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2nd Edition - 2009



AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 1 

Merhaba, daha önce bu dökümanı sınava girenlere katkısı olsun diye üzerinden
vermiştim. İşte o dökümanı biraz daha genişleterek tekrar sizlere sunuyorum. Sınavlardaki başarınızda
bir nebze olsun katkım olursa ne mutlu bana…Hayır duanızı eksik etmesiniz kafi… Lütfen bu
dökümanı Üds-Kpds sınavlarına girmeden önce irdeleyiniz. Elimden geldiğince sınavlarda çıkmış ve
çıkabilecek düzeyde örnek bol cümleler verdim. Bunları sayfa çok tutsun diye eklemedim ; verdiğim
örnekleri dikkatlice irdeleyiniz, ve özümseyiniz. Göreceksiniz ki sınavda karşınıza çok benzer düzeyde
cümleler çıkacaktır.

Sınavlardaki asıl başarının okumaktan geçtiğini de unutmayınız. Yani bir kelime ya da gramer yapısını
cümle içerisinde ne kadar fazla görürseniz o kadar iyi özümsersiniz. Lütfen bol örnek cümle görünüz.
Bu anlamda iyi bir sözlük kullanınız. Piyasadaki 2-3 tane olan KPDS-ÜDS sözlükleri maalesef işinizi
görmeyecekir. Çünkü kanımca onlarda 1-2 den fazla örnek cümle yoktur ve kullanılan örnek cümleler
maalesef bu sınava girenlerin sınavlarda karşılaşacağı düzeyde örnek cümleler yerine basit örnek
cümlelerdir. Bu da sınav esnasında çıkan cümlelerden çok farklı olduğu için bizi sınavlarda yarı yolda
bırakmaktadır. O yüzden Longman, Oxford gibi detaylı hazırlanmış sözlükleri kullanın. Collins-
Cobuilt’n cd versiyonunda çok fazla sayıda örnek cümle vardır, yada Gerry’s Vocabulary Teacher.
Bunları edinmeye çalışınız.

Kelime yada herhangi bir gramer yapısını öğrenirken bunları formüllerle yada kuru kelime listeleriyle
değil, lütfen cümleler içinde görerek aklınıza yazınız. Mesela although dan sonra cümle gelir, if type 1
yapısı şöyle olur demek yerine onları cümlelerde görünüz ve aklınıza not ediniz. Yada bir kelime
öğrenirken diyelim ki increase. Increase artırmak diye ezberlemek yerine cümle içerisinde yada diğer
bu kelimeye yapışan sülük gibi tutunan kelimelerle öğreniniz. Yani aşağıdaki gibi…

If the world's population continues to increase, one day there will not be enough food for everyone.
You can expect a slight increase in pay every six months.
Our sales continue to increase as our name gets known.
The price for CD burners has decreased significantly since they first appeared on the market.
The telephone company has announced that the fee for single-line service will increase by 3% this
Use of the Internet to download music is becoming increasingly popular.

■ verb
• ADV. considerably, dramatically, enormously, greatly, significantly, substantially |
slightly | gradually | rapidly, sharply, steeply | steadily | twofold, threefold, etc. Sales
increased almost fourfold in this period.
• VERB + INCREASE be expected to, be likely to Demand is expected to increase over the next
• PREP. by The budget has increased by more than a third in the last year. | from, in to increase in
amount/number/price/size | to Last month the reward was increased from £20,000 to £40,000. |
with Disability increases with age.


Soru, istek, öneri, eleştiri ve katkılarınız için bana ulaşınız. E-postam:


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 2 


Genel Bilgi : Gramer sorularında çıkabilecek konuların çoğunluğu aşağıda sıralanmıştır. Gerisi ve en
önemlisi okumak, okumak ve okumaktır. Her şeyin gramer kitaplarında sıralanması tahmin edersiniz
ki mümkün değidir. Aşağıdakiler çalışmalarınızdan sonra aklınızda kalması gereken konsantre meyva
suyudur. Bu bilgileri her alandan, her konudan dergi, kitap, makale, haber vb. şeyleri bol okuyarak;
konsantre meyva suyundan daha fazlasını elde edersiniz.


Lütfen cümleleri tense kullanımı açısından dikkatlice irdeleyiniz. Sınavlarda tense soruları
cevaplarken lütfen Türkçeleştirmeye çalışmayınız. Pek çok tense Türkçeye aynı şekilde
çevrilebilir. Bu sebeple yapmanız gereken o tensin kullanım alanları ve aralıklarını
düşünmenizdir. Sınavda hiçbir şekilde çevirmenlik yapmayınız.
• A changing business environment requires us to continuously improve our approach
to management.
• Researchers are frequently faced with questions about the use of animals in research.
• The economy always undergoes great fluctuations, but most of the people continue to
be economically active and this is very important.
• According to the survey, two-thirds of young people do not follow politics and pay no
attention to election campaigns.
• The purpose of the European Community's Directive on professional qualifications is
precisely to foster mobility of workers between member states.
• Once a plant reaches full maturity, its energy is devoted to reproduction.
• Although drama is a form of literature, it differs from other literary forms in the way
it is presented.
• Global warming doesn't create hurricanes, but it does make them stronger and more
• Sunspots, a barometer of solar activity in general, seem to have been unusually
numerous over the last century.
• Greater numbers of English-language newsmagazines are now becoming available
• Contrary to expectations, more people are now leaving many of the world’s largest
urban areas than are moving in.
• All European governments are working together to find a solution to the problem of
nuclear waste.
• Today species are being driven to extinction at a rate higher than any time in the past.
• The technology of computer science is having a great influence on our lives, and the
most immediate result of this technology is its effect on employment.
• The government is waiting for the results of clinical trials of the drug before making it
available to the general public.
• Small scientific steps are making headway against various cancers, many of which are
historically difficult to treat.
• Scientists still haven’t found the reason why children are much better than adults at
mastering a second language.
• For more than a century, bird flu has circulated among birds, particularly
domesticated fowl, but recent attention has been called to avian influenza since some

AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 3 
strains infected humans.
• The value of heat for the preservation of food has been known for thousands of years.
• Although many forms of therapy have been tried, none has been able to prevent the
disease from progressing.
• Many philosophers have claimed that acquiring knowledge is their lifelong goal.
• Trees that once covered many hillsides have been cleared for space and fuel over the
• The fox has always been known as a very clever animal which is difficult to catch.
• There is no question that war has been a common feature of the human experience
ever since the dawn of civilization.
• There has been a lot of discussion over the years about the informal style of online
• An international team of scientist has just completed a study on the spread of HIV in
• The giant panda, the creature that has become a symbol of conservation, is facing
• International conventions have long been prohibiting the use of chemical weapons
during war, but how effective is this likely to be?
• Although skin cancer has been developing on people for centuries, it has been in the
past few decades that doctors have truly begun to understand the disease.
SIMPLE PAST • After decades of experimentation, the first practical and fairly reliable typewriters
arrived on the market in the early 1870s.
• When the Olympic games were first held in 1986, they were conceived as a
celebration of the human body and of the human spirit.
• The value of certain foods in maintaining health was recognised long before the first
vitamins were actually identified.
• The US government imposed labeling requirements on for fruit and vegetables two
years ago.
• El Niño was originally accepted by some men who were fishing off the coast of South 
America as an image of unusual warm water in the Pacific Ocean.
• The nineteenth century was a period of great change and accompanying social unrest
in the British Isles.
• Our legs were aching after walking around the city all day shopping.
• The company has denied allegations that they were dumping polluted water into the
• Thousands of Americans waited anxiously for news of loved ones who were working
in the World Trade Centre at the time of the terrorist attacks.
• They took a charter boat up the Ganges River for three days while they were
travelling in India.
PAST PERFECT • The ancient Roman Empire was made up of lots of countries, including Britain, which
the Romans had attacked and invaded.
• It had been three hundred years since genetic modification of humans began.
• The woman patient is still alive 14 years after the disease had been diagnosed.
• The nature of viruses made them impossible to detect for many years, even after
bacteria had been discovered and studied.
• Once helmets had been revived for soldiers and extended to many workers, safety
head coverings for athletes almost inevitably followed.
• It was on account of there being so many interruptions that the meeting went on for so
much longer than we had expected.
• In the early twentieth century, a number of scientists, who had been trained as
physicists, were interested in the study of biological organisms, and their efforts gave
rise to the field we now call molecular biology.
• The allegation that the corporation had been involved in smuggling proved to be
unfounded after the investigation.
• Among the Mediterranean peoples who developed their own alphabets from the Greek
alphabet were also the Etruscans, who had settled in Italy in the 9th century B.C.
• The doctors are of the opinion that if the disorder had been diagnosed a few months

AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 4 
earlier it could have been treated successfully.
• Economic as well as social problems plagued Europe during the 1970s and 1980s but
these problems had actually begun much earlier.
• By the 1840s, British North America had developed a vibrant commercial economy
based on its abundant natural resources and a growing international trade.
• The detectives had been searching for the murderer for a long time before they
arrested him.
• The principal alleged that the students had been cheating.
• He was not delighted with the results of his final exams since he had been expecting
better ones.
• While travelling, I met a guy who had been living in Israel for more than 2 years after
his passport expired.
• Drug tests revealed that Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson had been taking performance-
enhancing drugs.
• At her last session with her psychiatrist, she admitted that she had been stealing from
stores for a number of years.
• The current level of medical care in this province will be increasingly difficult to
uphold as our population ages.
• If tuberculosis is treated early and by modern methods, there won't be any problems
with the patient in the future.
• You won't get a promotion until you have been working here as long as Tim.
• As there is substantial amount of radioactive contamination in the area, plantation
activities will be stopped until the area is totally cleaned off radioactive wastes.
• We are going to meet a few colleagues after work to discuss our plan to open up our
own business.
• Sales at the company have increased a lot over the last year, so they are going to hire
at least 5 new people.
• Without corroboration from forensic tests, it will be difficult to prove that the suspect
is guilty.
• Parliament will be convening on Saturday in order to approve the nominees for
various posts.
• In formulating a business plan, one of the most important components is getting to
know the market environment in which the business will be operating.
• Government officials expect that increased security measures will be forthcoming as a
result of the terrorist attacks.
• The factory management has apparently notified the workers that they will be closing
their plant next month.
• When a worker knows he will be getting a raise each year, he can feel so secure that
he thinks there is no need to work hard.
• By the end of elementary school, the average child will have seen 8,000 murders and
100,000 other violent acts in the media.
• It is to be expected that, by the year 2050, people’s eating habits will have changed
beyond recognition.
• It is hoped that the construction of the world’s tallest residential building, the Chicago
Spire, which was commenced at the end of last year, will have been completed by late
• Unless something is done to protect the wild life, many species will have died out by
• If inflation continues to rise at this rate, prices will have doubled in about six months.
• You will have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.
• We are going to have been driving for over three days straight when we get to
• She is going to have been working at that company for three years when it finally
• Jason will be tired when he gets home because he will have been jogging for over an
• You are only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.

AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 5 


• If inflation continues to rise at this rate, prices will have doubled in about six months.
• If hurricanes do become more frequent and intense, we might be able to find ways to
mitigate their effects or even modify the weather.
• Illegal immigrants are sent back across the border if they are caught.
American schools need more time if they are to teach efficiently.
• The proposal would allow Iran to acquire nuclear reactors and normalize ties with the
West if it agrees to end nuclear activities.
• If the body is engaged in work, the heart beats at an increased rate.
• If the level of profits falls in one area of activity, entrepreneurs may move their
resources to an industry where the returns are higher.
• Experience has proved that certain conditions are essential if a good investigation is to
be carried out.
• If you don't keep up payments you could be evicted from your house.
• If the doctor examines the sample under a microscope, he will be able to see if you have
any abnormal growths on your kidney.
• If we examine carefully what we have done, we can determine the more accurately
what we can do
• China’s economic growth rate isn’t exceptional if we compare it with other giant
economies in Asia.
• If the body fails to receive sufficient amounts of iron, an adequate number of
hemoglobin molecules will not be formed.
• In Britain, if a company considers that its rivals are competing in an unfair way, it can
report them to the Office of Fair Trading.
• Famines can occur in countries which have or can obtain enough food for their
populations if the majority of people are too poor to buy it.
• It's good to know more than one language if you plan on doing business with foreign
• If one molecule of oxygen combines with two molecules of hydrogen, water is formed
• A number of materials used in manufacturing paint are potentially dangerous if
• Magnetic toy kits may contain small parts that could be hazardous to small children if
• What would be the effect on medical science if experiments were limited to attempts to
heal already sick or injured animals?
2. Second
• So many plants and animals live dependently on ants that they would all become extinct
if ants were exterminated.
• Have you ever imagined what life would be like if we could eliminate human
• She thought that if she armed herself with all the knowledge she could gather she could
handle anything.
• The earth would be like heaven if the scientific and technological developments were
only used for the benefit of human beings.
• If Henry Ford, founder of Ford Motor Company, came back for a visit today, he would
be amazed to see how cars have changed.
• Can you imagine what would happen if there were an advertisement for rose perfume
on one page and frozen orange juice on the next?
• It would be unrealistic to suggest that illegal digging would stop if artifacts were sold
on the open market.
• If there were no patent protection there would be little incentive to invent and innovate.
• Iran threatened to limit its oil shipments (currently four million barrels a day), if the UN
took action against Iran because of Irans nuclear weapons program.
• One scientist has said that the world could support ten billion people if better
agricultural methods were used everywhere.

AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 6 
• If Earth's temperature were to increase or decrease by just a few degrees, many marine
species would probably perish.
• If teamwork were taught along with reading, writing and mathematics, there would be
enormous benefits to students and society alike.
3. Third
• If the disease had not been controlled, it could have spread globally and with
devastating results.
• If the protective measures had been taken to prevent inflation last year, Argentine
wouldn't have been in a critical situation.
• If the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) had not banned all animal and
animal product imports from high-risk areas in 2001, the US would have suffered the
same consequences of foot-and-mouth disease as the UK did that year.
• I would naturally have felt extremely disappointed if they hadn’t sent us an invitation to
the concert.
• The doctors are of the opinion that if the disorder had been diagnosed a few months
earlier it could have been treated successfully.
• If the others had taken sensible precautions like we did, this tragedy need never have
Mixed type
• If yesterday had been today, today would be tomorrow.
• If you had warned me [then], I would not be in trouble [now].
• We are much relived now if there weren’t any exams like UDS and KPDS.
• If Australian conservationists had not implemented an extensive preservation campaign
back in the 1960s, the population of saltwater crocodiles of the north would be even
less than the present number of 100.
• If the great libraries of ancient times, like the one in Alexandria, Egypt, had come down
to us with all their books and manuscripts intact, humanity today would possess an
invaluable source of cultural heritage.

• Should you come here again ,I ‘ll be with you.
• Were I in YOK’S shoes ,I would annul UDS.
• Were he to go England ,he would spend his time on practising.
• Had I come to the party ,it would have been much more enjoyable.
• Had I had time, I would have helped you.

But for
( x olmasa, x
If it weren’t for
If it hadn’t
been for
• But for the wind, the fire wouldn’t have spread at such a fast speed.
• But for the help from police, he might have been killed in the fight.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 7 

You can pass the exam only if you study.
provided that
providing that
as long as
so long as
on condition that

• Women have been playing football as long as the game has existed.
• You can stay here on condition that you look after the animals and the garden.
• A patient has the right to refuse to give consent to treatment, provided that the patient is able to
exercise his judgement clearly and freely.

If = provided that
providing that
supposed that şartıyla ( If ve Akrabaları )
supposing that
assuming that
on condition that
as long as
so long as

• Provided that the conditions are appropriate, each living organism will be able to multiply and
• You can stay here on condition that you look after the animals and the garden.

Supposing that / supposed that = what if anlamında genelde tip 2 if clause larda kullanılır.

Otherwise, or else, but, without ile de cümlede koşullar sağlanabilir.

• We must keep to the agreed schedule, otherwise we will have problems. 
• The doctor has advised him to strictly adhere to the prescribed regimen; otherwise there is a 
danger of relapse of the illness. 
• Without animal testing, many procedures or new drugs would be extremely unsafe.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 8 

Örnekleri dikkatlice irdeleyiniz.

• Scientists warn that unless we guard our wilderness, as many as half of all species could vanish in this
• The rich nations of the world will have to forgive at least a portion of the debt owed by the developing
countries in order for the poor nations to make any real progress.
• Coin collectors study the errors because they can dramatically affect the value of a coin.
• Minerals can be absorbed and utilized by the body in a variety of different forms.
• After the discovery of electricity, man found out that he could use the great power of water to produce it.
• A surprising new study shows that female elephants in the wild might live up to three times longer than
those born in zoos.
• As human activities alter ecosystems, this may lead to the extinction of species.
• It is thought that, unlike human eyes, birds eyes can detect ultra-violet light in adverse weather conditions.
• Since rats are destructive and may carry disease, many people try to exterminate them.
• One of the most important facts to know about energy is that any form of energy can be changed into any
other form.
• In the future, car computers will be able to understand what you say, using voice-recognition software.
• Before undergoing surgery, patients should discuss the various options with their doctor.
• Many countries have unanimously agreed that the use of weapons of mass destruction must not be allowed
under any circumstance.
• People who have trouble falling or staying asleep may be more likely to die sooner from natural causes
compared to those who sleep well.
• Treating depression could change significantly following the results of a small Canadian clinical trial that
ended in 2005.
• Leaders should aim to find durable solutions for world peace rather than transitory ones.
• All people should have the right to choose the doctors they prefer and, within reason, the timing most
convenient to them for medical treatment, operations, etc.
• Nobody could have anticipated the explosion of writing that would come out as a result of the internet,
the email and the text facility of the mobile phone.
• Teaching is supposed to be a professional activity requiring long and complicated training as well as
official certification.
• Parents who commit brutal acts of child abuse ought to be prosecuted.
• Without DNA findings to clearly identify whether a suspect is the real criminal or not, many innocent
individuals would have been killed.
• High cholesterol used to be thought of as a problem only for adults.
• The physicians working in this hospital should have taken into consideration all the factors concerned
with the disorder prior to any final diagnosis.
• If a couple decides to divorce, a number of major transitions of lifestyle and outlook have to be made.
• A single 2.5mg dose of vitamin D may be enough to boost the immune system to fight against tuberculosis.
• The immigrants had to face many problems at first because they were unfamiliar with both the culture and
the language of the country.
• Despite the elegance of the human memory system, it is not infallible, and we have to learn to live with its
• Strictly speaking, the term "avalanche" should be restricted to falls of snow and ice in mountainous
• It is a fact that no nation can effectively progress without a strong human capital base and education is the
key to overall human resource development.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 9 

Verilen örnekleri dikkatlice irdeleyiniz. 

• The parents of the abducted drivers, who want help from the authorities wish their sons would be
set free.
• Imhotep, god of medicine, existed as a mythological figure in the minds of many scholars until
the end of the 19th century, when it was established that he was a real historical personage.
• Catalysts are substances which enable a chemical reaction to take place but which do not
themselves play any active part in the reaction.
• Mountaineering as a sport has developed since about 1857, when the Alpine Club was founded in
• Adobe is inexpensive and can be produced in abundance in regions where there is clay soil.
• Technology changes the ways in which humans appraise resources, and it may modify economic
systems and population distributions.
• The plants, most of whose leaves are edible, have been listed below.
• Asthma, (kısaltma) a condition that affects the lungs, is a disease that many people, the majority
of whom are children.
• Scientists recently completed the largest-ever astronomical survey of the sky, during which they
retained images that are expected to help them understand the origins of galaxies.
• Perhaps the most catastrophic natural phenomena are earthquakes, which can shake, split, and
shift the ground upon which our civilizations are built.
• There are disagreements between the EU countries about the speed at which the EU should open
its doors to new member states in Central and Eastern Europe.
• Mammals range in size from bats, some of which weigh less than an ounce, to the blue whale,
which weighs more than 200,000 pounds.
• US researcher have found that young children whose lungs are highly sensitive to cold air are
more than twive as likely to develop astma in early adulthood as children whose lungs are
unaffected by cold air.
• One reason why insects are so plentiful is their ability to adapt to different environments.
• If the United States and Europe withhold the aid on which Palestinians depend for survival, they
lose the leverage over Hamas to compel that free election.
• Scientists have discovered a way by which they can convert A, B and AB-type blood groups into
O-type blood.
• The bonds that tie a mother to her newborn may be stronger in women who deliver naturally than
in those who deliver by cesarean section.
• In Britain last year, there were about 5.5 million residents born outside the country, of whom
only about 60 per cent were citizens.
• The experiment whose results the members of the committee will disclose cost a lot of money.
• As a biological concept, race refers to a large group of people who share certain inherited
physical characteristics.
• There has been an increase in the number of courses that include environmental concerns.
• Bangladesh's Government has made a key concession that may speed up the trial of the alleged
killers of four politicians in 1975.
• In recent years, a whole new generation of cargo vessels have begun sailing the oceans of the
world at speeds that in the past were confined to fast passenger liners.
• High-speed rail networks that link major European cities and airports may eventually relieve
congested air routes and roadways.
• Internet is a vast network of computers that connects many of the world's businesses, institutions,
and individuals.

AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 10 

Virgülden sonra that kullanılmaz (non-defining relative clause)

Preposition (edat) dan sonra that kullanılmaz. ( on that – at that – during that)

all, everything, something, anything, nothing, none, little, few, much dan sonra that kullanılır.
There's something that you should know.

Superlative lerden sonra that kullanılır.
It was the best film that I've ever seen.

Why yanlarında fiil kullanılmaz.

Quantifier + of whom
Quantifier + of which
What soluna isim almaz. İsim what’ ın içinde gizlidir

Most whom
Noun + All of + which
Neither whose


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 11 

Verilen örnekleri dikkatlice irdeleyiniz. Altı çizi olarak verilen noun clause’ların içerisinde
başka cümleciklerin gömülü olabildiğine de dikkat ediniz.


• The great advances made in scientific and medical knowledge through experimentation made it
unlikely that the scientific community would abandon the use of animals in the near future.
• Educationalists think that the decrease in the students’ grades more than just an aberration; it’s a
• The council denied that their decision represented any abdication of responsibility.
• The leaders of a society might argue they have abolished poverty if they ensure that no citizens
are homeless or starving.
• She assessed the possible rewards to see if the project was worth her time and effort.
• The planned attack on the enemy base was aborted at the last minute when it became apparent
that the enemy had somehow become aware of their plans.
• This organization believes that abortion is no different than murder, and should be completely
• Researchers in France and the United States have recently reported that baboons are able to think
• Empirical studies are those in which data were gathered to assess if the variables were related.
• Since the late 1980s, research has shown that treating drug abuse is an effective way to prevent
the spread of HIV.
• Weather patterns can often be a key factor in finding out when an epidemic is imminent because
they determine the conditions for germs and their carriers to breed.
• The physician must certify the need for hospitalization, determine what procedures will be
performed, and announce when the patient may be discharged.
• Psychologists agree that those people who are happiest accentuate the positive in life.
• It was not until the late 1940's and early 1950's that most biologists accepted the evidence
showing that DNA must be the chromosomal component that carries hereditary information.
• Before we can discuss the basic problem of the origin of our universe, we must ask ourselves
whether such a discussion is necessary.
• In recent years, scientists have been moving ever closer to one day being able to predict when and
where a major earthquake could occur.
• In the past it was not clear whether proteins might be associated with membranes.
• Researchers continue to debate whether a rock from Mars contains tiny fossils of primitive
• Scientists suggest that huge amounts of greenhouse gases will be released into the atmosphere if
rising temperatures cause the Arctic permafrost to melt.
• As the childhood obesity epidemic in the United States continues, researchers are examining
whether early parent and child behaviors contribute to the problem.
• Nobody knows how many people died during the coup, but it goes without saying that many
more died in the ensuing weeks and the military dictatorship that followed.
• It is easier to understand why the ecotourism market has become so overcrowded when we look
at its wider role in the world economy.
• Scientist have suggested many theories explaining why the dinosaurs died out.
• Genetic differences may affect the results of tests given to athletes to see if they have been taking
performance-enhancing drugs.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 12 
That Almayı Seven Fiiller

find out 
point out 

That almayı seven isimler….

Fear bu isimler yanlarına that almayı severler.

Sıfatlarda genelde yanlarına that alabilirler.

Interesting kendilerinden sonra that almayı severler.
A shame

• The assumption that the elimination of economic and social grievances may help the prevention of
war leads us naturally to the idea that we must try to solve these problems as soon as possible.
• The belief that everyone must sleep 8 hours a night is a myth.
• Her main contention is that staff should get better training.
• Many people dispute the claim that Columbus discovered America and insist that that was done by
a Viking explorer.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 1 

1- IF (şart cümlecikleri)(Daha çok type 3)
Had I been a bit more careful, I could have corrected my mistakes on the test.
(If I had been............)
Should you have difficulty starting the car, you can call the mechanic. (If you should........)
Were you to try harder, I am sure you would be successful in the EXAM. (If you were to
try harder.......=If you tried harder........)
2- NOR
You mustn't drive too fast. Nor must you drive when you are sleepy.

