of the in situ soils is very important.5.5. Leaving the center third of the bedding uncompacted provides a soft cushion for the pipe. or structural backfill.0 in. (100 mm) of bedding shall be provided prior to placement of the pipe unless otherwise specified. A stable and uniform bedding shall be provided for the pipe and any protruding features of its joint and/or fittings. The middle of the bedding equal to one-third the pipe outside diameter (OD) should be loosely placed. (150 mm) minimum thickness shall be provided below the bottom of the pipe. and alignment and shall be straight and flat over the length of the pipe section so that unacceptable longitudinal bending does not occur. 30.6—Bedding A bedding layer shall be provided to the thickness specified. The bedding surface shall conform to the specified elevation.30-12 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS When the natural foundation soil is judged by the Engineer to be unsatisfactory to support the pipe. and the pipe drains as designed. the bedding shall be compacted to a minimum density equal to 90 percent of the maximum dry density per AASHTO T99.6 The maximum desired loose bedding layer thickness for compaction is 6.3. the soil shall be excavated to the depth “d” and width “b” prescribed in the contract documents.2 and shall be installed as required by the Engineer according to conditions in the trench bottom. material shall be excavated to the depth required by the Engineer. Many states require 95 percent of the maximum dry density per AASHTO T99 for the bedding material. A minimum of 4. When the trench bottom is unstable. Foundation and bedding shall meet the requirements of Article 30. while the remainder shall be compacted to a minimum 90 percent of maximum density per AASHTO T 99. except that the portion of the bedding layer under the center third of the culvert diameter shall be left uncompacted. When rock or unyielding material is present in the trench bottom.0 in. C30.0 in. a cushion of bedding of 6. The tolerance of the culvert to longitudinal bending depends on the culvert material and geometric properties. 88 . minimizing hard support on the invert. A suitably graded material shall be used where conditions may cause migration of fines and loss of pipe support. Unless indicated otherwise in the contract documents. The excavation shall be backfilled with bedding material compacted as specified. In addition. These high standards may not be achievable without overexcavation and replacement of the foundation soils or geosynthetic reinforcement if the foundation material is not sufficiently stiff. but to not less than 90 percent of maximum dry density per AASHTO T99 for A-1 or A-3 soils or 95 percent of maximum dry density for A-2 soils. the compacted bedding at the sides of the culvert provides a path for soil to arch over the top of the culvert. In soft native soils it may be necessary to over excavate and replace the foundation material to achieve specified compaction of the outer bedding. grade. and replaced with a suitable foundation.

3. 30. Special compaction means may be necessary in the haunch area as shown in Figure 30. and other requirements above the pipe. and compacted to satisfy the loading.0-in.8.2. A minimum compaction level of 90 percent standard density per AASHTO T 99 shall be achieved. the partial piece shall not be the terminal piece. the primary inspection effort should be to ensure that the established procedure is followed. Upward deflection of the crown should not exceed 3 percent during sidefill compaction. For each of the three basic stages of construction (backfilling) i.ATTACHMENT B — SECTION 30: THERMOPLASTIC PIPE CULVERTS 30-13 30. 89 . 30. Sidefill compaction can impose significant lateral forces on the pipe wall.0 ft (300 mm) above the pipe to final grade shall be selected. When trench wall supports are used. All foreign material falling into the trench during placement and compacting of the backfill shall be removed. Backfill materials placed in the zone extending more than 1. as long as the material and procedures are unchanged.5. haunch. This will increase the vertical diameter of the pipes and.7—Placing Culvert Sections The culvert shall be placed after the foundation soil and bedding are prepared.5. if excessive. (200-mm) loose lift thickness and brought up evenly and simultaneously on both sides of the pipe to an elevation not less than 1. which is difficult to access. If less than a full length of pipe is needed to meet the plan specified length.1 AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications provide guidance on the suitability of in situ soils for use in the structural backfill zone. particularly in the haunch area. C30. they shall be left in place below the top of the culvert or removed in a manner that avoids disturbing compacted backfill.5. All compaction equipment used within 3.5.0 ft (300 mm) above the top of the pipe. C30. and topfill stages. Sufficient inspection and testing should be undertaken to verify that the quality of the soil and the compactive effort are as specified. Ponding or jetting the structural backfill to achieve compaction shall not be permitted without written permission from the Engineer. the Engineer may grant permission to begin at other locations.8. Placing and compacting backfill to the top of the culvert shall be completed in such a manner that the culvert shape is not distorted. procedures shall be established that will achieve the specified degree of compaction without damaging or excessively distorting the culvert. Structural backfill shall be worked into the haunch area and compacted by hand.7 While it is preferable to lay pipe starting at the downstream end. can result in culvert wall distress.1—General Equipment and construction procedures used to backfill culverts shall be selected such that requirements for backfill density and control of culvert deflection and shape will be met. placed. Pipes shall be placed on the bedding starting at the downstream end.4 Structural Backfill Structural backfill shall meet the requirements of Article 30.4-1.5. Only occasional checks of soil density may then be required. Structural backfill shall be placed and compacted in layers not exceeding an 8. pavement.8— 30. A good construction control plan will improve efficiency of installation effort and help ensure proper performance without having to rely on time-consuming testing.5. sidefill. Once a backfilling procedure is established.e.0 ft (900 mm) of the pipe shall be approved by the Engineer.5.

8.) was effective for silty sand. manual tampers. (1998). in thickness to permit the backfill material to be worked into the haunch zone. C30. Provide means to prevent culvert flotation shall be provided.2—Backfilling under the Haunch Material shall be carefully placed in the haunches using mechanical tampers. Water-jetting has been found to be an effective procedure for compacting backfill and developing uniform support with clean coarse-grained backfills and good drainage.5. Adjacent sidefill zones shall be placed along with the haunch zones to provide lateral support for the haunch material. A large faced tamper (3 x 6 in. by McGrath et al.5.2 It is important that the selected tamping procedures will meet the design assumptions. Shovel slicing was shown to be effective in providing haunch support.8. Loose layers should generally not exceed 6. Investigation of various means of achieving compaction in the haunch zone. Haunching is best accomplished by placing part of the first layer of backfill. Different-sized tampers were shown to be effective for different backfill soils. Water jetting to densify the backfill shall not be allowed unless approved in advance by the Engineer. Thick layers prevent material from being worked into the haunches. however. If the culvert is to be backfilled with CLSM. while a small faced tamper (1 x 3 in. or other means that fill all voids and meet the specified compaction levels. all requirements of the project specifications or the submitted detailed work plan shall be followed. and the effect of haunch support on buried pipe performance is reported in FHWA Report FHWA-RD-98-191. Pipe Interaction with the Backfill Envelope. In general. Installation of haunch fill shall be carried out on both sides simultaneously to avoid rolling the culvert. These studies showed that large void spaces result underneath culverts without good compaction in the haunch area. a minimum compaction level exceeding 85 percent AASHTO T99 is needed to prevent a collapsing soil structure upon saturation. and verification is difficult. and the compaction force shall be controlled so that the culvert is not lifted off grade. problems have been encountered in achieving consistent results.0 in. and the bottom of the culvert is not damaged. 90 . The effort required to achieve a particular degree of compaction varies with the backfill material type.30-14 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS 30. working it into the haunches and then placing the remainder of the lift.) was effective for crushed stone backfill.

0 in. Many states require 95 percent maximum dry density per AASHTO T99 for all sidefill soils. a 12.ATTACHMENT B — SECTION 30: THERMOPLASTIC PIPE CULVERTS 30-15 30.0 in. unless otherwise specified.0 in. Achieving these high standards is highly dependent upon local practice and available materials. This dimension is unrelated to the depth of fill required to prevent damage from vehicles passing over the pipe. The layers shall be compacted with appropriate equipment to not less than 90 percent of maximum density per AASHTO T99 for A-1 and A-3 soils and 95 percent A-2-4 and A2-5 soils. Additional material over the topfill shall be provided to protect all culverts before permitting heavy construction equipment to pass over them.0 in. Thermoplastic culverts are flexible. thick loose layer with four coverages of the same compactor.5. soil type. Larger compactors must be evaluated for possible induced structural distortions. as approved by the Engineer. C30.0 in. Specifying a depth of 6. compaction of fill material to the required density is dependent on the thickness of the layer of fill being compacted.5. thus sidefill material shall be placed and compacted to avoid excessive and unsymmetrical deformations. 30.5. 200 sieve. and length of time the force is applied.0 in. The shape shall be monitored to ensure satisfactory results.8. The maximum difference in the sidefill surface elevations between the two sides of the culvert at any time shall not exceed one-quarter of the diameter.0 ft (1 m) from each side of the culvert shall not impose excessive force on the culvert that results in distorting the culvert shape.4 See design specifications for guidance on minimum cover depths. 100 sieve and a maximum of 20 percent may pass the No. and compacted working parallel to the culvert to avoid creating areas of unequal support. Generally. Experience with compaction indicates that 8. spread. 1998). Placement and compaction of the sidefill layers adjacent to the haunch zone shall be carried out concurrently with backfilling under the haunch.4—Topfill Placement of structural topfill shall be taken to begin when the sidefill elevation reaches the shoulders. Unequal support may result when compacting perpendicular to the culvert long axis.8. Alternatively. shall be used for placing and compacting topfill. Sidefill material shall be placed. amount of compactive force. C30. A maximum of 50 percent of the particle sizes may pass the No. uniform layers not exceeding 8.3—Sidefill Structural backfill material in the sidefill zone shall be placed in horizontal. or 24. For pipe less than 24. loose thickness unless a larger thickness is specified. this difference need not be less than one-half the diameter.0 in. thick loose layers using two coverages with a given compactor will give better uniformity and higher average level of compaction than one 12.0 in. McGrath et al. The sidefill surface elevation shall be kept at or below the level of adjacent soil or embankment.8.3 Design soil stiffness is very sensitive to the level of compaction (FHWA Report FHWA-RD-98-191 Pipe Interaction with Backfill Envelope.5.0 in. above the top of the pipe provides protection for the pipe as less controlled materials are placed and compacted to complete the trench backfill. Equipment used to compact sidefill within 3. whichever is smaller. 91 . loose layer will require larger compactors to produce the same average compaction as achieved by a smaller compactor with a 6. Construction loads may require additional cover beyond that required for the final condition to which the design loads apply. thick layer. in diameter. Topfill need not extend above the top of the pipe more than 6.8. Procedures.

7. Final inspections shall be conducted no sooner than 30 days after completion of installation and final fill. Slight peaking of the crosssectional shape should be taken as indicative of achieving proper compaction requirements.0 36.5. particularly for the first few joints. While 30 days will not encompass the time frame for complete consolidation of the soil surrounding the pipe. See Tables A12-11. it is intended to give sufficient time to observe some of the effects that this consolidation will have.5.0 48.0–50.0 30. 30. Table 30.0 110. The timing and number of inspections required will vary with the significance and depth of the installation. In areas where cracking or joint separation is found.5. inspection shall concentrate on detecting improper practice and poor workmanship. may be prudent to ensure that good construction practices are being applied.6— 30. ft 2.1 C30.1— 30.0 42.0 ft (1200 mm) in Table 30.5–4.5. Racking or flattening of the pipe’s curvature indicates improper backfill placement methods that must be corrected. Minimum cover for construction loads shall be as shown in Table 30.6 Diameters greater than 4.0 36.5.6.0 36.1 Visual Inspection All pipes shall undergo inspection during and after installation to ensure proper performance.” cover of at least 2.5 MINIMUM COVER A minimum depth of cover above the pipeculvert should be maintained before allowing vehicles or heavy construction equipment to traverse the pipe trench. as well as their placement and compaction.30-16 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS 30.56-1. in. However.5–5.8. a brief inspection of the pipe prior to paving over it.5-1 are for information only.1 Inspection at the appropriate times during installation will detect and allow correction of line and grade. For embedment materials installed to the minimum density given in Article 4 30.5.0–75. shall be determined to meet the requirements of this section.0 36.0 3.5 C30.0 18. C30. the surface shall be maintained.5. The contractor is advised to provide initial inspections himself to avoid problems later on. “Structural Backfill.0 Minimum cover shall be measured from the top of the pipe to the top of the maintained construction roadway surface. 92 . they shall be properly seated to prevent groundwater infiltration and should appear uniformly oriented around the pipe.0 48. and shape change problems. Final internal inspections shall be conducted on all buried thermoplastic pipe installations to evaluate issues that may affect long-term performance. and bell/spigot joints shall be properly assembled to prevent the infiltration of soil fines.5. C30. occasionally pavement is placed over the pipe sooner than 30 days. While the 30-day time limit should be maintained.0–110. A12-12.7.0 24.0 36.6-1— Table 30.. Coupling bands shall be properly indexed with the corrugation and tightened. Soil consolidation continues with time after installation of the pipe. If unpaved.0 42.0 50. for Indicated Axle Loads.0 ft (600 mm) shall be provided before allowing vehicles or construction equipment to cross the trench surface. Where gaskets are used.7—INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS 30. Errors in line and grade.0 75.0–150. and A12-13 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications for nominal sizes.5. Installation of bedding and backfill materials. as well as any improper assembly or backfill techniques. shall be corrected prior to placing significant backfill or trench fill. Hydrohammer type compactors shall not be used over the pipe.0 4.5-1 Minimum Cover for Construction Loads Minimum Cover.6. kips Nominal Pipe Diameter. During the initial phases of the installation process. a remediation or replacement plan shall be submitted for approval.6 Inspection Requirements 30.0–3.0 36. jointing. The minimum depth of cover should be established by the Engineer based on an evaluation of specific project conditions.

The mandrel shall be pulled through the pipe by hand with a rope or cable. all areas in which deflection can be visually detected shall be inspected for deflection. 93 .5 percent of the inside diameter. remediation or replacement of the pipe is required. will depend upon the severity of the deflection. Installed pipe deflections that exceed 7. “Buried Structures and Tunnel Liners. a measurement shall be taken once every 10. and the design service life of the pipe. Where applicable. mandrels. the condition of the pipe. If a mandrel is used for the deflection test. an evaluation shall be conducted by the Contractor utilizing a Professional Engineer and submitted to the Engineer for review and approval considering the severity of the deflection.7. and Federal OSHA regulations.17. Installed pipe deflections that exceed five percent of the initial inside diameter may indicate that the installation was substandard. pipe inside diameter can be developed by averaging the diameters measured at eight equally spaced locations around a section of unloaded pipe for every given size and manufacturer.2— 30.0 in. structural integrity. (600 mm) may be entered and deflection levels measured directly.” of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.ATTACHMENT B — SECTION 30: THERMOPLASTIC PIPE CULVERTS 30-17 Shallow cover installations shall be checked to ensure the minimum cover level is provided. or is not available. Whichever method is used for deflection measurement. Ten percent of each pipe installation shall be defined as ten percent of the number of pipe runs. if any. a minimum of ten percent of the total length of installed pipe shall be tested.7. A properly sized proving ring shall be used to check or test the mandrel for accuracy. Pipes larger than 24.5. It is recommended that inspection personnel not enter culverts less than 24. as there was minimal guidance in the previous specification. The requirement of deflection testing ten percent of each pipe installation is intended to serve as a minimum and does not limit owners from more stringent requirements. including video inspection equipment. Pipes shall be checked for deflection using a mandrel or any other device approved by the Engineer that can physically verify the dimensions of the pipe and is not limited by poor lighting. in addition to any areas that were identified in the visual inspection as having deflection. or other limiting conditions of the installed environment. There are many appropriate methods suitable for measuring deflection. pulleys may be incorporated into the system to change the direction of pull so that inspection personnel need not physically enter the pipe or manhole. pipe length. and evaluation of the factor of safety using Section 12. Appropriate remediation. as determined by the 100 percent visual inspection in Section Article 30. Culverts should be entered only by inspection personnel trained in working within confined spaces and using procedures in full compliance with applicable State. If the pipe inside diameter is not provided. The pipe inside diameters should be provided by the pipe manufacturer for every size and type of pipe delivered.2 C30.0 in.1.6.2 Inspection criteria are newly added to the specification. Internal inspection of culverts in this size range is best conducted using video cameras. Where direct measurements are made. For locations where pipe deflection exceeds 7. it shall be a nine (or greater odd number) arm mandrel. and not less than ten percent of the total length of installed pipe on the project. C30. (600 mm) in diameter.5.0 ft (3000 mm) for the length of the pipe. and a minimum of four measurements per pipe installation is required.6. and shall be sized and inspected by the Engineer prior to testing.5 percent of the initial inside diameter will require remediation or replacement of the pipe. at least ten percent of the total number of pipe runs representing at least ten percent of the total pipe footage on the project shall be randomly selected by the Engineer and inspected for deflection. In all pipe installations. 30. waterflow. Pipe remediation or replacement shall be required for locations where the evaluation finds that the deflection could be problematic.2 Installation Deflection The pipe shall be evaluated to determine whether the internal diameter of the barrel has been reduced more than five percent when measured not less than 30 days following completion of installation. Also. environmental conditions.5. For pipes tested by a mandrel. the mandrel shall be pulled through the entire pipe. and other direct measurement devices.6. Local. For locations where pipe deflection exceeds five percent of the inside diameter.

tools.4 If a reduced installation factor is used. number of passes.3—Compaction Control Field compaction shall be evaluated based on compacted density and moisture content obtained from acceptable methods. Once the parameters are established. the vertical pipe diameter is to be greater than the vertical diameter prior to backfilling. Such price and payment shall constitute full compensation for furnishing. A reference density test shall be performed on a representative sample to obtain a value of maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC). such as type of equipment. The contract documents shall determine the number and location of field tests to ensure that the quality of the soil and the compaction obtained is as specified and shall stipulate acceptance criteria for the compacted soil. 94 . such as the cone replacement (AASHTO T191. specific installation controls are required in the contract documents to actively monitor backfill gradation and compaction levels at the side of the pipes throughout the construction process. The number of feet (meters) shall be the centerline lengths of the pipe.7 PAYMENT The length as measured above will be paid for at the contract prices per linear foot (meter) bid for thermoplastic pipe of the sizes specified. the contractor shall submit and obtain approval for a detailed construction plan that meets the performance measures specified by the designer. ASTM D1556) or the nuclear gage (ASTM D2922 and D3017). Change in the vertical pipe diameter are to be measured when the backfill reaches the top of the pipe. samples should be taken periodically during construction to provide an appropriate series of reference tests.30-18 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS 30. and installing the pipe and for all materials.7. handling. and accepted. C30. additional deflection checks shall be required during construction.3 The best approach to compaction control is to conduct frequent tests early in the project to establish the critical control parameters that achieve the specified compaction level.7. but not more than three percent greater than the vertical diameter prior to backfilling. 30. Pipe installations shall be measured in linear feet (meters) installed in place. and foundations for pipe.4—Use of Reduced Installation Factor If the culvert design was completed with an installation factor less than 1.7. Before the beginning of construction. labor. the test frequency can be reduced as long as the identified parameters are monitored. backfill. This test shall be repeated for each new soil type encountered and for composition variations within the same soil type. The number of feet shall be the average of the top and bottom centerline lengths of pipe. 30.9— 30. C30. headwalls.6 MEASUREMENT Culvert pipes shall be measured in linear feet installed in place. completed. bedding material. endwalls. and incidentals necessary to complete this item. Thus.8— 30. Such price and payment shall also include excavation. 30.7. and moisture content.5. completed and accepted. equipment. At this point in the construction process.

95 .ATTACHMENT B — SECTION 30: THERMOPLASTIC PIPE CULVERTS 30-19 The remainder of this page is intentionally left blank.

J.C. Hsuan.. and Zoladz. FHWA-RD-98-191. HM-26 HM-29. AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.. K. NCHRP Report 631 2009 “Updated Test and Design Methods for Thermoplastic Drainage Pipe” by T. 2007. Lianxiang. DC. G. 2006 2009. American Association of State and Highway Transportation Officials... 4th Edition. M.T. units or SI units. 96 . T. Halmen. C. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. LRFDUS-4 or LRFDSI-4.. McGrath. D.D. and T standards. D. G.30-20 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS REFERENCES AASHTO. DC. AASHTO. E. Washington. McGrath. 1998. Standard Specifications for Transportation Materials and Methods of Sampling and Testing.. McLean.V. I. Includes AASHTO M. Moore.. Selig. Washington. Available in customary U. R. S. 26th 29th Edition. U.. Pipe Interaction with the Backfill Envelope. and Leshchinsky. which are also available individually in downloadable form.J. Sabol.J. Department of Transportation. Webb.. VA. Trejo. NCHRP Report 597 2008 “Development of a Recommended Practice for Use of Controlled Low-Strength Material in Highway Construction” by Folliard.S.Y.S. Federal Highway Administration. D.

1 and Section 6.1. Item #2 In Article 6.8. Luminaires and Traffic Signals: Addition of specification and commentary language for the bending of square aluminum tubes about a diagonal axis in Section 4. Luminaires and Traffic Signals DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 01/25/10 AGENDA ITEM: Item #1 Revise Article 4. TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-12 . shall be divided by the coefficient of amplification CA to account for the secondary moment.7.7. square extruded tubes used as vertical cantilever pole type supports bent about a skewed (diagonal ) axis shall satisfy the following requirement: ⎛ f ⎞ ⎜ a ⎟ + ( f bx ⎜F ⎟ C A Fbx ⎝ a0 ⎠ )α + ( f by C A Fby )α ⎛ fs +⎜ ⎜F ⎝ s ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ≤ 1. fbx and fby. Article 6. fb . add the following as the second paragraph of this Article: In addition to equation 6-30.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 19 SUBJECT: Standard Specifications for Structural Supports for Highway Signs. and aluminum (in Eq. Article 4.12. Luminaires and Traffic Signals REVISION ADDITION NEW DOCUMENT DESIGN SPEC CONSTRUCTION SPEC MOVABLE SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC OTHER Standard Specifications for Structural Supports for Highway EVALUATION Signs.1. 6-30 and 6-30a of in Article 6.Structural Supports for Highway Signs.60 F cy F = bx n y (6-30b) 97 . the bending stress for steel.7.0 ⎠ 2 (6-30a) fbx = bending stress about x axis fby = bending stress about y axis For tubes with all elements S ≤ S1 (defined in Table 6-3): α = 1.1 and the bending stresses for aluminum.1). fb.8. 5-16 in of Article 5. in and Eqs.1 as follows: In the combined stress ratio equations.

No. OTHER: None 98 . For compact sections. 2009 “Bending of Hollow Aluminum Tubes About a Diagonal Axis. pp. White. BACKGROUND: None ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: None REFERENCES: Menzemer. Although the diagonal strength properties are significantly less than the primary axis properties.F cy F = by n y (6-30c) For tubes with elements S1 < S ≤ S2 (defined in Table 6-3): α = 1.1 has been modified in Item #1 to reference the new Equation 6-30a and the bending stresses in the x and y direction.1: Menzemer et al.1 as follows: The term Fa0 is used when the axial stress is small and the term fb/Fb fa/Fa0 is usually of negligible magnitude.8. D. the reserve strength is 33 percent higher for bending about a diagonal axis (Zx/Sx = 1.7.13).0 Fbx = Fb in Table 6-3 Fby = Fb in Table 6-3 Item #3 Revise the 4th sentence of the 2nd paragraph of Article C6. 24–27.7. J. (2009) compared theoretical diagonal bending to experimental tests. tests show additional strength compared with current strength predictions. Item #4 Add the following Commentary to the end of Article C6. Vol. and R. 6. 67..” Light Metal Age.5) than about the principle axes (Zx/Sx = 1. respectively. Bowman. where Zx and Sx are plastic and elastic section moduli. November/December 2009. C. OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: Article 4. Minor. The interaction increase in allowable stress is justified for tubes bent about the diagonal for sections with limited width-thickness ratios.

The maximum angle of the gusset to the outer wall of the collar section (α) shall be 45 degrees. Stress Category C' Application Fillet welded tube to integrally stiffened cast base connection Example 17 Item #2 Add the following to the “Notes” section under Table 11-2: k Applicable to ASTM B 221 6005.48D apart in the tubes longitudinal direction (see note k). Base design shall be tested to develop the maximum bending strength of the tube without visible distress to the base. and 6063 aluminum alloy extruded aluminum tube to 356 aluminum alloy cast base connections. Tubes shall be fit to a base with non-tapered bore. CAFL and the specification language for a cast aluminum base connection in Section 11. Assembly shall be heat treated to T6 temper after welding. Maximum tube diameter at base shall be 305 mm (12 in) with tube diameter/thickness (D/t) ratio at base between 20 minimum to 55 maximum.Structural Supports for Highway Signs.1875 in). Size gusset width such that a radius from centerline of tube to the outermost gusset-to-base fillet toe circumscribes the complete anchor bolt hole. TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-12 . Fillet welds shall be made with 4043 filler material.75 in) at the grip of the anchor bolts and at least 13 mm (0. Luminaires and Traffic Signals: Addition of a fatigue detail. Luminaires and Traffic Signals DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 01/25/10 AGENDA ITEM: Item #1 Add the following as Detail 26 to Table 11-2—Fatigue Details of Cantilevered and Noncantilevered Support Structures Construction Fillet-Welded Connections Detail 26.5 in) elsewhere. 6061.25 in) average thickness. The cast base flange thickness shall be at least 19 mm (0. Luminaires and Traffic Signals REVISION ADDITION NEW DOCUMENT DESIGN SPEC CONSTRUCTION SPEC MOVABLE SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC OTHER Standard Specifications for Structural Supports for Highway EVALUATION Signs. Base metal at a pair of circumferential fillet welds at least 0. The fillet welds shall be sufficient to develop the static strength of the tube and be placed in the following order: weld the top of the base and tube followed by the end of 99 . The collar thickness shall be at least 4.8 mm (0.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 20 SUBJECT: Standard Specifications for Structural Supports for Highway Signs. The gussets shall be at least 6 mm (0. Cast base shall have a minimum of four anchor bolts with two integral gussets per anchor bolt.

2 2.44 0.5 2. owner may specify fatigue category to use for design.38 OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: Noted in agenda item above.6 1.2 6. Item #3 Add Category C’ for Aluminum to Table 11-3—Constant-Amplitude Fatigue Limits as shown below: Detail Category A B B' C C' D E E' ET K2 Item #4 Add the following detail to Figure 11-1 – Illustrative Examples MPa 165 110 83 69 48 31 18 8 7 Steel ksi 24 16 12 10 7 4. Outside of these limitations.0 3.5 1.the tube and bottom of base.0 0.7 Aluminum ksi 10.0 4.9 1.2 1.6 4. 100 .0 MPa 70 41 32 28 22 17 13 7 3 2. The base shall be for top mounted luminaire and short mast arms that result in a dead load stress of 34 MPa (5 ksi) or less.

Fatigue Behavior of Welded Aluminum Light Pole Support Details. OTHER: None 101 . No..BACKGROUND: None ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: None REFERENCES: Azzam. D.C. 2006. Volume 132. pp. and Menzemer. The Journal of Structural Engineering. 1919–1927. December 2006. ASCE. C. 12.

REFERENCES: None OTHER: None 102 .2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 21 SUBJECT: Committee Report and Recommendations for Approval TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-11 Research REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 1/4/10 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: A list of recommended research statements will be presented for approval. OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: Research statements that were reviewed were submitted by Technical Committee Chairs or State Bridge Engineers. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: Will depend on results from the research.

1 above: C5.2.2) specified minimum yield strength of shaft transverse reinforcement (ksi) Class C tension lap splice length of the column longitudinal reinforcement (in. 90 ksi for A615 and 80 ksi for A706 factor representing the ratio of column tensile reinforcement to total column reinforcement at the nominal resistance = Al = ful = k = Item #2 Add the following corresponding commentary adjacent to the addition to Article 5.11.5.) area of longitudinal column reinforcement (in. k.5. where bars spliced by noncontact lap splices. the spacing of the shaft transverse reinforcement in the splice zone shall not exceed the value determined as: Str = 2 πAsp f ytr ls kAl ful (5.1 (WAI 150) TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-10 Concrete REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 04/30/09 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Item #1 Add the following to the end of Article 5.5.11.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 22 SUBJECT: LRFD Bridge Design Specifications: Section 5.2) specified minimum tensile strength of column longitudinal reinforcement (ksi).1-1) where: Str = Asp = fytr = ls spacing of transverse shaft reinforcement (in. Article 5.11. A default value of k = 0..2.) area of shaft spiral or transverse reinforcement (in.1: For columns with longitudinal reinforcing that anchors into oversized shafts.2. and longitudinal column and shaft reinforcement are spaced farther apart transversely than one-fifth the required lap splice length or 6.11. could be determined from strain analysis and equilibrium.0 in.2.2.1 This ratio.5.11.5 could safely be used in most applications.5. 103 .

1 titled "Noncontact Lap Splices In Bridge Column-Shaft Connections". OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: The proposed addition to AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications is adapted from the recommendation of the Washington State University research published in WSDOT TRAC Report WA-RD 417. McLean.1 titled "Noncontact Lap Splices In Bridge Column-Shaft Connections" by David I.The development length of column longitudinal reinforcement in drilled shafts is from WSDOT-TRAC Report WA-RD 417. OTHER: None 104 .1 titled "Noncontact Lap Splices in Bridge Column-Shaft Connections" ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: None REFERENCES: WSDOT TRAC Report WA-RD 417.

Data for the three-month test should be considered only when six month results are not available. the Designer should investigate this possibility.2 (WAI 124A) TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-10 Concrete REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 10/24/09 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Item #1 Revise Article 5. More guidance on this is contained in ACI 201. In most states. It only requires the use of low-alkali cements or additives.10 percent.05 percent at three months or 0. The contract documents shall prohibit the use of aggregates from sources that are known to be excessively alkali-silica reactive.12.12. Reference to AASHTO M 80 will not specifically prohibit use of reactive aggregates as AASHTO M 80. If aggregate of limited reactivity is used.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 23 SUBJECT: LRFD Bridge Design Specifications: Section 5.2 as follows: Alkali-silica reactive aggregates occur throughout the world. Excessive reactivity is generally determined by tests (ASTM C 227) made on aggregates prior to their use. Expansions greater than 0.4 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications shall apply. the contract documents shall require the use of either lowalkali-type cements or a blend of regular cement and pozzolanic materials. Article 5. public agencies have identified locations where reactive aggregates occur. expansion when tested per ASTM C 227 is generally considered to be excessive if it is greater than 0.3. provided that their use has been proven to produce concrete of satisfactory durability with the proposed aggregate.2 as follows: The provisions of Article 8. most are found in the West and Midwest.2R.10 percent at six months. Although the line of demarcation between nonreactive and reactive combinations is not clearly defined.12. When in doubt. Item #2 Delete Article C5.05 percent at three months should not be considered excessive where the six-month expansion remains below 0. OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None 105 . In the United States.

This item deletes all other references to avoid duplication of information and the future need to maintain the same information in two places.BACKGROUND: Updated information on ASR is being added to the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications in a companion ballot item. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: Improve durability REFERENCES: None OTHER: None 106 .

developed the proposed Aesthetics Sourcebook. Bruce Johnson. The manual has been reviewed by the Technical committee on Bridge Preservation (T-9).2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 24 SUBJECT: Proposed AASHTO Publication . REFERENCES: Bob Healy.“Bridge Aesthetics Sourcebook – Practical Ideas for Short and Medium Span Bridges” TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-9 Bridge Preservation REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 02/15/10 ADDITION NEW DOCUMENT CONSTRUCTION SPEC MOVABLE SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC OTHER Bridge Aesthetics Sourcebook AGENDA ITEM: Proposed AASHTO Publication “Bridge Aesthetics Sourcebook – Practical Ideas for Short and Medium Span Bridges” (see included CD) OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: The TRB Subcommittee on Bridge Aesthetics. It is expected that use of the guidelines will improve the appearance of bridges. It was written by volunteer members of the Subcommittee and reviewed by a multidisciplinary group engineers and cultural specialists interested in improving the way bridges fit into a local setting. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: Guidelines contained within the document are voluntary for use by bridge owners. The technical specifications for the design of bridges will not be affected. Liaison from AASHTO SCOBS to AFF10(2). construction. 107 .org/ A chapter outline is attached. Chair for Technical Committee on Bridge Preservation (T-9). and is being proposed as an AASHTO publication (manual). AFF10(2). and maintenance work on highway bridges. The ballot item can be accessed at http://bridgeaesthetics. The manual was developed to provide guidance to practicing engineers doing design.

Community and Stakeholder Involvement 48 4. Abutment Shape 29 8. Develop a Design Intention/Vision 15 3. Do a Conceptual Engineering Study 16 4. How to Consider Aesthetics 9 1. Context Sensitive Design/Context Sensitive Solutions and How to Achieve Them 46 3. Practical Tips When Historic Bridges or Historic Settings are Involved 51 5. Ornamentation and Details 32 10. Understand the Goals and the Site 9 2. Abutment Placement and Height 24 5. Superstructure Type 21 3. Working with Architects. Texture. Proceed to Detailed Analysis and Design 18 C.OTHER: A. Fundamentals 37 2. Lighting. Superstructure Shape (including parapets. Pier/Support Placement and Span Arrangements 22 4. Bibliography 65 108 . Signing and Landscaping 34 D. Example Bridges 59 F. Landscape Architects and Artists 54 6. Color 30 9. Bridge Aesthetics and Cost 55 E. Horizontal and Vertical Geometry 19 2. Design Guidelines 19 1. Pier Shape 28 7. Why Consider Aesthetics? 5 B. Background Information 37 1. overhangs and railings) 25 6.

typically aimed at the complete or near complete restoration of the element or elements. Major repairs consist of structural repairs. Major repairs will improve the condition rating of the component and improve the condition rating of the structure. Bridge replacement involves the “total replacement of a structurally deficient or functionally obsolete bridge with a new facility constructed in the same general traffic corridor. increasing vertical clearance and structural improvements are included in this category.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 24A SUBJECT: Proposed additions to the AASHTO Transportation Glossary. Functional improvements such as widening. Preventive Maintenance. and Operational Maintenance TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-9 Bridge Preservation REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 04/07/10 ADDITION NEW DOCUMENT CONSTRUCTION SPEC MOVABLE SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC OTHER Additions to the AASHTO Transportation Glossary AGENDA ITEM: Proposed additions to AASHTO Transportation Glossary Bridge rehabilitation is the “work required to restore the structural integrity of a bridge as well as work necessary to correct major safety defects”1 The work can be done on multiple elements and/or components.”2 Bridge replacement is required when the service life of the structure is exhausted or it has become functionally obsolete. and considerable costs. they are not considered a preservation activity. Intervention Maintenance. Major Repairs. Bridge replacement is not a preservation activity. Bridge rehabilitation projects are generally aimed at improving the condition rating of the structure. 4th Edition-2009 to include definitions of Bridge Rehabilitation. As major repairs typically aim to improve the structural or operation adequacy of a structure. Major repairs typically involve repairs to a bridge component. Most rehabilitation projects include repairs to several bridge components but can be limited to bridge deck replacement. Bridge rehabilitation projects provide complete or nearly complete restoration of bridge elements or components. 1 Title 23 – Highways Chapter 1 Federal Highway Administration.405 Eligible Projects. a length completion schedule. Bridge replacement projects require engineering resources for design. Bridge rehabilitation is not considered a preservation activity. and considerable costs. Bridge Replacement. Department of Transportation Part 650. The structural repair of bridge substructures or a deck overlay is considered major repairs. These projects typically require engineering resources for design. 2 Ibid 109 . Bridge Preservation. a lengthy completion schedule.