3- Sıralanan zarflar cümle başlarında kullanıldığında


-At no time…. -Only......
-Seldom does he come with a new idea.
-Rarely had she been given her approval
-Never have I seen such a beautiful lady.
-Scarcely had her head touched the pillow when she fell into a deep sleep.
-Hardly had we started our task when our teacher wanted it.
-No sooner did I went out of my office than I realized someone waiting outside.
-Not only is he ill, but he is also close to death.
-Not only did the lady thanked to the boy, but she also give money to him.

-Not until he spoke did I give him an answer. = Only when he spoke did I give him an
-Only when the teacher give you permission, may you speak in the classroom..
-Only in a few countries does the whole population enjoy a reasonable standard of living.
-Only from the mistakes in life could we discover the truth.
-Only then did she understand that her husband had left her.
-Only by chance did the scientist find POST-IT.
AT NO TIME / IN NO WAY / NOWHERE /............
-In no way can she be held responsible for the loss of the money.
-On no account are the students allowed tocheat in the exam.

AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 2 
-Nowhere did he have a better opportunity to earn money than than the insurance
company in Adana
-At no time did the poor receive enough help from the rich.
-We thought for a long time , but nowhere could we find the missing boy.
4- AS / SO
He was a rich, as were all the members of his family.
So rapidly has the fired workers increased that they go on a strike.

5- Yer belirten zarflarla başlayan cümlelerde ( özellikle şu fiillerle: GO, COME, SIT, STAND,
On the stairs was standing the secretary..
Here comes the most popular student of the class.
Under the ladder was a cat.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 3 
1.There is/are yapısında özne olarak there kullanılır.
There was a mistake in the bill, wasn’t there?
There used to be a market near here, didn’t there?
There isn’t much traffic in Adana in these days, is there?
2. Am I right, aren’t I?
3. Cümlemizin öznesi
A. anyone(anybody),noone(nobody),someone(somebody),everyone(everybody) ise kuyruk sorusunda
özne olarak they kullanılır.
Everybody is ready, aren’t they?
Noone wants to fail in the exam, do they?( noone olumsuzluk kattığı için yardımcı olumsuz olarak
algılanıp,kuyruk sorusu olumlu yapılır.)
B. everything,something,nothing gibi bir özneden meydana geliyorsa, kuyruk sorusunda özne olarak it
Nothing came in the post, did it?
Something should be sold, shouldn’t it?
4. Let’s go,shall we?
5. Aşağıdaki gibi durumlarda 1. yardımcı fiil kullanılır.
He has been digging all day, hasn’t he?
6. Cümlemizde nothing, nobody,barely,hardly,seldom,never,no,none gibi anlamca olumsuzluk taşıyan
ifadeler varsa anlamca olumsuz olur ve kuyruk sorusu olumlu olur.
The student hardly achieved in the exam, did he?
They seldom work hard, do they?
7. Cümlemiz basit cümle degil ise ana cümlenin yardımcı fiili kuyruk sorularında kullanılır.
You know you can improve your English, don’t you?
The man who was arrested yerterday is in prison now, isn’t he?
8. I don’t think, I don’t guess gibi yapılar yardımcı fiil seçimini etkilemez ama anlamca cümleyi
olumsuz yaptığından kuyruk soruları olumlu olur.

AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 4 
I don’t think this is appropriate for his kind of situation, is it (is this)?
(= I think this isn’t appropriate for this kind of situation,
9. had better
He had better do it, hadn’t he?

However / How + sıfat / zarf
No matter + soru sözcüğü
( No matter+ how +S+V / No matter+ what + S+V ....... vb)
Whatever + isim

• No matter how hard you try, you will not earn a lot of money in a very short time.
• However hard we worked, we could never save enough.
• No matter how sophisticated our technology becomes, we will probably always be vulnerable to
the awesome forces of nature.
• Whatever decision the government may take, inflation seems to rise.
• Whatever kind of work they do, anthropologists share an interest in making the findings of
anthropological research available as widely as possible.
• New studies show that rereading or summarizing texts can improve people’s ability to accurately
evaluate how well they are learning those texts.
• Working long hours makes workers more susceptible to injury and illness, regardless of how
hazardous or menial the job is.
• However carefully they rehearse the programme, there is always someone who gets it wrong.
• No one event, however shocking it may be, can reorder politics in a country as populous as the
• However weak we are, however difficult the circumstances, however little hope there seems, God
will be with us.
• Some basic problems are common to all societies no matter what level of economic development
they have achieved.
• However much people have criticised her style and some of her policies no one will gainsay her


By the time + simple present /present perfect + will + v1
+ will be Ving
+ will have V3
+ will have been Ving

By the time + simple past + had V3
+ had been Ving
• By the time he finished, I had cooked dinner.
• We will have finished our homework by the time they arrive.
• By the time the experts reached the area the animals had disappeared.
• By the time they realize that anthrax is the cause of their unexplained illnesses and fatalities, many
of the people exposed will be as good as dead.
• Each day you breathe about 25,000 times, and by the time you're 70 years old, you'll have taken at
least 600 million breaths.

AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 5 
• By the time newcomers to the United States had passed through the immigration center on Ellis
Island, they had been screened for certain contagious diseases.
• He will be 24 by the time he has finished school.
• We will have finished our homework by the time they arrive.


Inasmuch as
Insomuch as
Seeing that
Now that
Owing to the fact that + cümle , cümle
In view of the fact that
Due to the fact that
On account of the fact that
On grounds that

• Inasmuch as the product is quickly cooled below the temperature at which bacterial, mold and
yeast growth occur, decomposition during the freezing is prevented.
• Inasmuch as the financial situation is steadily deteriorating the trend to withdraw savings from
bank continues.
• Disability can make extra demands on financial resources because the disabled need extra care.
• Since these substances are not licensed, they cannot be sold in the continental United States.
• The manager of the company reportedly called in the police because the employees had started to
destroy the company's equipment.

Because cümle başında neden belirtmek için de kullanılır.

• The scientist could’t compare the two groups properly. Because, there were many participants in
the first group excluded from the study due to their deaths.

Now that ----------- present zamanlarla kullanılır.

• The conventional photography industry is facing difficult times now that digital cameras have
come to the fore in all parts of the world.
• According to some scientists, now that humans are capable of cloning many species of animals,
one day human cloning will be inevitable.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 6 

Cümle , for cümle Çünkü

• He had a great desire to have a home of his own , for he had always lived with my grandmother.
• The traditional method of those wishing to find out about their ancestors is to question parents and
grandparents, for they are likely to possess written records, and their memories are often clear and


Unlike tersine, aksine
As opposed to isim
Contrary to Ving , cümle
In contrast with / to

• Unlike any other type of cell, embryonic stem cells have the capacity to develop into any type of
tissue in the body.
• We ate in the restaurant, as opposed to the bistro.
• In contrast to the limitations of sensory and short-term storage, long-term memory is indefinite;
much of it lasts a lifetime.
• Contrary to popular belief, women cause fewer road accidents than men.


tersine, aksine, diğer taraftan
Cümle ; on the contrary , cümle
in contrast,
on the other hand,

• It is not an idea around which the Community can unite. On the contrary, I see it as one that will
divide us.
• On the one hand, if the body doesn't have enough cholesterol, we would not be able to survive. On
the other hand, if the body has too much cholesterol, the excess begins to line the arteries.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 7 

appear …miş / mış gibi
treat as if / as though

• The unsubstantial story was as if she were retelling a dream.
• Discovery and description of biodiversity proceeded at a pace as if the natural world was limitless,
enduring, and permanent.
• Insomnia is a difficulty in falling or staying asleep or a disturbance in sleep that makes people feel
as if they have had insufficient sleep when they awaken.
• For centuries, mapmakers noted that the Earth’s continents seemed to fit together like giant puzzle
pieces, as if they had once been joined together.
• Many engineers approach the real world as though it were uninhabited.
• Do you spend eight or more hours in bed but still feel as though you have not had enough sleep?
Silently reading the word "dance" gets your brain to react as though you're really dancing.
• For example, although tropical forests may look as though they are lush, they are actually highly
susceptible to destruction.

16. WISH

Wish + simple past Present
Modal V1

Wish + past perfect FARAZİ

Modal have v3 Past
Past perfect

• I wish she'd stop bragging about how rich her parents are.
• The parents of the abducted drivers, who want help from the authorities wish their sons would be 
set free.
• They set up a liaison office in East Africa for marketing their goods but now they wish they had 
not done so.

Wish ten önceki ve sonraki özne aynı ise would kullanılmaz. (gramer polisleri)


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 8 

Aşağıdakiler kendilerinden sonra bir fiil geldiği durumlarda bu fiillerin Ving şeklinde olmasını

Be used to
Get used to
Be accustomed to
Get accustomed to
Look forward to
Be opposed to
Object to
Feel like
Can’t help
Can’t stand
Can’t bear + Ving
It is no use
It is no good
It is worth
In the habit of
There is no point in
Feel like
It is a waste of time/money
To have difficulty / trouble /problems
To have a hard / bad-good / an enjoyable time

• It is no good complaining all the time.
• There was no point in staying any longer.
• Some people still object to teaching children about sex in public schools.
• People who have trouble falling or staying asleep may be more likely to die sooner from natural
causes compared to those who sleep well.
• Writers who have difficulty getting published sometimes circulate their work by e-mail or on Web


Of all
One of the… + superlative
Have/has ever V3
In the world vb
By far

• Insects are among the most fascinating animals on earth.
• We’ve had some pretty good directors over the years but Dr. Radcliff is by far the most
capable of them.
• Japanese people are among the healthiest in the world, and one of the reasons for this is their
• Water, which cools the burning material and smothers the fire, is still the most commonly
used extinguishing agent of all.
• Of all speech impediments stammering is probably the most embarrassing.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 9 

Though zıtlık bildirir ... e rağmen, …. se….de, se….da
Even though
Despite the fact that
In spite of the fact that cümle , cümle
Much though
Much as
Sıfat- zarf+as
Sıfat-zarf +though

• Although Darwin was not the first evolutionist, modern evolutionary biology begins with him.
• The rainforest contains more than half of Earth's plant and animal species, even though rain forests
cover only about 6% of the earth's surface.
• Much as I would like to help you, I'm afraid I'm simply too busy at the moment.

Though diğerlerinden farklı olarakta cümlenin heryerinde (başta, sonda, ortada)

• Though the United States has spent billions of dollars on foreign aid programs, it has captured
neither the affection nor esteem of the rest of the world.
• Though the cold weather, they went out.
• It's a beautiful, though unimaginative, building.
• It's often believed that the birthplace of chess is China, though it is not.

Though sıfatlarla birlikte devrik yapıda da kullanılabilir.

• Careful though as she was, she couldn't prevent the accident.

Although, though, even though olan cümlelerde anlamı daha da pekiştirmek için
nevertheless veya stil de kullanılabilir.

• Though it is raining sharply, street crime in major Asian cities is stil less common than in most
European cities.
• Even though there have been truly significant advances in modern medicine, health problems still 
abound and cause untold misery. 
• Although global environmental trends over the past few decades have generally not been 
favourable, some positive developments are nevertheless beginning to emerge. 
Despite          + isim ( öbeği ) 
In spite of 
For all  Ving 

• Despite technological improvements which allow exploration to proceed rapidly, it is no simple
matter to obtain oil from undersea fields.
• Natural silk is still highly prized in spite of the availibility of similar artificial fabrics.
• In spite of extensive experimental and clinical studies, the process of cancer growth is not well
• The issue under debate today is whether, for all its flaws, capitalism is the best economic system
man has yet invented.

AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 10 
• For all her qualifications, she's still useless at the job.
• For all medical developments in Japan, Japanese researchers still regard projects to clone humans
as a matter of ethnic obstacle compatible with cultural values.
• Despite the opposition of their citizens, Australia and Canada are still encouraging the migration
of skilled workers from Europe.
• Notwithstanding some members' objections, the government went ahead with the plan.


In addition to yanı sıra, ek olarak
As well as
Along with + isim (öbeği)
Apart from Ving

• Today, in contrast, many Negroes have achieved outstanding success in the arts and sciences as
well as in the business and professional world.
• Apart from hydro-electricity, there are several other non-depletable energy sources in use such as
wind turbines and solar heating.
• Besides those who directly lost money in this week's fall, investors in Europe have good reason to
be wary of continental Europe's banking sector.

Besides aynı zamanda cümleleri bağlamak içinde kullanılabilir.

• Another species of mosquito was found to spread the disease called malaria. Malaria isn't as
dramatic as yellow fever. It isn't as rapid a killer. Besides, there is a drug, quinine (obtained from
the bark of a South American tree), that, for centuries now, has been known to control the disease.
• Boys were found to be much more likely to prefer kinaesthetic learning; besides, during the course
of a week, children often had fewer opportunities to learn kinaesthetically.


Because of … ın yüzünden, ….den dolayı
On account of
As a result of
In view of + isim (öbeği)
As a consequence of Ving
Due to
Owing to

• Many children fail to take advantage of the present facilities for higher education because of
economic stress in the family.
• Due to the devastation of the forests on a large scale, the authorities will take all the necessary
precautions on the matter.
• In view of the high costs, it is quite normal that our plan should fall to the ground.
• Owing to a substantial increase in oil prices in the 1980’s, the Turkish economy was under a
severe strain until the mid 1990’s.
• Amazon basin has always attracted businessmen on account of its valuable and rich resources such
as rubber, coffee and cocoa.
• Older drivers are more likely to be seriously injured because of the fragility of their bones.
• A lot of people are hospitalized as a result of accidents on roads and this puts a great strain on
health resources.

AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 11 

Not only _____but also tekil / çoğul
Niether _____ nor tekil / çoğul
Either _____ or tekil / çoğul
Both _____ and çoğul fiil
Whether _____ or

Sınavlarda bunlar karşımıza 5 şıkka dağılmış olarak çıkıyor. Burada önce tekilliğe çoğulluğa
sonra anlama bakmak gerekir.

Not only_____ but also, neirter ____nor, either ____or kullanılırken fiile yakın olan
kelimenin tekil veya çoğul oluşuna göre fiilimizin durumu belirlenir.

• What is great about DNA is that not only can it tell the identity of a person, but it can also give
information about four thousand genetic conditions and diseases.
• It's no longer news that stress can take its toll on both your physical and mental health.
• Many people today either don't have the money or time to give help to poor people.
• Electrical cords are usually made with both conductors and insulators.
• Both Leonardo and Michelangelo were Florentines, near contemporaries, and undeniable


Not only _____ but also
Not only _____ but _____ as well.
Not only _____ but _____ too.
Not only _____ at the same time

Daha başka kullanım şekilleride var sanırım. Dil bu yönüyle esnek. Fakat sınavda karşımıza
en fazla not only … but also şekliyle çıkıyor.

• Not only cancer, but also heart and lung disease are influenced by smoking.
• Usually educational processes involve not only learning, but teaching as well.
• What is great about DNA is that not only can it tell the identity of a person, but it can also give
information about four thousand genetic conditions and diseases.
• The new department of the company not only meets the demands of the purchasers but it seeks
ways to promote new products as well.
• Some modern anthropologists hold that biological evolution has shaped not only human
morphology but also human behavior.
• The art of design is not only rooted in the aesthetic form, but in the soul of the work.
• Statistical probability is necessary for computers to interpret not only speech but also visual data
as well.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 12 

No sooner… had v3 … than cümle
Scarcely … had v3 ….. when
Hardly…… had v3 …. when
Barely … had v3 …. when

Bu yapılar cümle başında kullanıldığı zaman cümlemizin bu yapıyla başlayan kısmı devriik

• No sooner had I gone out than the bomb exploded.
• No sooner had he arrived in Rome than he was kidnapped.
• No sooner had he walked through the door than he noticed the light on his answering machine
• Hardly had I left home when it began to rain.
• He'd no sooner begun to speak than the lights went out.
• Hardly had I entered home when the bell rang.


Would rather/ sooner V1 than v1

I would rather drink coffee than drink tea.
Scientists would rather obtain the scientific data then the groundless claims.
Alexander Graham Bell once told his family that he would rather be remembered as a teacher of the
deaf than as the inventor of the telephone.

Would rather / sooner subject V2 than V2

I would rather you told the truth than told lie.
I would rather the boss gave me an off day than overtime payment.

Would rather /sooner have V3 than have V3 (past)

I would rather have stayed in Turkey than have gone abroad last year.

Would prefer to V1 than to V1

I would prefer to learn English than to learn German.

Would prefer subject to V1 to V1

I prefer tea to coffee.
I prefer dancing to swimming.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 13 

Via … sayesinde, …ın yardımı ile, … yoluyla
By means of
By way of
By aid of + isim (öbeği)
Thanks to Ving
With the help / aid of

• Thanks to recent research, effective treatments are available.
• The brain receives and sends information by means of nerves, many of which lie partly in the
spinal cord.
• The cells of the human body convert food to energy through the process of oxidation.
• Our brains have been processing sophisticated information via our senses for millions of years.
• The polio vaccine, kidney transplants, and heart surgery techniques have all been developed with
the help of animal research.

27. By which

Development sayesinde
Situation Sıralanan kelimeler ve benzerlerine gelerek sayesinde anlamı katar.

• Photosynthesis is the process by which plants capture the sun’s energy to convert water and
carbon dioxide into sugars to fuel their growth.
• Inductive method is the reasoning process by which a person starts from particular experiences
and proceeds to generalizations.
• Scientists have discovered a way by which they can convert A, B and AB-type blood groups into
O-type blood.
• Vitamins, taken in tiny doses, are a major group of organic compounds that regulate the
mechanisms by which the body converts food into energy.
• Laws are the collection of rules by which any state maintains order within a society.
• The mechanism by which brain cells store memories is not clearly understood.
• Imitation is a very important means by which we learn and transmit skills, language and culture
• As we approach the 21st century, there are noticeable advancements in technology by which
communication is becoming much easier for the people of the world.

AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 14 

Until Bu yapıların bulunduğu yan cümlelerde continuous tense
Since kullanılmaz.
As soon as
By the time

• Antibodies are never produced naturally until our body is attacked by bacteria.
• Before the computer was invented in 1822, people were performing boring, repetitive tasks that
we now take for granted.
• Researchers have recently determined that children scored better in intelligence tests after the
amount of lead in their blood was reduced.
• As soon as early men learnt how to write, they developed a way of putting down numbers.


A number of + çoğul fiil
The number of + tekil fiil
A great deal of + sayılamayan isim
A big/small/ vast …vb. +amount of + sayılamayan isim
A small/big … vb +quantity of + sayılamayan isim

• At present, a great number of domestic and international organizations are actively contributing
funds to hunger elimination and poverty reduction activities.
• A number of factors related to the voice reveal the personality of the speaker.
• A great deal of the English vocabulary is made up of French and Latin loanwords.
• Satellites orbiting round the earth have provided scientists with a vast amount of information
about conditions in outer space.


So far
Up to now
Till now
Up until now
By now Genelde prefect tense ile kullanılırlar.
Thus far

• Certain records have come to light recently, which suggest that it was the Chinese who discovered
• Scientists haven’t found an effective cure for AIDS so far.
• Hitherto, the main emphasis has been on the need to resist aggression.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 15 

Have / get something done
Have somebody do smt
Get somebody to do smt
Make somebody do smt
Let somebody do smt
Help somebody (to) v1

allow, assist, compel, convince, employ, encourage, force, hire, motivate, permit, require
to v1


So as to … mek/mak için, macıyla
In order to
To + verb 1 – cümle gelmez
In an effort to
In an attempt to

• In order to understand why computers are important, we have to understand what a computer is
and what it does.
• In their attempt to overcome the anti-social effects of modern architecture, architects have directed
their attention to more informal settlements.
• Euthanasia, practice of ending a life so as to release an individual from an incurable disease or
intolerable suffering, also called "mercy killing".
• The market is highly fragmented in an effort to cater to the numerous different customer groups.


Than that of
Than those of

• His salary as a bus driver is much higher than that of a teacher
• Most of the highways in Germany are wider than those in the Balkan countries.
• Turkey is not only trying to be a part of EU. It is trying to have laws in accordance with those of
international for the sake of its people too.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 16 
34. Until recently

Until recently : son günlerde, son zamanlarda, son zamanlara kadar
Until recently hem perfect hemde past tensele kullanılabilir. Recently’i görüp hemen perfect tense
aramayalım. Olayın devam edip etmediğine yani geçmişte olup bitmiş ve şimdiki durum geçmişten
farklı ise geçmiş zaman kullanalım; olay hala aynı şekilde devam ediyorsa perfect tense kullanalım.
Lütfen ördekleri dikkatlice inceleyiniz.

• Until recently, it has been assumed that the brain stopped developing before puberty, which is
really surprising.
• Pluto, which was until recently regarded as the outermost and smallest planet in the solar system,
has never been visited by an exploring spacecraft.
• Until recently, little was known about why sleeping people feel alert in brightly-lit rooms , but
now scientists know that some cells in the eye can detect light even when the eyes are closed.
• Until recently, there was no international agreement that forbade whaling.
• Until recently, it has not been possible to measure the ground speedof an aircraft directly by
instruments. Until recently, few historians were interested in analyzing the similarities and
differences between serfdom in Russia and slavery in the United States.
• Glaciers are a possible source of fresh water that have been overlooked until recently .


Too+ sıfat+ to
Sıfat +enough +to
Enough +isim

• He is too short to play basketball.
• She is old enough to marry.
• Rural ozone pollution in China is high enough to threaten agriculture there.
• We have not enough time to play football.
• The opposition now seems too weak to stage any serious protests against the government.
• No child is too young to play and therefore to engage in engineering, even though it is of a
primitive kind.
• The average person was too busy earning a living to find time to pursue a hobby.
• When the white blood cells have made enough antibodies to attack the micro-organisms you
recover from the disease.
• The waste produced by one chicken in its lifetime can supply enough electricity to run a 100 watt
bulb for five hours.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 17 

I like coffee.
So do I.

I don’t like coffee.
Neither do I.
Nor do I.

I don’t like coffee.
I don’t like coffee either. / I don’t either.

I like coffee.
I like coffee too.


in that : şu açıdan ki… şöyleki

• Mammals differ from other vertebrates in that they have bodies that are covered with hair at some
period of their lives.
• English has an advantage over languages in that it has become a commercial language all over the
• Petroleum differs from coal in that coal retains within itself visible evidence of the kind of
material from which it was formed, and petroleum does not.

everyone someone anyone no one
everybody somebody anybody nobody Kendilerinden sonra tekil fiil alırlar.
everything something anything nothing

• Everything in the environment, whether naturally occurring or of human design, is composed of 
• Nobody knows how many people died during the coup, but it goes without saying that many 
more died in the ensuing weeks and the military dictatorship that followed. 
• Anything that irritates the eyes can also irritate the eyelids and cause swelling. 

Bkz: Tag questions ---- everyone- everybody vb ...they / everything – something vb


At the time ----------------- past
If only ----------------------- past

• Many more people would doubtlessly have attended the debate if only they had known in 
advance who the principal speakers were.

AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 18 

Bu son derece önemli konuyla ilgili ayrıntılı bilgi gramer bölümünden sonraki cümle
tamamlama kısmında verilmiştir. Bkz. Cümle tamamlama bölümü.

41. After – Before – Since Bir edat (preposition) olarak

• Breastfeeding for less than three months after birth may affect a child's intelligence.
• The government broke off all peace negotiations after the explosion.
• The contemporary system of industrialized clothing production did not exist before the mid- 19th
• Before the last century no humans had visited Antarctica, and even today the vast continent has a
winter population of less than 200 people.
• Since the great oil crisis of the 1970s, the International Energy Agency has encouraged and
supported research carried out to discover alternative energy sources.
• Every year since 1986, some of the world’s most daring runners have gathered in the desert of


This time next year I _____ English.

a) Will teach
b) Will be teaching ***

This time next year I _____ for five years.

a. Will be teaching
b. Will have been teaching ***


On the point of
On the brink of
On the cliff of Ving … mek üzere / …nın eşiğinde
On the edge of
On the verge of

• The country is on the point of making a major decision about its future.
• The recovery of private industries which were on the verge of bankruptcy was the main issue for
the new government.
• The world is teetering on the edge of a pandemic that could kill a large fraction of the human
• Most economists agree that global economy is on the verge of crisis as populations age and birth
rates decrease.
• The country seems almost on the brink of civil war as fighting intensifies between government
troops and rebel forces.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 19 

I _____ him before.

a) Haven’t seen ***
b) Didn’t see

I _____ him before last Christmas.

a) Have seen
b) Saw ***


Instead of smt yerine, adına
On behalf of smb
Rather than

• The assistant lectured on behalf of the professor.
• Light colors reflect heat, but dark colors absorb heat instead of throwing it back.
• Because some universities rely almost entirely on private rather than on public sources of funds,
they are independnet of government control.
• In the business world it is sensible to enquire if the person you are dealing with does in fact have
the authority to make a contract on behalf of his firm.
• One change that the advent of the internet has brought is that scientists are now sending out “e
prints” instead of preprints of unpublished articles.