1. retrofitting fracture critical details on steel members. and avoid large expenses in major bridge rehabilitation or bridge replacements. Scheduled activities are typically done on bridges rated good or fair. Bridge element or component ratings are not directly improved as a result of scheduled maintenance activities. Response maintenance actions are activities “done as needed and identified through the inspection process”5. painting structural steel members. the service life of the bridge is extended. on marginally deficient or non-deficient elements in a proactive manner to avoid more significant damage. retard future deterioration. Preservation actions may be scheduled or condition driven. Additionally. bearing lubrication. Examples of type of intervention maintenance are: replacing rust-prone steel sliding bearings with elastomeric bearings. resealing expansion joints. An effective bridge preservation program will address bridges while they are still in good condition and before the onset of serious deterioration. the cumulative discount value of the series of bridge preservation treatments is substantially less than the discounted value of the large cost of reconstruction and generally more economical than the cost of major rehabilitation. 3 4 110 . During the life of a bridge. Preventive Maintenance “is directed at performing activities that will preserve bridge components in their present (or intended) condition. and armor-plating scour vulnerable foundations.3 Bridge Maintenance Concepts page 131. Intervention maintenance is performed on bridges with significant remaining service life. or mitigate damage or deterioration. These activities are performed on a pre-determined interval and aim to maintain existing bridge element condition.”3 Preventive maintenance is typically applied to bridge elements on structures with significant remaining service life.Bridge Preservation: consists of activities performed on bridges elements or components that aim to prevent. As a major component of bridge preservation. delay. Response repairs will improve the condition rating of the element without significantly or only minimally improving the condition rating of the structure. “Scheduled maintenance (programmed at intervals)”4. Preventive maintenance activities can be classified into two groups: scheduled and response. Bridge preservation activities do not entail structural or operational improvements of an existing bridge asset beyond its originally designed strength or capacity. The cumulative effect of systematic. Typical projects in this category include small volume non-structural concrete repairs of deteriorated substructure elements. and deck sealing. Examples of scheduled maintenance activities include bridge washing. performing a series of successive bridge preservation treatments during the life of a bridge is less disruptive to uniform traffic flow than the long closures normally associated with reconstruction projects. Intervention Maintenance consists of activities aimed at reducing the potential for element or component level deterioration prior to or at the onset of discernable damage. preventive maintenance is a strategy of extending the service life by applying cost-effective treatments to structurally sound bridges. The concept of preventive bridge maintenance suggests that many relatively small repairs and activities are performed to keep the bridge in good condition. Candidate structures are typically selected using inventory data as opposed to condition ratings. § 3. Ibid. AASHTO Maintenance Manual for Highway and Bridges 2007. By applying a cost-effective treatment at the right time. replacing wearing surfaces. Response maintenance performed on a non-deficient bridge to restore a bridge element to an acceptable level of service is a preservation activity. successive preservation treatments is to postpone costly reconstruction. forestalling development of a structural deficiency.1. 5 Ibid.

118 / Monday.Typical of preservation activities. 2007 Federal Register / Vol. 2004 Letter from King Gee to Directors of Field Services. Operational maintenance involves activities such as snow and ice removal. dead animal removal. has developed definitions to promote greater consistency in the use of maintenance and preservation terminology. Bridge Technical Working Group. 2002 Transportation Asset Management Guide. and removal of graffiti. Part 650. intervention maintenance involves minimal disruptions to traffic and results in the complete or near complete restoration of the bridge elements. No. June 21. SCOM requests SCOBS concurrence in these definitions. Division Administrators. October 8. Operational maintenance is not considered preservation activities. This is being done to facilitate several NCHRP and SHTP2 research projects currently underway to prepare guidelines for decision making about bridge maintenance and preservation activities. REFERENCES: Memorandum from King Gee to Directors of Field Services. operating movable bridges. OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: The AASHTO Subcommittee on Maintenance. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: These new definitions will provide consistency for use of these terms in future AASHTO publications regarding design for service life of bridges and guides for decision making for maintenance and preservation actions. These activities generally involve a service request and are not aimed at preserving the asset or making structural improvements.405 Definitions OTHER: None 111 . Intervention maintenance is bridge preservation activity. November 2002 prepared by NCHRP Project 20-24(11) AASHTO Maintenance Manual for Roadways and Bridges. and Federal Lands Highway Division Engineers. 2004 / Proposed Rules Title 23--Highways Chapter I—Federal Highway Administration. Department of Transportation. 69. Operational maintenance includes incident response activities aimed at providing functionality to a highway system through the stabilization or temporary repair of a damaged asset. and Federal Lands Highway Division Engineers. Division Administrators. January 11.

Although flux vector drives are a subcategory of variable frequency drives. inverter duty motors should be considered for their ability to withstand the higher harmonic voltages that may be produced.6.1. such as seating. variable frequency speed control has seen limited success in movable bridge application. OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: Variable frequency drives (VFDs) are a system for controlling the rotational speed of an electric motor by controlling the frequency of the electrical power supplied to the motor. Variable frequency drives have historically lacked the ability for precise control of torque at low speed.6.5. Control of torque under overhauling loads and stall conditions.5. The flux vector drives are acceptable as outlined in Article 8.6.1. This is due to the fact that the variable frequency drives have historically lacked the ability for precise control of torque at low speed.6. vVariable frequency drives should shall not be used for movable bridge drives. has sometimes been unsuccessful. delete the existing commentary and replace it with the following: Variable frequency speed control has seen limited success for speed control of movable bridges. the exclusion is for traditional VFD’s (Volts per Hertz type). Article 8.6. conditions that typically are seen during seating or braking.5 TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-8 Movable Bridges REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 02/27/10 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Item #1 In Article 8. To remedy this dynamic braking units with external resistors are required for decelerating and overhauling loads.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 25 SUBJECT: LRFD Movable Highway Bridge Design Specifications: Section 8. Item #2 In Article C8. 112 . While these drives are compatible with squirrel cage induction motors.1. revise the paragraph as follows: In general. which are not able to provide dynamic braking and also experience cogging at low speeds. The control of torque under overhauling loads and stall conditions has sometimes been unsuccessful with variable frequency drives. However. Variable frequency drives save money by adjusting the output of the machine to meet the current demand of the system.1.

To better reflect this prohibition the language of the commentary was adjusted to reflect changes to the specification. Inc. on this subject to determine if the language of the specifications should be changed. Flux vector drives may be specified when precise speed and torque control are required utilizing squirrel cage motors.The AASHTO T-8 committee has sought out the opinion of Heavy Movable Structures. Heavy Movable Structures recommended that the specification prohibit the use of VFDs on movable bridges. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: None REFERENCES: None OTHER: None 113 .

2 as follows: Crash Testing of Bridge Railings—Conducting a series of full-scale impact tests of a bridge railing in accordance with the recommended guidelines in NCHRP Report 350 or AASHTO. may remain in place and may continue to be manufactured and installed. Item #3 Revise the following definition in Article 13. Manual of Assessing Safety Hardware in order to evaluate the railing’s strength and safety performance. Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware NCHRP Report 350: Recommended Procedures for the Safety Performance Evaluation of Highway Features. Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware. 114 . using criteria contained in NCHRP Report 350. revise the 2nd paragraph as follows: The bridge railing performance need not be identical over the whole highway network. revise the 6th paragraph as follows: Procedures for testing railing are given in AASHTO. delete the 3rd paragraph and replace it with the following new paragraph: Previously crash tested railing should retain its test level approval and should not have to be tested to meet NCHRP Report 350 updating. as described in NCHRP Report 350 or AASHTO. Highway safety hardware accepted using NCHRP Report 350 criteria is not required to be retested using MASH criteria.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 26 SUBJECT: LRFD Bridge Design Specifications: Section 13. New highway safety hardware not previously evaluated must utilize MASH for testing and evaluation. All highway safety hardware accepted prior to the adoption of AASHTO. New railing designs should match site needs leading to a multiple test level concept. Item #2 In Article C13.4. Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH). Various Articles TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-7 Guardrail and Bridge Rail REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 01/27/10 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Item #1 In Article C13. Item #4 In Article C13.1.1.

Item #8 In Article C13.1. OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: These changes incorporate the AASHTO Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware into the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. Item #7 In Article 13.7. Washington.2. Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware and the NCHRP Report 350.2.2.Item #5 In Article C13. 2009.3. REFERENCES: None 115 .7. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. are described in detail in the AASHTO.7. revise the 2nd paragraph as follows: The crash test specimen for a railing system may be designed to resist the applied loads in accordance with Appendix A of this Section or NCHRP Report 350 with its revisions. revise the 1st paragraph as follows: These heights have been determined as satisfactory through crash tests performed in accordance with NCHRP Report 350 and experience. revise the 1st paragraph as follows: The six test levels mentioned herein are intended to correspond with the six test levels contained in AASHTO. revise the 7th paragraph as follows: These criteria. Item #9 Add the following to the References: AASHTO. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: Testing and acceptance of new bridge railing will be affected.7. Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware.” Item #6 In Article C13.3. Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware and NCHRP Report 350. including other vehicle characteristics and tolerances. MASH-1. “Recommended Procedures for the Safety Performance Evaluation of Highway Features.2. DC.

OTHER: None 116 .

0 49 64 73 15° 15° 15° Test Speeds (mph) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 50 N/A N/A N/A N/A 50 N/A N/A N/A 22.2-1 TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-7 Guardrail and Bridge Rail REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 01/29/10 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Revise Table 13.0 63 N/A 73 15° N/A 15° Test Speeds (mph) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 55 N/A N/A N/A N/A 50 N/A N/A N/A Tractor-Tanker Trailer 80.3 7.) G (in.7.5 N/A 8. θ Test Level TL-1 TL-2 TL-3 TL-4 TL-5 TL-6 W (kips) B (ft. Vehicle Characteristics W (kips) B (ft.2-1 Bridge Railing Test Levels and Crash Test Criteria.0 N/A 79.2-1 as follows: Table 13. Table 13.) G (in.5 22 22 20° 20° 30 45 60 60 60 60 2.8 5.) Crash angle.7.7.0 7. θ Test Level TL-1 TL-2 TL-3 TL-4 TL-5 TL-6 NCHRP Report 350 Small Automobiles 1.0 50.5 27 25° 30 45 60 60 60 60 5.0 81 15° N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 50 79.0 8.0 6.5 28 25° 30 45 60 60 60 60 SingleUnit Van-Type Van Truck Tractor-Trailer 18.) Crash angle.0 8.0 81 15° N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 50 AASHTO MASH 117 .5 5.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 27 SUBJECT: LRFD Bride Design Specifications: Section 13.42 5.5 6.55 1.0 80.3 8.5 8.3 5.5 N/A 25° 30 45 60 60 60 60 30 45 60 60 60 60 3.5 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Pickup Truck 4.

ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: Testing and acceptance of new bridge railings will be affected. REFERENCES: None OTHER: None 118 .OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: This change incorporates the AASHTO Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware into the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.

ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: None REFERENCES: None OTHER: None 119 .2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 28 SUBJECT: Guide Specification for Design of Externally Bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Concrete Bridges TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-6 Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 01/28/10 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Guide Specification for Design of Externally Bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Concrete Bridges (Specification) – See Attachment A Guide Specification for Design of Externally Bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Concrete Bridges (Commentary) – See Attachment B OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: Provides a Guide Specification in LRFD format for the design of Externally Bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Concrete Bridges.

Chair 1 120 .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 ATTACHMENT A – 2010 AGENDA ITEM 28 .T-6 AASHTO LRFD GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS FOR DESIGN OF EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE BRIDGES DATE 02/28/2010 T-6 PAUL LILES.

..................................8......................................................2.............................5  Time-Dependent Behavior ..................4...............................................19  2...2  Overall Structural Strength ......................17  2........................................................................................................................17  2...........2  Resistance Factors............................................15  2...............................................................15  2.............1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Section 1  TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ..............18  2...............4  General........................................................................................................................23  Flexural Members.........................5.............................................................................................21  2........................................................................3  DESIGN PHILOSOPHY........5........10  2...................21  Extreme Event Limit State...................................5  1........................................................21  2..............................5.....................................................................................3  2............................2  STRENGTHENING LIMITS............2  Strength Limit State .................................8....................................................................................8....................................2  NOTATION....18  2......................3.....................................16  2...........................................................................1  DEFINITIONS ..6..........16  Creep-rupture.................15  2...................................................15  2..................12  2............................5  1..............................................................................................................8........................................................................................6.................................3  Stability ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................8  Assumptions for Service......................................................................................2  DESIGN FOR FLEXURAL AND AXIAL FORCE EFFECTS..................................................................4...7  General....1  DEFINITIONS ...... Fatigue and Creep Rupture Limit States................................................7  1.....19  2.15  2.................................4  Flexural Strengthening of concave soffits............................................6  Service Limit State..........................................................................................5  2.......5...........................2  Tensile Strength and Strain ................18  2................................................................................................................................4  Coefficient of Thermal Expansion .......21  2......................................................................................6............4......................................16  2................................................................................................7.................................3  2....................................1  General................................21  2..................................2  Reinforcing Steel ...........................15  2............................6..............................................................................5...........................4...............4............................4  REFERENCES .................21  2................................................................................................................................................................4.......................................................2......................22  2...................................23  2........8..........................................................................................2............3  LIMIT STATES .........................................................................................................................................10  2......................................................................5....8  Section 2  CONCRETE STRUCTURES STRENGTHENED WITH FRP SYSTEMS .....17  2.........................................................5............1  Effect of Imposed Deformation ............................22  2........................................................................................................................3...........2  Shear Strength..................4.................................................................................1  General.................................................................8.................................5...........................................1  Assumptions for Strength and Extreme Event Limit States..................................................................23  2..............5  Structural Loads...........................16  2..............................4  FRP .....................................................15  2..............6.........7...............................................5...............................5  Rectangular Stress Distribution.................................................6......................................2  LIMITATIONS .............................................................................8.19  2...............................2............................................................................................................................................2......1  Concrete...............................................................................4..............................3  Existing Substrate Strain........................2  2...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4...................6........................................................21  2......................................................................................10  SCOPE......................................................5............1  Stress in Prestressing Steel at Nominal Flexural Resistance............23  2................................................................8...................................................................7  1.............................................23  2 121 ..................................................................................................5.........3  Prestressing Steel ..15  2.........3  Modulus of Elasticity ................18  2...............................17  2.....................................8.................23  2.............................................4............5  SCOPE........................1  Fatigue ............................1  Fatigue and Creep Rupture Limit State..............3  MATERIAL PROPERTIES ....................................................................................5.........3........................................................................................4..................1  Structural Fire Endurance ...........................................................................1  General.........................................................4  DESIGN CONSIDERATION .............................................................................4............................................................................3.................

.......................................................................1  General........31  2.........................................................3.......8........................................................................2..............8......4.....................................................................................33  2..................10...........................10  DETAILS.8.............3.........................................................3....................8.......................3.......................................................2  Combined Axial Load and Bending Moment ........................1..............................33  2.....................5  Lap Splice Length of FRP Systems ............................................................................8............8..................................................4.........................4.................2  General Requirements for FRP Systems.2  Effective Stress in FRP Systems at Nominal Flexural Resistance .......................3  Nominal Shear Resistance Provided by the FRP System................................2.....................33  2.........1  Limits for FRP Reinforcement ...............1  Pure Axial Load .......................1  Factored Axial Resistance ..............................4.....44  DEFINITIONS ........................3  FRP Reinforcement Limits ...........................................8................................................................................1.....4............................................................................1  Surface Mounted FRP Systems..........................................................8.......................................2  Maximum Spacing of Transverse Reinforcement....2  Prestressing Tendons ..33  DESIGN FOR SHEAR.....................2  Factored Axial Resistance ..........................................1  General Requirements...............................................8.........25  General .....................................................39  2................40  2.........34  2.........8........................8....................................................................2  Prestressed Concrete.........................30  General .............................................................................9............................................................................................................................................................................33  2.......39  2............28  2..........................29  Concrete............8.................................8.........4  Strain Compatibility Approach.......................5  Noncircular Cross-Sections ...........3  2....9  General.........................26  2......................40  2........................................................................9.......1......3.................3..........4  Development Length.............................................................................................5  2....8.................................................................................9.4.................................................................................................................................................................................6  Stress Limits ...4........................29  2...................................8........................................................30  2.................................................... DEVELOPMENT AND LAP SPLICE OF REINFORCEMENT....10...................10....................4  2...............................................29  2....................................................25  2.........7..........................7  Stress Limits.......4.........................1  General.10........................................................8............................................................................3..................................................3  Ductility Enhancement.....1  Flanged Sections......9...........9...............................................................................................................29  2.................................................4...............32  2..................2  Rectangular Sections .....................................................................................................10.............4.........................29  2.......................................................3...............5  Limits for FRP Reinforcement..........3  Compressive Strain for Confined Concrete ....................3..........8....................37  2.30  2..........................1  Steel Reinforcing Bars...................36  2.................3  Detailing of FRP Systems......1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 2.................3  MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS..................................3.................................................................................................................39  2.1..............30  2.........42  Section 3  3..................8..........................33  2......................................................................................3...1.....................................................................................8................3..........................3.....................................3......2  2.......................2..................2..3.......7..7......................3.....................................3  2.......................8........................................29  2.......................................2  Nominal Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement.............................32  2...........................................1  Reinforced Concrete........................................3  Neutral Axis Position ..............................................................4............1................................34  2.................4..8.....................9.................1  Bond-Dependent Coefficient..........................2...........................................................................................................3.........................................................................................2....8.......................29  2.29  2.....................................................9..........................................2  3.....................................34  Nominal Shear Resistance ........39  2.........27  2...8............................................35  2..................................40  2.........................................................................................................2....4...................................................................4........................................4.....................10.............................................3.............44  SCOPE..8.........................3....1  Nominal Shear Resistance Provided by the Concrete ..........................8..3.1.................................................................27  Factored Flexural Resistance...........44  LIMITATIONS ...........33  2...........41  REFERENCES .................................8......................................................7...................................2...30  2..........4  Circular Cross-Sections .....................................29  2.................................................................................9..........3...........................38  2..........................27  2.............3  Other Cross-Sections ..........................................36  Effective Strain Level in the FRP System ............................................................................................................4  Flexural Resistance .....3.45  3 122 ....33  Limits for FRP Reinforcement .....4...........................8.......25  2......................................................................................................................................8...................................................................................4.................9............................................................8................8............................4  Compression Members ........3.........................................6  Deformations...............................................................3......................................................9...............................30  2.......10...33  2.................2  NSM FRP Systems ..............................9.................2  2.4....4..................................7  2...........1  3...................................................................................................3.........2  2......................................................3  FRP Reinforcement ..............................8.............

..48  REFERENCES .....................1  SAMPLING..........................................46  3.........8......................5.............................46  3....................................................................................................................................................................5  Fibers Content..........................................................................................................................................3  DURABILITY REQUIREMENTS ...................................................................................................48  3...............................................................................................................2  Rejection.................................................8  Sampling Frequency and Number of Specimens .......................................................4..............................4..........................................................................46  3....................................47  3..........1  Tensile Modulus of Elasticity .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2  MECHANICAL PROPERTIES .......................................................................................................1  Glass Transition Temperature........................................................................................................................48  3.........................7  General..............................................................2  Manufacturing Process ......................50  4 123 ................1  Method of Sampling Selection....2  Ultimate Tensile Strain ......................................................................47  3..........................................46  3........................................6.............................46  3.............46  3.....6........................................................................................................................10  Product Certification.5.........................................46  3....................................1  Matrix Resins.............3  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES .........................................................................................................................................................................................7..........................8................1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 MATERIAL AND MANUFACTURE.........48  3......47  3..............................................................................................................................48  3...........................................46  3..............................9  3.............................47  3............................46  3.....................................6  Tensile Strength ....4.........................6.............................4  Fibers ......................................................

Design Professional––The engineer or engineering firm responsible for the design of the bridge and issuing Contract Documents or administering the Work under Contract Documents. Specific binders are use to promote chemical compatibility with the various laminating resin used.. but combine to form materials with properties not possessed by any of the constituent materials individually. references to some of the research data are provided for those who wish to study the background material in depth. The Owner or the Design Professional may require the sophistication of the design or the quality of materials and construction to be higher than the minimum requirements. These Guide Specifications are not intended to supplant proper training or the exercise of judgment by the Design Professional. or similar devices. The commentary is not intended to provide a complete historical background concerning the development of these Guide Specifications. steel or composite tubes. upgrade or both of existing concrete bridge structures strengthened with externally bonded FRP systems. The constituent materials are generally characterized as matrix and aggregate or matrix and reinforcement. However. or both. made from two or more constituent materials that remain distinct. The commentary directs attention to other documents that provide suggestions for carrying out the requirements and intent of these Guide Specifications. Composite––Engineering materials such as concrete and fiber reinforced polymer.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Section 1 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 1. FRP systems shall be in the form of laminates. 5 124 . 2007) and latest interim specifications as well as with the design of conventional reinforced and prestressed concrete structures. and state only the minimum requirements necessary to provide for public safety. near surface mounted (NSM) bars or both. 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 1.1 SCOPE These Guide Specifications offer a description of the unique material properties of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials as well as provisions for repair. nor is it intended to provide a detailed summary of the studies and research data reviewed in formulating the provisions of the Guide Specifications. The Design Professional shall be familiar with the provisions of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (4th Edition.2 DEFINITIONS Binder––Chemical treatment applied to the random arrangement of fibers to give integrity to roving and fabric. However. those documents and this commentary are not intended to be a part of these Guide Specifications. Confinement––A condition where the disintegration of the concrete under compression is prevented by the development of lateral and/or circumferential forces such as may be provided by appropriate reinforcing.

more commonly a rubber or resin consisting of large molecules formed by polymerization. the resin acts as the matrix of the FRP laminate and allows adhesion of the laminate to the substrate. Near Surface Mounted (NSM) Systems––Circular or rectangular FRP bars bonded into grooves made in the concrete surface. that has properties making it desirable for use as reinforcement. prestressing steel. or pitch in an inert environment. Roving––A parallel bundle of continuous yarn. a precured FRP system is bonded to the surface of the concrete with an adhesive. Filament––See Fiber. Wet Layup FRP System––A method of forming FRP laminates using dry FRP fabrics that are saturated with resin in-place. strands. Polymer––The product of polymerization. polyacrylonitrile (PAN). and/or fiber reinforced polymer materials. transfer load to the fibers. Aramid––Highly oriented organic fiber derived from polyamide incorporating into an aromatic ring structure. Fiber. Polymerization––The reaction in which two or more molecules of the same substance combine to form a compound containing the same elements and in the same proportions but of higher molecular weight.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 Fabric––A two-dimensional network of woven. knitted. Reinforcement––Reinforcing bars. Fiber. Laminate––A precured or wet layup FRP system. Tendon––A high-strength steel element used to prestress the concrete. Structural Concrete––All concrete used for structural purposes. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP)––A general term for a composite material comprising a polymer matrix reinforced with fibers in the form of fabric. or any other fiber form. Fiber. Glass––Fiber drawn from an inorganic product of fusion that has cooled without crystallizing. Tow––An untwisted bundle of continuous filaments. Once cured. Yarn––A twisted bundle of continuous filaments. generally with a length at least 100 times its diameter. such as rayon. Fiber––A slender and greatly elongated solid material. mat. Reinforced Concrete––Structural concrete containing no less than the minimum amount of prestressing tendons or nonprestressed reinforcement specified according to AASTHO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. tows. or fibers with little or no twist. or stitched fibers. If used as a repair material for concrete. and protect them against environmental attack and damage due to handling. Carbon––Fiber produced by heating organic precursor materials containing a substantial amount of carbon. nonwoven. FRP––Fiber reinforced polymer. Matrix––The resin or binders that hold the fibers in FRP together. Prestressed Concrete––Concrete components in which stresses and deformations are introduced by application of prestressing forces. Precured FRP System––A fully cured FRP system that is usually made in a factory and brought to the site as a rigid solid. 6 125 .

8 9 10 11 12 13 1. Provisions related to limit states analysis.4 DESIGN PHILOSOPHY These Guide Specifications are based on limit state design principles where structural components shall be proportioned to satisfy the requirements at all appropriate service. and extreme event limit states. These Guide Specifications will be limited to design provisions.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1. and structural analysis and evaluation shall be in compliance with the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. loads and load factors. general design and location features. strength. serviceability or fatigue and creep rupture limits may control the design. Furthermore. construction and inspection requirements are deferred to other AASTHO and NCHRP literature addressing concrete repair. Externally bonded FRP systems shall not be used as compression reinforcement. In many instances. fatigue and creep rupture. 7 126 . wrapping with FRP composites to solely address a durability problem without other remedial actions is outside the scope of this document and not recommended.3 LIMITATIONS Strengthening of concrete members with fully unbonded or partially unbonded prestressing tendons as well as seismic design are not addressed in these Guide Specifications.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

REFERENCES American Concrete Institute, Committee 440. 2008. Guide for the Design and Construction of Externally Bonded FRP systems for Strengthening Concrete Structures. ACI 440.2R-08, Farmington Hills, MI, USA. Balaguru, P.N., Nanni, A., and Giancaspro, J. 2008. FRP Composites for Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Structures. Taylor & Francis, 318 pp. Burgoyne, C., Editor. 2001. Fiber Reinforced-Polymer Reinforcement for Concrete Structures – Fifth International Symposium (FRPRCS-5). Proc., Int. Conf., Cambridge, UK. Cosenza, E., Manfredi, G., and Nanni, A., Editors. 2001. Composites in Construction: A Reality. Proc., Int. Workshop, Capri, Italy, ASCE, Reston, VA, 277 pp. Dolan, C.W., S. Rizkalla, and A. Nanni, Editors. 1999. Fiber Reinforced-Polymer Reinforcement for Concrete Structures – Fourth International Symposium (FRPRCS-4). ACI Special Publication No. 188, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 1182 pp. El-Badry, M., Editor. 1996. Advanced Composite Materials in Bridges and Structures. Proc., ACMBS-II, Montreal, Canada, pp. 1027. Figueiras, J., L. Juvandes, and R. Furia, Editors. 2001. Composites in Construction. Proc., CCC 2001, Porto, Portugal. GangaRao, H.V.S., Taly, N., and Vijay, P.V., 2007. Reinforced Concrete Design with FRP Composites. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, 382 pp. Humar, J., and A.G. Razaqpur, Editors 2000. Advanced Composite Materials in Bridges and Structures. Proc., 3rd Inter. Conf., Ottawa, Canada. Japan Concrete Institute Editor, 1997. Fiber Reinforced-Polymer Reinforcement for Concrete Structures – Third International Symposium (FRPRCS-3). Proc., Int. Conf., Published by Japan Concrete Institute, Sapporo, Japan. Iyer, S.L., and R. Sen, Editors. 1991. Advanced Composite Materials in Civil Engineering Structures. Proc., American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY, 443 pp. Mirmiran, A., Shahawy, M., Nanni, A., and Karbhari, V.M. 2004. Bonded Repair and Retrofit of Concrete Structures Using FRP Composites: Recommended Construction Specifications and Process Control Manual. NCHRP Report 514, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, USA. Mirmiran, A., Shahawy, M., Karbhari, V.M., Nanni, A.,, and Kalayci, A.S. 2008. Recommended Construction Specifications and Process Control Manual for Repair and Retrofit of Concrete Structures using Externally Bonded FRP Composites. NCHRP Report 609, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, USA. Mirmiran, A., and Nanni, A., Editors. 2006. Composites in Civil Engineering. International Institute for FRP in Construction (IIFC), Proc., Third International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering (CICE 2006), Miami, FL, 745 pp. Nanni, A., Editor. 1993. Fiber-Reinforced-Plastic (FRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structures: Properties and Applications. Developments in Civil Engineering, Vol. 42, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 450. Nanni, A., and C.W. Dolan, Editors. 1993. FRP Reinforcement for Concrete Structures (FRPRCS-1). Proc., ACI SP-138, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, MI, pp. 977.

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Neale, K.W., and Labossiere, P., Editors. 1992. Advanced Composite Materials in Bridges and Structures. Proc. Canadian Society for Civil Engineering, Montreal, Canada, 705 pp. Rizkalla, S., and Nanni, A., Editors. 2003. Field Applications of FRP Reinforcement: Case Studies. ACI Special Publication No. 125, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 434 pp. Shield, C.K., Busel, J.P., Walkup, S.L., and Gremel, D.D. Editors. 2005. Fiber Reinforced-Polymer Reinforcement for Concrete Structures – Seventh International Symposium (FRPRCS-7). ACI Special Publication No. 230, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, CD-ROM. Taerwe, L., Editor. 1995. Fiber Reinforced-Polymer Reinforcement for Concrete Structures – Second International Symposium (FRPRCS-2). Proc., Int. Conf., Published by E & FN Spon (RILEM Proceedings 29), Ghent, Belgium. Tan, K.H., Editor. 2003. Fiber-Reinforced-Polymer Reinforcement for Concrete Structures – Sixth International Symposium (FRPRCS-6). Proc., Int. Conf., V. I & II, Singapore. Teng, J.-G., Editor. 2001. FRP Composites in Civil Engineering. Proc., Int. Conf. (CICE 2001), Hong Kong, China, Vol. 1 & 2. Triantafillou, T., Editor. 2007. Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Reinforcement for Concrete Structures – Eighth International Symposium (FRPRCS-8). Proc., Int. Conf., Patras, Greece, pp. 701. White, T.D., Editor. 1992. Composite Materials and Structural Plastics in Civil Engineering Construction. Proc. of The Materials Engineering Congress, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY, pp. 532-718.

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SYSTEMS

Section 2

CONCRETE STRUCTURES STRENGTHENED WITH FRP

CONCRETE STRUCTURES STRENGTHENED WITH FRP SYSTEMS

16 17 18 19 20 21

2.1

SCOPE

These Guide Specifications cover general design considerations based on conventional reinforced concrete (RC) and prestressed concrete (PC) design principles and knowledge of the specific mechanical behavior of FRP systems. The Design Professional shall be familiar with the provisions of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (5th Edition, 2007) and latest interim specifications as well as with the design of conventional reinforced and prestressed concrete structures.

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

2.2

DEFINITIONS

Binder––Chemical treatment applied to the random arrangement of fibers to give integrity to roving and fabric. Specific binders are use to promote chemical compatibility with the various laminating resin used. Compression-Controlled Section––A cross-section in which the net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel at nominal resistance is less than or equal to the compression-controlled strain limit. Compression-Controlled Strain Limit––The net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel at balanced strain conditions. See Article 2.8.2.1. Concrete Cover––The specified minimum distance between the surface of the reinforcing bars, strands, or other embedded items, and the surface of the concrete. Composite––Engineering materials such as concrete and fiber reinforced polymer, made from two or more constituent materials that remain distinct, but combine to form materials with properties not possessed by any of the constituent materials individually. The constituent materials are generally characterized as matrix and aggregate or matrix and reinforcement.. Confinement––A condition where the disintegration of the concrete under compression is prevented by the development of lateral and/or circumferential forces such as may be provided by appropriate reinforcing, steel or composite tubes, FRP systems, or similar devices. Creep––Time-dependent deformation of concrete under permanent loads. Debonding––Failure of cohesive or adhesive bond at the interface between a substrate and a strengthening or repair system. Delamination––A planar separation in a material that is roughly parallel to the surface of the material. 10

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57

Development Length––The distance required to develop the specified strength of a reinforcing bar, prestressing stand, or FRP system. Effective Depth––The depth of a component effective in resisting flexural or shear forces. Effective Prestress––The stress or force remaining in the prestressing steel after all losses have occurred. Extreme Tension Steel––The reinforcement (prestressed or nonprestressed) that is farthest from the extreme compression fiber. Fabric––A two-dimensional network of woven, nonwoven, knitted, or stitched fibers. Fiber––A slender and greatly elongated solid material, generally with a length of at least 100 times its diameter, that has properties making it desirable for use as reinforcement. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP)––A general term for a composite material comprising a polymer matrix reinforced with fibers in the form of fabric or any other fiber form. See Composite. Filament––See Fiber. FRP––See Fiber Reinforced Polymer. Laminate––A precured or wet layup FRP system. Matrix––The resin or binders that hold the fibers in FRP together, transfer load to the fibers, and protect them against environmental attack and damage due to handling. Net Tensile Strain––The tensile strain at nominal resistance exclusive of strains due to the effective prestress, creep, shrinkage, and temperature. Normal-Density Concrete––Concrete having a density between 135 and 150 lb/ft3. Near Surface Mounted (NSM) Systems––Circular or rectangular FRP bars bonded into grooves made in the concrete surface. Precured FRP System––A fully cured FRP system that is usually made in a factory and brought to the site as a rigid solid. If used as a repair material for concrete, a precured FRP system is bonded to the surface of the concrete with an adhesive. Prestressed Concrete––Concrete components in which stresses and deformations are introduced by application of prestressing forces. Reinforced Concrete––Structural concrete containing no less than the minimum amount of prestressing tendons or nonprestressed reinforcement specified herein. Reinforcement––Reinforcing bars, prestressing tendons, and/or FRP systems. Resin––Generally a thermosetting resin produced by the condensation reaction of an aromatic alcohol with an aldehyde (usually a phenol with formaldehyde). Resin, Thermosetting—A material that hardens by an irreversible cross-linking of monomers, typically when subjected to heat or light energy. Roving––A parallel bundle of continuous yarn, tows, or fibers with little or no twist. Specified Strength of Concrete––The nominal compressive strength of concrete specified for the work and assumed for design and analysis of new structures.

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Spiral––Continuously wound bar or wire in the form of a cylindrical helix. Substrate––Any material on the surface of which another material is applied. Structural Concrete––All concrete used for structural purposes. Temperature, Glass-Transition⎯The midpoint of the temperature range over which an amorphous material (such as glass or polymer) changes from (or to) a brittle, vitreous state to (or from) a plastic state Tendon––A high-strength steel element used to prestressed the concrete. Tension-Controlled Section––A cross-section in which the net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel at nominal resistance is greater than or equal to 0.005. Tow––An untwisted bundle of continuous filaments. Transverse Reinforcement––Reinforcement used to resist shear, torsion, and lateral forces or to confine concrete in a structural member. The terms “stirrups” and “web reinforcement” are usually applied to transverse reinforcement in flexural members and the terms “ties”, “hoops”, and “spirals” are applied to transverse reinforcement in compression members. Yarn––A twisted bundle of continuous filaments. Yield Strength––The specified yield strength of reinforcement. Wet Layup FRP System––A method of forming FRP laminates using dry FRP fabrics that are saturated with resin in-place. Once cured, the resin acts as the matrix of the FRP laminate and allows adhesion of the laminate to the substrate.

28

2.3 Ac Ae Af

NOTATION = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = cross-sectional area of concrete in compression, in.2 (2.8.3.1) cross-sectional area of effectively confined concrete section, in.2 (2.8.4.1.6) area of the FRP flexural reinforcement, in.2 (2.6.2) area of FRP transverse reinforcement, in.2 (2.10.3) area of FRP shear reinforcement within a distance sf, in.2 (2.9.3.3) gross area of section, in.2 (2.8.4.1.3) area of prestressing steel, in.2 (2.8.3.2.3) area of nonprestressed steel reinforcement, in.2 (2.6.2) total area of longitudinal reinforcement, in.2 (2.8.4.1.3) area of compression reinforcement, in.2 (2.8.3.3) area of shear reinforcement, in.2 (2.9.3.2) depth of equivalent rectangular stress block, in. (2.8.2.5) smaller cross-sectional dimension for rectangular FRP bars, in. (2.10.4.2) width of the compression face of the member, in. (2.8.3.3) larger cross-sectional dimension for rectangular FRP bars, in. (2.10.4.2) effective web width taken as the minimum web width, measured parallel to the neutral axis, between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces due to flexure, or for circular sections, the diameter of the sections, modified for the presence of ducts where applicable, in. (2.9.2.3) web width or diameter of a circular section, in. (2.8.3.3) distance from the extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis, in. (2.8.3.3) environmental reduction factor (2.4.5.2) diameter of the circular cross-section, in. (2.8.4.1.3) diameter of FRP bar, in. (2.10.4.2) effective depth from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tensile force in the tensile reinforcement, in. (2.9.2.2) distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of nonprestressed tensile reinforcement, in. (2.6.3.2) 12

Af,anchor Afv Ag Aps As Ast ' As Av a ab b bb bv bw c CE D db de ds

= = = = = = =

131

3.4.1) service moment at section.5) compressive strength of confined concrete.9de or 0.2) lateral confining pressure provided by the FRP system.2) stress level in nonprestressed steel reinforcement.3. ksi (2.8.4.2) modulus of elasticity of prestressing tendons.8.6.2.8.1) average stress in prestressing steel.6.5.2) distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the FRP system. ksi (2. (2. (2.4.3.9.2. kip (2.6.3.8.2) modulus of elasticity of concrete.4.1) Es / Ec modular ratio for nonprestressed steel reinforcement (2.1) active bond length.8. ksi (2. in.2.3) specified yield strength of reinforcing bars. between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces due to flexure. ksi (2.72h.3) 13 ff ffd ff.3.9. (2.3) specified minimum yield strength of compression reinforcement. ksi (2. (2. in.8.4.8. in. (2.3. (2. (2.2.1) (2.6.3) specified tensile strength of prestressing steel.8.2) eccentricity of prestressing steel with respect to the centroid of the cross-section.1.4. kip-in.7.9. kip-in.9.8.2) effective depth of FRP shear reinforcement. ksi (2.1) stress in prestressing steel at service.8.8.1) specified compressive strength of concrete for use in design.9.7. ksi (2.4) moment causing flexural cracking at section due to externally applied loads. ksi (2. (2. ksi (2. ksi (2.2) development length of FRP systems.4.8.1) (2.1) effective stress level in the FRP system.8. measured perpendicular to the neutral axis.1.3.2.8.6.2) stress level in the FRP system for fatigue and creep rupture limit state.1) nominal axial resistance.3.8.9. in.1) modular ratio. kip (2.3.8. it need not be taken to be less than the greater of 0.10.2) compression flange depth of an I or T member.3. kip-in.3.8.9.1) nominal flexural resistance.5.6.9.7. kip (2.4.8.8.8.1) tensile modulus of elasticity of the FRP system. (2.8.1) factored flexural resistance.2) modification factor accounting for the configuration of the FRP system (2.3.2) span length from center-to-center of support. ksi (2.1. ksi (2.2) effective shear depth taken as the distance. kip-in.2) compressive stress in concrete (after allowance for all prestress losses) at centroid of cross section resisting externally applied loads or at junction of web and flange when the centroid lies within the flange. in. (2. ksi (2.3.3.9.3) modification factor accounting for concrete strength (2.' ds df dfv dp dv = = = = = Ec Ef Ep Es e f c' ' f cc fcpe = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of compression reinforcement.3) tensile modulus of elasticity of steel reinforcement.3) design tensile strength of the FRP system. ksi (2.3. number of plies of the FRP system (2. (2.3.6. ksi (2. in.3. ksi (2.9.4. (2.1) stress in the mild tension reinforcement at nominal flexural resistance.s fpu fpy fr fs f s' fy f y' h hf k1 k2 kds L Le ld Mcre Mdnc Mmax Mn Mr Ms Mu n nf np ns Pe Pn = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 132 . (2. in.3.3.3. in.3.3) yield strength of prestressing steel.3) distance from the extreme compression fiber to centroid of prestressing tendons. (2.3) stress in the mild steel compression reinforcement at nominal flexural resistance.8.1.1) effective force in prestressing steel after allowance for all prestress losses.3.8.3.6. ksi (2. ksi (2.s fs. in.3.1) maximum factored moment at section due to externally applied loads.2) depth of the neutral axis at service load condition measured from the extreme compression fiber.1) Ep / Ec modular ratio for prestressed steel reinforcement (2.3. (2.4.3.2) factored bending moment.3.8.3) tensile strength for product certification as reported by manufacturers.6. ksi (2. kip-in.8.3.4. ksi (2.1) total unfactored dead load moment acting on the monolithic or noncomposite section. (2.2. ksi (2. kip-in.3.3) Ef / Ec modular ratio for FRP systems (2.3) modulus of rupture of concrete. (2.1.3.8.9. (2.8.1) face dimension of concrete cross-section. ksi (2. in.8.9.3) compressive stress in concrete due to effective prestress forces only (after allowance for all prestress losses) at extreme fiber of section where tensile stress is caused by externally applied loads.3. kip-in. in (2.s fl ffu fpc fps fps. in.

in. in.3) maximum strain of unconfined concrete corresponding to f c' ./in.3.3.3.2) radius of gyration of the section./in.1) nominal strength of the member (2. in.2.4./in.3.2. kip (2. in.1.3) nominal shear resistance. (2./in.4.3.5.3) strain in prestressing steel at nominal resistance.9./in.1) nominal strength of the member subjected to elevated temperature due to fire (2.9.2) spacing of FRP shear reinforcement.8. kip (2./in.9./in. kip (2.4) failure strain of concrete in compression. (2. (2.3) glass transition temperature.8.8.3. in.3.1) component in the direction of applied shear of the effective prestressing force.2.1) initial strain level in prestressing steel.3. kip (2.9.8.8.3.3.1.3.2.2) maximum compressive strain for FRP-confined concrete.1) design tensile strain of the FRP system.5.6. kip (2.3 (2.2.3) net tensile strain in extreme tension steel at nominal resistance. (2.3.8.1.9. (2. ºF (2. (2.5.9.3.10. kip (2. (2. angle of inclination of FRP shear reinforcement to longitudinal axis.9. (2. in. in.4.2) initial strain level on the concrete substrate prior to the installation of the FRP system.2./in./in./in. in.2) nominal thickness of one ply of the FRP system.1) (2.6. positive if resisting the applied shear.4) 14 133 . in.9. (2.3.9. in.4.1. kip (2. in.4. (2.9.2) (2. (2.2) nominal shear resistance provided by the concrete.3) factored shear resistance.3. (2.2.1) radius of edge of a prismatic cross-section confined with FRP systems.6) section modulus for the extreme fiber of the composite section where tensile stress is caused by externally applied loads.8. in.1) unfactored dead load effect (2.1) shear force at section due to unfactored dead load and includes both DC (dead load of structural components and nonstructural attachments) and DW (dead load of wearing surfaces and utilities).6.2. (2.9.2. in.1) factored shear force.5.1.1.9.2.5) resistance factor (2. kip (2.2) stress efficiency factor for FRP systems (2./in. in. (2.9.1) unfactored live load effect (2.1) nominal shear resistance provided by shear reinforcement.8.1) nominal shear resistance provided by the concrete when inclined cracking results from excessive principal tensions in the web. º (2.6.4.3.5.8.4./in.3) nominal shear resistance provided by the concrete when inclined cracking results from combined shear and moment.3) factored axial force.2.8.9.3. kip (2.3. in.2. (2. in. kip (2.2.8. in.1) spacing of stirrups. kip (2.9.2) effective strain in prestressing steel after losses.2) effective strain level in the FRP system at failure.Pr Pu Rn Rnθ r rc Sc Snc SDL SLL s sf Tg tf Vc Vci Vcw Vd Vf Vi Vn Vp Vs Vr Vu wf α β1 φ εbi ε'c εcu εccu εf εfd εfe ε fd εfu εpe εpi εps εpu εt εy κa κb = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = factored axial resistance.9.3) strain level in the FRP system corresponding to FRP rupture or debonding.3.9. in.1./in.8.2) strain corresponding to yield strength of nonprestressed steel reinforcement.8.4.3) strain efficiency factor for FRP systems (2.2) specified tensile strain of prestressing steel.2) angle of inclination of transverse reinforcement to longitudinal axis./in. kip (2./in. (2.3) ratio of the depth of the equivalent uniformly stressed compression zone assumed in strength limit state to the depth of the actual compression zone (2. in.5. in.8. (2.3.1) section modulus for the extreme fiber of the monolithic or noncomposite section where tensile stress is caused by externally applied loads.8.4.3.3.1) nominal shear resistance provided by the FRP system. (2.8.8.4.3. in.2) tensile strain for product certification as reported by manufacturers.5.3) factored shear force at section due to externally applied loads occurring simultaneously with Mmax.3. (2.3) width of the FRP system.2.9.3) effective strain level in the FRP system at nominal resistance. in.8. (2.3 (2. kip (2. in. (2.

8.2 Concrete Normal and structural low-density concrete shall conform to the provisions of Article 5.6) average bond strength for FRP bars.3 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.4.4.2-2) ε fd = CE ε fu 15 134 . Where other grades or types of materials are used.1 FRP systems shall conform to the material specifications reported in Section 3 and comply with the applicable limitations of Article 1.4.2 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.5. shall be established prior to design.1) efficiency factor for FRP systems.6.4 2.9.6.4. The design tensile strength and strain considering reductions for service environment.4.3. (2.5. ffu. their properties.5.1 MATERIAL PROPERTIES General Design should be based on the material properties cited herein and on the use of materials that conform to the standards for the grades of construction materials as specified in AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications. ksi (2.5 FRP General 2. to be used in all design equations shall be determined as follows: f fd = C E f fu (2.1 minus three times the standard deviation.4.10.3) additional reduction factor for FRP systems As /bh ratio of longitudinal steel reinforcement to cross-sectional area of a compression member (2.2 Tensile Strength and Strain The tensile strength and strain for product certification of FRP systems as reported by manufacturers shall be in compliance with the provisions of Articles 3.5. 2.3 Reinforcing Steel Reinforcing steel bars shall conform to the provisions of Article 5.4. 2.4.1 and 3.3. ffd and εfd respectively. The minimum acceptable properties and test procedures for such materials shall be specified in the contract document.2-1) (2.4. The tensile strength for product certification as reported by manufacturers. including statistical variability.3. 2. shall be defined as the average tensile strength calculated for a frequency and number of specimens as specified in Article 3.1. The contract documents shall define the grades or properties of all materials to be used.1.2) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 2.8.3.κv κε ψf ρg τb = = = = = bond-dependent coefficient (2.4.4.4 Prestressing Steel Prestressing steel strands shall conform to the provisions of Article 5. 2.4. respectively.4.4.8.4 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.4. 2.

5.4 to 12.1 33 to 44 • Longitudinal • Transverse 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 2. Typical values for the coefficient of thermal expansion are given in Table 2. When the stress level on the FRP system is within the elastic response range of the strengthened member.2-1 tensile strength for product certification as reported by manufacturers. 2.70 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 2.3 Modulus of Elasticity The modulus of elasticity for product certification of GFRP reinforcing bars as reported by manufacturers shall be in compliance with the provisions of Article 3.4.4.1-1.5 Time-Dependent Behavior 2.3 to -1.4.6 to 0 12 to 27 Glass 3./in.5. CE 0.5.s.8.4.5.4.75 εfu 3 4 5 • Typical bridge environment • Aggressive environment Carbon Glass Aramid 0.1.5. in.4-1 Typical coefficients of thermal expansion of FRP systems (10-6 / ºF) Direction Carbon -0. Table 2.5.5.4.2 and shall be determined as the average modulus of elasticity calculated from experimental tests for a frequency and number of specimens as specified in Article 3. Table 2.4.85 0. the stress level computed on the FRP system.1 2 where: CE ffu = = = environmental reduction factor as specified in Table 2.4.5.5. unless the FRP manufacturer can provide substantiating evidence following ASTM D7337/D7337M procedures demonstrating that higher values of the stress limits can be safely utilized.6 10.5.85 0. Test method from ASTM D7337/D7337M is only applicable to FRP bars. shall be equal to or less than the values reported in Table 2.4.2-1 Environmental reduction factors Exposure condition Fiber type Carbon Glass Aramid Environmental reduction factor.1 Creep-rupture To avoid creep-rupture of the FRP system under sustained stresses. ff.4-1.6 Aramid -3.6. ksi tensile strain for product certification as reported by manufacturers. the stresses may be computed by elastic analysis.4 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion The coefficient of thermal expansion for FRP systems shall be provided by the manufacturer. 16 135 .3 to 5.50 0.5.65 0.

4.6.2 nominal strength of the member unfactored dead load effect unfactored live load effect In cases where the live load acting on the strengthened member has a high likelihood of being present for a sustained period of time. shall be equal to or less than the values reported in Table 2.5 2. 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 2. which is conservatively defined as the Tg.55ffd Glass 0. When the stress level on the FRP system is within the elastic response range of the strengthened member.5. If the FRP system is meant to allow greater load-carrying capacity. such as an increase in live load.20ffd Aramid 0.2.75S LL )new where: (2. shall be determined using the current load requirements for the structure. The load effects.1-1 related to creep-rupture.4. shall have sufficient strength to resist a level of load to satisfy Eq.30ffd 3 4 5 6 7 2. a live load factor of 1. ff.5.75 in Eq.1-1.5.10S DL + 0.5.5. the requirement of Eq.1-1 Stress limits for FRP systems Carbon 0.5.1 2 Table 2.5. unless it is demonstrated that the temperature in the FRP system remains below a critical temperature.s. SDL and SLL.1-1) φ Rn SDL SLL 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 = = = = resistance factor specified in Article 2.5. the stress level of the FRP system.4. 17 136 .2-1 shall be satisfied: Rnθ ≥ S DL + S LL (2.5. the stresses may be computed by elastic analysis.0 shall be used instead of 0.2-1) where: Rnθ = nominal strength of the member subjected to elevated temperature due to fire The nominal strength Rnθ shall be computed based on the reduced material properties of the existing member and shall not account for the contribution of the FRP system.5.2 Fatigue To avoid failure of the FRP system subjected to cyclic stresses and fatigue.5.1-1 without collapse: ( φRn )existing ≥ (1.2 Structural Fire Endurance To ensure that FRP strengthened structures do not collapse in a fire event.5. 2. 2. the load effects shall be computed using these greater loads.3.1 STRENGTHENING LIMITS Structural Loads The un-strengthened structural member. without the FRP system.5. 2.

3. may be determined as: f f . ff.5.1-1 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications shall be in compliance with the applicable provisions of Article 5. 18 137 .s Ef Es df ds kds = = = = = = stress level in nonprestressed steel reinforcement.3.s = f s.s where: E f d f − kd s Es d s − kd s − εbi E f (2.2.1 LIMIT STATES Service Limit State At service limit state.3 Overall Structural Strength All members of a structure shall be capable of withstanding the anticipated increase in loads associated with the use of the FRP system. ksi modulus of elasticity of steel reinforcement.2-1) fs.7.4 respectively.5. The deflection caused by live load plus dynamic load allowance should not exceed the following criteria: • • • where: L/800 for decks with no pedestrian traffic.6. and the FRP system as specified in Articles 2. The stress level in the FRP system. shall be considered. in. Fatigue and Creep Rupture Limit State Fatigue need not to be investigated for concrete deck slabs in multigirder applications. and L/1200 for decks with significant pedestrian traffic L 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 2. depth of the neutral axis at service load condition measured from the extreme compression fiber.6. 2.4.6 2. L/1000 for decks with limited pedestrian traffic. The effects of excessive deck deformation.4.3. steel reinforcement.1 2 3 2. concrete bridge components shall be analyzed as fully elastic structures. 2.1.8.4.3.s. prestressing tendons. 2. in.7.1-1 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications shall meet the requirement of Article 2. The stress level in the FRP system.2 = span length from center-to-center of supports.8. The stress level in the existing prestressed and/or nonprestressed steel reinforcement resulting from the fatigue load combination specified in Table 3. resulting from the fatigue load combination specified in Table 3. including deflections.8. and 2. distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the extreme tension steel element. in. ff.8.7.3 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.3.3. in.6.7. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 2.5.6. Checks to be performed at service limit state shall be related to deformations and the level of stress reached in the concrete.8.5. ksi tensile modulus of elasticity of the FRP system.s. ksi distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the FRP system.2.

2.6.1 The strength limit state to be considered shall be those of strength and stability.6. and the resistance factor as specified in Article 2. in. then φ = 0.10 unless another limit state is specifically identified. then φ = 0.6.005 − ε y (2.3.6.3. in.6. kip-in.2 area of nonprestressed steel reinforcement. Factored resistance shall be the product of nominal resistance as determined in accordance with the applicable provisions of Articles 2.3.2-2) where: Ms Af As 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 2. area of the FRP flexural reinforcement.7.65 + 0.6.2.65 where: (2.3. 2.2-1): • If εt ≥ 0. 2.2-2) • If εt ≤ ε y .6.2 Strength Limit State General 2. 2. may be determined as: f s.9.3.90 • If ε y < εt < 0. The stress level in nonprestressed steel reinforcement. 27 19 138 .6./in.8.s = ⎡ M s + εbi A f E f d f − kd s / 3 ⎤ ( d s − kd s ) Es ⎣ ⎦ As Es ( d s − kd s / 3)( d s − kd s ) + A f E f d f − kd s / 3 d f − kd s ( ) ( )( ) (2.25 ( εt − ε y ) 0.2 Resistance Factors Resistance factors φ for flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete members with FRP systems shall be taken as (Figure 2. in./in.005.3. strain corresponding to yield strength of nonprestressed steel reinforcement.3 = = = service moment at section.6. then φ = 0. in.3.2-1) (2.3. in.8./in.005. and 2. fs.s.2-3) εt εy = = net tensile strain in extreme tension steel at nominal resistance.εbi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 = strain level in the concrete substrate at the time when the FRP system is installed as specified in Article 2.

8.90 as the net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel increases from the compression-controlled strain limit to 0.90 • lightweight concrete…………………………………………………………………………………….2-6) strain in prestressing steel at nominal resistance computed according to Eq.8.010 ) 0./in.65 + (2. 2.2. then φ = 0.2. as defined in Article 2. shall be set equal to 0.1.010 0.2-5) • If ε ps ≤ 0.005 Strain level at ultimate Figure 2.2-1 Resistance factor for flexure Resistance factors φ for flexural strengthening of prestressed concrete members with FRP systems in compliance with the limitations of Article 1.75 to 0.25 ( ε ps − 0.010 (2. shall be set equal to 0.90.2-4) • If 0.583 + 0.3.25 ⎜ − 1⎟ ≤ 1.005.6.75.65 + 0.15 ⎜ s − 1⎟ ≤ 0.1-5. φ may be linearly increased from 0.010 ) 0.90 0.6.3. then φ = 0.70 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Resistance factors φ for compression-controlled sections with spirals or ties strengthened with FRP systems. This variation in φ may be computed for nonprestressed members such that: ⎛d ⎞ 0. as defined in Article 2. as defined in Article 2. then φ = 0.1.2-7) (2. Resistance factors φ for shear strengthening of concrete components with FRP systems shall be taken as: • normal weight concrete……………………………………………………………………………………………0.φ 0.013 − 0.6.90 + 0.3. in.2-8) 20 139 .…………0.25 ( ε ps − 0.2.6.3 shall be taken as: 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 where: εps = • If ε ps ≥ 0.6.1.013 − 0.013 − 0.75 ≤ φ = 0.8. Resistance factors φ for tension-controlled sections with spirals or ties strengthened with FRP systems.65 1 2 3 4 5 6 εy 0.3.6.013.00 ⎝ c ⎠ (2.3.3.013.90 ⎝ c ⎠ and for prestressed members such that: ⎛ dp ⎞ 0.010 ) 0.3.8. For sections belonging to the transition region in which the net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel at nominal resistance is between the limits for compression-controlled and tension-controlled sections.75 ≤ φ = 0.25 ( ε ps − 0.010 (2.010 .65 + 0.010 < ε ps < 0.

8 2. at all stages during the life of the structure. specified in Table 3. as may be appropriate to its site and use. 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 2. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Resistance factors shall not be applied to the development length and splice lengths of reinforcement as specified in Article 2. 2.1-1 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.10. distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of nonprestressed tensile reinforcement.4 Extreme Event Limit State The structure as a whole and its components shall be proportioned to resist collapse due to extreme events. creep. As specified in Section 4 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. in. temperature change. The modular ratio. in.1 DESIGN CONSIDERATION General Components and connections shall be designed to resist load combinations. as specified in Section 3 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.4.2 Effect of Imposed Deformation The effect of imposed deformations due to shrinkage. Effect of eccentricity of loads shall be considered in the analysis and design. 2.7 2. n. 2.1 2 where: c ds dp = = = distance from the extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis. in.7. except in components or regions of components for which conventional strength of materials is inappropriate. except as specified in Article 5. The strains in the concrete vary linearly.6. and uplift.1 DESIGN FOR FLEXURAL AND AXIAL FORCE EFFECTS Assumptions for Service.3 Stability The structure as a whole and its components shall be designed to resist sliding.7. equilibrium and strain compatibility shall be maintained in the analysis.8. Load factors shall be as specified in Section 3 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. overturning.7.3. including those during construction. 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 2. and movements of supports shall be investigated.6 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. is rounded to the nearest integer number and it is calculated as follows: o n = ns = Es /Ec for reinforcing bars 21 140 . Fatigue and Creep Rupture Limit States The following assumptions may be used in the design of reinforced and prestressed concrete components for all compressive strength levels: • • • Prestressed concrete resists tension at sections that are uncracked. distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of prestressing tendons.6.

6.2.13. or any other shape that results in a prediction of strength in substantial agreement with the test result.003. Sections with net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel between the compression-control strain limit and 0. If the concrete is confined. internal reinforcing steel arrangement.4.8.8. and material properties of the existing member being strengthened. For grade 60 reinforcement.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 • 2. the maximum usable strain at the extreme concrete compression fiber is not greater than 0. the compression-controlled strain limit may be set equal to 0.005 constitute a transition region between compression-controlled and tension-controlled sections.003. The stress in the reinforcement is based on a stress-strain curve representative of the steel and FRP system or on an approved mathematical representation.8.2 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. except for disturbed regions and deep members that shall satisfy the requirements of Article 5. In the approximate flexural resistance equations of Articles 2. The tensile strength in the concrete is neglected.3. If the concrete is unconfined. Assumptions for Strength and Extreme Event Limit States General 2. and for all prestressed reinforcement. 22 • • • 141 . the resistance factors as specified in Article 2.8. a maximum usable strain exceeding 0. Balanced strain conditions exist at a cross-section when tension reinforcement reaches the strain corresponding to its specified yield strength fy just as the concrete in compression reaches its assumed ultimate strain of 0. Sections are compression-controlled when the net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel is equal to or less than the compression-controlled strain limit at the time the concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit of 0.4.1 Factored resistance of concrete components shall be based on the conditions of equilibrium and strain compatibility. and the following assumptions: • • • • • • • • • • Design calculations are based on the dimensions.003.8.3 and 2.2. The use of compression FRP systems in conjunction with additional tension reinforcement in not permitted to increase the strength of flexural members.1.002.4.003. Sections are tension-controlled when the net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel is equal to or greater than 0. FRP systems shall be taken as linear-elastic up to failure. Strain is directly proportional to the distance from the neutral axis. The use of compression steel reinforcement in conjunction with additional tension reinforcement is permitted to increase the strength of flexural members.2 o o n = np = Ep /Ec for prestressing tendons n = nf = Ef /Ec for FRP systems An effective modular ratio of 2n is applicable to permanent loads and prestress. parabolic. The concrete compressive stress-strain distribution is assumed to be rectangular. The compression-controlled strain limit is the net tensile strain in the reinforcement at balanced strain conditions. fy and f y' may replace fs and f s' . Perfect bond exists between concrete and the reinforcement.3.005 just as the concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit of 0.3.003 in the confined core may be utilized as specified in Article 2.

2.3.8. If c/ds exceed 0. strain compatibility shall be used to determine the stress in the mild steel tension reinforcement. The potential for shear failure of the section shall be considered by comparing the design shear strength of the section to the required shear strength. 2.4 Flexural Strengthening of concave soffits If the extent of the curved portion of the soffit exceeds a length of 40 in.3 Flexural Members Stress in Prestressing Steel at Nominal Flexural Resistance 2. subject to the following conditions: o fy may replace fs when.6.85 • For concrete strengths between 4 and 8 ksi. considering all loads that will be on the member during the installation of the FRP system.8.65 Additional limitations on the use of the rectangular stress block when applied to hollow rectangular compression members shall be investigated as specified in Article 5. with a rise of 0. The distance c shall be measured perpendicular to the neutral axis. If additional shear strength is required. using fy in the calculation. the resulting ratio c/ds does not exceed 0. the member shall be capable of resisting the shear forces associated with the increased flexural strength.5 Rectangular Stress Distribution The constitutive relationship between concrete stress and strain may be considered satisfied by an equivalent rectangular concrete compressive stress block of 0.7. εbi. anchor systems such as FRP anchors or U-wrap shall be installed to prevent FRP delamination. the average stress in prestressing steel. f c' . β1 = 0.9.4. The factor β1 shall be taken as: • For concrete strengths. using f y' in the calculation. 2.5 is used. may be determined from an elastic analysis of the existing member.3 Existing Substrate Strain The initial strain level on the substrate.05 − 0.2. or alternatively.2.8. 2. β1 = 1. for a typical seven-wire low-relaxation prestressing strand may be taken as: 23 142 . 2.2.6.8. The elastic analysis of the existing member may be based on cracked section properties.2 Shear Strength When FRP systems are used to increase the flexural strength of a member. the surface shall be either made flat before installing the FRP system.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 respectively.2 in.8. FRP systems oriented transverse to the beam longitudinal axis may be used to resist shear forces as specified in Article 2..7 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.2. c ≥ 3d s' . If c < 3d s' .85 f’c over a zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = β1 c from the extreme compression fiber.1 For rectangular or flanged sections subjected to flexure about one axis where the approximate stress distribution specified in Article 2.05 f c' • For concrete strengths greater than 8 ksi. strain compatibility shall be used to determine the stress in the mild steel compression reinforcement.2. β1 = 0. not exceeding 4 ksi.8.8. o f y' may replace f s' when. fps.

then f ps = 0.1-6) • For FRP rupture or FRP debonding failure modes: ⎛ dp − c ⎞ ε pnet = ε f + εbi ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ df −c ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) (2.5ε ps − 0. ksi eccentricity of prestressing steel with respect to the centroid of the cross-section.3.3. in.0086 .8.8.8. in. in.0076 .3.2 modulus of elasticity of concrete. kip cross-sectional area of concrete in compression. then f ps = 28.25 − 0.3.8.035 Ac Ec ⎝ r 2 ⎠ (2. distance from the extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis specified in Article 2.0 (2. in.3. in. then f ps = 28.3.4 (2. distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of prestressing tendons./in. then f ps = 0.3.1-7) where: εpe Pe Ac Ec e r dp c = = = = = = = = effective strain in prestressing steel after losses.4 (2. effective force in prestressing steel after allowance for all prestress losses.1-2) • For Grade 270 ksi steel: • If ε ps ≤ 0.8.1-4) and: ε ps = ε pe + Pe ⎛ e 2 ⎞ ⎜ 1 + ⎟ + ε pnet ≤ 0.0086 . 24 143 .1-1) • If ε ps > 0.3. radius of gyration of the section.8.27 − (2.04 1000ε ps − 7.8.1-3) •If ε ps ≤ 0. in.3.04 1000ε ps − 6.1-5) in which: • For concrete crushing failure mode: ⎛ dp − c ⎞ ε pnet = 0.0 0.0076 .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 • For Grade 250 ksi steel: • If ε ps ≤ 0.5ε ps − 0.04 1000ε ps − 6.04 1000ε ps − 7.8.003 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ c ⎠ (2.

083 f c' ≤ 0./in.3./in.3.2.8.9ε fd nE f t f (2.9ε fd nE f t f (2.8.2.8. in. may be determined as follows: 20 21 22 23 24 25 • For FRP laminates: ε fd = 0. in.3.2-3) f c' n = = specified compressive strength of concrete for use in design. in.εf εbi df 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = = effective strain level in the FRP system at nominal resistance specified in Article 2.3.3.2.3. ksi effective strain level in the FRP system at nominal resistance. distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the FRP system.8. in. distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the FRP system.2-2) • For FRP NSM systems: ε fd = 0.8./in. strain level in the concrete substrate at the time when the FRP system is installed specified in Article 2.8./in.3.8.2 2. strain level in the concrete substrate at the time when the FRP system is installed specified in Article 2.3. distance from the extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis specified in Article 2.8. in.2-1) where: εcu df c εbi 16 17 18 19 = = = = failure strain of concrete in compression. Effective Stress in FRP Systems at Nominal Flexural Resistance = 2. for strength and extreme event limit states may be determined as: ⎛ df −c ⎞ ε f = ε cu ⎜ ⎟ − εbi ≤ ε fd ⎝ c ⎠ (2.2.2 Reinforced Concrete The effective strain level.2. εf. The strain level in the FRP system corresponding to FRP rupture or FRP debonding.3. in.2.3.3.8. 2.1 General The effective stress level for strength and extreme event limit states.2. in. ff.1-1) Ef εf 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 = = modulus of elasticity of the FRP system. ksi number of plies of the FRP system 25 144 ./in.2.8. ε fd .3. may be determined as: f f = Ef ε f where: (2.8.7ε fd where: f c' ≤ 0. in.2.

/in.3.3.3-1 for failures controlled by prestressing steel rupture: ⎛ df −c ⎞ ε f = ε pu − ε pi ⎜ ⎟ − ε ≤ ε fd ⎜ d p − c ⎟ bi ⎝ ⎠ ( ) (2.2. radius of gyration of the section. in.3 Prestressed Concrete The effective strain level for strength and extreme event limit states shall be determined from: • Eq.3. distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the FRP system. in. 2. initial strain level in prestressing steel.3.3.2.8. in. • Eq.2. in.2.8.4./in. 2. the bonded length of the FRP NSM system shall be greater than the development length specified in Article 2.8.tf εfd 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 εpu εpi df c dp εbi 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 and = = nominal thickness of one ply of the FRP system.3-2) where: Pe Aps Ep Ac Ec e r = = = = = = = effective force in prestressing steel after allowance for all prestress losses. ksi eccentricity of prestressing steel with respect to the centroid of the cross-section.2 modulus of elasticity of concrete.3.8.2 modulus of elasticity of prestressing tendons. design tensile strain of the FRP system. strain level in the concrete substrate at the time when the FRP system is installed specified in Article 2./in.8. in. in. ε fd .3.2.3-1) where: = = = = = = specified tensile strain of prestressing steel. in. in. 22 26 145 .2. ksi cross-sectional area of concrete in compression. ε pi = Pe P + e Aps E p Ac Ec ⎛ e2 ⎞ ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ ⎝ r ⎠ (2./in.3. distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of prestressing tendons. distance from the extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis specified in Article 2. 2. in.2-1 when concrete crushing is the controlling failure mode.10. in. in. kip area of prestressing steel. in. To achieve the strain level in the FRP NSM system corresponding to FRP rupture or FRP debonding.8.8.