Regarding …e ilişkin, … ile ilgili
As regards
With regard to
With respect to
Connected with
In connection with
With relation to
Related to

• Most of our knowledge regarding the structure of the earth has been from the study of rocks.
• As regards the development of moral standards in the growing child, consistency is very important
in parental teaching.
• Concerning the question of capital punishment, the U.S. and its allies stand on opposite sides of a
great divide.
• Education, government, and business leaders recently convened to discuss key issues regarding
the use of technology in the nation’s schools.
• The police have taken him in for questioning in connection with the murder of the girl.
• Antarctica was unexplored until the 20th century, and still has a tiny population in relation to its


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 20 

In terms of: … itibariyle, … bakımından
With respect to: ...e göre (kıyaslamada)
According to: ...e göre (görüş belirtirken)
İn addition to: ...e ilaveten

• The amount of air pollution over the cities in the inner parts of the country is of great importance
in terms of human health.
• People who learn longer live longer according to a study of links between health and education
among adults.
• The report arranged with respect to the factors affecting the development of the under develop
countries is of great importance in many respects.


Her sınavda mutlaka gelir, özellikle iki kullanımı da bilmek gerekir. Bunlara ek madde olarak
ayrı ayrı örneklerde verilmiştir.

since = 1. için ( because , as ) 2. ...den beri

• Since most of the members were absent the meeting were delayed.
• Since nearly all drugs and medications can cause fetal damage or malformations it is important for
pregnant women to avoid them as much as possible.
• Since we were in the computer lab, our English has improved.
• Since life began eons ago, thousands of creatures have come and gone.
• Since the great oil crisis of the 1970s, the International Energy Agency has encouraged and
supported research carried out to discover alternative energy sources.

While = 1. iken (zaman) 2. karşıt, rağmen, oysa ( = whereas)

• The majority will of the people rules in a democracy, while in a dictatorship, power is in the hands
of a single person.
• Boys who play video games on school days spend 30% less time reading, while girls spend 34%
less time doing homework if they play video games.
• In recent years, the number of students applying to Ph.D. programs has increased steadily, while
the number of places available has remained constant.
• I normally look after the children while she is practising.

As = 1. iken,dikçe (zaman) 2. çünkü, için ( = since, because)

• As he didn't bring the money, he didn't get the book.
• As she reached the age of thirty she became convinced she would remain single all her life.
• As they were investigating molecular electronics, they started seeing hints of an unexpected effect
in their experiments.
• As the can is opened, the content heat automatically.
• Health spending tends to rise disproportionately as countries become richer; but even adjusting
for this, America is a case apart.
• As the deadline approached she experienced a bewildering array of emotions.
• As the plants grow and start to bear fruit they will need a lot of water.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 21 

49. AS

AS sınavda çıkabilecek çeşitli kullanılış biçimleri; bol örnekle pekiştirilmeye çalışıldı.

• Shelves were built to adapt the library for use as an office.
• In an exercise designed to be as real as possible, they simulated an advance on enemy positions.
• The group has adventured as far as the Austrian alps.
• Methane is often regarded as the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide.
• As part of the treatment, he attended 15 weeks of after-care.
• The city's importance as a financial centre has evolved slowly.
• The prime minister described climate change as the greatest longterm challenge facing the human
• As the worldʹs population continues to grow, so does its need for land on which to live and farm. 
• Many people are allergic to airborne pollutants such as pollen.
• As a musician, you cannot be apolitical.
• There was no obvious reason why this could not be as good a film as the original.
• As a result of the growing fears about home security, more people are arranging for someone to
stay in their home when they're away.
• As the arrangements were planned meticulously; there was no risk of failure.
• In this changing business environment, different demands are being placed on employees. As a
consequence, the education system needs to change.
• The border, effectively closed since 1981, will be opened as of January the 1st.
• They should make decisions as to whether the student needs more help.
• Smoking is still attractive to many young people who see it as glamorous.
• The two women were sitting as far away from each other as possible.
• Cuba is the largest island in the Caribbean, an area that the United States has long regarded as its
own backyard.
• On many modern wooden boats, epoxy coatings will have been used as a base for varnishing.
• Some investigators regarded her as the brains of the gang.

50. FOR - BY

FOR ve BY – Örnek cümleler

• The assessment for the course involves written assignments and practical tests.
• The tests are supposed to provide a basis for the assessment of children.
• She arranged an appointment for Friday afternoon at four-fifteen.
• Modern medicine has a large armoury of drugs for the treatment of mental illness.
• For years this anomalous behaviour has baffled scientists
• The government has announced an immediate amnesty for rebel fighters.
• The United States is a close ally of South Korea, and maintains forces there for its defence.
• The lab has recently been updated to allow for more advanced courses.
• In 1991, the house was advertised for sale at $49,000.

• The island may be reached by boat from the mainland.
• Some of the blame for the miscarriage of justice must be borne by the solicitors.
• By the year 2020 business computing will have changed beyond recognition.
• One billion people throughout the world are Muslims, united by belief in one god.

AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 22 
• The basic design changed little from that patented by Edison more than 100 years ago.
• By borrowing from dozens of banks, he managed to avoid giving any of them an overall picture of
what he was up to.
• Government troops broke up the protest by firing their guns in the air.
• Their sleep is regularly disturbed by the sound of gunfire as criminal gangs settle their nightly
• I didn't know if I could raise a child by myself.
• Violent crime has increased by 10 percent since last year.
• By eight o'clock he had arrived at my hotel.
• Pharmacists are required by law to give the medicine prescribed by the doctor.
• By using the air ambulance to transport patients between hospitals, he estimates that they can save
up to 15,000 per patient.


Sınavda en fazla çıkan ögelerden biridir. Hem çünkü anlamında bir bağlaç, hem o zamandan
beri anlamında zaman zarfı (bağlaç), hemde bir edat (preposition) olarak kullanılır.

Since kullanımına örnekler

• This research has been in progress since 1961 and has yielded a great number of positive results.
• The country is facing a crisis unparalleled since the Second World War.
• The two parties have been trying to unite since the New Year.
• Since the roads are very bad, the journey took us a long time.
• More than a century and a half since the transatlantic slave trade was abolished, slavery is far from
• Since the costs of science were rising faster than inflation, some restriction on funding was
• No-one knows how many people have been killed since the war began.
• Since its inception the company has produced 53 different aircraft designs.
• Ever since we moved last year, I worry a lot about whether I can handle this new job.

52. İsim cümlelerinde ( Noun Clauses) WHETHER ve IF AYRIMI

1. Whether ‘ dan sonra or not hemen sonra yada cümle sonunda gelebilir
If = if’ den hemen sonra or not gelmez.

2. If cümle başında yada preposition’dan sonra kullanılmaz; whether her iki durumda da kullanılır.

3. Be fiilinden sonra whether kullanılır if gelmez.

• Many journals publish abstracts so readers can decide if / whether it is worthwhile to read the full
version of the article.
• It is now time to identify these issues more clearly and see if /whether it is possible to integrate
these different perspectives.
• The main issue in the Russian economy this year is whether or not interest rates can be held at the
25% average envisaged in the budget. (3)
• Whether the results of the rapidly evaluated experiment fall short of expectations or not, one thing
is certain that many other scientific researchers shall follow this. (2)
• Einstein wondered about whether or not the Universe was bounded or unbounded, open or closed.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 23 

Bu olmassa olmaz ve çok önemli konu ile ayrıntılı bilgi Gramer bölümünden sonraki cümle
tamamlama kısmında ele alınmıştır. Bkz. Cümle Tamamlama.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 24 

Genel Bilgi: Bu soru türünde; sınava gireceklerin soru kökü ve şıklardaki cümleler arasındaki
dilbilgisi, yapısal ve anlamsal bağlantıları kurup kuramadıklarına bakılır. Dolayısıyla bu soru türünde
başarıya ulaşmak için özellikle cümle bilgisi ( noun clause, adjective clause, adverb clause, if clause
gibi cümleler ve bunların ana sınıflandırması olan bağımlı-bağımsız cümle) ve sebep-sonuç, zıtlık,
kıyaslama gibi bağlantıların iyi bilinmesi gereklidir.

Gramer Hatırlatma


Temel cümle: Ayakta durabilmek için başka hiçbir öğeye yada cümleciğe ihtiyaç duymayan

The simple act of walking requires the use of 200 muscles in the human body.
There has been remarkable improvement in the health and well-being of most of China's people since
the civil war.
Education is a very important part of a child’s life, and yet an increasing number of children are
showing reluctance to attend school.

Yan Cümle : Ayakta durabilmek için ana cümleye ihyiyaç duyan cümleciklerdir. Ana cümleden önce
ve sonra anlamda bir daralma olmadan yeralabilirler.Genelde cümle yan cümleyle başlarsa ana
cümleden önce virgül kullanılır. Ama ana cümle ve sonrasında yan cümle gelirse virgüle gerek yoktur.
Virgül’ ü selam işareti olarak düşünürsek ; yan cümleler ile başlanırsa yan cümle ana cümleye
geçmeden önce ona selam verirler fakat ana cümle patron olduğu için onunla başlıyorsa yancümleye
selam vermeden, derdursuz girebilirler. Fakat while,whereas gibi kimi zıtlık göstren bağlaçlar varsa
ana cümlede bunlarla başlayan yan cümleler kendilerini terslemesin diye selam verirler. ☺

Weather describes the variations which occur in the atmosphere on a daily basis, whereas climate is a 
measure of the typical weather found at a place. 
A babyʹs cones do not begin to differentiate between many different colors until he is approximately 
four months old. 
Although far more women have jobs nowadays, they still experience considerable difficulties at work. 
If a couple decides to divorce, a number of major transitions of lifestyle and outlook have to be made.  
YAN CÜMLE ------ eksik
ANA CÜMLE ------ tam
Lütfen aşağıda verilen tabloyu dikkatli bir biçimde irdeleyiniz. 

AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 25 
Millions and millions of people suffer from

although many of them do not even recognize
that a migraine is different from a regular
Farmers in Egypt planted their crops each year when certain stars first became visible before
A therapy may be effective only if a drug is prescribed in combination with
The archive will be free and available to
as long as they aren’t used for commercial
The police have taken a child into custody after his teacher reported that he came to school
with severe bruising on his arms and legs.
People will not have conquered the space
until they can safely complete a life cycle in that
AIDS may cause depression indirectly

since it can have an overall negative impact on a
person’s life.
Most of the staff are certain that they will be
made redundant
once the office has been computerized.
They are afraid to contact the social services in case they are labeled a problem family.
Exposure to lower levels of noise may be slightly
whereas exposure to higher levels may actually
cause hearing loss.
Although he was seen to be an aggressive 
he was a quiet and loving family man at home.
While there are few delays for chemotherapy,

waits for radiotherapy have lengthened over the
past few years.
Since life began eons ago,  thousands of creatures have come and gone.
Whereas the grammar of a second language can
be learnt in quite a short time ,
it usually takes much longer to become fluent in
As long as the inflation rate differs from what is
there will always be winners and losers.
Unless the water in an aquarium is kept in good
neither fish nor plants will stay healthy.
Even though businesses come in many different
forms and the professional skills required from
the entrepreneurs may vary,
there are several characteristics that most
business owners and managers possess.
Even if all fossil-fuel power stations worldwide
were switched off tomorrow,
global temperatures would continue to rise for
another fifty years.
Whenever attitude researchers ask participants
there is the possibility that participants will be
reluctant to reveal their true feelings.
Before the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
will approve a new drug,
it must determine that the drug is both safe and


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 26 


İsım cümlelerı cümlede isim görevinde kullanılır.

1. that 2. if / whether 3. wh question words

Bunlarda zaman uyumu aranmaz ama mantıksal bir zaman uyumunu da akılda tutmakta fayda
vardır. Aşağıda cümle içerisinde hangi görevde (cümlenin hangi ögesi) olduğuna dikkat

What you have done up to now is not a success but a failure.
What you do is what you get.
We are interested in what you are doing.
The trouble in their marriage is that they have different points of view to life.
I was asked whether I wanted to stay at a hotel or at his home.
He wondered where all these strangers could have come from.
It appears that he followed my advice.
That the writer had written with bias is so natural.

İnceleyiniz !!!

• Medical researchers have determined that chronic stress causes the accumulation of fat, starch,
calcium, and other substances in the linings of the blood vessels.
• Tests were conducted to ascertain whether pollution levels have dropped.
In the past it was not clear whether proteins might be associated with membranes.
• Researchers continue to debate whether a rock from Mars contains tiny fossils of primitive
• The ban on smoking in public places might also be supported by the fact that the inconvenience it
causes smokers is very small.
• Scientists have repeatedly demonstrated that in any conversion of energy from one form to
another, there is always a decrease in energy quality or the amount of useful energy.
• The amount of distortion on the radio depends on how strong the signal is.
• The student admits that playing video games sometimes distracts him from his homework.
Repeated experiments have shown that human cells grown in tissue culture in the laboratory will
divide only about 50 times before they die.


Sıfat cümlelerı isimlere yada zamirlere gönderme yaparlar ve gönderme yaptıkları isim ve
zamirleri daha açık belirleyebilmek için büyük ölçüde onlardan sonra gelirler.

The treatment, which is being tried by the doctors, has lead to an improvement in the condition of the
The man whose moustache is a bit strange is a war veteran.
This is the year when profits should increase.
The first two applicants with whom the manager talked regarded as suitable for the job.
The sun, which is indispensable for life, is at a long distance.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 27 
İnceleyiniz !!!

• Photosynthesis is a very complex process that plant biologists divide into two stages.
• Racism is the doctrine that one race in inherently superior or inferior to others.
• Scientists have created nearly a dozen new lines of human embryonic stem (ES) cells that for the
first time carry the genetic signature of diseased or injured patients.
• Alcohol, nicotine and caffeine are psychoactive drugs that are freely available in our society.
• Arctic sea ice that has been dwindling for several decades may have reached a tipping point that
could trigger a cascade of climate change .
• According to recent studies, bananas are the most promising food for an edible vaccine against the
hepatitis B virus, which lives in about 5 per cent of the world’s population.
• The collapse of Rome left in its wake a large variety of ethnic communities from which modern
European states emerged.
• The pace at which fatality rates of the traffic accidents are declining varies greatly among different
• Mountaineering as a sport has developed since about 1857, when the Alpine Club was founded in
• The natural habitat of the giant panda is cool, wet, cloudy mountain forest land where bamboo


Zarf cümleleri ya fiil,sıfat,ve zarf gibi tek sözcükleri yada bütün olan cümleleri çeşitli
yönlerden nitelerler. Zarf cümleleri nasıl?, nerede?, neden? ; ve ne kadar? gibi sorulara cevap
verir ve cümlenin birçok yerinde görülebilir. Özellikle when, while, after, until, before gibi
zaman belirten kelimelerle kurulanlarda büyük ölçüde yan ve ana cümle arasında zaman
uyumu aranır.

When the boy stole that valueless thing, no one said anything.
If he had had a second chance, he would have achieved in the examination.
I haven’t said even a word to him since he came home.
Although it was snowing, it wasn’t cold.
You are not permitted to go out unless you tell the truth.

İnceleyiniz !!!

• The plane stops at the end of the runway and waits there until the pilot receives a radio call from
an air traffic controller giving permission to take off.
• Although winemaking in France dates back to pre-Roman times it was the Romans who spread the
• After they become infected, immune cells of some people may be able to prevent certain strains of
the HIV virus from reproducing.
• Although young children readily learn the names of numbers, it is a long time before they can use
them effectively.
• Copyrighy law does not permit any user to run the software on two or more computers
simultaneously unless the license agreement specifically allows it.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 28 

Aşağıdaki cümleleri derinlemesine irdeleyiniz. Bu irdelemelerde artık yan cümle (bağımlı),
temel cümle( bağımsız cümle) , sıfat ve zarf cümlelerinin kısaltmalarını, giriş, ortaç
(kısaltma), nesne, fiil, özne gibi unsurları kolay bulabiliyor ve karar verebiliyorsanız kanımca
cümle tamamlama sorularını çok fazla sorun yaşamadan cevaplandırabileceksiniz. Fakat sorun
yaşıyorsanız, lütfen yukarıdaki çeşitli anlatımlara geri dönünüz, İngilizce bilenlere ya da kursa
gittiğiniz hocalarınıza danışınız.

Örnek : The ability to deal with numbers and mathematical concepts reveals an interesting pattern of
differences between girls and boys

The ability to deal with numbers and mathematical concepts = özne
reveals = fiil
an interesting pattern of differences between girls and boys. = nesne grubu

Yani aslında bu cümleyi şöyle görmek gerekir

The ability reveals an interesting pattern. ( Geri kalanlar cümleyi süslemektir)

1. Evidence of racial bias in sentencing helped to convince certain states in America to rule against
capital punishment in the late 1960s and early 1970s.

2. The European Molecular Biology Council, which represents the member states of the European
Union, will co-ordinate advanced research into genetics.

3. A number of studies have shown a high correlation between higher education and cultural and
family values, and economic growth.

4. Interactions between electrons in a metal and those in another material may contribute to friction.

5. The promise of finding long-term technological solutions to the problem of world food shortages
seems difficult to fulfill.

6. The United States is actually decades behind European countries in human rights because slavery
is still alive in more than one way.

7. One of the most obvious changes to people's lives was that more people moved into the urban
areas where factories were located.

8. The areas of the country identified with the worst problems were mainly located in the South East
of the country, along with North Yorkshire and the Lake District.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 29 
9. The rain forest, with its large trees that provide shade to the vegetation below, is home to unique
flora and fauna.

10. Historians have only recently begun to note the increase in demand for luxury goods and services
that took place in eighteenth-century England.

11. With the rise of the Internet for transactions and interactions, and the rising use of email as a form
of communication, we have seen an increase in the criminal activity of phishing.

12. Although many forms of therapy have been tried, none has been able to prevent the disease from

13. Fertilizers have no harmful effects on the soil, the crop, or the consumer as long as they are used
according to recommendations based on the results of local research.

14. Seismology, the science of the earthquakes, has conributed to our understanding of how the Earth
is continuously changing.

15. The UN operates a commission on human rights, which monitors human rights abuses in
countries, holds international meetings on human rights concerns, and handles complaints about
human rights violation.

16. Scientists used to think that one large earthquake had no notable influence on the timing or
location of the next one but recent research suggests this may not be the case.

17. The concept that wireless devices may increase the risk of brain cancer is one that has shadowed
the communications industry since at least the mid-1990s, when cell phones grew more popular.

18. Researchers have found that eating a meal with plenty of protein leaves you feeling more satisfied
for longer than a meal loaded with low-quality carbohydrates.

19. Most people who do not smoke regard smoking an antisocial habit which causes them discomfort,
rather than as a danger to their health.

20. The welcoming of immigrants was reasonable when the population was relatively small and
industrial opportunities were increasing rapidly.

21. Compared with the United States after 9/11, India has reacted to the Mumbai attacks with

22. Attempts by the Samoan government to develop a larger and broader economy are restrained by
the island nation's remote location.

AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 30 
23. According to evolution theory no light existed before the Sun ;however, in creation theory, light
has been claimed to have been created before the sun.

24. Malaria in pregnancy threatens the life of both mother and child, and yet there has been very little
research on how best to treat it.

25. The United Nations has refused to recognize the government of the military leader who took
power in a bloody coup last month.

26. While the general public tends to agree that animals should be treated humanely, most people are
unlikely to give up eating meat or wearing goods made from leather and wool.

27. Many art museums and galleries and many individuals in the world faced financial problems in
1975 as the effects of world recession deepened.

28. The Earth's past climate--including temperature and elements in the atmosphere--has recently been
studied by analyzing ice samples from Greenland and Antartica.

29. Because of the difficulties in studying IBS(Irritable bowel syndrome ) patients, it's easy to
understand why so few studies of treatment have been done and why so many of them have shown no
benefit to the treatment.

30. Developing markets, historically the domain of hyperinflation and political manipulation, now
enjoy high surpluses, thanks to record commodity prices and severe fiscal discipline.

31. Working hard, having a good sense of humor, and being willing to experiment are all important
qualities for a successful language learner.

32. Having taken in more carbohydrates than it needs, the body uses glucose to meet its energy
requirements, fills its glycogen stores to capacity, and may still have some left over.

33. Gravity dams, usually made of conctete, use their own weight to provide resistance to the pressure
of water.

34. Earth and Venus, being roughly the same size and distance from the Sun, are often regarded as
twin planets.

35. No matter how sophisticated our technology becomes, we will probably always be vulnerable to
the awesome forces of nature.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 31 
36. The issue of online privacy in the Internet age found new urgency following the Sept. 11 terrorist
attacks, sparking debate over striking the correct balance between protecting civil liberties and
attempting to prevent another tragic terrorist act.

37. Since measles is caused by a virus, symptoms typically go away on their own without medical
treatment once the virus has run its course.

38. Before the first European settlement of Australia, the Aborigines numbered about 300,000,
whereas their current population is estimated at about 125,000-130,000.

39. One of the big problems the widower does have is that he does not feel so free to express his grief
to others by weeping when he talks of his wife, their life together and the events that led up to her

40. Scientists who helped alert the world to the existence of a hole in the stratospheric ozone layer
recently reported that this feature of the atmosphere may stop widening soon.


1. Soru kökünde ve cevapta geçen öznelerin, zamirlerin ortak oluşu bir ipucu olabilir.

Soru kökü Doğru Şık
Mozart He, him, his, the musician
Cells They, their, them
The experts The scientists, they, them, their
Scientific knowledge İt, its, this knowledge

2. Özne ve nesnelerle “Akraba” olan kelimelere dikkat edelim.

Soru Kökü Doğru Şık
Scientists Experts, science, experiment, conduct, stduy, scientific world, exploration,
observation, article, prove, prof vb.
Eartquake Tremble, shake, disater, calamity, catastrophe, magnitude, crust
Health Doctor, hospitalş, disease, cure, treatment, emergency, operation, healt


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 32 
3.Cümle Dizilimlerine dikkat edelim, cümledeki eksik öğeyi bulalım. Aşağıda genel olarak çokça
çıkan dizilişler örneklerle beraber sunulmuştur.

Soru Kökü Seçenek
A Temel Cümle Yan Cümle
B Yan cümle Temel Cümle
C Temel Cümle Sıfat Cümlesi
D Nesnesi Eksik Temel Cümle İsim Cümlesi
E Giriş Temel Cümle
F Ortaç ( Kısaltma ) Temel Cümle
G Temel Cümle Bağlaç + Temel Cümle


A. Temel Cümle + Yan Cümle

Atomic clocks keep time by tracking the vaves which atoms emit as they oscillate between
different energy levels.

Most of the Japanese car companies make Money through sales abroad only when the yen is

B. Yan Cümle + Temel Cümle

Although the company plans to branch out into new territories, there will be almost no change in
the way it does business.

If the war is short of duration, oil prices are likely tor ise briefly and then fall sharply.

C. Temel Cümle + Sıfat Cümlesi

The British parliement recently passed a law which restricted access to information directly related
to the production of biological weapons.

In Paris new contemrorary art space, the Palais de Tokyo, there is a salon where you can read a
book or meet with friends.

D. Nesnesi Eksik Cümle + İsim Cümlesi

The UN insists that China had underinvested in crucial social services, especially education and
public health.

A recent study into cholesterol levels suggests how immediately and lastingly blacks had affected
American life throughout history.

E. Giriş + Temel Cümle

Thanks to the popularity of nature documentarieson TV, there has been little increase of
environmental awareness among people from all walks of life.

With air pollution levels continuing to rise, the atmosphere today contains 30 percent more carbon
dioxide than it did 250 years ago.

AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 33 
F. Ortaç ( Kısaltme ) + Temel Cümle

Having conducted the survey, the Board proceeded to review the strategic plan in light of the
results and changes over the past eighteen months.

Being the largest city in the United States, NewYork is a favorite tourist destination.

G. Temel Cümle + Bağlaç + Temel Cümle

In Sweeden, steel making on a large scale developed well, because there was a shortage of coal for

The latest digital radio is supplied with a pair of active speakers so you don’t have to plug it into an

4. Zaman bağlaçlarıyla yapılan cümlelerde zaman uyumuna dikkat edilir.

Unless, when, while*, as*, after, before, as soon as, once, until gibi zaman bağlaçları, kendilerinin yer
aldığı yan cümle bağlandıkları temel cümle arasında zaman uyumuna genelde meyillidirler.

• Unless we step our efforts to protect the environment,we cannot look forward to a healthy and
prosperous future.

• Until science develops ways of predicting natural disasters earlier and more accurately, they will
continue to cause untold throughout the world.

• In the US, the rise in the birth rate was most rapid during the late 1970s and through 1980s when
the rate increased by about 4% per year.