The strain level in the FRP system corresponding to FRP rupture or FRP debonding. in. ksi area of nonprestressed steel reinforcement. in. web width or diameter of a circular section.3.5 width of the compression face of the member.3.2.3.2 stress in the mild steel tension reinforcement at nominal flexural resistance as specified in Article 2.8.3-1 shall be set equal to 0. the value of εpu to be used in Eq.3 Neutral Axis Position The position of the neutral axis shall be calculated as follows: • For rectangular section behavior: c= ' ' Aps f ps + As f s + A f f f − As fs 0.8.4. in.2 stress in the mild steel compression reinforcement at nominal flexural resistance as specified in Article 2.1-1.3.2.3.2-2.85 f c' β1bw (2. ε fd . 2.2. ksi area of compression reinforcement.8. compression flange depth of an I or T member.2. in. Flexural Resistance f s' Af ff f c' β1 b bw hf 17 18 19 20 21 22 2.3.8.8.1.3-1) • For T-section behavior: c= ' ' Aps f ps + As f s + Af f f − As f s − 0.3.4 area of prestressing steel.3-2) where: Aps fps As fs ' As = = = = = = = = = = = = = 2.2.035.8.8.8.2.1-1) 27 146 .85 f c' β1b (2.8. ksi stress block factor specified in Article 2.8.3.8.1 Factored Flexural Resistance The factored flexural resistance Mr shall be taken as: M r = φM n (2.85 f c' ( b − bw ) h f 0. in.3.4. ksi area of the FRP flexural reinforcement. 2.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 For Grade 270 and 250 ksi strands.2. in. 2.8.2 effective stress level in the FRP system specified in Eq. may be determined from Eqs.3.2-1 and 2. 2. in. ksi specified compressive strength of concrete for use in design.2 average stress in prestressing steel specified in Article 2.8.3.8.

depth of the equivalent stress block.8.3. kip-in. in.1. ksi distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of prestressing tendons. in. in.2.8. in.2.3.4.8.2 stress in the mild steel compression reinforcement at nominal flexural resistance as specified in Article 2.2 Flanged Sections For flanged sections subjected to flexure about one axis.8.6. ksi distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the FRP system.2 stress in the mild steel tension reinforcement at nominal flexural resistance as specified in Article. 2. area of the FRP flexural reinforcement.3.3. in.2.1-1 through 2. in. ksi distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of compression reinforcement. stress block factor specified in Article 2. in.1. web width or diameter of a circular section. ksi distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of nonprestressed tensile reinforcement. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 2.2-1) where: Aps fps dp As fs ds ' As = = area of prestressing steel.2 average stress in prestressing steel at nominal bending resistance specified in Eqs. 28 = = = = = = f s' ' ds = = = = = = = = = = Af ff df f c' b bw β1 hf a 147 .2 nominal flexural resistance. 2.2.3. area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement. the nominal flexural resistance Mn may be taken as: ⎛ a hf ⎞ a⎞ a⎞ a⎞ a⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎛ ' ' ⎛ ' M n = Aps f ps ⎜ d p − ⎟ + As f s ⎜ d s − ⎟ − As f s ⎜ d s − ⎟ + ψ f Af f f ⎜ d f − ⎟ + 0.8.1-4. β1c.2 effective stress level in the FRP system specified in Eq. in.1-1.8. where the approximate stress distribution specified in Article 2.8. specified compressive strength of concrete.5 compression flange depth of an I or T member.8. 2. as determined in accordance with Article 2.5 is used and where the compression flange depth is less than a = β1c.3.3.1 2 where: φ Mn = = resistance factor as specified in Article 2. area of compression reinforcement. in. in.85 f c' ( b − bw ) ⎜ − ⎟ 2⎠ 2⎠ 2⎠ 2⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎝ ⎝ ⎝2 2 ⎠ (2.8. in. ksi width of the compression face of the member. in.4.8.3.2.

3.80 fy shall apply to all existing steel reinforcement. 2. 2.45 fc′ shall apply to all concrete components. The provisions of Article 2.8.8. The stress and corresponding strain in any given layer of reinforcement may be taken from any representative stressstrain formula or graph for mild reinforcement.3.8. shall be investigated at the Service Limit State Load Combination I specified in Table 3.8.5 Strain Compatibility Approach Alternatively.1 shall apply. The stress limitation of 0.2. Mn. fps.4.2-1. The appropriate provisions of Article 2.7. 2.4. in which case bw shall be taken as b.3.4 Other Cross-Sections For cross-sections other than rectangular sections with vertical axis of symmetry or sections subjected to biaxial flexure without axial load.3.8.1-1 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. The additional reduction factor ψf for FRP systems specified in Article 2.3.82 f py (2.s.2.8.3. and 2.3-1 shall apply: f ps .2 shall apply.8.s ≤ 0.1-1.8.8.3.8.3. The additional reduction factor ψf for FRP systems specified in Article 2.5 shall apply. 2.3.4.2 shall apply.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 An additional reduction factor for FRP systems. The stress limitations specified in Eq. shall be applied to the flexural-strength contribution of the FRP system as specified in Eq.3.4. In the calculations.7.4.1-4.8. and the selected FRP system.2 shall apply.3. the nominal flexural resistance. prestressing strands.7.8.3.1 Concrete Compression stresses in the concrete shall be investigated at the Service Limit State Load Combination I specified in Table 3.3.8. 2.3 Rectangular Sections For rectangular sections subjected to flexure about one axis.4. 2.4.4.8.2-1.6.7. The additional reduction factor ψf for FRP systems specified in Article 2.3. 2. 2.5 is used and where the compression flange depth is not less than a = β1c as determined in accordance with Article 2.8.3.85.8.3 Prestressing Tendons Tension stresses in prestressing steel.7.2 Steel Reinforcing Bars Tension stresses in the steel reinforcing bars computed according to Eq. 2.6 Deformations Deformations in concrete structures strengthened with externally bonded FRP systems may be computed as specified in Article 5. The stress limitation of 0.4.2.8.1-1 through 2.3. 2. 2. where the approximate stress distribution specified in Article 2.1-1 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.8.7.3.3.6 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. 2.2.5 Limits for FRP Reinforcement There are no limitations in the use of FRP systems as externally bonded reinforcement to concrete members. the strain compatibility approach may be used if more precise calculations are required.8. the nominal flexural resistance Mn may be determined by using Eqs.2-2 shall be investigated at the Service Limit State Load Combination I specified in Table 3. the FRP system shall be conservatively ignored. ψf = 0.1-1 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.3-1) 29 148 .7 Stress Limits 2. 2.3.8.4.3.8. shall be determined by an analysis based on the assumptions specified in Article 2.8.3.4.8.3.

fl.4. A minimum confinement ratio f l / f c' of 0. symmetrical about both principal axes.7.4.8.1.2 Limits for FRP Reinforcement FRP systems shall not be applied as confinement of prestressed compression members.4 Compression Members Pure Axial Load 2.8. 2.1.4.8.1.8.3-2) • For nonprestressed members with tie reinforcement: ' Pn = 0.3-3) 30 149 .8.85 f cc Ag − Ast + f y Ast ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) (2.8.4.8.6.1 2 3 4 where: fpy fpu 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 where: Pr Pn = = factored axial resistance. 2.74 f pu (2. or face dimensions b or h exceeding 36 in. Confinement of reinforced concrete components with FRP systems when the specified concrete compressive strength is equal to or larger than 10 ksi shall not be considered effective.1-1 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.3 Factored Axial Resistance The factored axial resistance of concrete compressive components.1 shall apply.4. ksi as: = = yield strength of prestressing steel.1 General Confinement of reinforced concrete components by means of FRP systems may be used to enhance the concrete component strength and ductility.0.4 FRP Reinforcement Tension stresses in the FRP reinforcement computed according to Eq.4 shall not be applied to concrete members with aspect ratio h/b greater than 2.8.1 2.1.80 ⎡ 0.3. The provisions of Article 2.8.4.1.85 ⎡ 0.s ≤ 0. ksi f ps . 2.3-2) specified tensile strength of prestressing steel.4. shall be taken Pr = φPn (2.4.4.5.2-1 shall be investigated at the Service Limit State Load Combination I specified in Table 3.08 shall be provided.3-1) in which: • For nonprestressed members with spiral reinforcement: ' Pn = 0. 2. 2.3-5.1. The stress limitation specified in Article 2. ksi 2. shall be computed from Eq.85 f cc Ag − Ast + f y Ast ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) (2.4.1. The lateral confining pressure provided by the FRP system.8.8. unless testing demonstrates their effectiveness.5.8. kip nominal axial resistance.3.7.

(2.4.8. in.4./in.4.4. shall be taken as: ε ccu 0. ksi modulus of elasticity of the FRP system.3-6.4.1.3-5) where: ψf κa fl Ef n tf D εfe = = = = = = = = additional reduction factor for FRP systems equal to 0. 2.4.1.3-4) in which: fl = 2 E f nt f ε fe D (2.4 Compressive Strain for Confined Concrete The maximum compressive strain for FRP-confined concrete. 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 The effective strain level in the FRP system at failure shall be taken as: ε fe = κ ε ε fd where: κε εfd = = efficiency factor for FRP systems equal to 0. diameter of the circular cross-section..6) effective strain level in the FRP system at failure as specified in Eq. in.55 design tensile strain of the FRP system.φ ' f cc = = = = = resistance factor specified in Article 2.3.8.4-1) 31 150 . ksi specified yield strength of reinforcing bars.1.2 compressive strength of confined concrete. ksi number of plies of the FRP system nominal thickness of one ply of the FRP system.8.2 fy Ag Ast 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 The compressive strength of confined concrete shall be taken as: ' f cc = f c' + 3.6.8.8./in.2 total area of longitudinal reinforcement.4.1. in.1.1. in. ksi gross area of section.4.5 + 12κb ' ⎜ ' ⎟ ⎥ f c ⎝ εc ⎠ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ' c (2. in.45 ⎡ fl ⎛ ε fe ⎞ ⎤ = ε ⎢1.4.4.95 stress efficiency factor for FRP systems determined according to Articles 2. in.8.1.1.3-6) 18 19 20 21 22 2.6 lateral confining pressure provided by the FRP system as specified in Eq.3-5.8.3ψ f κ a fl (2. (for noncircular cross-section refer to Article 2. εccu.5 and 2.1.8.1.8. 2.8.

8.8./in.002. 2.8.6-3) 27 28 29 30 Ae = Ac ⎡⎛ b ⎞ 2 2⎤ ⎛h⎞ ⎢⎜ h ⎟ ( h − 2rc ) + ⎜ b ⎟ ( b − 2rc ) ⎥ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ −ρ 1− ⎣ g 3 Ag 1 − ρg (2.1.2 32 151 .4.6 lateral confining pressure provided by the FRP system as specified in Eq.8.0.1.1. in.1 2 where: ε'c = = = = = maximum strain of unconfined concrete corresponding to f c' .4. 2.4.8.4.01. ksi effective strain level in the FRP system at failure as specified in Eq.4.8. ksi specified compressive strength of concrete.5 and 2.6-1) κa = Ae Ac ⎛b⎞ ⎜h⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (2.4. 2.3-5.5 Circular Cross-Sections For circular cross-sections.4.8. the maximum strain of unconfined concrete corresponding to f c' may be taken as 0.8.8. εccu shall be limited to 0.8. 2.3-6.4.4.1.2 gross area of section.3-5 corresponds to the lateral confining pressure provided by the FRP system of an equivalent circular cross-section with diameter D equal to the diagonal of the rectangular cross-section with face dimensions b and h computed as: D = b2 + h2 The stress efficiency factor for FRP systems shall be taken as: (2.1.4.6 Noncircular Cross-Sections For noncircular cross-sections. the stress and strain efficiency factors for FRP systems.6-2) The strain efficiency factor for FRP systems shall be taken as: κb = in which: Ae Ac h b (2. fl in Eq.8. κb fl f c' εfe 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Unless a more detail analysis is performed. may be taken equal to 1.4. To prevent excessive cracking that may result in loss of concrete integrity.1./in.2 cross-sectional area of concrete in compression members.1.1.6-4) where: Ae Ac Ag = = = cross-sectional area of effectively confined concrete section. in.1.1. in. in. strain efficiency factor for FRP systems determined according to Articles 2. 2.1. κa and κb respectively. in.

8.8. 2.2. fall above the line connecting the origin and the balanced point in the PM diagram for the unconfined member.60fy.1h.rc ρg 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 = = radius of edges of a prismatic cross-section confined with FRP systems.8. When the eccentricity of the concrete component is larger than 0.4.9.3.9 2. the effective strain for FRP-confined concrete components computed according to Eq.1.4. the compressive stress in the concrete shall be limited to the value of 0.1.6.8.5.8. the factored axial resistance shall be determined as specified in Article 2.4.2 Factored Axial Resistance When the eccentricity of the concrete component is equal to or less than 0.8.2.2.4. Vr.4-1 and the applicable provisions of Articles 2.3.2 33 152 .9. A P-M diagram may be developed by satisfying strain compatibility and force equilibrium.8.2 Combined Axial Load and Bending Moment 2. the maximum compressive strain for FRP-confined concrete components shall be taken from Eq.5.5 and 2.4.4.1-1 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications shall never exceed the creep rupture stress limit provisions specified in Article 2.8.8. ratio of longitudinal steel reinforcement to cross-sectional area of a compression member (As /bh) 2.8. 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 2. Pu and Mu.4.2 General Requirements General 2.004.2.4.1-1) where: φ = resistance factor as specified in Article 2.4.1 Limits for FRP Reinforcement To ensure the shear integrity of the member.4. The strength enhancement for FRP-confined concrete components shall only be considered when the factored axial force and the factored bending moment.1.6.3 Ductility Enhancement For circular and noncircular cross-sections.9.8.9.1-1 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.1 may be used to determine the concrete material properties of the FRP-confined member. 2. 2.4. The stress in the FRP system at the Service Limit State Load Combination I specified in Table 3. in.1h.4.8 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications shall apply.1 The factored shear resistance.1.1.1.3-6 shall be limited to 0. 2.1 DESIGN FOR SHEAR General Applicable provisions of Article 5. 2.1.4. shall be taken as: Vr = φVn (2. the methodology and equations presented in Article 2. 2.65 f c' while the stress in the longitudinal steel reinforcement shall remain below 0.7 Stress Limits To ensure that radial cracking does not occur at the Service Limit State Load Combination I specified in Table 3.4.

kip 34 153 . measured perpendicular to the neutral axis.9.2 Maximum Spacing of Transverse Reinforcement For steel reinforcing bars. kip nominal shear resistance provided by the FRP system.1.2.2.3. or for circular sections. modified for the presence of ducts where applicable.3-1) = = = = nominal shear resistance provided by shear reinforcement. shall satisfy: Vs + V f ≤ 0. shall be determined as: Vn = Vc + Vs + ψ f V f (2.9. and the FRP system.9.8. in.9. Nominal Shear Resistance bv dv = 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 2. kip nominal shear resistance provided by the FRP system as determined in Article 2.72h. the limitations specified in Article 5.72h.2.9. it need not be taken to be less than the greater of 0.9de or 0. it need not be taken to be less than the greater of 0.2.3.3. kip nominal shear resistance provided by shear reinforcement as determined in Article 2.3 The nominal shear resistance.3 The shear resistance provided by both steel reinforcing bars. in.25 f c' bv d v where: Vs Vf f c' (2.3. FRP Reinforcement Limits wf 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 = 2. width of the FRP system.9.2.3-1) where: Vc Vs Vf = = = nominal shear resistance provided by the concrete as determined in Article 2.Vn 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 = nominal shear resistance specified in Article 2. measured parallel to the neutral axis.9. Vf.9de or 0. For FRP systems installed in the form of discrete strips.7 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications shall apply.3. in.2-1) where: dv = effective shear depth taken as the distance. kip specified compressive strength of concrete.9.9. between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces due to flexure.2. ksi effective web width taken as the minimum web width.9. in. between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces due to flexure. effective shear depth taken as the distance. the center-to-center spacing between the strips shall not exceed: dv + wf 4 (2. Vs. kip 2. the diameter of the sections. Vn. measured perpendicular to the neutral axis. between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces due to flexure.

ψf.3-1 for normal weight concrete members shall be taken as: • For nonprestressed members: Vc = 0.9. or for circular sections.9. The additional reduction factor shall be taken as: • 0.72h.3. ksi effective web width taken as the minimum web width.3-1.9.3.9.3-1 b) and c).06 f c' bv d v M max (2.9.30 f pc bv d v + V p in which: ⎛ M ⎞ M cre = Sc ⎜ f r + f cpe − dnc ⎟ S nc ⎠ ⎝ ( ) (2. between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces due to flexure.9de or 0.1 Nominal Shear Resistance Provided by the Concrete The term Vc specified in Eq.3-1 a). the diameter of the sections.0632 f c' bv d v • For prestressed members.1-2) Vcw = 0.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 An additional reduction factor for FRP systems. effective shear depth taken as the distance.06 f c' + 0. kip bv dv = Vd = 35 154 .9.1-1) (2. Vc shall be permitted to be computed as the lesser of Vci or Vcw: Vci = 0. it need not be taken to be less than the greater of 0.1-4) = = specified compressive strength of concrete. in. 2.3-1 Typical Wrapping Configurations for Concrete Members Strengthened with FRP Systems 2.85 for three-side and/or two-opposite-side members as indicated in Figure 2. a) Completely Wrapped 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 where: f c' b) Three-Side (U-Wrap) c) Two-Opposite-Side Figure 2.9.3. measured parallel to the neutral axis.9.02 f c' bv d v + Vd + Vi M cre ≥ 0.3.1-3) (2.3. shear force at section due to unfactored dead load and includes both DC (dead load of structural components and nonstructural attachments) and DW (dead load of wearing surfaces and utilities).95 for completely wrapped members as indicated in Figure 2.9.9. measured perpendicular to the neutral axis. 2. in. shall be applied to the nominal shear resistance provided by the FRP system as specified in Eq. modified for the presence of ducts where applicable. • 0. between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces due to flexure.

9. in. in. kip total unfactored dead load moment acting on the monolithic or noncomposite section.9. kip-in.3.9. maximum factored moment at section due to externally applied loads.2 Nominal Shear Resistance Provided by Shear Reinforcement The term Vs specified in Eq.9.72h. ksi component in the direction of applied shear of the effective prestressing force. ksi effective shear depth taken as the distance.Vi Mcre Mmax fpc Vp Sc fr fcpe Mdnc Snc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 where: Av fy dv = = = = = = = factored shear force at section due to externally applied loads occurring simultaneously with Mmax. specified yield strength of reinforcing bars. between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces due to flexure.3 = = = = = = FRP systems to provide additional shear resistance to concrete components shall not be applied to lightweight concrete members. measured perpendicular to the neutral axis. positive if resisting the applied shear. unless testing demonstrates their effectiveness. angle of inclination of transverse reinforcement to longitudinal axis.9.2-1) area of shear reinforcement within a distance s. compressive stress in concrete (after allowance for all prestress losses) at centroid of cross section resisting externally applied loads or at junction of web and flange when the centroid lies within the flange.9.3-1 shall be determined as: Vs = Av f y d v ( sin α + cos α ) s (2. it need not be taken to be less than the greater of 0.9de or 0. section modulus for the extreme fiber of the monolithic or noncomposite section where tensile stress is caused by externally applied loads. in. ksi compressive stress in concrete due to effective prestress forces only (after allowance for all prestress losses) at extreme fiber of section where tensile stress is caused by externally applied loads.3 The term Vf specified in Eq. kip section modulus for the extreme fiber of the composite section where tensile stress is caused by externally applied loads. kip-in. Nominal Shear Resistance Provided by the FRP System α s 11 12 13 14 15 = = 2. 2. 2. kip moment causing flexural cracking at section due to externally applied loads.3-1) in which: 36 155 .3-1 shall be determined as: Vf = Afv f f d fv ( sin α + cos α ) sf (2.3. in. 2. º spacing of stirrups.3. in.3. kip-in.3 modulus of rupture of concrete.

/in.1-2) design tensile strain of the FRP system specified in Eq.9. 2.3-3. in.9.1. tensile modulus of elasticity of the FRP system.3-1 a): ε f = 0.1-1) • For three-side and/or two-opposite-side members as indicated in Figure 2.1 Effective Strain Level in the FRP System The effective strain level.9.3.3-2 Example of Shear Strengthening of Concrete Components with FRP Systems 2.3.3. in.9.3.9.3.2-2.2.9.5.3.9. is the maximum strain that can be achieved in the FRP system at nominal resistance and shall be limited to: • For completely wrapped sections as indicated in Figure 2. width of the FRP system indicated in Figure 2.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 where: Afv ff dfv α sf n tf wf εf Ef 8 = = = = = = = = = = A fv = 2nt f w f f f = εf Ef (2.3-2 b) and c).4.3.9. ksi effective depth of FRP shear reinforcement indicated in Figure 2.3-1 b) and c): ε f = κ v ε fd ≤ 0. in.3-2 b) and c).004 ≤ 0.9.3.004 (2. º spacing of FRP shear reinforcement indicated in Figure 2. number of plies of the FRP system nominal thickness of one ply of the FRP system.9.3. 37 156 . angle of inclination of FRP shear reinforcement to longitudinal axis indicated in Figure 2.3-2) (2. εf.75ε fd (2. in./in.2 effective stress level in the FRP system specified in Eq. ksi dfv α wf wf wf wf sf sf a) Cross-Section 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 where: εfd = b) Lateral View (α=90º) c) Lateral View (α≠90º) Figure 2.3. in.9.3.9. effective strain level in the FRP system at nominal resistance specified in Article 2. in.3.3. in.9.3-2 b) and c).3.3.3-2 a).3-3) area of FRP shear reinforcement within a distance sf.9.3.

1-1 for completely wrapped sections.9.3. k2 = (2.2. 2. 2.9. in. shall be computed as: d fv − 2 Le d fv (2.9. 38 dfv Ef tf 157 . The test methodology shall be suggested by the FRP system manufacturer and approved by the purchaser.3. tensile strain for product certification as reported by manufacturers.9.3.3.3.9. 2. Le. The effectiveness of such mechanical anchors shall be demonstrated by testing.2-1) where: k1 k2 Le εfu = = modification factor accounting for concrete strength specified in Eq.3.2-4 active bond length specified in Eq.3. When approved mechanical anchors are used. the configuration and the stiffness of the FRP system. 2.3.3.58 (2.3.3-1 a).3.9.3.2-2 modification factor accounting for the configuration of the FRP system specified in Eq. = = 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 The modifications factor k1 and k2 shall be computed as: ⎛ f' ⎞ k1 = ⎜ c ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 2/ 3 (2.3. tensile modulus of elasticity of the FRP system.75 468ε fu (2./in. It shall be determined as: κv = k1k2 Le ≤ 0.9.3.5 ( nt f Ef ) 0.3.3.3.9. ksi nominal thickness of one ply of the FRP system.2-5.9.2-3) • for two-opposite-side FRP system configuration.2-5) where: f c' = = = = specified compressive strength of concrete.3.κv 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 = bond-dependent coefficient specified in Article 2.9.9.3. the effective strain level in the FRP system may be taken as specified in Eq.9.2-4) Le = 45.3.3. 2. in.2-3 and 2.3.2-2) d fv − Le d fv • for three-side (U-wrap) FRP system configuration. k2 = in which the active bond length. ksi effective depth of FRP shear reinforcement indicated in Figure 2. Mechanical anchors may be used at the termination points of the FRP system to develop larger tensile forces. in.3.3.9. in.2 Bond-Dependent Coefficient The bond-dependent coefficient is function of the concrete strength.3.

• Provide sufficient overlap when splicing FRP plies as specified in Article 2. the FRP system shall be anchored with transverse reinforcement to prevent splitting of the concrete cover. 2. 2.1 (Vu > 0. Af.10.10.9.4. For multiple-ply FRP systems./in. The following requirements shall be met: • Do not turn inside corners such as at the intersection of beams and soffit of the slab.2 design tensile strain of the FRP system specified in Eq.3. DEVELOPMENT AND LAP SPLICE OF REINFORCEMENT General Applicable provisions of Articles 5.anchor = (A (E f f fd ) longitudinal f κ v ε fd ) (2. and the level of load that is to be sustained by the FRP system. The outermost ply shall 39 158 .2 design tensile strength of the FRP system specified in Eq.1 DETAILS.3-1 b) and shall be determined as: A f .anchor.10 and 5.10.9.5.2 General Requirements for FRP Systems Detailing provisions of FRP systems used for strengthening concrete components typically depend on the geometry of the existing structure.9. in.10.2-1. in. 2.3.5. radius when FRP systems in the form of fabric are wrapped around outside corners. ksi tensile modulus of elasticity of the FRP system.3 Detailing of FRP Systems When the factored shear force at the termination point of the FRP system is greater than 2/3 the nominal shear resistance provided by the concrete specified in Article 2.10.4 past the point along the span corresponding to the cracking moment.2-2.5.3-1) anchor where: Af ffd Ef κv εfd = = = = = area of the FRP flexural reinforcement.5 in. the termination points of the plies shall be tapered. the soundness and quality of the substrate.3. • Provide a minimum 0. The area of such transverse reinforcement.67Vc).10 2. 2.3. ksi bond-dependent coefficient specified in Article 2. may be realized with FRP systems in a U-wrap configuration indicated in Figure 2.10. • Provide sufficient development length as specified in Article 2.10. a single ply of FRP system shall be terminated at least a distance equal to the development length specified in Article 2.11 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications shall apply.4.n = number of plies of the FRP shear reinforcement 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 2. 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 It shall be permitted to determine the location of the cutoff points of FRP systems for positive and negative moment regions as follows: • For simply supported concrete components.

10.10.10.4.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 be terminated not less than the development length specified in Article 2. ksi number of plies of the FRP system tensile modulus of elasticity of the FRP system. ksi smaller cross-sectional dimension for rectangular FRP bars.2-1.4.32 nE f t f f c' (2. ld = 0. For multiple-ply FRP systems. 2.2 For near surface mounted (NSM) FRP systems. a single-ply FRP system shall be terminated d/2 or 6 in.1-1) where: f c' = = = = specified compressive strength of concrete. the development length shall be computed as: • For circular FRP bars: ld = db f fd 4 τb (2.4. NSM FRP Systems n Ef tf 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 2. 40 159 .10. ksi design tensile strength of the FRP system specified in Eq. beyond the previous ply. whichever is greater beyond the inflection point (point of zero moment resulting from factored loads). 2.4 past the point along the span corresponding to the cracking moment.10. ksi nominal thickness of one ply of the FRP system. The outermost ply shall be terminated not less than 6 in. beyond the previous ply.4. average bond strength for FRP bars. in. Each successive ply shall be terminated not less than an additional 6 in.4.10.4.1-1. the termination points of the plies shall be tapered.1 For surface mounted FRP systems such as FRP fabrics and laminates.5.4 Development Length Surface Mounted FRP Systems 2.2-2) where: db τb ffd ab = = = = diameter of FRP bar. beyond the inflection point. 2.2-1) • For rectangular FRP bars: ld = ab bb f fd 2 ( aa + bb ) τb (2. • For continuous concrete components. in. Each successive ply shall be terminated not less than an additional 6 in.10.10. in.4. the development length shall be computed as indicated in Eq.

Unless a more detailed analysis is performed. Where a rectangular FRP bar with large aspect ratio is employed. it shall be permitted to assume τb = 1.5bb shall be specified.10. 41 160 . in. The minimum dimension of the groove cut on the concrete surface where the FRP bar is inserted shall be taken not less than 1.5 Lap Splice Length of FRP Systems Lap splice length of FRP systems shall be provided as recommended by the FRP system manufacturer. a minimum groove size of 3.5db. Lap splice is not required in the direction transverse to the fiber.0ab x 1.0 ksi. 2. A minimum lap splice length of 12 in. this limit may lose significance due to constructability. in which. shall be provided for FRP systems overlapping the fibers along their length.bb 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 = larger cross-sectional dimension for rectangular FRP bars.

V.. 2003. pp.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 REFERENCES Aiello. 1996. Ibell. 2001.4.J. No. L. 2006.S. 2. Kansas Department of Transportation. ACI Structural Journal..... 3. and Kodur. L.. G. W. 2. Gold. A. Calibration of Design Code for Buildings (ACI 318): Part 1––Statistical Models for Resistance. and Abel-Aziz.A. Kestner. pp. H. 100. Design-Oriented Stress-Strain Model for FRP-Confined Concrete in Rectangular Columns.A. pp. V. Galati. 2. 248-257. pp. 560 pp.R.A. and Szerszen. CFRP Strengthening of Concrete Bridges with Curved Soffits.. Topeka. M. Sause. De Lorenzis. 2007. 2001. Anchorage Length of Near-Surface-Mounted FRP Bars for Concrete Strengthening. 2003.. No. L. Nanni. 1998. Eshwar. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites. Journal of Composites for Construction.F... V. 5. Durability of Composites in Reinforced Concrete. Sherbrooke. London. Contribution of Externally Bonded FRP to the Shear Capacity of RC Flexural Members. Characterization of FRP Rods as Near Surface Mounted reinforcement. 2004. No. American Society for Testing and Materials. John Wiley & Sons. and Calvi. 7..A. Forde. No. Seible. V. West Conshohocken.. R. No. No. Bond Analysis of Curved Structural Concrete Elements Strengthened using FRP Materials. C. ACI Structural Journal. Investigation of Bond in Concrete Structures Strengthened with Near Surface Mounted CFRP Strips. Priestley.. 237-245. pp. Response to Fire of Concrete Structures that Incorporate FRP. Harries. QC.. pp. M. Fifth International Symposium on Non-Metallic (FRP) Reinforcement for Concrete structures (FRPRCS-5). and Teng. Lam. 704 pp. L. L. ASTM D7337/D7337M. 269-278. L. Green. pp. A. Nowak. A. 22. and Nanni. Journal of Composites in Construction. Lundgren. 106 pp. 42 161 . Khalifa. 4. 471-489. Peterman. V. Canada. New York. Malvar. Experimental Investigation and Numerical Modeling. 1998. PA. 17. Composites for Construction: Structural Design with FRP Materials.C. London. KS. N..K.. 2005.M. S. Lam. 2001. 195-203. J. and La Tegola. J. 377-382. 3.C. and Nanni. No. R. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Durability of Composites for Construction.. Commonwealth Institute. Bank. 2003 b. Standard Test Methods for Tensile Creep Rupture of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite Bars.. USA. 1149-1186. Reed. 13. Bisby. The Axial Behavior of Concrete Confined with Fiber Reinforced Composite Jackets.. Journal for Composites in Construction.... Seismic Design and Retrofit of Bridges.. pp. and Rizzo A. L. M. 7. M. S. 10 pp. M. Cambridge-Thomas Telford. 114-121. 136-149. Hobeken. 361-372. T. Construction and Building Materials. Evaluating FRP Repair Method for Cracked Prestressed Concrete Bridge Members Subjected to Repeated Loadings (Phase 1). KTRAN Report No. pp.. T.E. F. and Rasheed.A. Hassan. A. 2003. NJ. 5. and Rizkalla. V. pp. V. Progress in structural Engineering and Materials. De Lorenzis. K-TRAN: KSU-01-2. V. and ricles. Journal in Composites for Construction. 2003a. International Conference Structural Faults + Repair 2003. Design-Oriented Stress-Strain Model for FRP-Confined Concrete. L. Pessiki. J. 680-688. 101. 3. ed. N. No. M. and Teng.. K. K. 2005. pp.M.. J. V. (CD-ROM). John Wiley & Sons. V. A.

2. A. 107-115. 447-462. pp. 2. No. Calibration of Design Code for Buildings (ACI 318): Part 2––Reliability Analysis and Resistance Factors. No. S. No.. Japan. V. J. pp. Intermediate Crack Induced Debonding in RC Beams and Slabs. S. 1998. pp. Smith..T.. and Chen. 2008. 3.C. Review of Design Guidelines for FRP Confinement of Reinforced Concrete Columns of Noncircular Cross Sections. 6-7. Japan Concrete Institute. V.. V. Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams using Epoxy-Bonded FRP Composites. No. 383-391. Yamaguchi. V. N. pp.. and Nanni. 2001. 1997. Construction and Building Materials.M.. V. 80-92. pp. T. Kato.. Tokyo. and Nowak..G. ACI Structural Journal. T. 100. Y. Carbon and Glass Fibers. 43 162 . Third International Symposium on Non-Metallic (FRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structures (FRPRCS3). T.F. 2003. and Uomoto. Yao.S. Triantafillou. J. Nishimura. Teng. Creep Rupture of FRP Rods Made of Aramid. Szerszen.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Rocca.17. Journal of Composites for Construction. 179-186. A. M. 12. Galati. J.. T. ACI Structural Journal. 1. 95.

Fiber. Filament––See Fiber. nonwoven. Laminate––A precured or wet layup FRP system. Manual layup––The process of placing reinforcing material in its final position and applying the resin as a liquid. or stitched fibers. 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 3. polyacrylonitrile (PAN). 44 163 . Aramid (AFRP)––Highly oriented organic fiber derived from polyamide incorporating into an aromatic ring structure. or near surface mounted (NSM) bars. and minimum performance requirements for FRP systems to be used as externally bonded or surface mounted systems for strengthening concrete members. generally with a length at least 100 times its diameter.2 DEFINITIONS Commercial-Grade Material––A material formulated for and used in industrial (not consumer) applications. that has properties making it desirable for use as reinforcement.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Section 3 MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 3. such as rayon. Glass (GFRP)––Fiber drawn from an inorganic product of fusion that has cooled without crystallizing. knitted. or any other fiber form. Fabric––A two-dimensional network of woven. Fiber––A slender and greatly elongated solid material. strands. applicable provisions of ACI 440. When carbon or glass surface mounted (NSM) FRP systems are used to strengthen concrete members. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP)––A general term for a composite material comprising a polymer matrix reinforced with fibers in the form of fabric. limits on constituent volumes. mat. Fiber. or pitch in an inert environment. FRP––Fiber reinforced polymer. FRP systems shall be in the form of laminates. Fiber.1 SCOPE This Section describes permitted constituent materials. fabrics. Carbon (CFRP)––Fiber produced by heating organic precursor materials containing a substantial amount of carbon.6 shall apply.

durability.3 LIMITATIONS The test method L. and FRP composites. Nominal–– A value provided by the manufacturer no greater than the mean of at least the required number of samples tested according to a specified test method. and bond attributes. Property. Once cured. Resin. purchaser and manufacturer shall agree on the protocols to be used. tows. Tow––An untwisted bundle of continuous filaments. the resin acts as the matrix of the FRP laminate and allows adhesion of the laminate to the substrate.. Sizing––Surface treatment applied to filaments to impart desired processing. Yarn––A twisted bundle of continuous filaments. 45 164 . Roving––A parallel bundle of continuous yarn. a precured FRP system is bonded to the surface of the concrete with an adhesive. Glass Transition––The midpoint of the temperature range over which an amorphous material (such as glass or high polymer) changes from (or to) a brittle. more commonly a rubber or resin consisting of large molecules formed by polymerization. Polymer––The product of polymerization.2 “Test Method for Tension Test on Flat Specimen” from ACI 440.3R. “Guide Test Method for Fiber-Reinforced Polymers (FRPs) for Reinforcing or Strengthening Concrete Structures” is referenced. Because this test method is not written in mandatory language. or fibers with little or no twist. 46 47 48 49 3. Reinforcement––Reinforcing bars. concretes. Resin––A thermosetting reaction product of epoxy resin with polymerizable unsaturated acid (usually methacrylic acid) that is then diluted with a reactive monomer (usually styrene). Wet Layup FRP System––A method of forming FRP laminates using dry FRP fabrics that are saturated with resin in-place. Precured FRP System––A fully cured FRP system that is usually made in a factory and brought to the site as a rigid solid. Epoxy––A class of organic chemical bonding systems used in the preparation of special coatings or adhesives for concrete or as binders in epoxy-resin mortars. and/or fiber reinforced polymer materials. vitreous state to (or from) a plastic state. Polymerization––The reaction in which two or more molecules of the same substance combine to form a compound containing the same elements and in the same proportions but of higher molecular weight. Temperature. Production Lot––Any lot of FRP systems produced from start to finish with the same constituent materials used in the same proportions without changing any production parameter. If used as a repair material for concrete. and protect them against environmental attack and damage due to handling. Vinylester. Near Surface Mounted (NSM) Systems––Circular or rectangular FRP bars bonded into grooves made in the concrete surface. Guaranteed––A characteristic value provided by the manufacturer no greater than the mean minus three standard deviations of at least the required number of samples tested according to a specified test method. transfer load to the fibers. prestressing steel. such as cure temperature or line speed. Property.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Matrix––The resin or binders that hold the fibers in FRP together.

3.2 Glass Transition Temperature The glass transition temperature Tg of the resin shall not be less than 140ºF for polyesters and vinylesters and 180ºF for epoxies. The tensile strength of a production lot shall be measured for the purchaser’s quality assurance as determined by a test method submitted by the manufacturer for acceptance by the purchaser at a frequency and number of specimens specified in 46 165 . For precured FRP systems. The test method specified in Article 3.1 MATERIAL AND MANUFACTURE Fibers Fibers shall be in the form of unidirectional rovings or tows of given size and mass. and 2) manufacturer’s quality control and purchaser’s quality assurance for each production lot. added during processing shall be reported.5.6. polyester.1 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Fibers Content The fiber content shall be measured by ASTM D3171 or D2584. 3. When ASTM D2584 is used. epoxy. The manufacturer shall report the fiber content of the end product by volume or by mass in accordance with the method used. test result for both the first scan and the second scan shall be reported. Fiber sizings and coupling agents shall be compatible with the resin system used to impregnate the fibers. 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 3.5.8. 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 3. and cementitious-based resin systems are permitted provided the finished products meet the physical and durability requirements of Articles 3. The glass transition temperature shall be measured on a coupon cut from the as-produced FRP system using either the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method in ASTM E1356 or the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) method in ASTM E1640.4. fiber content shall not be less than 55% by volume. Process or material modifications are not permitted during the production of a single lot. guaranteed value) from multiple production lots.3 Manufacturing Process The manufacturer shall document the process used and report the date of production and production size lot. The guaranteed tensile strength for product certification shall be as determined by a test method submitted by the manufacturer for acceptance by the purchaser at a frequency and number of specimens specified in Article 3.1. 3.5 3. When ASTM D3171 is used.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 3. styrene is permitted to be added to the polymer resin during processing.4. Added styrene shall be less than 10% by mass of the polymer resin.4. The amount of styrene. When using the DSC method.6 3.3 may be selected for this purpose.7.4 3.5 and 3. fiber content shall not be less than the fraction by mass corresponding to 55% by volume. Constituent content of resin shall be determined by ASTM D3171.1 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Tensile Strength The tensile strength shall be determined for two purposes: 1) overall product certification (that is.2 Matrix Resins Vinylester. as mass percentage of the polymer resin.

5.2 Tensile Modulus of Elasticity The tensile modulus of elasticity shall be determined for the purpose of product certification (that is.8. nominal value).3.000 ksi 10.6. the production lot shall be rejected.000 ksi Method 2 Based on equivalent fiber area 10.3 for plates. shall not be less than the values reported on Table 3.6.2-2 Nominal tensile modulus of elasticity for precured FRP systems Fiber type • Aramid • Carbon • Glass Ef 9. Table 3.1-1 shall be performed by the FRP system manufacturer at a frequency and number of specimens specified in Article 3.5%.7 3.7. determined according to the test method of Article 3.500 ksi 18. GFRP.500 ksi 5.000 ksi 3.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Article 3. 2.8.1.000 ksi The nominal tensile modulus of elasticity for precured FRP systems such as pultruded bars and plates. 24 25 26 27 28 3. shall not be less than the values reported on Table 3. respectively.6.3 Ultimate Tensile Strain The ultimate tensile strain shall be calculated for the purpose of product certification (that is.500 ksi 20.2-2. nominal value). The strength of each specimens shall be reported and be not less than the guaranteed strength reported by the manufacturer. The nominal ultimate tensile strain of AFRP. 3.2-1.6.2-1 Nominal tensile modulus of elasticity for field fabricated FRP systems Fiber type • Aramid • Carbon • Glass 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Method 1 Based on composite area 5. If the strength is less than the guaranteed strength.1 DURABILITY REQUIREMENTS General Environmental durability tests for the purpose of manufacturer’s quality control and for the purchaser’s quality assurance given in Table 3. and CFRP systems either field fabricated or precured and obtained by this procedure shall be at least 2. Table 3. The test method specified in Article 3.3 may be selected for this purpose. The nominal tensile modulus of elasticity for FRP systems installed by manual layup or other field fabrication systems.6.25.000 ksi 32.6.500 ksi 18 19 20 21 22 23 3.1.7. determined according to ASTM D 7205/D 7205M for bars and the test method of Article 3. 47 166 . The nominal ultimate tensile strain shall be calculated by dividing the guaranteed tensile strength by the nominal tensile modulus of elasticity. and 1.

000.000. 3.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Each test method indicated in Table 3. 100 cycles 24 hr per cycle.7.8.5 Furnace at 140 ºF Immersion at 70 ºF Cycle between UV at 140 ºF and condensate at 100 ºF Cycle between 100% humidity at 100 ºF and freezer at 0 ºF Test Duration 1.000 and 10.1-1 differ by no more than 15% with respect to the value as determined on Article 3.7.8 3.000 hr 4 hr 4 hr per condition. at least five samples of sufficient length to perform the required tests shall be obtained from each production lot. Tests for the determination of the mechanical properties for product certification shall be repeated at least every three years. the purchaser shall be furnished with: 48 167 .1-1 Environmental Durability Test Matrix Environmental Durability Test • Water Resistance • Sal Water Resistance • Alkali Resistance • Dry Heat Resistance • Fuel Resistance • Ultraviolet Light Resistance • Freeze/Taw Resistance 8 9 10 Test Conditions 100% humidity at 100ºF Immersion at 70 ºF Immersion in CaCO3 at 70 ºF.000 and 10. Table 3. 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 3. pH = 9.9 Rejection The purchaser has the option to reject material that fails to conform to the requirements of this Section.2 Method of Sampling Selection Samples from each production lot to be used for preparing the specimens shall be selected by the manufacturer on a random basis.1-1 shall comply with the requirements specified in the “Qualifications for Seismic Retrofitting of Bridge Columns Using Composites: Volume 1: Composite Properties Characterization” issued by the California Department of Transportation (For T-6 Committee only: check with Jim Gutierrez for latest CALTRANS requirements).000 and 3.10 Product Certification When specified in the purchase order or contract. For the determination of each of the mechanical properties for product certification. 3.000 hr 1.1 SAMPLING Sampling Frequency and Number of Specimens For the determination of each of the mechanical and durability properties for the manufacturer’s quality control tests and for the purchaser’s quality assurance tests. 3.000 and 10.7.000.6. 25 26 27 3.000 hr 1. Rejection shall be reported to the manufacturer or supplier promptly and in writing.000 hr 1. 22 23 24 3. at least 25 samples of sufficient length to perform the required tests shall be obtained in groups of five from five different production lots.8. 20 cycles A test method is considered to be passed if the mechanical properties of the specimen calculated after each of the tests reported on Table 3. 3.

and their properties as provided by the supplier.1 2 3 4 5 • Documentation showing constituents. and • Product certification stating that samples representing each production lot have been tested and inspected as indicated in this Section and the requirements have been met. their quantities. 49 168 .

ASTM D7205/D 7205M. American Society for Testing and Materials. 2002. American Society for Testing and Materials. USA.6-08. 50 169 . West Conshohocken. 2006. USA. West Conshohocken. Specifications for Carbon and Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Bar Materials for Concrete Reinforcement. USA. ASTM E1640-04. PA. 2003. West Conshohocken. 2008. PA. Standard Test Methods for Constituent Content of Composite Materials. USA. USA. MI. 2004. CA. Standard Test Methods for Assignment of the Glass Transition Temperature by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. American Society for Testing and Materials. Standard Test Methods for Ignition Loss of Cured Reinforced Resins. PA. West Conshohocken. ACI 440. Caltrans.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 REFERENCES American Concrete Institute. PA. MI.3R-04. American Society for Testing and Materials. California Department of Transportation. West Conshohocken. Farmington Hills. USA. ASTM D2584-02. Guide Test Methods for Fiber-Reinforced Polymers (FRPs) for reinforcing or Strengthening Concrete Structures. Standard Test Methods for Assignment of the Glass Transition Temperature by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. ACI 440. Farmington Hills. Committee 440. Qualifications for Seismic Retrofitting of Bridge Columns Using Composites: Volume 1: Composite Properties Characterization. 2006. Committee 440. ASTM D3171-06. Sacramento. USA. 1999. American Society for Testing and Materials. Standard Test Methods for Tensile Properties of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite Bars. PA. 2004. USA. American Concrete Institute. ASTM E1356-06.

T-6 AASHTO LRFD GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS FOR DESIGN OF EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SYSTEMS FOR STRENGTHENING CONCRETE BRIDGES – COMMENTARY – DATE 02/28/2010 T-6 PAUL LILES.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 ATTACHMENT B – 2010 AGENDA ITEM 28 . Chair 1 170 .

.................................8....................................................................................................................................................................................................3...................7 ..........................................................................................................................................................................3 .................1 .........................................5  C1...............................................7  C2...................................................................................8  C2..........................................................5................................................................................................................4..............2 ...............................................................3 .....................................8  C2..................................................................................................................................4......................................................................6  C2......................8  C2...6  C2............................................................................3 .............................................................................................................................4.......................................................................6  C2.............8..............................................................7.........................................3 ...............................................4 ..........7  C2..............................4...............................................................1 .....................6  C2..............................................................................6  C2.7  C2...................................................................................................................................................1 .....................................................................................................................8  C2.......................8  C2........................................................4.................................................................................................................3 ................................................7......................................................................................................6...........................8  C2.................................1 .2......................................4 .........................................................................6  C2..............6  C2.5  C1..................................................2..................................................................................4..........................4 ..........................................................................4............................................1 ..............................................................................................................................4 .............................................................4................5.....................................................................................3...................................................................................2 ....................................................................................6  C2..................................................................................3 ...................................................................7  C2..............................................................................3 ..................4....................................................3 ..............5...........2 ..................7  C2.........................................8.................................................6............................................................................6..................................................8  C2...........................................................7  C2.............................................................................................................................................7  C2............................................5......................1..............................4...........................................................................................................................................................................................8............................2...................................1 ...5  Section 2...6  C2..................................................................................................................................................................8  C2.............................................................................................................6............................................................5..................................................................................3..2 .........................................................................................................................................................................1 ...........................................6  C2............................................................................................................................9  C2.....................................8  C2.........8  C2..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................4...............................................................6................................4 .........1............5 ........................................................................8  C2..............................................................9  2 171 ...................................5.....8  C2.................2..............................................................5.....................................3............2 .............8.................................................................................7  C2................................................................3........................6...................................................2 ...6........5..........................................................................5....................................8  C2................8  C2.........................................................................................................................................................................8............1 .......................8...........................................................................4 .........................5....................8  C2..........................................................2...........................................................................................................................................5 ...............................8  C2....................2 ............................................................................................5  C1.......................................................5 ..............................7  C2.....................................................................................................2 ..5...................6  C2.....................8................................................................................................8  C2.....................................................................8........................................2............1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 TABLE OF CONTENTS Section 1................................................................1 ........................................4........................................................................................................................................................................................7  C2....5............................8  C2..............................8.............8......6  C2...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2.................................................................................................................................1 .........1 .........................................................................................5 ........................................5  C1..................8  C2..........................................3...................................2 .......................8 .....................................6 ....................................................2 ...................................................................................3 .............................................................6  C2...............................2 ..............................................................................................................

...............................................8..............................13  3 172 ..................................................................9......................................................................11  C2...........2 .....................................................7..............1......................................................................................................................................................8.....9  C2...................................................................................................................................................................................................................9  C2............9.................................2.................................................................................................................................................3..................................11  C2.........8..................................................................................................1................8........................................................8..........1.....................................................................................................................................................9  C2.........4.......................................2..................................2.....................................................................................................................................................................4..................................2.............5 ......................11  C2....................3 .........4 ............................................................................................................................................................................10  C2.3.........................................................................................................................................................4...................................11  C2.......9  C2...........................................................................................................11  C2.12  C2...............................9.........4....................................................................................................10  C2....................9  C2................................................................................3...................................................................1............................................................................8......................8........1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 C2.......10  C2................10  C2..............1 ....1.......3...............................................................8.............................13  C3......9  C2.................................................1..........................................................................................................3 .....................3.......................................................................3....................................................3...4.10..............................6........7...............................................2 ................................11  C2.3 ................................1.......4.....................................10  C2..............4..........3................3......................................................8.................10  C2.....................................................................8...............................................................2................8........8............................................1 ..............................................1..........................................8....................................................................................3...............................................................................................................................................................9.............................................................................................8............................................................................................................................................10  C2...........................................10  C2............10  C2.................................................8..........................................................4....................9  C2.....................3......................3..........................................................................................8........3 .............................................................................................................9 ...........................................2..............................1 ..10 .......................2 .3.......3.........4......................8.............................2...7.4.........................................................................................................11  C2.............................5..............9  C2................................................................7 ................3....12  C2...........................8.................1 ................9  C2.................................9  C2..................................................................................................................................3............................................13  C3......4...............................................................................8................................................9  C2.....................................................3 ......3 ....................4...................4............................4......3..........................7...................................................8..............................................................11  C2........................................................2 .......................................................................................................12  C2.............8............................................................................................................................3......................13  C3............................................................................................................................................4 ....................13  C3..............4 ..................................................................................................................................................................................................2......................2..........................................................................................................................................4..............10.......................................4..3.......................................................................................3............................................4.........................................8....8.......................................................................9  C2..................................................................................................................3.....................................................................................................10..............................1...............................................................................................................3...4................7.................................................10................................4.........................................2 ..........3 ...................9....................10  C2.2..2..................................................................8....................................................................................................9...11  C2................................9  C2............................10.............................11  C2................................................11  C2..........12  Section 3..4.....10......................11  C2....................................9.............................................10  C2................................................4......................................................................................2 ...................2....................................................................................................................................3..............................................................................................................4.......................2.................................................9...................8.........9.......................5........................................................9.......1...6 ................................................................9  C2...........................1 .................................................................................4..................2 ........................................5 ......................................................11  C2........1...............................1 ......................11  C2....................3......................12  C2............3................................................3.........................................................2 ...........................8.................................................................................10  C2................................10  C2.......................................................................................................13  C3..............................................................................8..................................................9  C2...........13  C3..........................................................................................8..............................1...........................8..........................................................1 .....................................9.................1 ..............................................................4 ....................................10...............................................................................................12  C2..................3.11  C2...........................4....

........................................................................................................6 ...13  C3....13  C3................4........................................................................................................13  C3.........................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 C3.....13  C3...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................10 ............................................................................13  C3..................................9 .....................5...........................1 .............................................6..................................................................................................................................................5 ........1 ...........14  4 173 ............13  C3....................................14  C3...................3 .............3 .......................................................................................................13  C3.............................................13  C3...........................................6........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................13  C3......7............1 ..................................................................13  C3...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................8.........................................................................14  C3.13  C3...................................................2 ...............................................................................................................................8 .............................................8........................................5..........................................................1 ..........................2 ..................6...................................7 .....................................................................................................................2 .......13  C3.......................

specific guidance on the use of these systems is needed.3 C1. serviceable bridge. and approved criterion may also be used in a manner consistent with the LRFD approach to bridge design. such as steel plate bonding. Section 1 INTRODUCTION 5 174 .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 C1. The term “should” indicates a strong preference for a given criterion. The term “may” indicates a criterion that is usable. C1. Due to the characteristics of FRP materials as well as the behavior of concrete members strengthened with FRP systems. and noncorrosive. retrofit or strengthen a sound structural member to resist increased loads. relatively easy to install. FRP systems can be used to rehabilitate or restore the strength of a deteriorated structural member.2 C1.1 Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) systems for strengthening concrete bridge structures are an alternative to traditional strengthening techniques. FRP systems offer advantages over traditional strengthening techniques: they are lightweight. but other local and suitably documented. verified. FRP strengthening systems use FRP composite materials as supplemental externally bonded reinforcement. A list of references related to FRP systems in concrete structures is reported at the end of this Section. The term “shall” denotes a requirement for compliance with these Guide Specifications.4 The limit states specified herein are intended to provide for a buildable. section enlargement. and external post-tensioning. or address design or construction errors. capable of safely carrying design loads for a specified lifetime.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 C2.1 This Guide Specifications refers to commercially available FRP systems consisting of fibers and resins combined in a specific manner and installed by a specific method. These systems have been developed through material characterization and structural testing. Untested combinations of fibers and resins result in unexpected range of properties as well as potential material incompatibilities. Any FRP systems considered for use should have sufficient test data demonstrating adequate performance of the entire system in similar applications, including its method of installation. The use of untested combinations of fibers and resins should be avoided. C2.2 C2.3 C2.4 C2.4.1 C2.4.2 C2.4.3 C2.4.4 C2.4.5 C2.4.5.1 C2.4.5.2 When loaded in direct tension, FRP materials do not exhibit any plastic behavior (yielding) before rupture. The tensile behavior of FRP materials is characterized by a linear stress-strain relationship until failure. The material properties provided by the manufacturers are considered as initial properties that do not include the effects of long-term exposure to the environment. Because long-term exposure to various type of environment may reduce the tensile strength as well as creep rupture and fatigue endurance of FRP systems, the material properties used in all design equations are reduced based on type and level of environmental exposure. C2.4.5.3

Section 2 CONCRETE STRUCTURES STRENGTHENED WITH FRP SYSTEMS

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 C2.5

C2.4.5.4 The coefficient of thermal expansion for FRP systems typically differ in the longitudinal and transverse directions, depending upon the type of fiber, resin, and volume fraction of fiber. A negative value for the coefficient of thermal expansion indicates that the material contracts with increased temperature and expands with decreased temperature. For reference, concrete has a coefficient of thermal expansion that varies between 4 x 10-6 to 6 x 10-6 / ºF; steel has a coefficient of thermal expansion of 6.5 x 10-6 / ºF. C2.4.5.5 C2.4.5.5.1 FRP materials subjected to a constant load over time can suddenly fail after a time period referred to as the endurance time. As the ratio of the sustained tensile stress to the short-term strength of the FRP system increases, the endurance time decreases. Researches indicated that glass, aramid, and carbon fibers can sustain approximately 0.3, 0.5, and 0.9 times their ultimate strength, respectively, before encountering a creep-rupture problem (Yamaguchi et al., 1997; Malvar 1998). C2.4.5.5.2

C2.5.1 Strengthening limits are imposed to guard against collapse of the structure should bond or other failure of the FRP system occur due to damage, vandalism, or other causes. To prevent sudden failure of the member in case the FRP system is damaged, strengthening limits are imposed such that the increase in the load-carrying capacity of the member strengthened with FRP systems is limited. The philosophy is that the loss of the FRP system should not cause member failure under sustained service loads. C2.5.2 The level of strengthening that can be achieved with the use of externally bonded FRP systems may be limited by coderequired fire resistance rating of the structure. The polymer resin currently used for FRP systems suffer deterioration of mechanical and bond properties at temperature close to or exceeding the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer. A typical Tg range for field-applied resins is 140 to 180 ºF. Because of the degradation of most FRP systems at high temperature, the strength of externally bonded FRP systems is assumed to be lost completely in a fire, unless it can be demonstrated that the FRP temperature remains below its critical temperature (for example, FRP systems with a fire protection coating). The critical temperature of an FRP system should be taken as the lowest glass transition temperature of the components of the repair system. The fire endurance of concrete components strengthened with FP systems may be improved with the use of specific resin systems, coatings, insulation systems, or other methods of fire protection (Bisby et al., 2005). C2.5.3 While FRP systems are effective in strengthening members for flexure and shear and provide additional confinement, other modes of failure, such as punching shear and bearing capacity of footings, may be only slightly affected by the presence of the FRP system. C2.6 C2.6.1

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

C2.6.2 The stress level in the steel reinforcement is calculated based on a cracked-section analysis of the concrete component strengthened with FRP system. Although this method ignores the initial strain level in the FRP system, such value does not greatly influence the depth to the neutral axis in the elastic response range of the member. C2.6.3 C2.6.3.1 C2.6.3.2 The resistance factor is set at 0.9 for ductile sections and 0.65 for brittle sections where the steel does not yield, and provides a linear transition for the resistance factor between these two extremes. C2.6.3.3 C2.6.4 C2.7 C2.7.1 C2.7.2 C2.8 C2.8.1 C2.8.2 C2.8.2.1 C2.8.2.2 C2.8.2.3 Unless all loads on a member, including self-weight and any prestressing forces, are removed before installation of the FRP system, the substrate to which the FRP system is applied will be strained. These strains shall be considered as initial strain and shall be excluded from the strain in the FRP system. C2.8.2.4 The presence of curvature soffit of a concrete member may lead to the development of tensile stresses normal to the adhesive and surface to which the FRP system is bonded. Such tensile stresses result when the FRP system tends to straighten under load and may promote the FRP system delamination that reduces the effectiveness of the flexural strengthening (Aiello et al., 2001; Eshwar et al., 2003). C2.8.2.5 C2.8.3 C2.8.3.1 8

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

C2.8.3.2 C2.8.3.2.1 The effective stress level in the FRP system, ff, is the maximum level of stress that can be developed before failure of the section. C2.8.3.2.2 The effective strain level in the FRP system, εf, is the maximum level of strain that can be developed before failure of the section occurs due to crushing of the concrete, FRP rupture or FRP debonding. C2.8.3.2.3 The effective strain level in the FRP system, εf, is the maximum level of strain that can be developed before failure of the section occurs due to crushing of the concrete, FRP rupture, FRP debonding or prestressing steel rupture. C2.8.3.3 C2.8.3.4 C2.8.3.4.1 C2.8.3.4.2 Additional reduction factors applied to the contribution of the FRP systems are recommended to reflect uncertainties inherent in FRP systems compared with traditional reinforced and prestressed concrete. These reduction factors were determined based on statistical evaluation of variability in mechanical properties, predicted versus full-scale test results, and field applications. FRP-related reduction factors were calibrated to produce reliability indexes typically above 3.5. Reliability indexes for FRP strengthened members are determined based on the approach used for reinforced concrete buildings (Nowak and Szerszen, 2003; Szerszen and Nowak, 2003). C2.8.3.4.3 C2.8.3.4.4 C2.8.3.4.5 C2.8.3.5 C2.8.3.6 C2.8.3.7 C2.8.3.7.1 C2.8.3.7.2 C2.8.3.7.3

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 C2.8.4

C2.8.3.7.4

C2.8.4.1 An increase in the overall member capacity is an immediate outcome typically expressed in terms of improved peak load resistance. Ductility enhancement, determines the ability of the member to sustain rotation and drift without a substantial loss in the strength. C2.8.4.1.1 C2.8.4.1.2 Strength enhancement for concrete compression components with f c' of 10 ksi or higher has not been experimentally verified. Tests performed by Lam and Teng, 2003a, b indicated that a ratio of f l / f c' > 0.08 shall be adopted. C2.8.4.1.3 The efficiency factor for FRP systems, κε, accounts for the premature failure of the FRP system (Pessiki et al., 2001), due to the multiaxial state of stress to which the FRP system is subjected as opposed to pure axial tension used for material characterization. This behavior may also be related to stress concentration caused by cracking of concrete as it dilates. C2.8.4.1.4 C2.8.4.1.5 Confinement of reinforced concrete circular cross-sections with FRP systems provides a circumferentially uniform pressure to the radial expansion of the concrete when fibers are aligned transversally to the longitudinal axis of the member. C2.8.4.1.6 C2.8.4.1.7 As loads approach factored load levels, damage of the concrete in the form of significant cracking in the radial direction might occur. The FRP system contains the damage and maintains the structural integrity of the concrete component. At service load levels, however, this type of damage should be avoided. In such a way, the FRP system will only act during overloading conditions that are temporary in nature. C2.8.4.2 C2.8.4.2.1 The balanced point represents the balanced failure in which crushing of the concrete and yielding of the tension steel reinforcement develop simultaneously. C2.8.4.2.2 P-M diagrams for FRP confined concrete components have been developed using well-established procedures (Bank, 2006, Rocca et al., 2008).

10

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3 C2.9. C2.9.9.8.3.10.3 Completely wrapping the FRP system around the concrete component on all four sides is the most efficient wrapping method and is most commonly used in column applications where access to all four sides of the column is usually available.2. increase of ductility results from the ability to develop greater compressive strains in the concrete before compressive failure occurs.3. C2. 1996.9.1 C2.1 This strain limitation is based on testing conducted by Priestley et al..9.3.3. C2. Although all three techniques have been shown to improve the shear resistance of concrete components. Bonding to two sides of a beam is the least efficient method.9.1 11 180 . FRP systems that do not enclose the entire section have been observed to delaminate from the concrete substrate before the loss of aggregate interlock of the concrete component.2 C2.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 C2.3.3.9.2 The bond-dependent coefficient is determined based on experimental investigation (Khalifa et al.3. C2.9.2.3 In concrete components confined with FRP systems. 1998).1 C2.1 C2. completely wrapping the member with FRP system is the most efficient method.2.9.10 C2.9 C2. In beam applications where an integral slab makes impractical to completely wrap the concrete component. followed by the three-sided U-wrap configuration. Bond stresses have analyzed to determine the usefulness of these FRP system configurations and the effective strain level that can be achieved (Triantafillou. the shear resistance may be improved by wrapping the FRP system around three sides or bonding to two opposite side of the member..2 C2. 1998). Higher strain levels should not be used.9.2 C2.3 C2. Confinement with FRP systems may also delay buckling of longitudinal steel reinforcement in compression.4.9.

1 The development length is determined based on experimental investigation (Teng et al.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 C2..3 Limited data suggest a modest increase in the FRP strain at debonding may be achieved with the provision of transverse reinforcement (Reed et al. 2005). C2.10.5 FRP systems consisting of multiple unidirectional fibers oriented in more than one direction require lap splice in more than one direction to maintain the continuity of the fibers and the overall strength of the FRP systems. C2. C2. 2003).10. The minimum groove dimension is based on experimental investigations (De Lorenzis and Nanni.2 The average bond strength for FRP bars is determined based on experimental data (De Lorenzis et al.4.10.4 C2.10. and the level of load that is to be sustained by the FRP system.10.. 2001. C2.10. 12 181 .. 2004. Hassan and Rizkalla.4. the soundness and quality of the substrate.2 Detailing provisions of FRP systems used for strengthening concrete components typically depend on the geometry of the existing structure. Hassan and Rizkalla. 2003). 2001).

C3.4.5.7.5.3 The calculation method is based on the assumption that the stress-strain behavior of the FRP system is linear elastic.8 C3.4.2 This temperature does not represent the maximum permitted service temperature. C3.3 C3.1 C3.1 The fiber type and fiber amount determine the physical and mechanical properties of the FRP system.5 C3.6.6 C3.4.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 C3. and is intended for purchaser’s quality assurance only.7 C3.6.2 C3.4 C3.1 C3.6. C3.2 C3.3 C3.1 13 Section 3 MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS 182 . Manufacturers should be consulted to determine the appropriate maximum service temperature of the FRP system.8.1 C3.2 C3.1 C3.

1 2 3 C3.9 C3.2 C3.10 14 183 .8.

This 75-year reliability is equivalent to an annual probability of exceedance of 2.1 (WAI 36) TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-5 Loads REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 01/21/10 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Add the following paragraph to the end of the current Commentary to Article 1.7E-06 with a corresponding annual target reliability index of 4.5 with a corresponding probability of exceedance of 2.0E-04 during the 75-year design life of the bridge.2. OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: Learned on “Assuring Bridge Safety and Serviceability” International Scan.1: The Strength I Limit State in the AASHTO LRFD Specifications has been calibrated for a target reliability index of 3.6. Article C1. Similar calibration efforts for the Service Limit States are underway.3.3.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 29 SUBJECT: LRFD Bridge Design Specifications: Section 1. QUANTIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL SAFETY OF HIGHWAY BRIDGES: Annual Probability of Failure by Dennis Mertz OTHER: None 184 . Return periods for extreme events are often based upon annual probability of exceedance and caution must be used when comparing reliability indices of various limit states. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: None REFERENCES: 2009 White Paper.2.

spans. The load combination was revised in 2010 for a more consistent reliability index.5 are retained for potential application. revise the 4th bullet item as follows: • STRENGTH IV—Load combination for superstructures only relating to very high dead load to live load force effect ratios.4.and medium-span bridges. Short and medium spans are considered as approximately up to 600 ft.1. and long spans greater than 1.1. and it appears that Strength Load Combination IV will govern where the dead load to live load force effect ratio exceeds about 7. the ratio of dead and live load force effects is rather high. depending on other permanent loads present.. revise the Commentary to the 4th bullet item on Strength IV (above) as follows: The standard calibration process for the strength limit state consists of trying out various combinations of load and resistance factors on a number of bridges and their components. Article 3. This load combination can control during investigation of construction stages. intermediate spans between 600 and 1..000 ft.1 (WAI 32) TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-5 Loads REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 02/15/09 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Item #1 In Article 3.4. Combinations that yield a safety index close to the target value of β = 3.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 30 SUBJECT: LRFD Bridge Design Specifications: Section 3. the Load Combination IV now governs when the dead load to live load force effect ratio is about 3. From these are selected constant load factors γ and corresponding resistance factors φ for each type of structural component reflecting its use. This calibration process had been carried out for a large number of bridges with spans not exceeding 200 ft. For the primary components of large bridges. It is believed to be more practical to investigate one additional load case than to require the use of two sets of resistance factors with the load factors provided in Strength Load Combination I. 185 .0.4. and could result in a set of resistance factors different from those found acceptable for small.000 ft. Spot checks had been made on a few bridges with up to 600-ft. Item #2 In Article 3.

20 0.40 — — 0.00 1.00 1. etc.00 1.40 — 0.75 1. The rest of the table remains unchanged.35 — 1.00 — — — — — — — IC — — — — — — 1.00 1.30 — — 0.1-1.00 1.50/1.70 — — WL — — — — 1.35 γEQ 0.0 — — 1.00 1.00 — — — — — — (T5 will discuss a suggestion on Strength IV to include TG and SE.Item #3 In Table 3.20 — — 1.00 1.20 1.4.1-1—Load Combinations and Load Factors DC DD DW EH EV ES EL PS CR SH γp γp γp γp γp γp γp 1.00 1.20 — — TG γTG γTG γTG — γTG — — γTG — γTG — — — SE γSE γSE γSE — γSE — — γSE — γSE 1.20 0.20 1.50/1.00 — — — — — — CV — — — — — — 1.80 — 1.20 1.00 1. 5th row (STRENGTH IV).00 1.50 1.0 — — — — — FR 1.00 — — — — — — CT — — — — — — 1.00/1.00 1.00 1.00 1.4” as shown below: Table 3.00 — — WS — — 1.00 1. 3rd column (LL.30 0.00/1.) .00 1. IM & CE ONLY FATIGUE II— LL. IM & CE ONLY LL IM CE BR PL LS 1.00 1.00 1.00/1.00 1.00/1.4 1.00 1.20 0.00 — — TU 0. replace the “—” with “1.50/1.00 1.0 — — EQ — — — — — 1.00 1.75 WA 1.50 0.00 1.20 0.) 186 .4.00 1.50/1.50/1.00 — — Use One of These at a Time Load Combination Limit State STRENGTH I (unless noted) STRENGTH II STRENGTH III STRENGTH IV STRENGTH V EXTREME EVENT I EXTREME EVENT II SERVICE I SERVICE II SERVICE III SERVICE IV FATIGUE I— LL.00 1.

35 1.75 (LL + IM) (b) 1.05 1.90 0. depends on the controlling load combination: Strength I or Strength IV. add “Superstructures. Results of this study are indicated on the attached charts.00 0. the Strength IV load combination currently governs for DL:LL ratios above 7 i. The controlling target reliability. Although LL/(LL+DL) ratios from 0 to 1.50” with “1.4.90 0.15 and 0.40 0.25 would then also be controlled 187 .50 1. and Method Used to Calculate Downdrag DC: Component and Attachments DC: Strength IV Superstructure. βT.35 1.40” as shown below: Table 3. 1st column.Item #4 In Table 3. all bridges with DL:LL ratios above 3 i.50 0. α Tomlinson Method Piles. 2nd row.95 1.50 1.5 according to the current Specifications [load combinations (a) and (b).90 1. above].90 0.90 0.4 (LL + IM) (d) 1. The following four load combinations were used: (a) 1.00 1.1-2.e.00 N/A 1.” and replace “1.5.30 0.e. various structure types.e. Foundation Type.25 1. and a limited range of dead load to total load ratios. γp Type of Load.50 1.50 1.90 0.4 1.0 i.35 1. lower than the target value of 3.25 0. O’Neill and Reese (1999) Method DW: Wearing Surfaces and Utilities EH: Horizontal Earth Pressure • Active • At-Rest • AEP for anchored walls EL: Locked-in Construction Stresses EV: Vertical Earth Pressure • Overall Stability • Retaining Walls and Abutments • Rigid Buried Structure • Rigid Frames • Flexible Buried Structures other than Metal Box Culverts • Flexible Metal Box Culverts and Structural Plate Culverts with Deep Corrugations ES: Earth Surcharge DD: Downdrag Load Factor Maximum Minimum 1. LL/(DL+LL) ratios below 0. λ Method Drilled shafts.75 OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: A reliability analysis was performed by Dr.30 1. combination (c) is being suggested to replace the current combination (b).25 0. the reliability indices are as low as 3. If this ballot item passes. the bridges of concern with substandard reliability are just those with ratios between 0.4. LL/(DL+LL) ratios below 0. only Piles.4 DC + 1.0 are shown.00 1.90 1.5 (LL + IM) His work indicates that when the live load is about 20% of the total load.35 0.65 0.5 DC (c) 1.25. A combination of (a) and (c) provides consistent reliability indices that are close to the target value of 3.5 DC + 1.25 DC + 1.90 N/A 1. Andrzej Nowak using various span lengths up to 200 ft.13.35 1. As stated in the Commentary.1-2—Load Factors for Permanent Loads. Hence.

I Str.7 3. Caltrans concluded that changing Strength IV drops the span range where that load combination controls positive bending down as far as 160 feet for a narrow simple span CIP/PS box girder bridge.25 8 6.20 0.IV now 1.25 0.33 0.50 1.5 3 1.7 3.5 3.15 if chart for incorrect span length is used Minnesota applied the proposed load combination to on two three span steel bridges and a five-span approach.25 are anticipated to then be greater than or equal to 3.17 0.7 3.IV Str.5 6 4.4 7 5.I Str.4 7 5.IV Str.5 12 10. The first.8 3.75LL 14. For the 590 ft span Strength I and IVc are the same for positive moment. Strength I and IVc were about the same for positive and negative moment.IV Str.I βT 3.5 i. The 7% difference only occurs for negative moment for a two span structure and positive moment for a single span structure. T5 is divided on whether or not that is an acceptable increase.20 0.2 3. For an actual twospan CIP/PS bridge with maximum span length of 275 feet.4 3.5 3.25 13 11.IV Str.5 Str.IV Str.10 0.25 3.5 3.5 12 10.7 βT 3.5 9 7.7.5 Which controls? Str.6 3.1 3.5 9. Caltrans investigated its cast-in-place post-tensioned box-girders because they are very economical structures in the west and have relatively high DL:LL ratios. acceptable.I Which controls? Str.6 4.IV Str.I Str.I Str.5 3.e. However.5 3. The second was a 249-362-249-ft steel box with 5 approach spans varying from 180 to 220 ft. and Strength IVc is barely greater than Strength I for negative moment.I or IV Str. 188 .10 0. and on how often Strength IV should control.5 4. The current Strength IV load combination had been a concern of the segmental bridge community as being too conservative.09 0. The latter had Strength IV govern in bending by 2% at one location.5 3. the beta drops from 3. Caltrans tested the ballot item on actual CIP segmental bridges and made the following observations: • Bridge 1--span lengths of 249’-426’-590’-426’-249’.4(LL+IM)) are within 1 % of each other.11 0.IV Str. These comparisons only look at the demand side of the equation and didn’t consider Strength II with Caltrans’ P15.7 3.5 3.75 10.I or IV Str.7 3. and for positive moment. and shear per Strength IVc is from 3% to 5% higher than Strength I.25 3 Str.8 based on* (Nowak et al) 200-ft SteelComp 200-ft SteelComp 200-ft SteelComp 200-ft SteelComp 120-ft SteelComp 90-ft SteelComp 90-ft SteelComp 90-ft SteelComp 60-ft SteelComp 30-ft SteelComp based on* (Nowak et al) 200-ft Prestressed 200-ft Prestressed 200-ft Prestressed 200-ft Prestressed 200-ft Prestressed 120-ft Prestressed 90-ft Prestressed 90-ft ReinfCon 60-ft ReinfConc 30-ft ReinfConc Str.7 3.4LL 15.2 2.8 8.IV Str.2 9.IV Str. However.IV Str.I Str.IV Str.4DL+1.5 3. Most of the differences are less than 5% with practically no difference for 400-ft spans.4 14 12.IV Str.5 6 4.8 Which controls? Str. For the end-spans.by Strength IV.5 4.8 Str.7 3.11 0.5 9.I Str.5 3 1. Minnesota amplifies the Strength I load combination by 10% in negative moment regions.6 3. was still governed by Strength I throughout.IV Str.75 5.IV Str.8 Which controls? Str.IV Str.25DL+1.14 0.I *doesn’t seem to differ by more than 0. may increase 2-7% for all bridges with DL:LL ratios in excess of approximately 5 i.9 to 3.6 11.IV Str.13 0.2 2.IV Str. Case (c) appeared to be very close to the existing Strength I (case a): A maximum increase of 7% was observed for positive moment.IV now 1.IV new 1.6 3.17.5 3.13 0. a 220-340-220-ft haunched girder structure with 90-ft simple-span approaches. however. Negative moment for Strength IVc is greater than Strength I by 12% and greater than Strength IV by 7%. negative moment and shear in multiple span configurations.I or IV Str.5 3.50 Str.15 3.3 3.7 3.25 13 11.4DC+1. Shear was not compared. For the 426 ft spans.I Str.I Str. Span lengths from 200 to 400 feet were studied. negative moment.I Str. Strength I and IVc demands were very close to each other.25 8 6. Strength I is barely greater than Strength IVc for positive moment.IV Str.IV new 1.25 0.I Str.75 5.4DL+1.7 3. Strength IVc is 5% to 6% more than Strength I.I Str.5DL 15 13. The currently unacceptable target reliabilities for LL/(DL+LL) ratios between 0.75 10.IV Str.09 0.17 0.25DL+1. and at most locations in shear by 3%.I βT 3. LL/(DL+LL) less than 0.4 14 12.IV Str.14 0. I if LL=1 LL/(DL+LL) 0.2 3.25 3 Str. the positive moment results for Strength I and IVc (1.5 9 7.IV Str.I or IV Str. The required force effects for design.8 8.7 βT 3.6 4.IV Str. and shear. I if LL=1 1.4LL 15.5DL 15 13.33 0.5 3.6 3. Strength I still controlled for shear in a simple span bridge.IV Str.4 3. For negative moment in the same structure.6 3 3.6 11.e.15 and 0.I Str.2 9.IV Str. DL:LL 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 DL:LL 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 LL/ (DL+LL) 0.3 3.75LL 14.

0 0. However. TRB.6 0. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: More appropriate and consistent design.5 DL DC 1. Dr.0 1. “traffic jam” condition.75LL 1. he sees the HL93 as being appropriate for the LL itself on long spans.0 β 2.5 DC + 1. Since formal calibration efforts have not been done for substructure elements as has been done for bridge girders. As a part of that effort.4 0. Preliminarily. Shear was controlled by Strength IVc by a maximum of 7% more than Strength I. Strength I controlled positive bending in all spans—and by 10% for the 558 ft span.5DL2+1. Washington.8 0.3 0.7 0. the requirement was revised to only apply to superstructures.4 DC + 1.4(DL+LL) 1. Negative moment was controlled by Strength IVc by a maximum of 7% more than Strength I for the 354 ft span to a minimum of 4% more than Strength I in the 558 ft span.0 0.9 1.0 1. Andrzej Nowak has processed 50 million weigh-in-motion data records coming from 6 different States and examined the force effects of bumper-to-bumper traffic i.0 3. DC 1999 OTHER: Prestressed concrete Span 200 ft 5.0 LL/(LL + DC) LL/(LL+DL) Span 120 ft 189 .0 4. It should be noted that efforts are underway by the FHWA to develop design criteria—including loads--for long-span bridges.5(DL+LL) 1.5 (LL + IM) 0. this calibration study did not consider this alternate loading or make any adjustments to the coefficients of variation.1 0.• Bridge 2--span lengths of 354’-558’-443’. 100% of HL93 in one lane with 50% in the remaining lanes. REFERENCES: NCHRP Report 368 Calibration of Bridge Design Code.4 (LL + IM) 1.25 DC + 1.25DL1+1.75 (LL + IM) 1.5 0.e.2 0.

4 DC + 1.8 0.5 0.0 0.7 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.4(DL+LL) 1.0 LL/(LL + DC) LL/(LL+DL) Span 60 ft 190 .75 (LL + IM) 1.0 1.4 (LL + IM) 1.25 DC + 1.1 0.5DL2+1.5 1.0 3.2 0.5 (LL + IM) 0.0 β 2.5.0 4.5 DC + 1.8 0.2 0.0 0.5 0.75 (LL + IM) 1.5(DL+LL) 1.0 3.4 (LL + IM) 1.25DL1+1.5 1.6 0.5DC DL 1.5DL DC 1.6 0.7 0.0 β 2.0 1.3 0.5DL2+1.75LL 1.3 0.25 DC + 1.0 4.0 1.5(DL+LL) 0.25DL1+1.5 (LL + IM) 1.75LL 1.4 DC + 1.1 0.4(DL+LL) 1.9 1.0 LL/(LL + DC) LL/(LL+DL) Span 90 ft 5.5 DC + 1.4 0.4 0.9 1.

5 DC + 1.4(DL+LL) 1.5 1.0 0.75 (LL + IM) 1.0 4.5(DL+LL) 1.25DL1+1.3 0.7 0.5DL2+1.75LL 1.0 LL/(LL+DL) LL/(LL + DC) Reinforced concrete 191 .8 0.5 (LL + IM) 0.4 0.0 1.9 1.25DL1+1.0 1.5 DC DL 1.1 0.5 DC DL 1.0 3.2 0.1 0.2 0.25 DC + 1.0 β 2.9 1.5 (LL + IM) 0.4 DC + 1.5 1.75 (LL + IM) 1.8 0.5 0.0 β 2.4 (LL + IM) 1.4(DL+LL) 1.5.6 0.0 0.5 DC + 1.5DL2+1.0 1.0 0.0 4.4 0.0 3.0 LL/(LL+DL) LL/(LL + DC) Span 30 ft 5.3 0.25 DC + 1.7 0.5 0.0 1.5(DL+LL) 1.75LL 1.6 0.0 0.4 DC + 1.4 (LL + IM) 1.

0 0.8 0.75LL 1.0 0.5 1.7 0.0 3.2 0.5DL2+1.4 (LL + IM) 1.0 1.5 0.4 DC + 1.0 1.Span 120 ft 5.5 (LL + IM) 0.0 1.5(DL+LL) 1.9 1.5 DC DL 1.75 (LL + IM) 1.4(DL+LL) 1.0 1.1 0.0 LL/(LL+DL) LL/(LL + DC) Span 60 ft 192 .75LL 1.5 DC DL 1.8 0.4 (LL + IM) 1.4 0.5DL2+1.4 0.5(DL+LL) 1.4 DC + 1.2 0.0 β 2.4(DL+LL) 1.25DL1+1.0 0.25 DC + 1.5 1.5 DC + 1.7 0.6 0.5 (LL + IM) 0.9 1.3 0.0 4.25 DC + 1.1 0.75 (LL + IM) 1.0 4.0 LL/(LL+DL) LL/(LL + DC) Span 90 ft 5.25DL1+1.0 3.0 β 2.5 0.6 0.0 0.3 0.5 DC + 1.

3 0.2 0.25 DC + 1.0 4.7 0.0 LL/(LL+DL) LL/(LL + DC) Span 30 ft 5.25 DC + 1.4 0.75LL 1.0 1.4 0.5 DC DL 1.5.75 (LL + IM) 1.5 DC + 1.9 1.75 (LL + IM) 1.4 (LL + IM) 1.1 0.4 (LL + IM) 1.6 0.7 0.0 4.0 3.5 1.5 0.5 (LL + IM) 0.0 0.5DL2+1.5DL2+1.5(DL+LL) 1.0 0.0 1.5 0.0 3.0 0.9 1.2 0.5 DC DL 1.0 0.5(DL+LL) 1.3 0.75LL 1.0 1.8 0.0 1.5 (LL + IM) 0.8 0.25DL1+1.4(DL+LL) 1.4 DC + 1.5 1.6 0.4 DC + 1.0 LL/(LL+DL) LL/(LL + DC) 193 .0 β 2.1 0.0 β 2.5 DC + 1.25DL1+1.4(DL+LL) 1.

3 0.0 3.8 0.0 0.0 LL/(LL+DL) LL/(LL + DC) Span 120 ft 5.6 0.5 0.25DL1+1.0 4.2 0.5(DL+LL) 1.0 3.0 4.4(DL+LL) 1.9 1.1 0.3 0.0 1.25 DC + 1.0 β 2.0 1.9 1.5DL2+1.5(DL+LL) 1.5 DC + 1.5DL2+1.5 1.0 1.4 (LL + IM) 1.75 (LL + IM) 1.Steel Non Composite Span 200 ft 5.6 0.4 DC + 1.5 1.7 0.4 DC + 1.5 (LL + IM) 0.75 (LL + IM) 1.25 DC + 1.0 0.4(DL+LL) 1.2 0.25DL1+1.75LL 1.5 0.4 (LL + IM) 1.7 0.4 0.75LL 1.5 DC DL 1.4 0.5 DC + 1.1 0.0 LL/(LL+DL) LL/(LL + DC) 194 .0 β 2.5 DC DL 1.0 0.5 (LL + IM) 0.8 0.0 0.0 1.

0 0.0 0.4 0.5(DL+LL) 1.0 LL/(LL+DL) LL/(LL + DC) 195 .9 1.25 DC + 1.0 0.5 0.5 DC + 1.1 0.4(DL+LL) 1.6 0.6 0.4 (LL + IM) 1.0 3.75 (LL + IM) 1.75LL 1.2 0.75LL 1.5 DC DL 1.0 3.3 0.0 4.3 0.5 DC + 1.Span 90 ft 5.0 β 2.5DL2+1.0 1.75 (LL + IM) 1.5 DC DL 1.7 0.5 1.7 0.0 LL/(LL+DL) LL/(LL + DC) Span 60 ft 5.5 (LL + IM) 0.1 0.4(DL+LL) 1.4 0.5(DL+LL) 1.4 DC + 1.5 0.25 DC + 1.2 0.0 0.25DL1+1.0 1.0 β 2.0 1.5DL2+1.4 (LL + IM) 1.8 0.8 0.5 1.5 (LL + IM) 0.4 DC + 1.0 1.9 1.0 4.25DL1+1.

1 0.0 1.5 0.0 LL/(LL+DL) LL/(LL + DC) Steel Composite Span 200 ft 196 .4 0.5 (LL + IM) 0.5 DC DL 1.75LL 1.3 0.4 (LL + IM) 1.5DL2+1.0 1.0 β 2.5 1.7 0.6 0.5 DC + 1.4 DC + 1.9 1.25 DC + 1.25DL1+1.2 0.8 0.Span 30 ft 5.0 3.4(DL+LL) 1.75 (LL + IM) 1.0 4.5(DL+LL) 1.0 0.0 0.

25DL1+1.4 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.5DL2+1.7 0.0 1.75 (LL + IM) 1.0 0.5 DC DL 1.3 0.0 4.0 1.4 DC + 1.0 LL/(LL+DL) LL/(LL + DC) Span 120 ft 5.0 1.5.5 (LL + IM) 0.1 0.5 (LL + IM) 0.0 1.5 DC + 1.5 0.25 DC + 1.0 3.9 1.75 (LL + IM) 1.75LL 1.5 0.4 (LL + IM) 1.0 β 2.5(DL+LL) 1.4 (LL + IM) 1.8 0.5 1.25DL1+1.6 0.8 0.4 0.4(DL+LL) 1.5 1.0 0.4 DC + 1.0 LL/(LL+DL) LL/(LL + DC) Span 90 ft 197 .5DL2+1.25 DC + 1.5(DL+LL) 1.0 4.4(DL+LL) 1.0 3.6 0.2 0.0 0.5 DC + 1.5 DC DL 1.75LL 1.0 β 2.1 0.9 1.7 0.

25 DC + 1.0 LL/(LL+DL) LL/(LL + DC) Span 60 ft 5.5 1.9 1.1 0.0 0.5 (LL + IM) 0.5 0.3 0.0 1.4 0.0 4.0 1.3 0.5(DL+LL) 1.9 1.2 0.4 DC + 1.0 LL/(LL+DL) LL/(LL + DC) Span 30 ft 198 .0 1.7 0.5 DC + 1.5 DC DL 1.5(DL+LL) 1.0 0.0 β 2.0 3.0 0.25DL1+1.75LL 1.4 (LL + IM) 1.5 0.6 0.4(DL+LL) 1.5DL2+1.0 1.8 0.7 0.0 0.5 (LL + IM) 0.4 0.25 DC + 1.75 (LL + IM) 1.1 0.5DL2+1.4 (LL + IM) 1.25DL1+1.0 3.4 DC + 1.5 DC + 1.0 β 2.6 0.8 0.5 DC DL 1.4(DL+LL) 1.2 0.75 (LL + IM) 1.0 4.5.75LL 1.5 1.

25DL1+1.0 0.5(DL+LL) 1.0 LL/(LL+DL) LL/(LL + DC) 199 .4(DL+LL) 1.4 (LL + IM) 1.75LL 1.5 0.2 0.0 4.0 0.5 DC DL 1.25 DC + 1.4 0.0 1.5 1.3 0.1 0.0 β 2.75 (LL + IM) 1.0 3.5DL2+1.5 (LL + IM) 0.0 1.7 0.9 1.8 0.5 DC + 1.6 0.5.4 DC + 1.

transportation. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Refer to Table 56X-l-B of AASHTO's ASR Guide Specification (AASHTO 2001) for quantities of reactive constituents (ASTM C 295) and expansion limits (AASHTO T 303 and ASTM C 1293) that are considered potentially reactive. Guide Specification For Highway Construction SECTION 56X. 2001. Data from past field performance and/or ASTM C 1293 can also be used to demonstrate satisfactory performance.l. then the effectiveness of a particular cementitious materialsaggregate combination to mitigate ASR is generally evaluated by ASTM C 1567. Item #3 Add the following to the 3rd paragraph of Article C8.4: Reactive or potentially alkali-silica reactive aggregate may be used in concrete having low-alkali cements or a combination of portland or blended cement and pozzolanic materials and/or slag cement.l: Where required.3.4: C8.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 31 SUBJECT: LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications: Section 8. If aggregates of limited reactivity are used. Reference is also made to FHWAHIF-09-001. Portland Cement Concrete Resistant to Excessive Expansion Caused by Alkali-Silica Reaction.4 and C8.1 TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-4 Construction /T-10 Concrete REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 08/12/09 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Item #1 Add the following paragraph to the end of Article 8.3.4. Item #2 Add the new Commentary to Article 8.4 Aggregate reactivity is generally determined by past field performance or by tests (ASTM C 295. and/or ASTM C 1293) made on aggregates prior to their use. Articles 8. AASHTO T 303.1.4. the specified properties should include resistance to aggregate reactivity.3. (2005). More guidance on this is contained in ACI 201.2R and Caldarone et al.stm 200 .3.org/asr/library/gspec. Item #4 Add the following references: AASHTO. http://leadstates.

1st edition. Peter C. is very long with one year for testing aggregate reactivity and two years for testing cementitious materials-aggregate combinations.. however. Thus. Farmington Hills. AASHTO M 240 blended cement and AASHTO M 302 ground granulated blast furnace slag are commonly used to mitigate ASR and should be added to the currently allowed “regular portland cement” and “pozzolans”. Report FHWA-HIF-09-001. Test Method for Potential Alkali Reactivity of Aggregates. Caldarone. Change second paragraph to allow combinations of portland or blended cements and pozzolans and/or slag to be tested for potential ASR mitigation.4 (New Commentary) Delete ASTM C 227 as recommended test method. aggregates or cementitious materials/aggregate combinations with good field performance and no history of ASR can sometimes test to be reactive. Bhide. Portland Cement Association. Taylor. This is because aggregates in field concrete are rarely exposed to the severe alkali and temperature conditions of the test method. 2005. AASHTO T 303 measures potential aggregate reactivity. ASTM C 1293 should be used to supplement results obtained from AASHTO T 303 and ASTM C 1567 and has the potential to resolve uncertainties about results obtained with those two test methods.stm for more information. Alkali leaching can lead to an underestimation of the expansion of certain combinations. It may pass reactive aggregates or measure expansion that may not be due to ASR. Report on Determining the Reactivity of Concrete Aggregates and Selecting Appropriate Measures for Preventing Deleterious Expansion in New Concrete Construction. Both test methods involve measuring the length change of mortar bars stored in a strongly alkaline solution at an elevated temperature. 64 pages. The shortcomings of ASTM C 227 prompted development of rapid test methods for assessing potential reactivity of aggregate. C8. Federal Highway Administration. especially if the reactive component of the aggregate reacts relatively slowly.4 Consistent with Design Specifications. MI. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: Improve durability 201 . Guide to Durable Concrete (ACI 201. OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: 8. Michael A. The test duration. ASTM C 1293 is currently considered the most representative test method when compared to structures in the field. FHWA. Instead list AASHTO T 303 and ASTM C 1293 as recommended methods for aggregate testing and ASTM C 1567 and C 1293 as recommended methods for cementitious materials-aggregate testing. It is difficult to attain a high level of humidity in the containers without promoting the leaching of alkalies from the mortar bars. 2009. Rachel J. American Concrete Institute. However due to the severe test conditions. EB233.org/asr/library/gspec. aggregates identified as potentially reactive by AASHTO T 303 may perform well in practice when exposed to more reasonable alkali levels and temperature conditions. Guide Specification for High-Performance Concrete for Bridges. offer relatively rapid (16-day) tests to supplement lengthier test methods. and Shrinivas B. There are a number of problems associated with ASTM C 227.3. and ASTM C 1567 Test Method for Determining the Potential Alkali-Silica Reactivity of Combinations of Cementitious Materials and Aggregate.transportation. IL. Skokie. 2001.2R for more information. Detwiler. AASHTO T 303 or ASTM C 1260. See for example AASHTO Guide Spec http://leadstates. The tests severity makes it useful for identifying slowly reacting aggregates.ACI Committee 201.3. ASTM C 1567 measures reactivity of the job-specific cement-aggregate combination. Refer to ACI 201.2R-0l).

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. 2005. Bhidé. Rachel J.cfm Michael A. and Shrinivas B. 1st edition. Interpretation of Accelerated Test Method ASTM P214 Test Results (1993).dot. Portland Cement Concrete Resistant to Excessive Expansion Caused by Alkali-Silica Reaction. Skokie. USA. Guide Specification for HighPerformance Concrete for Bridges.org/asr/library/gspec.gov/pavement/concrete/asrprotocols. Portland Cement Association. Johnston. Peter C. Illinois. South Dakota Department of Transportation. Detwiler. Taylor. 2009. Report on Determining the Reactivity of Concrete Aggregates and Selecting Appropriate Measures for Preventing Deleterious Expansion in New Concrete Construction.REFERENCES: AASHTO. EB233. Caldarone. Report FHWA-HIF-09-001. http://www. and A Kinetic-Based Method for Interpreting ASTM C1260 (1998) are available from Daniel P. OTHER: None 202 . 2001. 64 pages.stm FHWA.fhwa. http://leadstates. Federal Highway Administration. Guide Specification For Highway Construction SECTION 56X.transportation.

Item #2: Add new Commentary to Article 11. In annealed pins larger than 9.1 The ASTM A 668 Class C. smooth.9. and before being annealed. Normalizing improves the grain size and toughness for larger diameter forgings.0 in.9. 203 . C11.1 as follows.0 in. and Rockers.4. and tempering relieves residual stresses incurred from the normalizing or quenching processes. (225 mm) in diameter.4.1 TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-4 Construction / T-14 Steel REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 11/23/09 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Item #1 Revise Article 11. (50 mm) in diameter shall be bored full-length along the axis after the forging has been allowed to cool to a temperature below the critical range. 11.1 General Pins and rollers shall be accurately turned to the dimensions shown on the drawings and shall be straight.9.9. Pins and rollers 9. ductility and stressrelieved state in the normalized and tempered condition as in the annealed condition.4. Rollers. OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 32 SUBJECT: LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications: Section 11. and free from flaws.4.4. Article 6.0 in. Article 11.4.2 Pins. (225 mm) in diameter shall be forged and annealed or normalized and tempered. under suitable conditions to prevent injury by too rapid cooling. Pins and rollers more than 9. D.0 in.9. Normalized and tempered pins do not require the bore hole along the full-length of the axis. (225 mm) or less in diameter may be either forged and annealed or normalized and tempered. a hole not less than 2. and G material has the same requirements for strength. or be cold-finished carbon-steel shafting. Boring a full-length hole along the axis will not result in any benefit in properties for normalized and tempered pins since any residual stresses that remain after normalizing are released by the tempering process.1 as follows.

This is to relieve residual compressive stresses in the interior of an annealed product. If the product is tempered after normalizing. ductility and stress-relieved state in the normalized and tempered condition as in the annealed condition. REFERENCES: None OTHER: None 204 . The annealed material has a larger grain size and less residual stress from the slower cooling process. hole for annealed treatment. Normalizing and tempering creates as good or better a product and does not require a bore hole along the axis of the pin. Pense. tensile strength.BACKGROUND: Dr. but is actually better with a smaller grain size and a higher Charpy V-notch impact toughness. However. Since larger masses will cool more slowly. this second heat treatment releases any residual stress from the initial cooling and results in a product that not only equivalent to the annealed one in specified properties and stress state. Only the microstructure and stress state properties are different as a result of the different cooling rates. Boring the hole will not result in any benefit in properties for normalized and tempered pins since any residual stresses that remain after normalizing are released by the tempering process. thick is required with any one of the three heat treatment options. elongation and reduction in area for Class G products over 12 in. Residual tensile stresses on the surface occur but cracking is unlikely. Alan W. Pin diameters greater than 9 in. normalizing and tempering: The ASTM A 668 Class G material has the same strength. None of these required properties of the steel are increased or diminished by selection of one of the three heat treatment options over another. In previous years this hole was also used in large forgings to remove potential entrapped inclusions. Lehigh University on mechanical and metallurgical properties of ASTM A 668 Class G steel. tempering creates superior impact toughness. The same yield strength. heat treatment by annealing vs. Professor and Provost Emeritus. The normalized material has smaller grain size and may have (depending on the size of the product) larger residual stress because it was air cooled. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: Fabricators are not restricted to only the annealing heat treatment method. this is not a concern as the diameter increases. require a minimum 2 in.

the web shall be cut to the prescribed camber with suitable allowance for shrinkage due to cutting.6 as follows: C11. alter steel base metal properties to some extent.4. To avoid impact damage to the steel. For plate girders.4. Engineering Journal. 2006.12. OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: Coordination and review by T-14.6 TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-4 Construction/T-14 Steel REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 12/22/09 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Item #1 Revise the following paragraph in Article 11. 2006. Reidar Bjorhovde. moderate deviations from specified camber may be corrected by a carefully supervised application of heat.12.6 Cold cambering. subject to the approval of the Engineer. Item #3 Add a new Reference as follows: "Cold Bending of Wide-Flange Shapes for Construction. Item #2 Add new Commentary to Article 11. Articles 11. see "Cold Bending of Wide-Flange Shapes for Construction".12.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 33 SUBJECT: LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications: Section 11. Camber for rolled beams may be obtained by cold cambering (cold bending) or heat-cambering methods approved by the Engineer.6 as follows: Girders shall be cambered before heat-curving.4. welding. is a customary means of achieving camber in rolled beams. heated and cold (ambient temperature)." Reidar Bjorhovde. AISC Engineering Journal.2. Fourth Quarter.2.2. For a useful reference. and heat-curving. 205 . Fourth Quarter. While all steel bending operations. or introduction of camber by cold bending.4. However.2. the relatively small strains associated with cold cambering result in minimal effect.12. it is appropriate to introduce bending pressure in a controlled fashion.

2) and cold bending for straightening (11.4. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: Allow the use of controlled cold bending for rolled shapes in bridge structures.7 gives no guidance but only states “when permitted by the Engineer.4.6).3.” Controlled bending which eliminates impact damage (dynamic loading) should be allowed. Al Pense of Lehigh presented at T-4 last year on cold bending and physical properties. Article 11. Dr.3. REFERENCES: Added new references OTHER: None 206 .BACKGROUND: The specifications expressly allow cold bending of plates (11.2.12.7) but are silent on cold bending for shapes to introduce camber (11.4.4.

If the material is specified by its hardness. and steel-reinforced elastomeric bearings with a PTFE or equivalent slider on top of the bearing shall be between 0. or the nominal hardness shall be between 50 and 70 on the Shore A scale.7.7. and steel reinforced elastomeric bearings with or without a PTFE or equivalent slider on top of the bearing shall conform to the requirements of Article 18.6.7.2-1.6.7. OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None 207 .080 and 0. and steel reinforced elastomeric bearings shall satisfy the requirements of Article 14. are also given in Table 14.7. FGP.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 34 SUBJECT: LRFD Bridge Design Specifications: Section 14. or the nominal hardness shall be between 50 and 60 on the Shore A scale. Article 14. replace the 1st paragraph with the following: The elastomeric-type materials for PEP.2-1. the shear modulus for design purposes shall be taken as the least favorable value from the range for that hardness given in Table 14.7.6. except as noted below: • • Hardness on the Shore A scale may be used as a basis for specification of bearing material.2-1 as follows: 1 Only fFor PEP. If the material is specified by shear modulus. such as creep deflection. it shall be taken for design purposes as the least favorable from the value specified according to the ranges given in Article 14. Intermediate values may be obtained by interpolation.6 shall be between 0. FGP.5. and FGP.7.6.7.175 ksi. FGP.5.2. and steel-reinforced elastomeric bearings with a PTFE or equivalent slider on top of the bearing only.2 TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-2 Joints and Bearings REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 01/06/10 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Item #1 In Article 14. Other properties.080 ksi and 0.2 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications and AASHTO M 251. The specified shear modulus for steel-reinforced elastomeric bearings without a PTFE or equivalent slider on top of the bearing designed in accordance with the provisions of Article 14.250 ksi.2.6.2. • PEP. Item #2 Revise the footnote under Table 14. The specified shear modulus for PEP.

The basic content of this paragraph was also rearranged for clarity. REFERENCES: None OTHER: None 208 . and to ease interpretation and readability. Elastomers with a Shore A Hardness of 70 are now expressly permitted for Method A steel reinforced elastomeric bearings that have a PTFE (or equivalent) sliding surface on top. Previously.BACKGROUND: Clarification was provided on the permissible hardness of elastomers used for bearings with a PTFE (or equivalent) sliding surface. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: Improved design and performance of bearings. the LRFD Bridge Design Specifications were unclear on this issue as commented on by the state of Kansas.

8. Two polyether urethane compounds are no longer recognized by the LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications for disc bearings.2 TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-2 Joints and Bearings REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 01/06/10 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: In Article C14.3.7. REFERENCES: None OTHER: None 209 . ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: Improved construction and fabrication practices for disc bearings. revise the 1st paragraph as follows: AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications. Article C14.2. provides material specifications for recognizes two polyether urethane compounds that have performed satisfactorily.7.2. Article 18.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 35 SUBJECT: LRFD Bridge Design Specifications: Section 14. OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: The revisions make the LRFD Bridge Design and LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications consistent and reflects revisions made to the LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications in 2009.8.

Article 14.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 36 SUBJECT: LRFD Bridge Design Specifications: Section 14.7.2.2.7. The language is now consistent with the standard limit state language used throughout the rest of the LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. The 15 percent factor applied to the service limit state vertical load approximates a strength limit state horizontal design force. such as horizontal bending or twisting of a bridge deck caused by nonuniform or time-dependent thermal effects. The horizontal force from applicable strength load combinations specified in Table 3.9. 210 . is intended to account for responses that cannot be calculated reliably.4. or but shall not be taken less than OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: Clarification was provided in the code and commentary concerning the limit state design language for the design of guides and restraints for bearings.7.9. taken as 10 percent of the factored vertical load.2 TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-2 Joints and Bearings REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 01/06/10 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Item #1 In Article 14.9. revise the 1st paragraph and 1st bullet as follows: Guides or restraints shall be designed at the strength limit state for the larger of either: • Item #2 In Article C14. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: Improved design and performance for bearings.1-1. revise the 1st paragraph and delete the 3rd paragraph as follows: The 15 percent factor applied to the service limit state vertical load approximates a minimum strength limit state horizontal design force. The minimum horizontal design load This design force.

REFERENCES: None OTHER: None 211 .

1 TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-2 Joints and Bearings REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 01/06/10 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Item #1 In Article 14.1. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: Improved detailing and construction practices for bearings.8. As such. but positively secured consistent with the intended load path. and between the individual components of a bearing.8. such as the girder. causing damage. Article 14. If uplift occurs. OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: Clarification was provided on the connection of load distribution plates and bearings with external steel plates to superstructures and substructures. Item #2 In Article C14. revise the 3rd paragraph as follows: Uplift should be prevented both among the major elements. some parts of the structure could be misaligned when contact was is regained. bearing.1. If it was allowed to occur.3. 212 . The intent is not to necessarily have the top bearing plate connected directly to the substructure. revise the 1st paragraph as follows: All load distribution plates and bearings with external steel plates shall be positively secured to their supports associated superstructure or substructure element by bolting or welding. support.3.3. the language was improved upon so that the intent of the LRFD Bridge Design Specifications is more easily and readily understandable.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 37 SUBJECT: LRFD Bridge Design Specifications: Section 14. The current language in the LRFD Bridge Design Specifications occasionally produced some questions from designers.8.

REFERENCES: None OTHER: None 213 .

may be overly large for a small bearing and unrealistically small for a large bearing.2 TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: T-2 Joints and Bearings/T-4 Construction REVISION DESIGN SPEC MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION DATE PREPARED: DATE REVISED: 01/06/10 ADDITION CONSTRUCTION SPEC SEISMIC GUIDE SPEC OTHER NEW DOCUMENT MOVABLE SPEC COASTAL GUIDE SPEC AGENDA ITEM: Item #1 Revise Articles 18.001 × nominal dimensions Class B = 0. or pins and bushings which allow rotation.4. The out-of-round or the variation in curvature of the 214 .1. curved bronze sliding bearings.4. the surface finish of the mating surface. In bearings which depend on the sliding of one curved surface over another.2: C18. Parallelism of the two faces of a single layer is controlled by the limitation of the thickness at any point. such as 0.2-1 shall be as follows: • • • Class A = 0. such as curved PTFE sliding bearings. Article 18. it is also important that all the rollers have exactly the same radius of curvature to ensure that the load will be equally shared among them. In bearings which depend on rocking or rolling surfaces.1. In flat PTFE sliding surfaces.002 × nominal dimensions Class C = 0. is particularly important.0625 in. In nested roller bearings.1. it is most important to ensure that the curvature of the curved surface is constant to within a fine tolerance. Each bearing type has one or more tolerances which are particularly important. A #8 mirror finish or better is recommended in all cases. This is more important than the actual value of the radius of curvature. Item #2 Add the following commentary to Article 18.1.2 as follows: Plain elastomeric pads and laminated bearings shall be built as specified in the contract documents within the tolerances of AASHTO M 251.4.4.4.2 Some of the tolerances have been changed to relative values because an absolute tolerance. the difference in diameter of the two curved surfaces is the most important tolerance.2-1.005 × nominal dimensions Load plate overall dimensions for flatness tolerance and surface finish shall apply only to surfaces in contact with the bearing.1.. usually stainless steel. Other fabrication tolerances are given in Table 18.4.1. The classes of tolerances given in Table 18.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE AGENDA ITEM: 38 SUBJECT: LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications: Section 18.

the most important tolerances are those on the clearance between the pot and the piston and on the vertical clearance between the upper and lower parts of the bearing. and again the actual value of the radius of curvature is less important.1. machining by fitting the two parts is not possible and it is necessary to machine each part to a specific radius within a very high accuracy. B and C) and the commentary concerning fabrication tolerances for bearings were reinstated after inadvertent deletion in 2006.4.curved surface is also important. REFERENCES: None OTHER: None 215 . This inadvertent deletion several years ago occurred during T-2’s efforts to refer to AASHTO M 251 for a number of tolerances for elastomeric bearings instead of the LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications for consistency. ANTICIPATED EFFECT ON BRIDGES: Improved construction and fabrication practices for bearings.1. In pot bearings.2 and C18. During this process. T-2 overlooked the fact that Articles 18. If two parts of the bearing are made by different Fabricators. In the past.4.2 also deal with other bearing types. bearings made of components which are fabricated by different Manufacturers have given problems because of lack of a good fit. OTHER AFFECTED ARTICLES: None BACKGROUND: Classes of tolerances (A.

1.6.6.1. last sentence Current Text Lubricant shall be silicone grease.10.1.5-1 and 6. 1/30/10 T-14 PROPOSED EDITORIAL CHANGES to AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specification Section 6 (for the 2010 SCOBS Agenda) 1. 3.7.1.1.1.10. and a number of stress range cycles per truck passage. Revise the third sentence of the second paragraph of Article 6. Revise the first sentence of the sixth paragraph of Article C6.1.1 through 6.2.3-2 should be modified by multiplying the values by the ratio of 75 divided by the fatigue life sought in years. In the first sentence of the seventh paragraph of Article C6.1. change the words “hybrid girders” to “hybrid sections”.8.1.6. the associated composite section may be used with each of these moments if the resulting net stress in the concrete deck due to the sum of the unfactored moments is compressive.5-3. 216 .1b as follows: Where moments due to the transient and permanent loads are of opposite sign at the strength limit state. Proposed Text Lubricant shall be silicone grease.1b: Concrete on the tension side of the neutral axis shall not be considered effective at the strength limit state.2.2.2.1.2.2. a fatigue design life of 75 years.10.1. and constant and variable web depth members as defined by and subject to the requirements of Articles 6.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE SUBJECT: LRFD Bridge Design Specifications Editorial revisions and additions to various articles of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications 2010 EDITORIAL CHANGES – DESIGN Location of Change Article 14. Add the following to the end of the first paragraph of Article 6.3: For other values of the fatigue design life.13. and revise the following definition given in Article 6. the values in Table 6.2 as follows: Hybrid Girder Section – A fabricated steel girder section with a web that has a specified minimum yield strength lower than one or both flanges. hybrid and nonhybrid sections.6. equal to one. which satisfies Military Specification MIL-S-8660 Society of Automotive Engineers’ Specification SAE-AS8660. n. 3rd paragraph.1.1. respectively.10.1 as follows: These provisions cover the design of composite and noncomposite sections.10.2. 2.6.3-2 were computed using the values for A and (ΔF)TH specified in Tables 6. which satisfies Military Specification MIL-S-8660. Revise the second sentence of Article 6.6.4c.1.6.3 as follows: The values in Table 6. Add the following sentence before the last sentence of the sixth paragraph of Article C6.

1-1 shall be satisfied for both local buckling and lateral torsional buckling using the appropriate value of Mnc determined for each case as specified in Articles A6. the specified value of (ADTT)SL for stud shear connectors should be modified by multiplying the value by the ratio of 71.10. 5. At the end of the first bullet item in Article 6.3. replace the word “staggered” with the word “discontinuous”. replace the word “staggered” with the word “discontinuous”.10.488 divided by the fatigue life sought in years. 12. For other values of the fatigue design life.8.0 were also assumed. In the next-to-the-last sentence of the fourth paragraph of Article C6.1.10.1. 8.2.5.4. Otherwise.2.8.1.8.2 and 6.2. Also. 6.6. the nominal flexural resistance based on the compression flange. In the first sentence of Article B6.1-1 shall be satisfied for both local buckling and lateral torsional buckling using the appropriate value of Fnc determined for each case as specified in Articles 6.7”.1.3.4. in the first sentence of Article B6.5-2. Otherwise.10.4.3. the nominal flexural resistance of the compression flange.10. Eq. A6.2. Fnc. Revise the last bullet item of Article 6.13.10.7 5.1 as follows: For unbraced lengths in which the member is prismatic. For other values of n.1.2. Mnc.4 as follows: φ and fr shall be taken as the modulus of rupture of the concrete determined as specified in Article 6.1. 9. Revise the last sentence of Article 6.10.10.2.2. n.8.10. A fatigue design life of 75 years and a number of stress range cycles per truck passage.2 as follows: • φv or φvu for connected material in shear 11.4. 10. Revise the sixth sentence of the second paragraph of Article C6.2 and A6.2.2.3. equal to 1. Add the following paragraph to the end of Article C6. 7.6” to “Article 6.10.2.4.2.6 and φ shall be taken as the appropriate resistance factor for concrete in tension specified in Article 5.3.8.10.3.1.1 as follows: For unbraced lengths in which the member is prismatic. Eq. 217 . the values of (ADTT)SL should be modified by dividing by the appropriate value of n taken from Table 6.10.10.768 divided by the fatigue life sought in years. Revise Article A6.2.10.6.8. and the specified value of (ADTT)SL for channel shear connectors should be modified by multiplying the value by the ratio of 138.2: The values of (ADTT)SL specified in this Article were determined by equating infinite and finite life resistances with due regard to the difference in load factors used with the Fatigue I and Fatigue II load combinations.1 as follows: These assumptions are similar to those used in the development of a separate Rh equation for composite members sections in prior AASHTO Specifications.2.2. Revise Article 6.10.1. shall be taken as the smaller of the local buckling resistance determined as specified in Article A6. and the lateral torsional buckling resistance determined as specified in Article A6.2 and in the first sentence of Article CB6.3.3.3.2. and the lateral torsional buckling resistance determined as specified in Article 6.2. 6. respectively. change the reference from “Article 5.1. replace the word “radial” with the word “normal”. shall be taken as the smaller of the local buckling resistance determined as specified in Article 6.3. respectively.

2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE SUBJECT: LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications Editorial revisions and additions to various articles of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications 2010 EDITORIAL CHANGES – CONSTRUCTION Location of Change Preface. Pages ix and x joule kilonewton kilopascal megapascal newton newton meter newton per meter pascal pascal second Current Text J kN kPa MPa N N·m N/m Pa Pa · s joule kilonewton kilopascal megapascal newton newton meter newton per meter pascal pascal second Proposed Text J kN kPa MPa N N·m N/m Pa Pa · s 218 . Table i— Frequently-Used Unit Abbreviations.

then A = 0.0149 ⎜ c ⎟ + 0.2. then A = 0.1.2010 AASHTO BRIDGE COMMITTEE SUBJECT: Coastal Guide Specifications Editorial revision to the Guide Specifications for Bridges Vulnerable to Coastal Storms 2010 EDITORIAL CHANGES – COASTAL Location of Change Eq.0149 ⎜ c ⎟ + 0.0316 ηmax ⎝ ηmax ⎠ 219 .0316 ηmax ⎝ ηmax ⎠ If 0 ≤ Proposed Text ⎛ Z ⎞ Zc < 1. 6.2-3 If Current Text ⎛ Z ⎞ Zc ≤ 0.2.

Box 168041 Sacramento.American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Highway Subcommittee on Bridges and Structures Chair Malcolm T. DC 20001-1539 Phone Number Fax Number (202) 624-5254 (202) 624-5469 E-mail kenk@aashto. HIBT-1 1200 New Jersey Avenue. Structure Design P.E. March 20. TN 37122 Phone Number Fax Number (859) 433-9623 (866) 301-1322 E-mail krehm@aashto.org Saturday.E. Kerley P.gov Vice Chair Kevin Thompson State Bridge Engineer California Department of Transportation Division of Engineering Services.virginia. Chief Engineer Virginia Department of Transportation 1401 East Broad Street Richmond. CA 95816-8041 Phone Number Fax Number (916) 227-8807 (916) 227-8149 E-mail kevin_thompson@dot. 2010 Page 1 of 22 220 . N. VA 23219-2052 Phone Number Fax Number (804) 786-4798 (804) 786-2940 E-mail mal.gov Secretary M. S.O.Bridges and Structures American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials 602 Idlewood Drive Mount Juliet.kerley@vdot.E.W.lwin@fhwa. Suite 249 Washington. DC 20590 Phone Number Fax Number (202) 366-4589 (202) 366-3077 E-mail myint.ca. Washington. Office of Bridge Technology Federal Highway Administration Southeast Federal Center Bldg.gov Liaison Kelley Rehm Engineering Management . Myint Lwin Director.dot.org Ken Kobetsky P. Program Director for Engineering American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Suite 249 444 North Capitol Street.

E. Christie P. AZ 85007-3213 Phone Number Fax Number AZ (602) 712-7481 (602) 712-3056 E-mail Address: jnehme@azdot. Nehme Ph. 10324 Interstate 30 Little Rock.State Member Alabama John F..us Alaska Richard A. March 20.gov Arizona Jean A.al. P. (Member) Assistant State Maintenance Engineer for Bridges Alabama Department of Transportation Maintenance Bureau.gov Arkansas Phil Brand (Primary Member) Division Head.D.E.state. (Member) Assistant Bridge Engineer Alabama Department of Transportation 1409 Coliseum Boulevard Montgomery.E.pratt@alaska. Box 2261. AR 72203-2261 Phone Number Fax Number AR (501) 569-2361 (501) 569-2623 E-mail Address: phil. Bridge Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department State Highway Building P. (Primary Member) State Bridge Engineer Arizona Department of Transportation 205 South 17th Avenue.state. "Buddy" Black P.brand@arkansashighways. Room H-101 1409 Coliseum Boulevard Montgomery. AL 36110-2060 Phone Number Fax Number (334) 242-6281 (334) 242-6378 E-mail Address: christiee@dot.O.com Saturday. (Primary Member) Chief Bridge Engineer Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities P.O.E.al. (Primary Member) Bridge Engineer Alabama Department of Transportation 1409 Coliseum Boulevard Montgomery. AK 99811-2500 Phone Number Fax Number AK (907) 465-8890 (907) 465-6947 E-mail Address: richard.E. Box 112500 Juneau. Pratt P.state. AL 36110-2060 Phone Number Fax Number AL (334) 242-6004 (334) 353-6502 E-mail Address: blackj@dot. Mail Drop 613E Phoenix. AL 36110-2060 Phone Number Fax Number (334) 242-6007 (334) 353-6502 E-mail Address: colquettw@dot.us Eric J.us William "Tim" Colquett P.al. 2010 Page 2 of 22 221 .

Structure Design P. MS9-3-3g Sacramento.leonard@dot. Georges (Member) Principal Engineer.salamon@dot. Bridge Design Connecticut Department of Transportation P. 2010 Page 3 of 22 222 . Box 317546 / 2800 Berlin Turnpike Newington. Salamon (Member) Tunnel Superintendent Colorado Department of Transportation 4201 East Arkansas Avenue Denver.ca.O.state. MS 9-1/9I P.E. Box 942874 Sacramento.ct. Structure Design P. Box 168041.us Michael G.California Kevin Thompson (Vice Chair) State Bridge Engineer California Department of Transportation Division of Engineering Services. Structure Maintenance & Investigations 1120 N Street.co. March 20. CT 06131-7546 Phone Number Fax Number CT (860) 594-3348 (203) 594-3375 E-mail Address: julie.O. (Member) Phone Number (916) 227-8841 State Bridge Maintenance Engineer Fax Number (916) 227-8357 California Department of Transportation Division of Maintenance.state.us Connecticut Julie F.georges@po.ca.gov Barton Newton P.co. CO 80222-3406 Phone Number Fax Number (303) 512-5731 (303) 512-5799 E-mail Address: michael. CA 94274-0001 E-mail Address: barton_newton@dot.O. CA 95816-8041 Phone Number Fax Number CA (916) 227-8807 (916) 227-8149 E-mail Address: kevin_thompson@dot. CA 95816-8041 Phone Number Fax Number (916) 227-8738 (916) 227-9576 E-mail Address: susan_hida@dot. CO 80222-3406 Phone Number Fax Number CO (303) 757-9309 (303) 757-9197 E-mail Address: mark.state.O.ca.us Saturday.gov Colorado Mark A.gov Susan Hida (Member) Technical Specialist for LRFD Implementation California Department of Transportation Division of Engineering Services. Leonard (Primary Member) State Bridge Engineer Colorado Department of Transportation 4201 East Arkansas Avenue Denver. Box 168041 Sacramento.

E. DC 20002 Phone Number Fax Number (202) 671-4681 (202) 671-0655 E-mail Address: donald. FL 32308 Phone Number Fax Number FL (850) 921-7111 (850) 488-6189 E-mail Address: marc. DE 19903-0778 Phone Number Fax Number DE (302) 760-2170 (302) 739-2217 E-mail Address: jiten. 2010 Page 4 of 22 223 . 1st Floor Washington.E.us District of Columbia Nicolas Galdos (Primary Member) Chief Bridge and Tunnels District of Columbia Department of Transportation 64 New York Avenue..eskender@dc. 1st Floor Washington.E.E. DC 20002 Phone Number Fax Number DC (202) 671-4678 (202) 671-4710 E-mail Address: nicolas. Route 113 P.galdos@dc.E.Delaware Jiten K. DC 20002 Phone Number Fax Number (202) 671-4568 (202) 741-5269 E-mail Address: konjit. (Member) Civil Engineer Delaware Department of Transportation P. Box 778 Dover.O.E.gov Konjit "Connie" Eskender P.de.fl.ansley@dot.state. March 20. Donald Cooney (Member) Structural Engineer District of Columbia Department of Transportation Infrastructure Project Management Administration 64 New York Avenue. (Primary Member) Assistant State Structures Design Engineer Florida Department of Transportation Research/Bridge Testing Section Leader 2007 E. Benton P. Box 778 Dover.cooney@dc.us Barry A. (Member) Project Engineer District of Columbia Department of Transportation Infrastructure Project Management Administration 64 New York Avenue.gov L.de. N.soneji@state. (Primary Member) Bridge Design Engineer Delaware Department of Transportation 800 Bay Road.gov Florida Marcus Ansley P. Soneji P.E.O. DE 19903-0778 Phone Number Fax Number (302) 760-2311 (302) 739-2217 E-mail Address: barry. Paul Dirac Drive Tallahassee.us Saturday.benton@state. N.. Washington. N.

FL 32399-0450 Phone Number Fax Number (850) 414-4296 (850) 414-4955 E-mail Address: sam.us Jeff Pouliotte P.gov Hawaii Paul T.O.fl.ga. Suite 611 Kapolei.us Georgia Paul V. (Primary Member) State Bridge and Structural Design Engineer Georgia Department of Transportation Office of Bridge Design One Georgia Center. Liles Jr. ID 83707-1129 Phone Number Fax Number ID (208) 334-8538 (208) 334-8256 E-mail Address: matt. Farrar (Primary Member) Bridge Design Engineer Idaho Transportation Department P.idaho.state.fl. MS 33 Tallahassee.E. IL 62764-0002 Phone Number Fax Number IL (217) 782-2124 (217) 782-7540 E-mail Address: ralph. GA 30308-3607 Phone Number Fax Number GA (404) 631-1985 (404) 631-1954 E-mail Address: pliles@dot. P. FL 32301 Phone Number Fax Number (850) 410-5691 (850) 410-5511 E-mail Address: jeffrey. (Member) Assistant State Structures Design Engineer Florida Department of Transportation Structures Design Office 605 Suwannee Street. Santo (Primary Member) Bridge Design Engineer Hawaii Department of Transportation 601 Kamokila Boulevard.gov Idaho Matthew M.santo@hawaii. MS-52 2740 Centerview Drive Tallahassee. 24th Floor 600 West Peachtree Street.fallaha@dot.pouliotte@dot. Suite 1B.farrar@itd.anderson@illinois.gov Saturday.E. March 20. 2010 Page 5 of 22 224 . Dirksen Parkway Springfield.Sam Fallaha P.gov Illinois Ralph E.state.E.. NW Atlanta. (Member) Structural Maintenance Engineer Florida Department of Transportation Office of Maintenance Ryan Building. Box 7129 Boise. Anderson (Primary Member) Chief of Bridges and Structures Illinois Department of Transportation 2300 S. HI 96707-2037 Phone Number Fax Number HI (808) 692-7611 (808) 587-7617 E-mail Address: paul.

Rearick (Primary Member) Manager. (Primary Member) Engineering Manager.org Loren R. KS 66603-3754 James J. Dirksen Parkway Springfield. KS 66611-1195 Phone Number Fax Number KS (785) 296-3761 (785) 296-6946 E-mail Address: kenh@ksdot.gov Indiana Anne M. 2010 Page 6 of 22 225 . Brennan (Member) Assistant Geotechnical Engineer Kansas Department of Transportation Materials and Research Center 2300 Van Buren Street Topeka. 13th Floor Eisenhower State Office Building.in. IA 50010-6915 Phone Number Fax Number IA (515) 239-1564 (515) 239-1978 E-mail Address: norman. 13th Floor 700 SW Harrison Topeka. KS 66603-3754 Phone Number Fax Number (785) 296-3761 (785) 752-8687 E-mail Address: loren@ksdot.org Phone Number Fax Number (785) 291-3858 (785) 296-2526 E-mail Address: brennan@ksdot.gov Kansas Kenneth F.domagalski@illinois. Senate Avenue. Structural Services Indiana Department of Transportation Division of Production Management 100 N. (Member) Bridge Design Engineer Kansas Department of Transportation Eisenhower State Office Building 700 SW Harrison Topeka.E. Room N 642 Indianapolis. Domagalski (Member) Engineer of Bridge Design Illinois Department of Transportation 2300 S.E. March 20.gov Iowa Norman L.mcdonald@dot.E. Hurst P. Office of Bridges and Structures Iowa Department of Transportation 800 Lincoln Way Ames. Risch P. IN 46204-2273 Phone Number Fax Number IN (317) 232-5152 (317) 233-4929 E-mail Address: arearick@indot. (Primary Member) Director. IL 62764-0002 Phone Number Fax Number (217) 785-2913 (217) 782-7540 E-mail Address: thomas.iowa. McDonald P. State Bridge Office Kansas Department of Transportation Bureau of Design.Thomas J.org Saturday.

Box 94245 Baton Rouge.Kentucky Mark Hite P.gov Saturday.O. LA 70804-9245 Phone Number Fax Number (225) 379-1323 (225) 379-1786 E-mail Address: Paul. Division of Structural Design Kentucky Transportation Cabinet 200 Mero Street Frankfort. Box 94245 Baton Rouge. (Primary Member) Director. 2010 Page 7 of 22 226 . ME 04333-0016 Phone Number Fax Number ME (207) 624-3490 (207) 624-3491 E-mail Address: david.gov Paul Fossier (Member) Assistant Bridge Engineer Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development P.gov Maine David B.sherlock@maine.Wolfe@ky.gov Marvin Wolfe P. (Member) Division of Structural Design Kentucky Transportation Cabinet 3rd Floor East 200 Mero Street Frankfort. Box 94245 Baton Rouge. KY 40622 Phone Number Fax Number KY (502) 564-4560 (502) 564-2581 E-mail Address: mark.D'Andrea@la.Ghara@la.O. KY 40622 Phone Number Fax Number (502) 564-4560 (502) 564-2581 E-mail Address: Marvin. LA 70804-9245 Phone Number Fax Number (225) 379-1319 (225) 379-1786 E-mail Address: Arthur.gov Louisiana Hossein Ghara (Primary Member) Bridge Design Administrator Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development P.hite@ky. (Primary Member) Manager. Bridge Program Maine Department of Transportation Transportation Building 16 State House Station Augusta.O.gov Arthur D'Andrea (Member) Assistant Bridge Engineer Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development P.E. Sherlock P. March 20.E.Fossier@la. LA 70804-9245 Phone Number Fax Number LA (225) 379-1302 (225) 379-1786 E-mail Address: Hossein.E.

Elnahal@state. Office of Structures Maryland Department of Transportation State Highway Administration 707 N Calvert St Baltimore. Bridge Program Maine Department of Transportation Transportation Building 16 State House Station Augusta.ma. Bardow P.us Robert J. Robert (Member) Project Engineer—Office of Structures Maryland Department of Transportation State Highway Administration 707 N Calvert St Baltimore.md. MA 02116-3973 Phone Number Fax Number MA (617) 973-7571 (617) 973-7554 E-mail Address: alexander. Office of Structures Maryland Department of Transportation State Highway Administration 707 N Calvert St Baltimore. MD 21202-3601 Phone Number Fax Number (410) 545-8327 (410) 209-5002 E-mail Address: jrobert@sha.us Jeffrey L. Suite 6500 Boston.state. 2010 Page 8 of 22 227 .Jeffrey S.md. MD 21202-3601 Phone Number Fax Number MD (410) 545-8060 (410) 209-5002 E-mail Address: efreedman@sha.ma.E. Healy (Member) Deputy Director. March 20. Folsom (Member) Bridge Designer.folsom@maine.md.bardow@state.us Massachusetts Alexander K.state. Freedman (Primary Member) Director. MA 02116-3973 Phone Number Fax Number (617) 973-7995 (617) 973-8808 E-mail Address: Shoukry. Suite 6430 Boston. MD 21202-3601 Phone Number Fax Number (410) 545-8063 (410) 209-5002 E-mail Address: rhealy@sha. (Primary Member) Director of Bridges and Structures Massachusetts Department of Transportation 10 Park Plaza.gov Maryland Earle S.state.us Saturday.us Shoukry Elnahal (Member) Deputy Chief Engineer for Bridges and Tunnels Massachusetts Department of Transportation 10 Park Plaza. ME 04333-0016 Phone Number Fax Number (207) 624-3394 (207) 624-3491 E-mail Address: jeff.

MN 55128-3307 Phone Number Fax Number (651) 366-4501 (651) 747-2108 E-mail Address: kevin.gov David Juntunen (Member) Bridge Operations Engineer Michigan Department of Transportation P. MN 55128-3307 Phone Number Fax Number MN (651) 366-4501 (651) 366-4497 E-mail Address: dan.O.dorgan@state.us B.us Kevin Western (Member) Bridge Design Engineer Minnesota Department of Transportation Office of Bridges and Structures 3485 Hadley Avenue North Oakdale.western@state. MI 48909-7550 Phone Number Fax Number MI (517) 373-0097 (517) 335-2731 E-mail Address: becks2@michigan. MS 39215-1850 Phone Number Fax Number (601) 359-7200 (601) 359-7070 E-mail Address: kcarr@mdot.O.gov Minnesota Daniel L. Dorgan (Primary Member) Director.state. MI 48909-7550 Phone Number Fax Number (517) 322-5688 (517) 322-5664 E-mail Address: JuntunenD@michigan. Box 1850 Jackson. Box 30050 Lansing. Carr (Primary Member) Bridge Design Engineer Mississippi Department of Transportation P. Office of Bridges Minnesota Department of Transportation 3485 Hadley Avenue North Oakdale.mn. Keith Carr (Member) Assistant Bridge Engineer Mississippi Department of Transportation P. Box 1850 Jackson.O.us Mississippi Mitchell K.ms.mn.Michigan Steven P.us Saturday. March 20. Box 30050 Lansing.O.state.ms. MS 39215-1850 Phone Number Fax Number MS (601) 359-7200 (601) 359-7070 E-mail Address: mcarr@mdot. 2010 Page 9 of 22 228 . Structures Michigan Department of Transportation P. Beck (Primary Member) Supervising Engineer.

Missouri
Dennis Heckman (Primary Member) State Bridge Engineer Missouri Department of Transportation P.O. Box 270 Jefferson City, MO 65102-0270 Phone Number Fax Number

MO
(573) 751-4676 (573) 526-5488

E-mail Address: dennis.heckman@modot.mo.gov

Michael Harms (Member) Assistant State Bridge Engineer Missouri Department of Transportation P.O. Box 270 Jefferson City, MO 65102-0270

Phone Number Fax Number

(573) 751-5126 (573) 526-5488

E-mail Address: michael.harms@modot.mo.gov

Montana
Kent M. Barnes (Primary Member) Bridge Design Engineer Montana Department of Transportation P.O. Box 201001 Helena, MT 59620-1001 Phone Number Fax Number

MT
(406) 444-6260 (406) 444-6155

E-mail Address: kbarnes@mt.gov

Nebraska
Mark J. Traynowicz (Primary Member) State Bridge Engineer Nebraska Department of Roads P.O. Box 94759 Lincoln, NE 68509-4759 Phone Number Fax Number

NE
(402) 479-4701 (402) 479-4325

E-mail Address: Mark.Traynowicz@nebraska.gov

Mark Ahlman (Member) Assistant Bridge Engineer—Design Nebraska Department of Roads P.O. Box 94759 Lincoln, NE 68509-4759

Phone Number Fax Number

(402) 479-3936 (402) 479-3752

E-mail Address: Mark.Ahlman@nebraska.gov

Fouad Jaber (Member) Assistant State Bridge Engineer Nebraska Department of Roads Bridge Division P.O. Box 94759 Lincoln, NE 68509-4759

Phone Number Fax Number

(402) 479-3967 (402) 479-3752

E-mail Address: Fouad.Jaber@nebraska.gov

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Nevada
Mark P. Elicegui P.E. (Primary Member) Chief Bridge Engineer Nevada Department of Transportation 1263 South Stewart Street Carson City, NV 89712-0002 Phone Number Fax Number

NV
(775) 888-7542 (775) 888-7405

E-mail Address: melicegui@dot.state.nv.us

Todd Stefonowicz (Member) Assistant Chief Bridge Engineer Nevada Department of Transportation 1263 South Stewart Street Carson City, NV 89712-0002

Phone Number Fax Number

(775) 888-7550 (775) 888-7405

E-mail Address: tstefonowicz@dot.state.nv.us

New Hampshire
Mark W. Richardson (Primary Member) Administrator, Bureau of Bridge Design New Hampshire Department of Transportation P.O. Box 483 Concord, NH 03302-0483 Phone Number Fax Number

NH
(603) 271-2731 (603) 271-2759

E-mail Address: mrichardson@dot.state.nh.us

David L. Scott (Member) In-House Design Chief, Bridge Design Bureau New Hampshire Department of Transportation P.O. Box 482 Concord, NH 03302-0482

Phone Number Fax Number

(603) 271-2731 (603) 271-2759

E-mail Address: dscott@dot.state.nh.us

New Jersey

NJ

Richard W. Dunne P.E. (Primary Member) Phone Number (609) 530-2557 Structural Engineering and Deputy State Transportation Engineer Fax Number (609) 530-5777 New Jersey Department of Transportation P.O. Box 600 Trenton, NJ 08625-0600 E-mail Address: richard.dunne@dot.state.nj.us

New Mexico
Raymond M. Trujillo P.E. (Primary Member) State Bridge Engineer New Mexico Department of Transportation P.O. Box 1149 Santa Fe, NM 87504-1149 Phone Number Fax Number

NM
(505) 827-5532 (505) 827-5345

E-mail Address: raymond.trujillo@state.nm.us

Saturday, March 20, 2010

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Jimmy D. Camp (Member) Phone Number (505) 827-5532 Assistant Chief Engineer/Engineering Support Division Director Fax Number (505) 827-0086 New Mexico Department of Transportation P.O. Box 1149 Santa Fe, NM 87504-1149 E-mail Address: jimmy.camp@state.nm.us

New York
George A. Christian P.E. (Primary Member) Director, Office of Structures New York State Department of Transportation 50 Wolf Road, POD 4-3 Albany, NY 12232-2633 Phone Number Fax Number

NY
(518) 457-6827 (518) 485-7826

E-mail Address: gchristian@dot.state.ny.us

Donald F. Dwyer (Member) Associate Soils Engineer New York State Department of Transportation 50 Wolf Road, Mail Pod 3-1 Albany, NY 12232-2633

Phone Number Fax Number

(518) 457-4724 (518) 457-0282

E-mail Address: ddwyer@dot.state.ny.us

Arthur P. Yannotti (Member) Director, Structures Design Bureau New York State Department of Transportation 50 Wolf Road Albany, NY 12232-2633

Phone Number Fax Number

(518) 457-4453 (518) 485-7826

E-mail Address: ayannotti@dot.state.ny.us

North Carolina
Greg R. Perfetti (Primary Member) State Bridge Design Engineer North Carolina Department of Transportation 1581 Mail Service Center Raleigh, NC 27699-1581 Phone Number Fax Number

NC
(919) 250-4037 (919) 250-4082

E-mail Address: gperfetti@ncdot.gov

North Dakota
Terrence R. Udland (Primary Member) Bridge Engineer North Dakota Department of Transportation 608 E. Boulevard Avenue Bismarck, ND 58505-0700 Phone Number Fax Number

ND
(701) 328-1969 (701) 328-0103

E-mail Address: tudland@nd.gov

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Ohio
Timothy J. Keller P.E. (Primary Member) Administrator, Office of Structural Engineering Ohio Department of Transportation 1980 West Broad Street, 3rd Floor Columbus, OH 43223-1102 Phone Number Fax Number

OH
(614) 466-2463 (614) 752-4824

E-mail Address: tim.keller@dot.state.oh.us

Jawdat Siddiqi (Member) Assistant Administrator, Office of Structural Engineering Ohio Department of Transportation 1980 West Broad Street Columbus, OH 43223-1102

Phone Number Fax Number

(614) 728-2057 (614) 752-4824

E-mail Address: jawdat.siddiqi@dot.state.oh.us

Oklahoma
Robert J. Rusch (Primary Member) Division Engineer, Bridge Division Oklahoma Department of Transportation 200 N.E. 21st Street Oklahoma City, OK 73105-3299 Phone Number Fax Number

OK
(405) 521-2606 (405) 522-0134

E-mail Address: brusch@odot.org

Gregory D. Allen P.E. (Member) Assistant Bridge Engineer—Design Oklahoma Department of Transportation 200 N.E. 21st Street Oklahoma City, OK 73105-3299

Phone Number Fax Number

(405) 521-2606 (405) 522-0134

E-mail Address: gallen@odot.org

John A. Schmiedel P.E. (Member) Acting Assistant Bridge Engineer—Design Oklahoma Department of Transportation 200 N.E. 21st Street Oklahoma City, OK 73105-3299

Phone Number Fax Number

(405) 521-6488 (405) 522-0134

E-mail Address: jschmiedel@odot.org

Oregon
Bruce V. Johnson P.E. (Primary Member) State Bridge Engineer Oregon Department of Transportation Transportation Building, Room 301 355 Capitol Street NE Salem, OR 97301-3871 Phone Number Fax Number

OR
(503) 986-3864 (503) 986-3407

E-mail Address: bruce.v.johnson@odot.state.or.us

Saturday, March 20, 2010

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232

Hormoz Seradj (Member) Steel Standards Engineer Oregon Department of Transportation Transportation Building, Room 301 355 Capitol Street NE Salem, OR 97301-3871

Phone Number Fax Number

(503) 986-3346 (503) 986-3407

E-mail Address: hormoz.seradj@odot.state.or.us

Pennsylvania
Thomas P. Macioce P.E. (Primary Member) Bridge Engineer Pennsylvania Department of Transportation P.O. Box 2966 Harrisburg, PA 17105-2966 Phone Number Fax Number

PA
(717) 787-2881 (717) 346-0346

E-mail Address: tmacioce@state.pa.us

Lou Ruzzi (Member) District Bridge Engineer Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Bridge Quality Assurance Division 45 Thomas Run Road Bridgeville, PA 15017

Phone Number Fax Number

(412) 429-4893 (412) 429-5085

E-mail Address: lruzzi@state.pa.us

Puerto Rico
Vacant (Member) Puerto Rico Department of Transportation and Public Works Minillas Station P.O. Box 41269 San Juan, PR 00940-1269 Phone Number Fax Number

PR

E-mail Address:

Rhode Island
David Fish P.E. (Primary Member) Managing Engineer, Bridge Design Rhode Island Department of Transportation State Office Building 2 Capitol Hill Providence, RI 02903-1124 Phone Number Fax Number

RI
(401) 222-2053 (401) 222-1271

E-mail Address: dfish@dot.ri.gov

South Carolina
Barry W. Bowers (Primary Member) Structural Design Support Engineer South Carolina Department of Transportation P.O. Box 191 Columbia, SC 29202-0191 Phone Number Fax Number

SC
(803) 737-4814 (803) 737-0608

E-mail Address: bowersbw@scdot.org

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Wasserman (Primary Member) Director.sd.tx. Box 191 Columbia. (Primary Member) Director.sc.E. UT 84114-5998 Phone Number Fax Number UT (801) 965-4981 (801) 965-4187 E-mail Address: Cswanwick@utah.O.state. SD 57501-2586 Phone Number Fax Number SD (605) 773-3285 (605) 773-2614 E-mail Address: kevin. Hohmann P.wasserman@tn.tx. (Member) Field Operations Section Director. March 20. SC 29202-0191 Phone Number Fax Number (803) 737-1571 (803) 737-0608 E-mail Address: sizemoreJC@dot. Structures Division Tennessee Department of Transportation Suite 1100 700 James K.Jeff Sizemore (Member) Geotechnical Design Support Engineer South Carolina Department of Transportation P. Bridge Texas Department of Transportation Dewitt C.E.state.us Utah Carmen Swanwick (Primary Member) Director of Research and Bridge Operations Utah Department of Transportation 4501 South 2700 West Salt Lake City. Ramsey P. Polk Building Fifth and Deaderick Nashville.state. 2010 Page 15 of 22 234 .goeden@state.gov Texas David P.us South Dakota Kevin Goeden P. (Primary Member) Chief Bridge Engineer South Dakota Department of Transportation Becker Hanson Building 700 East Broadway Avenue Pierre. Bridge Division Texas Department of Transportation Dewitt C. Greer State Highway Building 125 East 11th Street Austin.us Keith L.gov Phone Number (801) 965-4981 Fax Number (801) 965-4187 E-mail Address: fdoehring@utah. TN 37243-0339 Phone Number Fax Number TN (615) 741-3351 (615) 532-7745 E-mail Address: ed.E.us Tennessee Edward P. TX 78701-2483 Phone Number Fax Number TX (512) 416-2183 (512) 416-3144 E-mail Address: dhohmann@dot. TX 78701-2483 Phone Number Fax Number (512) 416-2250 (512) 416-3144 E-mail Address: kramsey@dot.gov Saturday. Greer State Highway Building 125 East 11th Street Austin. UT 84114-5998 Fred Doehring Deputy Structures Engineer Utah Department of Transportation 4501 South 2700 West Salt Lake City.

E.us Virginia Malcolm T. Julius F. Symonds (Primary Member) Structures Design Engineer Vermont Agency of Transportation National Life Building.gov Saturday.gov Washington Jugesh Kapur (Primary Member) State Bridge and Structures Engineer Washington State Department of Transportation P. VT 05633-5001 Phone Number Fax Number VT (802) 828-0503 E-mail Address: Wayne. VA 23219-2052 Phone Number Fax Number (804) 371-2770 (804) 786-2988 E-mail Address: prasad.E.Vermont Wayne B.walus@vdot. VA 23219-2052 Phone Number Fax Number (804) 786-7537 (804) 786-2988 E-mail Address: julius. (Primary Member) State Structure and Bridge Engineer Virginia Department of Transportation 1401 East Broad Street Richmond.virginia. (Chair) Chief Engineer Virginia Department of Transportation 1401 East Broad Street Richmond.J.gov Prasad L.wa.virginia. Kerley P. VA 23219-2052 Phone Number Fax Number VA (804) 786-4798 (804) 786-2940 E-mail Address: mal. Volgyi Jr.Symonds@state.. March 20. 2010 Page 16 of 22 235 .virginia. (Member) Assistant State Structure and Bridge Engineer Virginia Department of Transportation 1401 East Broad Street Richmond. WA 98504-7300 Phone Number Fax Number WA (360) 705-7207 (360) 705-6814 E-mail Address: kapurju@wsdot. VA 23219-2052 Phone Number Fax Number (804) 786-4575 (804) 786-2988 E-mail Address: kendal.volgyi@vdot. Drawer 33 Montpelier.virginia. (Member) Senior Structural Engineer Virginia Department of Transportation 1401 East Broad Street Richmond.O.E.kerley@vdot.nallapaneni@vdot. Box 47340 Olympia. Nallapaneni P.vt. P.gov Kendal "Ken" Walus P.E.

wa. Box 7916 Madison.gov West Virginia Gregory Bailey (Primary Member) Director. Box 47365 Olympia.wi. Cannestra (Member) Director.Bailey@wv. WA 98504-7340 Phone Number Fax Number (360) 705-7181 (360) 705-6814 E-mail Address: khalegb@wsdot. Concrete Specialist Washington State Department of Transportation P. WI 53707-7916 Phone Number Fax Number WI (608) 266-5161 (608) 266-5166 E-mail Address: scot.L. (Member) Assistant State Bridge Engineer West Virginia Department of Transportation Building 5.O.wi. WV 25305-0440 Phone Number Fax Number (304) 558-9747 (304) 558-0605 E-mail Address: James. Box 7916 Madison.Tony M.becker@dot.E.wa. WI 53707-7916 Phone Number Fax Number (608) 266-0075 (608) 266-5166 E-mail Address: beth. Engineering Division West Virginia Department of Transportation Building 5.Shook@wv. Room A317 1900 Kanawha Boulevard East Charleston.cannestra@dot. Box 47340 Olympia. 2010 Page 17 of 22 236 . Room A317 1900 Kanawha Boulevard East Charleston.gov Wisconsin Scot Becker (Primary Member) Chief Development Engineer Wisconsin Department of Transportation P.O.gov James D.gov Saturday.O. WV 25305-0440 Phone Number Fax Number WV (304) 558-9722 (304) 558-0605 E-mail Address: Gregory. Allen (Member) Geotechnical Engineer Washington State Department of Transportation State Materials Laboratory P. Bureau of Structures Wisconsin Department of Transportation P. March 20.D. WA 98504-7365 Phone Number Fax Number (360) 709-5450 (360) 709-5585 E-mail Address: allent@wsdot. Shook P.gov Beth A.O.gov Bijan Khaleghi (Member) Bridge Engineer.

gov Raj Ailaney (Member) Federal Highway Administration Office of Bridge Technology Southeast Federal Center Bldg.E.Ailaney@dot. Office of Bridge Technology Federal Highway Administration Southeast Federal Center Bldg.lwin@fhwa. WY 82009-3340 Phone Number Fax Number WY (307) 777-4427 (307) 777-4279 E-mail Address: gregg.fredrick@dot.dot. Fredrick P.E. WI 53707-7916 Phone Number Fax Number (608) 266-8489 E-mail Address: William. (Primary Member) State Bridge Engineer Wyoming Department of Transportation 5300 Bishop Boulevard Cheyenne. (Member) Associate State Bridge Engineer Wyoming Department of Transportation 5300 Bishop Boulevard Cheyenne.wy.us U.gov Wyoming Gregg C. Box 7916 Madison. DOT Member FHWA M. March 20.E.fulton@dot.S. HIBT-1 1200 New Jersey Avenue. Washington.E. HIBT-1 1200 New Jersey Avenue. DC 20590 Phone Number Fax Number DC (202) 366-4589 (202) 366-3077 E-mail Address: myint. Suite 249 Washington. Washington. DC 20590 Phone Number Fax Number (202) 366-6749 E-mail Address: Raj.state. 2010 Page 18 of 22 237 .state.O. N.wi. (Liaison) Phone Number (202) 624-5254 Program Director for Engineering Fax Number (202) 624-5469 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Suite 249 444 North Capitol Street. S. Myint Lwin (Secretary) Director.W. DC 20001-1539 E-mail Address: kenk@aashto.William Dreher (Member) Chief Structures Design Engineer Wisconsin Department of Transportation P. S.wy.us Keith R.E. Fulton P.gov AASHTO AASHTO DC Ken Kobetsky P.Dreher@dot.org Saturday. WY 82009-3340 Phone Number Fax Number (307) 777-4427 (307) 777-4279 E-mail Address: keith.

Y. Raczynski P. Highway. Moreau P. March 20.Bridges and Structures Fax Number (866) 301-1322 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials 602 Idlewood Drive Mount Juliet. and Toll Golden Gate Bridge Kary H.state.Kelley Rehm (Liaison) Phone Number (859) 433-9623 Engineering Management . Turnpike Authority Richard J. Turnpike Authority James L.state.us N.E.E.us Penn.J. Box 5042 Woodbridge. (Member) Chief Engineer New York State Bridge Authority Mid Hudson Bridge Plaza P. DC 37122 E-mail Address: krehm@aashto. Port.org MDTA Dan Williams (Member) Bridge Engineering Manager Maryland Transportation Authority Division of Engineering and Construction Management 300 Authority Drive Dundalk.nj. PA 17106-7676 Phone Number Fax Number PA (717) 939-9551 (717) 986-9645 E-mail Address: jstump@paturnpike. Presidio Station San Francisco.md.ny. MD 21222 Phone Number Fax Number MD (410) 537-7824 E-mail Address: dwilliams1@mdta. and Transportation District Box 9000. Bridge Division Golden Gate Bridge. State Bridge Authority William J. Box 1010 Highland. CA 94129-0601 Phone Number Fax Number CA (415) 923-2240 (415) 923-2011 E-mail Address: kwitt@goldengate.us N.E. NJ 07095-5042 Phone Number Fax Number NJ (732) 442-8600 (732) 293-1200 E-mail Address: raczynski@turnpike. 2010 Page 19 of 22 238 .O. (Member) Bridge Engineer Manager Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission P. NY 12528-8010 Phone Number Fax Number NY (845) 691-4077 (845) 691-7914 E-mail Address: bmoreau@nysba.O.org Associate Member—Bridge. Stump P. (Member) Chief Engineer New Jersey Turnpike Authority P.com Saturday.O. Box 67676 Harrisburg. Witt (Member) Deputy General Manager.state.

co. DaewangPangyoro (239-1. UT 84401 Phone Number Fax Number UT (801) 625-5236 (303) 625-5229 E-mail Address: tgillins@fs. Army Corps of Engineers Department of the Army Attn: CECW-CE 441 G Street.E.S. N.ca Korea Eui-Joon Lee (Member) Tem Leader of Design Evaluation Team Korea Expressway Corporation Sujeong-gu. Phillip W.Atkin@gov.ar my.kr Saturday. P.S.kr Sang-Soon Lee (Member) Senior Manager of Structure Inspection Team Korea Expressway Corporation Sujeong-gu. 461-703 Phone Number Fax Number (000) 000-0000 E-mail Address: lssp@ex. S. DaewangPangyoro (239-1.Paul. Seongnam-si 430. Westbrook P.ab.w. Geumto-dong) Gyeonggi-do. Sauser. MN 55101-1638 Phone Number 651-290-5722 E-mail Address: phillip. Bridge Engineering and Water Management Alberta Transportation 2nd Floor. Seongnam-si 430.H. Washington.mil Mr.Westbrook@usace. DC 20314 Phone Number Fax Number DC (202) 761-7584 (202) 761-1960 E-mail Address: Christopher.E. Army Corps of Engineers CEMVP-EC-D 190 5th Street East. U. AB T6B 2X3 Phone Number Fax Number AB (780) 415-4876 (780) 422-5426 E-mail Address: Lloyd.E. Bridge Safety Program Manager U.E. March 20. 2010 Page 20 of 22 239 . Army Corps of Engineers Christopher H. Twin Atria Building 4999 .army.Associate Member—Federal U. 461-703 Phone Number Fax Number (000) 000-0000 E-mail Address: lejlej@ex.us Associate Member—International Alberta Lloyd Atkin (Member) Director.S. Geumto-dong) Gyeonggi-do.co.mil USDA Forest Service Thomas Gillins P.fed. (Member) Structural Engineer USDA Forest Service 324 25th Street Ogden.98th Avenue Edminton. (Member) Structural Engineer.sauser@usace..W. Suite 401 St.

D. Info) Chief Bridge Engineer Newfoundland Dept.W. Washington. NS B3J 2N2 E-mail Address: pertusma@gov. Paul Street St. 2nd Floor Regina.tharmabala@ontario. NF A1B 4J6 Phone Number Fax Number NF (709) 729-3990 (709) 729-0283 E-mail Address: TRB Waseem Dekelbab Ph. DC 20001 Phone Number Fax Number DC (202) 334-1409 (202) 334-2006 E-mail Address: WDekelbab@nas.O.O. Box 8700 St. Bridge Services Saskatchewan Ministry of Highways and Infrastructure 1630 Park. SK S4P 3V7 Phone Number Fax Number SK (306) 787-4830 (306) 787-9777 E-mail Address: hyea@highways..ca Saskatchewan Howard Yea (Member) Director.Nova Scotia NS Mark Pertus (Member) Phone Number (902) 424-6777 Manager of Structural Engineering Fax Number Nova Scotia Department of Transportation and Infrastructure Renewal P.ns.edu Saturday.ca Ontario Bala Tharmabala (Member) Manager. N. Catherines.ca Other Newfoundland Peter Lester (Rec. ON L2R 7R4 Phone Number Fax Number ON (905) 704-2341 (905) 704-2060 E-mail Address: bala. (Member) Senior Program Officer Transportation Research Board TRB Mail Room 500 Fifth Street. March 20.gov. Box 186 Halifax. 2nd Floor 301 St. P. Johns. Services and Transportation P.E. of Works.sk. Bridge Office Ontario Ministry of Transportation Garden City Tower. 2010 Page 21 of 22 240 .

E.S.elgaaly@uscg.mil Saturday. Coast Guard Hala Elgaaly P. 2010 Page 22 of 22 241 . March 20. (Member) Administrator. DC 20166-6511 Phone Number Fax Number DC (202) 372-1511 E-mail Address: hala. S.U. Bridge Administration Program United States Coast Guard 2100 2nd Street.W Washington.

Wasserman. Ralph E. Bruce V. Hohmann. Matthew M. Richard A.AASHTO Highway Subcommittee on Bridges and Structures Technical Committee Membership SCOBS Executive Committee Member Name Chair Vice Chair Liaison Liaison Kerley. Fredrick. Dorgan. Malcolm T. Ken Ghara. Hida. Timothy J. Robert J. Siddiqi. Alexander K. Healy. M. Farrar. Thomas J. Daniel L. Gregg C. March 22. Susan Liles. Hossein Anderson. Pratt. Kenneth F. Kevin Rehm. David P. Johnson. Keller. Hurst. Jawdat Bailey. Gregory Bardow. 2010 Page 1 of 10 242 . Paul V. Thompson. Kelley Kobetsky. Domagalski. Myint Grady. Edward P. Erin Member Dept. Lwin. Virginia California AASHTO AASHTO Louisiana Illinois Alaska Kansas California Georgia Ohio Maryland Oregon Texas Illinois Wyoming Minnesota Tennessee Ohio West Virginia Massachusetts Idaho FHWA AASHTO Region T-20 Chair T-01 Chair T-02 Chair T-03 Chair T-04 and TT-05 Chair T-06 Chair T-07 Chair T-08 Chair T-09 Chair T-10 Chair T-11 Chair T-12 Chair T-13 Chair T-14 Chair T-15 Chair T-16 Chair T-17 Chair T-18 Chair Ex Officio Ex Officio Monday.

Member Dept. Barton Kapur. Jeffrey L. Timothy Member Dept. Wasserman. Sheila Witt. Traynowicz. Jugesh Ernst. Kary H. Illinois Tennessee Maryland Kentucky North Carolina South Carolina Colorado Nebraska Oregon FHWA Region Region III Region II Region II Region II Region II Region II Region IV Region IV Region IV Ex Officio Monday. Mark A. Walus. Dennis Newton. Edward P. Seradj. Hite. Hossein VACANT VACANT Liles. Ralph E. Steve Duwadi. Mark Perfetti. Leonard. March 22. Barry W. Paul V. Louisiana TBD New York Georgia Virginia Missouri California Washington FHWA FHWA Golden Gate Bridge Region Region II Region I Region II Region II Region III Region IV Region IV Ex Officio Ex Officio Ex Officio T-2 Technical Committee for Bearings and Expansion Devices Member Name Chair Vice Chair Anderson.T-1 Technical Committee for Security Member Name Chair Vice Chair Ghara. 2010 Page 2 of 10 243 . Hormoz Rogers. Kendal "Ken" Heckman. Robert. Bowers. Greg R. Mark J.

Heckman. Richard A. Alexander K. Kevin Ger. David B. Paul V. Bowers. Beck. Edward P. Dennis Barnes. Richard W. Rearick. Camp. Alaska California Massachusetts Rhode Island Arkansas Georgia South Carolina Tennessee Illinois Indiana Missouri Montana Nevada Oregon Washington FHWA Region Region IV Region IV Region I Region I Region II Region II Region II Region II Region III Region III Region III Region IV Region IV Region IV Region IV Ex Officio T-4 Technical Committee for Construction Member Name Chair Vice Chair Hurst. March 22. Bruce V. Anderson. Healy. Steven P. Elnahal. Kevin Bardow. William C. Goeden. Phil Liles. Derrell Member Dept. Wayne B. Jugesh Manceaux. Dreher. Paul V. Ralph E. Jeffrey Member Dept. Robert J. Mark P. Paul T. Santo. Symonds. Kansas Georgia Maine Maryland Massachusetts New Jersey Vermont Michigan Wisconsin Hawaii New Mexico South Dakota FHWA Region Region III Region II Region I Region I Region I Region I Region I Region III Region III Region IV Region IV Region IV Ex Officio Monday. Fish. Thompson. Liles. Anne M. Kapur. Kenneth F. David Brand. 2010 Page 3 of 10 244 . Shoukry Dunne. Elicegui. Sherlock.T-3 Technical Committee for Seismic Design Member Name Chair Vice Chair Pratt. Barry W. Jimmy D. Wasserman. Kent M. Johnson.

Jeffrey S. Arthur P. Jugesh Saad. Sherlock. Paul V. Robert J. Jiten K. Georgia Delaware Maine New York Florida West Virginia Michigan Ohio California FHWA Region Region II Region I Region I Region I Region II Region II Region III Region III Region IV Ex Officio Monday. Richard W. Tharmabala. Fallaha. Thomas P. Mark Becker. Ansley. David B. Marcus Shook. Kevin Ahlman. Macioce. Steven P. Soneji. Susan Bailey. Kevin Triandafilou. Scot Elicegui. 2010 Page 4 of 10 245 . Yannotti. Sam Western. Rusch. Thompson. California West Virginia Maine New Jersey Pennsylvania Florida Minnesota Nebraska Wisconsin Nevada Oklahoma Washington FHWA Ontario Region Region IV Region II Region I Region I Region I Region II Region III Region III Region III Region IV Region IV Region IV Ex Officio Ex Officio T-6 Technical Committee for Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites Member Name Chair Vice Chair Liles. Beck. James D. Gregory Folsom.T-5 Technical Committee for Loads and Load Distribution Member Name Chair Vice Chair Hida. Timothy J. Mark P. Lou Member Dept. Bala Member Dept. March 22. Kapur. Keller. Dunne. Thomas K.

Gregg C. Freedman. Kevin Fredrick. Black. Ohio Alabama Maryland Louisiana South Carolina Indiana Kansas South Dakota Wyoming FHWA Region Region III Region II Region I Region II Region II Region III Region III Region IV Region IV Ex Officio T-8 Technical Committee for Moveable Bridges Member Name Chair Vice Chair Healy. Paul Galdos. Ghara. Fossier. Barton Virmani. Jeffery L. "Buddy" Robert. Dunne. Williams. Dunne.S. Dan Member Dept. Hossein Bowers. Rearick. Nicolas Freedman. Norman L. Richard W. Bruce V. Earle S. Anne M. Colquett. Wong. Hala Member Dept. Robert J. Dubin. 2010 Page 5 of 10 246 . Oregon Iowa Maryland Maryland New Jersey Alabama Florida California FHWA MDTA Region Region IV Region III Region I Region I Region I Region II Region II Region IV Ex Officio Ex-Officio Monday. Paul Y. Shoukry Richardson. Robert J. Mark W. McDonald. Elnahal. William "Tim" Pouliotte. Waider Member Dept. Hurst. Richard W. Kenneth F.T-7 Technical Committee for Guardrail and Bridge Rail Member Name Chair Vice Chair Keller. Timothy J. Healy. Goeden. Jeff Newton. John F. March 22. Earl Elgaaly. Barry W. Earle S. Maryland Louisiana District of Columbia Maryland Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey FHWA U.Coast Guard Region Region I Region II Region I Region I Region I Region I Region I Ex Officio Ex Officio T-9 Technical Committee for Bridge Preservation Member Name Chair Vice Chair Johnson.

Marcus Ghara. Ian M. William C. Bala Sauser. Dorgan. Thomas J. Jean A. Kendal "Ken" Juntunen. Tharmabala. Susan Jaber. Loren R. Mark W. March 22.T-10 Technical Committee for Concrete Design Member Name Chair Vice Chair Hohmann. Thompson. Thomas P. Bijan Friedland. 2010 Page 6 of 10 247 . Bijan Holt. Matthew M. Illinois North Carolina Florida Virginia Michigan Arizona California North Dakota Oklahoma Washington FHWA Ontario USACE Region Region III Region II Region II Region II Region III Region IV Region IV Region IV Region IV Region IV Ex Officio Ex Officio Ex Officio Monday. Julius F. Reggie Hartmann. Ansley. Terrence R. Perfetti. Robert J. Dreher. Macioce. Joey Member Dept. Ansley. Texas Idaho New Hampshire Pennsylvania Florida Louisiana Tennessee Virginia Kansas Minnesota Wisconsin California Nebraska Oregon Washington FHWA FHWA Region Region IV Region IV Region I Region I Region II Region II Region II Region II Region III Region III Region III Region IV Region IV Region IV Region IV Ex Officio Ex Officio T-11 Technical Committee for Research Member Name Chair Vice Chair Domagalski. Khaleghi. David Nehme. Farrar. Daniel L. Khaleghi. Marcus Walus. Volgyi. Fouad Johnson. Richardson. Risch. Kevin Udland. Hossein Wasserman. Rusch. David P. Phillip Member Dept. Hida. Bruce V. Edward P. Greg R.J.

Arthur P. Perfetti. Benton. Fred Anderson. Samir Member Dept. Jiten K. Matthew M. Risch. 2010 Page 7 of 10 248 . Fredrick. Yannotti. Marvin Brennan. McDonald. Soneji. March 22. Gregg C. Loren R. Raymond M. Phil Fallaha. Seradj. Brand. Nguyen. Thomas P. James J. Norman L. George A. David P. Hormoz Hohmann. Macioce. Stefonowicz. Gregg C.J. Tennessee Illinois New York Pennsylvania North Carolina Iowa Idaho Oregon Texas Wyoming FHWA Region Region II Region III Region I Region I Region II Region III Region IV Region IV Region IV Region IV Ex Officio Monday. Wyoming Kansas Connecticut Delaware Arkansas Florida Virginia Iowa Colorado Hawaii Nevada FHWA Region Region IV Region III Region I Region I Region II Region II Region II Region III Region IV Region IV Region IV Ex Officio T-13 Technical Committee for Culverts Member Name Chair Vice Chair Dorgan. Georges. Julius F. Santo. Scott Member Dept. Norman L. Daniel L. Wolfe.T-12 Technical Committee for Structural Supports for Signs. Todd Sidhom. Luminaires and Traffic Signals Member Name Chair Vice Chair Fredrick. Farrar. McDonald. Christian. Paul T. Khoa Member Dept. Greg R. Mark A. Minnesota Pennsylvania Delaware New York Kentucky Kansas New Mexico Utah FHWA Region Region III Region I Region I Region I Region II Region III Region IV Region IV Ex Officio T-14 Technical Committee for Structural Steel Design Member Name Chair Vice Chair Wasserman. Ralph E. Edward P. Anderson. Doehring. Trujillo. Sam Volgyi. Julie F. Leonard. Macioce. Barry A. Thomas P.

David L. Duwadi. Gregory Dorgan. Paul V. Alexander K. Carr. Symonds. Donald F. 2010 Page 8 of 10 249 . Liles. Silas Member Dept. "Buddy" Sizemore. Gregory Bardow. Tony M. March 22. Scott. Richard A. Wayne B. Barton Verma. Keith Bailey. Wayne B. Nichols. Sheila Gillins. West Virginia Massachusetts Vermont Alabama Alaska FHWA USDA Forest Service Region Region II Region I Region I Region II Region IV Ex Officio Ex Officio T-17 Technical Committee for Welding Member Name Chair Vice Chair Bardow. Tom Member Dept. John F. Massachusetts Georgia Vermont Mississippi West Virginia Minnesota California FHWA Region Region I Region II Region I Region II Region II Region III Region IV Ex Officio Monday. James J. Pratt. James D. John F. Krishna K. Daniel L. Brennan. David Black. Richard A. Ohio Washington New Hampshire New York Rhode Island Alabama South Carolina West Virginia Kansas Alaska New Mexico FHWA Region Region III Region IV Region I Region I Region I Region II Region II Region II Region III Region IV Region IV Ex Officio T-16 Technical Committee for Timber Structures Member Name Chair Vice Chair Bailey. Black. Jawdat Allen. Dwyer. Jimmy D. B. Newton. "Buddy" Pratt. Camp. Symonds. Member Dept. Jeff Shook. Fish. Alexander K.T-15 Technical Committee for Substructures and Retaining Walls Member Name Chair Vice Chair Siddiqi.

Jean A. Mitchell K. Gregg C. Eric J. VACANT Christie.T-18 Technical Committee for Bridge Replacement Surveys and Inspection Standards Member Name Chair Vice Chair Farrar. Mark Carr. David Barnes. Trujillo. Hite. Scot Nehme. 2010 Page 9 of 10 250 . Ailaney. Keith R. Kenneth F. Ramsey. Raymond M. Rusch. Kamal Member Dept. Juntunen. Arthur Anderson. Shoukry VACANT Christie. Newton. Kent M. Raymond M. Raj Member Dept. Pouliotte. Trujillo. Barton Elnahal. Jeff D'Andrea. March 22. Becker. Everett. Leonard.Coast Guard Region Region IV Region IV Region I Region I Region II Region II Region II Region III Region III Region IV Region IV Region IV Region IV Ex Officio Ex Officio Ex Officio T-19 Technical Committee for Computers Member Name Chair Vice Chair Hurst. Ralph E. Matthew M. Eric J. Fredrick. Bala Elnahal. Kansas Wyoming New York Alabama Kentucky Mississippi Wisconsin Arizona Colorado New Mexico Oklahoma FHWA Region Region III Region IV Region I Region II Region II Region II Region III Region IV Region IV Region IV Region IV Ex Officio Monday. Keith L.S. Tharmabala. Mark A. Robert J. Idaho California Massachusetts New York Alabama Florida Louisiana Illinois Michigan Montana New Mexico Texas Wyoming FHWA Ontario U. Fulton. Thomas D.

Khaleghi. Donald F. Kevin Johnson. Dan Member Dept. 2010 Page 10 of 10 251 . Alexander K. Eskender. Salamon. Ruzzi. Michael G. California Oregon District of Columbia Massachusetts New York Pennsylvania Virginia Colorado Washington FHWA MDTA Region Region IV Region IV Region I Region I Region I Region I Region II Region IV Region IV Ex Officio Ex-Officio Monday. Konjit "Connie" Bardow. Bijan Rohena. Jesus Williams.T-20 Technical Committee for Tunnels Member Name Chair Vice Chair Thompson. Bruce V. Prasad L. Dwyer. March 22. Lou Nallapaneni.

S. S.gov Phone Fax Email (503) 587-4706 (503) 399-5838 timothy.ernst@dot.gov TECHNICAL COMMITTEE LIAISONS T-1. Bearings and Expansion Devices Timothy Rogers Division Bridge Engineer Federal Highway Administration 530 Center Street NE.duwadi@dot. OR 97301 T-3. HIBT-1 1200 New Jersey Avenue.gov 252 .E. DC 20590 Phone Fax Email (202) 366-4589 (202) 366-3077 myint. Washington. S. CO 80228 Phone Fax Email (720) 963-3205 (720) 963-3232 Derrell. Suite #340 Lakewood.Ailaney@dot.gov Phone Fax Email (202) 493-3106 (202) 493-3442 sheila.gov Phone Fax Email (202) 366-6749 (202) 366-3077 Raj.E. Seismic Design Derrell Manceaux Senior Structural Engineer Federal Highway Administration FHWA Resource Center 12300 W Dakota Ave. Office of Bridge Technology Federal Highway Administration 1200 New Jersey Avenue. HRDI-07 Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center Office of Infrastructure R&D 6300 Georgetown Pike McLean.E.Last updated February 04. Myint Lwin (Secretary) Director.Manceaux@dot. HIBT-1 1200 New Jersey Avenue. Room E75-318 Washington. Room E75-314 Washington. Suite 100 Salem. Bridge and Tunnel Security Steve Ernst Senior Bridge Engineer . 2010 FHWA OFFICERS AND EX-OFFICIO TECHNICAL COMMITTEE LIAISONS OFFICERS M. DC 20590 Sheila Duwadi Research Structural Engineer Federal Highway Administration.. DC 20590 Raj Ailaney (Assistant Secretary) Senior Bridge Engineer – Planning & Contracts Federal Highway Administration Office of Bridge Technology.rogers@dot.gov Phone Fax Email (202) 366-4619 (202) 366-3077 steve.Safety and Security Federal Highway Administration Office of Bridge Technology.lwin@dot. VA 22101 T-2.

gov Phone Fax Email (850) 942-9650x3039 (850) 942-9650 Jeffrey. NY 12207 T-9. HRDI-09 Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center Office of Infrastructure R&D 6300 Georgetown Pike McLean.saad@dot. Suite 200 Tallahassee. Bridge Preservation Paul Virmani Research Chemist Federal Highway Administration.gov Phone Fax Email (518) 431-4125x229 (518) 431-4121 earl.dubin@dot. O’Brien Federal Building Room 719. Movable Bridges Earl Dubin Structural Engineer Federal Highway Administration Leo W. Pearl Street Albany.wong@dot. MD 21201 T-8.gov Phone Fax Email (410) 962-9252 (410) 962-3655 waider.Ger@dot.triandafilou@dot. Guardrail and Bridge Rail Waider Wong Structural Design Engineer 10 South Howard Street Suite 4000 Baltimore. IL 60443 T-6. MD 21201 T-7.gov Phone Fax Email (410) 962-3648 (410) 962-3655 lou. 2010 FHWA OFFICERS AND EX-OFFICIO TECHNICAL COMMITTEE LIAISONS T-4.gov 253 . Construction Jeffrey Ger Division Bridge Engineer Federal Highway Administration 545 John Knox Road.virmani@dot. Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites Lou Triandafilou High-Performance Structural Materials Engineer 10 South Howard Street Suite 4000 Baltimore.Last updated February 04. Clinton Avenue & N. VA 22101 Phone Fax Email (202) 493-3052 (202) 493-3442 paul.gov Phone Fax Email (708) 283-3521 (708) 283-3501 thomas. FL 32303 T-5. Loads and Load Distribution Thomas Saad Bridge Engineer Federal Highway Administration FHWA Resource Center 4749 W Lincoln Highway (RTE 30) Suite 600 Matteson.

Suite 340 Lakewood. Washington.Concrete Federal Highway Administration Office of Bridge Technology. VA 22101-2296 T-12.anderson@dot. 2010 FHWA OFFICERS AND EX-OFFICIO TECHNICAL COMMITTEE LIAISONS T-10. Bridge and Structures R&D Federal Highway Administration Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center Room F-211. Service Team Leader 12300 West Dakota Avenue. Hartmann Senior Research Structural Engineer Team Leader. Virginia 22101 T-11. S.sidhom@dot.E. Design and Construction Federal Highway Administration Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center 6300 Georgetown Pike McLean.Last updated February 04.gov Phone Fax Email (360) 619-7700 (360) 619-7846 Khoa. Luminaires and Traffic Signals Samir Sidhom Bridge Design Team Leader Federal Lands Bridge Office 12300 W Dakota Ave. CO 80228 T-13. WA 98661 Phone Fax Email (202) 493-3059 (202) 493-3086 joey. DC 20590 Phone Fax Email (202) 366-4596 (202) 366-3077 Reggie.dot.nguyen@dot. Concrete Design Reggie Holt Senior Bridge Engineer . Research Ian M.gov Joseph L. 5th Street Vancouver.hartmann@dot.gov Phone Fax Email (720) 963-3399 (720) 963-3379 samir.gov Phone Fax Email (202) 493-3023 (202) 493-3086 ian.gov Phone Fax Email (720) 963-3244 (720) 963-3232 scott. CO 80228 T-14.friedland@fhwa. Culverts Scott Anderson Geotechnical & Hydraulic Tech.gov 254 . Friedland Technical Director. Structural Steel Design Khoa Nguyen Bridge Design Team Leader Federal Highway Administration Western Federal Lands Highway Division 610 E.Holt@dot. HRDI-03 6300 Georgetown Pike Mclean. Structural Supports for Signs. HIBT-10 1200 New Jersey Avenue. Suite 210 Lakewood.

Computers Raj Ailaney Senior Bridge Engineer – Planning and Contracts Federal Highway Administration Office of Bridge Technology. Washington. Timber Structures Sheila Duwadi Research Structural Engineer Federal Highway Administration. Bridge Management. HRDI-07 Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center Office of Infrastructure R&D 6300 Georgetown Pike McLean. S.gov 255 .E. Washington. VA 22101 T-17.gov Phone Fax Email (202) 366-6749 (202) 366-3077 raj. Washington. DC 20590 T-16.Welding Federal Highway Administration Office of Bridge Technology. S.gov Phone Fax Email (202) 366-4675 (202) 366-3077 thomas.Tunnels Federal Highway Administration Office of Bridge Technology.duwadi@dot. HIBT-1 1200 New Jersey Avenue. Welding Krishna Verma Principal Bridge Engineer . DC 20590 T-18. DC 20590 T-19. S. DC 20590 Phone Fax Email (202) 366-4593 (202) 366-3077 jesus.gov Phone Fax Email (202) 493-3106 (202) 493-3442 sheila.verma@dot.gov Phone Fax Email (202) 366-1554 (202) 366-3077 Silas.E. 2010 FHWA OFFICERS AND EX-OFFICIO TECHNICAL COMMITTEE LIAISONS T-15. HIBT-20 1200 New Jersey Avenue. HIBT-10 1200 New Jersey Avenue.everett@dot.Nichols@dot.rohena@dot.E. Washington.Geotechnical Federal Highway Administration Office of Bridge Technology. Washington.. Evaluation.ailaney@dot. and Rehabilitation Thomas Everett Principal Bridge Engineer Federal Highway Administration Office of Bridge Technology. S.E.Last updated February 04.E. S. HIBT-10 1200 New Jersey Avenue. Tunnels Jesus Rohena Senior Bridge Engineer . DC 20590 T-20.gov Phone Fax Email (202) 366-4601 (202) 366-3077 krishna. HIBT-30 1200 New Jersey Avenue. Substructures and Retaining Walls Silas Nichols Senior Bridge Engineer .