5. Mantıksal İlişkiler ( zıtlık, sebep-sonuç, destekleme, amaç vb)

Özellikle aşağıdaki geçiş kelimeleri soru olarak gelir. Bu kelimeler ve dahası paragraf sorularında da
son derece önemlidir.

moreover, furthermore, in addition, also, incidentally, by the way, further, too, again, more important,
next, first, second, etc., firstly, secondly, etc., in the first place, in the second place, etc., last, lastly,
finally, either, as well.
however, yet, in contrast on the other hand, in any case, on the contrary, still, otherwise, actually, all
the same, at any rate, at the same time, nevertheless, instead, in spite of this, anyway, by contrast, in
Iikewise, similarly, in the same way, in like manner, whereas
Cause, result, purpose:
therefore, thus, hence, consequently, after all, to be sure, for this reason, accordingly, then, knowing
this, naturally, of course, with this object, with this end, to this end, because of this, with this in mind,
in many cases, by this means, in this way, as

AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 34 
6. Noktalamaya dikkat etmek gerekir. ( fakat ÖSYM’nin bu noktalama işaretlerinin kullanımı
konusunda çok tutarlı olmadığını belirtmek gerekir. Bazı sorular için ipucu olabileceği gibi, bazı
sorularda noktalamaya göre şık elemek bizi hataya düşürebilir.)

Yan Cümle virgül Ana Cümle

Although it’s been 75 years since the discovery of Pluto, the planet remains a mystery to scientists.

Unless the northern part of this country gets some rain soon, there will be a poor harvest this year.

If the protective measures had been taken to prevent inflation last year, Argentine wouldn't have been
in a critical situation.

Ana Cümle Yan Cümle

Photosynthesis cannot take place unless light has access to the leaves.
Racing was halted for an hour while the track was repaired.

Yan cümle kurmalarına rağmen zıtlık olarak kullanılan even though, though, whereas, while gibi
bağlaçlar da ana cümle ve yan cümle arasında virgül kullanılabilir.

• Even though Arizona and Rhode Island are both states of the U.S., they are strikingly different in
many ways.
• Boys who play video games on school days spend 30% less time reading, while girls spend 34%
less time doing homework if they play video games.

but, and , yet, for, or, so gibi bağlaçlarda hemen önce virgül kullanılır.

• Most of those counted by the poverty statistics are elderly or handicapped or have family
responsibilities which keep them out of the labor force, so the poverty statistics are by no means an
accurate indicator of labor market pathologies.
• Some veg and herbs cost a small fortune in the shops, yet you can grow them for a few pence.

however, nonetheless, nevertheless, therefore, moreover, furtheremore gibi geçiş kelimelerinde
noktalama aşağıdaki gibi yapılır.

__________. However, _________
__________; however, __________
__________, however, __________


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 35 


Genel Bilgi : Bu soru türü sınava girenlerin genelde zorlanmadıkları ve hatta sayısının artmasını
istedikleri bölümdür. Fakat bu bölümde amaç sadece soruları doğru yanıtlamak değil, aynı zamanda
bu sorularda doğru cevaba ulaşmayı mümkün olduğunca pratikleştirip, hızlıca cevaplandırmaktır. Bu
hızlı cevaplama sınavın geri kalanında çok ihtiyacınız olacak zamandan kazanmanız anlamına
gelmektedir. Genelde bu soru türüne pek çalışılmaz ama şahsi fikrim sınava gireceklerin bu bölüme
zaman ayırmaları ve pratiklerini artırıp en kısa zamanda bu soruları nasıl cevaplandırabilecekleri

1. Yüklem: İlk dikkat edilecek olan kısımdır.

Experts predict – tahmin etmektedir
Are working – çalışmaktadır
Gets weaker – zayıflar
Geologists want to know – bilmek istemektedir.


Is no evidence – kanıt yoktur.
Is the first tangible clue – elle tutulur ilk ipucudur
Was not clear – açık değildir –değildi
Were important – önemliydi

Herhangi bir cümlede bir tane ana fiil ve buna bağlı bir tane zaman işlenebilir. Çeviri
sorularını yüklemden elerken yan cümlelerde yer alan fiilleri göz ardı etmek gerekir. Yani
cümlenin ana fiili bizim can simidimizdir ve çeviride bu can simidini en sonda kullanmak

• Scientists have discovered remarkable new evidence showing how the body rebuilds itself while
we sleep.
Bilim adamları biz uyurken vücüdun kendisimi nasıl onardığını gösteren ciddi/kaydadeğer yeni
deliller keşfetmişlerdir / bulmuşlardır.

• Most of the advances in medicine are due to the technological advances leading to the discovery
of new diseases and effective drugs to treat the diseases.
• The discussion concerned with the effective methods in the educational system was of great
interest to the educationalist.
• Anthropology is a science in that anthropologists use a rigorous set of methods and techniques to
document observations that can be checked by others.

Yukarıdaki cümleleri dilimize çevirirken koyu yazılmış fiillerimiz çevirdiğimiz cümlenin en
sonunda can simidi olarak kullanılmalıdır.

2. Özne

Men are – erkekler
Scientists were – bilim adamları
Most of the animals were – çoğu hayvan


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 36 
3. Zarf - sıfat – tanımlayıcı

more importan than – daha önemli
mos of the time – çoğu zaman
only- sadece
exceptionally – istisnai
clearly- açıkça
surprisingly- şaşırtıcı biçimde
undoubtedly – şüphesiz
mutually – karşılıklı olarak

4. Cümle türü ( sıfat- zarf – isim)

when they discovered – keşfettiklerinde
although it was not possible – mümkün olmamasına rağmen
if the experiments conducted – deneyler yapılırsa
after the match had ended – maç tamamlandıktan sonra
people who were at risk – tehlikede olan insanlar


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 37 

1. Yardımcı fiillerle sorulan sorulara onay ya da ret gerekir. Bu tabiki sadece evet hayır dan
ibaret değildir.

Do you learn new words everyday?

Yes. / No. / Yes, I do. / No, I don’t. /Absolutely. / Sure. / That’s what I normaly do. / Of course. /
True. / Undoubtedly. / That’s right. / Absolutely not. / Are you kidding? Of course not.

2. Soru kelimeleriyle sorulan sorulara yes, no ve benzeri cevaplar veremeyiz.

What do you think about the article on space travels?

Oh, it is interesting. / The article? I haven’t read it yet. / That is inadequate. / It includes many unusual
information. / It was great. / Which article? / I am not interested in space travels so I didn’t read it. /
Come on, change the subject.

3. Bir soruya verilmiş kısa cevapları konuşmada geçişine göre mutlaka tamamlayarak

A: Did you go to the concert last night.
B: Yep, ( Yes, I went to the concert last night ) that was great.

4. Öznelerin ve nesnelerin( zamirlerin) tekrar edilmesi bir ipucu olabilir. (tekillik-çoğulluk)

A. Have you heard about the accident ? B. No, I haven’t heard about it ?
A. What a ridiculous advertisement this is! B. Most of them are these days. ( = Most of the
advertisements are ridiculous these days.)

A. Academics like to write about Shakespeare’s plays, you know.
B. I know they do. But that’s not what the public wants.

A. How are you enjoying being chairman of the company ?
B. It’s a bit of a disappointment really.

A. Einstein is the one of the most famous scientists of all times, isn’t he?
B. Absolutely, he is. ( = Yes, he is one of the most famous scientists of all times.)


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 38 
5. Aynı veya benzer kelimelerin ( akraba kelimelerin) tekrarı bir ipucu olabilir.

A. Do you think Turkish is a hard language to learn?
B. Yes, but English is harder.

A. Educational techology is necessary to enhance the learning environment says the article.
B. Isn’t it clear from the fact that computers, wise-boards and etc. have been used in every field of

A. Air pollution, mostly caused by fumes from cars, is causing a sharp rise in illnesses such as
asthma, hay fever, bronchitis and lung cancer. We must do something about it.
B. Well, I agree with you. The first step must be to enhance the public transportation.

6. Karşılıklı konuşma sorularında geçen isimleri, meslekleri, şehirleri, durumları bildiğiniz cin
Alilere, mekânlara, mesleklere, hayatınızdan durumlara dönüştürerek somutlaştırınız
böylece durum daha iyi gözünüzün önünde canlanacaktır.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 39 

Paragraflarla ilgili soru türlerine geçmeden önce paragraflarla ilgili genel bilgi verelim.


Öncelikle en kesin ve kalıcı yolun okumak olduğunu söyleyebiliriz. Sınavlara yönelik paragraf
sorusu yanıtlama teknikleri ve ipuçları okuma alışkanlığına sahip kişiler tarafından kazanıldığında
bu tür sorularda mükemmel bir başarı gelir. Tersi yani sadece teknikler ve ipuçlarıyla bu soruları
cevaplama yoluna gidenler ise her zaman paragraf sorularında yanlış yapmaya mahkumdurlar. Bu
nedenle bol okumak şarttır.


The punishment of criminals has always been a problem for society. Citizens have had to decide
whether offenders such as first-degree murderers should be killed in a gas chamber, imprisoned for
life, or rehabilitated and given a second chance in society. Many citizens argue that serious criminals
should be executed. They believe that killing criminals will set an example for others and also rid
society of a cumbersome burden. Other citizens say that no one has the right to take a life and that
capital punishment is not a deterrent to crime. They believe that society as well as the criminal is
responsible for the crimes and that killing the criminal does not solve the problems of either society or
the criminal.

Bu örnek paragrafta koyu yazılmıs olan kısım bizim topic sentence (ana fakir, konu) dediğimiz
kısımdır.Bu paragrafta onu takip eden herbir cümle bu düşünceden hareketle oluşturulmak
zorundadır.Yani sizin konu hakkındaki düşünceniz ne olursa olsun soruları yanıtlarken paragrafın
çerçevesinden çıkmamak zorundasınız. Konu cümlesini takip eden cümlelerde toplumda yeralan
insanların suçluları cezalandırmadaki farkli düşüncelerine değinilmiştir.

• Aşağıda koyu olarak yazılmış olan konu cümlesine ait paragrafta yeralabilecek cümleleri

Through the centuries rats have managed to survive all our efforts to destroy them.

…………….. Actually we have always been capable of destroying rats.
…………….. We have poisoned them and trapped them.
…………….. We have fumigated, flooded, and burned them.
…………….. We can realize the similarity between rats and insects.
…………….. We have tried germ warfare.
…………….. Most of the animals have the same unlucky fate.
…………….. Some rats even survived atomic bomb tests conducted on Entwetok atoll in the
Pacific after World War II.
…………….. War War II was the worst of all times.
…………….. We have been using rats in scientific experiments as subjects.
……………. In spite of all our efforts, these enemies of ours continue to prove that they are
the most indestructible of pests.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 40 
Paragrafın aslı

Through the centuries rats have managed to survive all our efforts to destroy them. We have poisoned
them and trapped them. We have fumigated, flooded, and burned them. We have tried germ warfare.
Some rats even survived atomic bomb tests conducted on Entwetok atoll in the Pacific after World
War II. In spite of all our efforts, these enemies of ours continue to prove that they are the most
indestructible of pests.

Şimdi gelin paragrafın çerçevesinden kastettiğimiz noktayı şu paragrafla açıklamaya çalışalım.
Smoking has some usefulness. It undoubtedly helps many people to relax. For some, it even
improves concentration. Many people like to smoke before exams or when they are relaxing
with friends.A further point is that governments throughout the world make huge profits from
levying taxes on cigarettes. This provides funds which are used for building schools, hospitals
and other public amenities.
Yukarıda konu cümlesi sigaranın yararlarına bir giriş yapmıştır. Yaşantımızda sigara ile olan
sigara sağlığa zararlıdır anlayışına göre paragrafın konusunun dışına çıkarsak onunla ilgili
sorularda yanılgıya düşeriz.


Konuyu veren cümledeki düşünceyi desteklemek için kullanılan cümlelerdir. Bu cümleler konu
cümlesinde dile getirilen anafikrin dışına çıkamaz.

Though the United States has spent billions of dollars on foreign aid programs, it has captured neither
the affection nor esteem of the rest of the world. In many countries today Americans are cordially
disliked; in others merely tolerated. The reasons for this sad state of affairs are many and
varied, and some of them are beyond the control of anything this country might do to try to
correct them. But harsh as it may seem to the ordinary citizen, filled as he is with good
intentions and natural generosity, much of the foreigners' animosity has been generated by the
way Americans behave.
• Aşağıda verilmiş konu cümlesine ait olamayacak cümleleri işaretleyiniz.
Many medical treatments and procedures have been developed from experiments on animals.
_____ Animals have to be protected in order to have a balanced nature.
_____ Since animals share many features with humans, scientists use animals to test the
safety and effectiveness of newly developed drugs before pilot testing on small groups of patients.
_____ Animal care has always done by the experts in the zoos.
_____ Scientific experiments has led development in the way humans live.
_____ Medical teams practice new operating techniques such as transplants on animals.
_____ It seems to be an extiction of the animals in the future because of the hunting.
_____ Without animal testing, many procedures or new drugs would be extremely unsafe.
Paragrafın aslı
Many medical treatments and procedures have been developed from experiments on animals.
Since animals share many features with humans, scientists use animals to test the safety and
effectiveness of newly developed drugs before pilot testing on small groups of patients. Medical teams
practice new operating techniques such as transplants on animals. Without animal testing, many
procedures or new drugs would be extremely unsafe.

AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 41 

Genellikle paragrafımızın son satırını oluşturur. Sonuç cümlesi, konu cümlesindeki ifadeyi
destekleyen, özetleyen, bir başka şekilde ifade eden ve ya diğer paragrafa geçişte köprü görevi
üstlenen cümledir. Paragrafın konusunu anlamak için sınavlarda da karşımıza çıkacak
paragraflarda bu iki cümle yeterli olacaktır.
Because language plays such an important role in teaching, Bellack and his colleagues chose to
examine in some detail the "language game" in the classroom. They contended that teaching is similar
to most games in at least two respects. It is a form of social activity in which the players (teachers and
students) fill different but complementary roles. Furthermore, teaching is governed by certain ground
rules that guide the actions or moves made by the participants. By studying the language game, then,
Bellack et al. intended to identify the various types of verbal moves made by teachers and students and
the rules they followed in making these moves. As a result, they could investigate the functions
these verbal moves served and examine the meanings that were being communicated.
Kullanma Amacı Örnek
Topic Sentence
(Konu cümlesi)

Konu cümlesi vurgusu (ilgi

Not eating well could cause
problems and we could become
very sick.

1. düşünce

1. düşüncenin verilmesi (
örnek, bilgi)
For instance, if our diet lacks
Vitamin A, blindness may result.
Many problems affecting the skin
and the teeth are due to a lack of
Vitamin C.

2. düşünce
2. düşüncenin verilmesi
(örnek, bilgi)
Many problems affecting the skin
and the teeth are due to a lack of
Vitamin C.

3. düşünce

3. düşüncenin verilmesi
(örnek, bilgi)
When our diet contains
recommended amounts of Vitamin
A and C, however, our ability to
fight diseases like cancer is greatly
Konu cümlesiyle ilgi kurma,
konuyu bağlama yada diğer
paragrafa geçiş hazırlama
So it makes sense to eat well
because this results in a longer and
healthier life.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 42 


Genel Bilgi: Aslında paragrafı yukarıda anlatılanlar ışığında tanımak her türlü paragraf sorusu için

Paragraf tamamlama ve paragrafa uymayan cümleyi atma aslında aynı soru tipidir. Fakat paragrafa
uymayanı atma sınava girenlere kısmen daha kolay gelir. İkisinde de dikkat edilmesi gereken bir kaç
nokta vardır:

• Çok genel ve çok özel ifadeler
• Referans (atıf kelimeleri)
• Paragraftaki zaman bütünlüğü
• Bağlayıcı kelimeler

1. İlk Cümle

Paragrafın geri kalan kısmını içine alacak bir konu cümlesi olmalıdır. Genelde sınava girenler özellikle
paragrafa uymayan cümleyi atma soru tipinde bu ilk cümleyi okur okumaz bunu paragrafın ilk cümlesi
gibi algılayıp geri kalanları buna yapıştırmayı denerler. O sebeple ilk 2 cümlenin bir birine bağlantılı
olup olmadığına dikkat etmek önem taşır.

2. Son cümle

Paragrafı özetleyecek, sonuca bağlayacak bir cümle ya da bu cümleden önce gelecek cümle ile
bağlantı kurabilecek bir cümle

3. Gereksiz zaman değişikliklerine dikkat edelim.

Paragraflarda geçen cümleler arasında zaman yönünden tutarlılık vardır. Birtakım bağlaçlar ve geçiş
kelimeleri olmaksızın ani zaman (tense) değişikliklerine gidilemez.

4. Aşağıdaki ifadelere dikkat edelim. ( Şimdiye kadar sınavlarda çıkan bu soru türlerinden

• There are many reasons_____ . One of them is
• There were various _____ . The most important one is
• many cases _____ / such cases
• First _____ . Second _____ . / Third _____.
• 1990 ____ . 1995 _____ . 2000 _____.
• 19
century _____ . 20
century _____ . 21
century _____ .
• There are many people _____ . Most of them are.... / Some of them are
• Two types of _____ . Both were _____ .
• These are cats and dogs _____ . The former ____. The latter ____.
• Einstein was ____ . He ____ ./ His _____ . _____ him
• Many obstacles _____ . These include
• The computer is _____. It _____. Many types of it _____.
• A scientist _____ . The scientist _____ . This expert is _____ . He / She is _____ .
• Ankara was _____ . This town was _____ . /

AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 43 
• One was _____ . The other was _____.
• One was _____ . Another was _____. / Another was ____. / The other _____ .
• On one hand _____ . On the other hand _____ .
• Scientists _____ . They _____ .
• common_____ . rare _____.
• achievement _____ . acomplisment _____ . success_____.
• whales _____ . Mammals _____ .
• young girls _____ . Young girls _____.
• Major _____ . Minor _____ .

5. anlamsal bağlar

Meaning Coordinating
Transition Words
addition and also, in addition,
cause/result so if, when therefore, thus, as a
result, as a
choice or, nor instead, on the other
similarities also, by comparison,
similarly, likewise
concession yet although, even though nevertheless
condition if, unless, even if
opposites but whereas, while however, instead,
nevertheless, on the
other hand, in contrast
emphasis in fact, undoubtedly,
example for example, as an
example, for instance,
as an illustration
reason/cause for because, as, since
conclusion in conclusion, after
all, all in all, finally,
overall, in summary
time before, after, until,
when, while since
then, next, later,

• Using language is a very complex enterprise. Moreover, there is more to communication than
merely putting sentences together.
• The majority of Americans increased their wealth in the past decade. Furthermore, the gains
were substantial.
• Most of the evidence was destroyed in the fire. Thus, it would be almost impossible to prove him
• A mother recognises the feel of her child's skin when blindfolded. Similarly, she can instantly
identify her baby's cry.
• Most marriages fail after between five and nine years. Nevertheless, people continue to get

AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 44 


(I) Today the worst problem facing the government of South Africa is unemployment.
(II) This now affects a third of the population and is rising rapidly. (III) Actually, the end of South
Africa’s isolation from the world meant that companies had to cut jobs to be competitive. (IV)
Moreover, in order to meet the government’s tight deficit targets, there are now cuts being made in the
number of the public-service staff, which makes unemployment even worse. (V) In the economic
sector, the situation is even more hopeful, for there has been a wave of reforms and mergers among
banks and insurance companies.

Açıklama: İlk dört cümle Güney Afrikadaki işsilik problemi ile ilgili ve olumsuz iken; 5.
cümle birden ekonomik sektöre atıfta bulunmakta ve even more hopeful ile parçanın zıttına
olumlu bir durumdan söz etmektedir. (V)


(I) Archeological evidence has shown that the earliest libraries were built by the Sumerians. (II) All
libraries are classified to facilitate reference, and the favourite system is the Dewey Decimal System,
which divides the whole field of knowledge into ten main classes. (III) These are General Works,
Philosophy, Religion, Sociology, Philology, Natural Science, Useful Arts, Literature, and History.
(IV) Each of these main classes is again subdivided into ten main divisions. (V) Then, each
division is marked by decimals within itself.

Açıklama:II-III-IV-V. cümleler kütüphanelerdeki sınıflandırma ile ilgili iken; ilk cümle ilk
kütüphanenin kimler tarafından yapıldığı hakkındadır.Atıfta bulunulan kelimelerde bakarsak ten
main classes : these- General Works, Philosophy, Religion etc.
Each of these main classes: General Works, Philosophy, Religion etc.
Into ten main divisions: each division
ilk cümlenin atılacak cümle olduğunu görebiliriz.


(I) Once, when people dreamt, they dreamt of America: of its high wages, comforts, huge cars and
high technology. (II) “If only we could live there or make our country like it,” millions said to
themselves. (III) But no more. (IV) Today, only the desperately poor, the deluded or the
oppressed wish to emigrate to America or build their countries in its image. (V) Finally, the rate of
demographic growth in America has shown a downward trend in recent decades.

Açıklama: İlk iki cümle bir zamanlar herkesin hayalinde olan Amerika’yı, ikinci iki cümle ise
durumun değişiğini ve bu hayali kuranların belirli bir kesim olduğnu dile getiriyor.Son cümlede ise
konunun dışına çıkılıp Amerika nüfusunun demografik (nüfusun istatiksel özellikler) yapısı
büyümesinin gösterdiği düşüşten bahsediyor.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 45 

(I)The earliest really high buildings belong to Chicago. (II) They have a steel -frame
construction. (III) Louis Sullivan was the outstanding architect of this Chicago school of
architecture. (IV) More important, however, is the fact that they are truly splendid buildings,
with a vigour and sureness and character, that is all their own. (V) It is no wonder that similar
buildings began to appear not only in other cities in the US but in other cities throughout the

Açıklama: Parçada 3. dışındaki cümleler Chicago daki yüksek binalardan, bunların özelliklerinden ve
bunların diğer başka yerlerde de görüldüğünden söz ediyor. 3. cümlede ise birden konuyla alakası
olmayan bir mimardan söz ediyor. Parçadaki atıf kelimeleri de bize 3. cümlenin parçayla ilgisi
olmadığını gösteriyor.


I) My own knowledge of Jane Austen’s life, character and opinions depends mainly on her letters.
(II) Some 150 of these survive. (III) Most are to her sister Cassandra and are really family letters
intended for the whole family. (IV) Her nephew was to write a Memoir of his aunt, but he was
old when he did so. (V) There are only a few written to friends, and these are the ones that reveal
most about her.

Açıklama: Parçada kişi Jane Austen ile ilgili bilgisini onun mektuplarına dayandırıyor. Bu
mektupların 150 kadar olduğunu söylüyor ve bunları most ve a few olarak olarak ayırırıp
kimlere olduğunu belirtiyor. 4. cümlede ise her nephew gibi bir atıf yanıltması yapılmasına
rağmen cümlenin mektuplarla ilgili değil yeğenin yazmak istediği hayat hikayesisle ilgili olduğu


(I)The big divide among economists is no longer over whether there will be a recession in America.
(II) A steeper drop in demand will now make overcapacity worse. (III) The debate is now over how
deep it will be. (IV) Optimists say there will be a swift recovery. (V) If this does happen, it will be
due to lower interest rate and a looser fiscal policy.

Açıklama: Parçada ekonomistlerin Amerikada olabilecek ekonomik durgunluk üzerinde değil bu
durgunluğun ne kadar sarsıcı olabilecegi üzerinde tartıştıklarından söz ediyor. (Burada çıkarım
yapmak gerekirse ekonomistler Amerika da bir ekonomik durgunluk olacağından eminler.) 2. cümle
ise konu dışı olarak talepteki düşüşten söz ediyor ve parçaya herhangi bir atıf kelimesiyle


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 46 

(I)Global inequality is not just about income. (II) It is also about education for children, access to
world markets, control of technology and so on. (III) Nevertheless, the extremes of global
inequality are exemplified in a striking fashion in income distribution. (IV) Cheap labor has
undoubtedly aided economic development in many of the developing countries. (V) The richest 5%
of the world’s people have incomes 114 times those of the poorest 5%.

Açıklama: Parça küresel eşitsisliğin nelerde olduğundan özelliklede gelir dağılımı üzrindeki
eşitsizlikten bahsediyor. Son cümlede gelir dağılımı hakkında istatiksel bilgiler veriyor. 4. cümle ise
konu dışı olarak ucuz işcinin ekenomiye katkısından söz ediyor.


(I) There are many types of mercury.(II) But the most dangerous of all are the organic mercury
compounds.(III) Elemental mercury is used in thermometers, and is the least toxic form. (IV) These
are toxic by ingestion, inhalation or contact. (V) Since they are not removed from the body, their
concentrations gradually build up, particularly in the brain.

Açıklama: Parçada cıvanın çeşitlerinden ve bunların en tehlikelilerinden bahsediliyor ve atıf
kelimeleri bize tehlikesiz olanının( bir tane) termometredeki kullanımından söz etmesiyle 3.
cümlenin parçadan atılabileceğini gösteriyor.


(I)Currently there has been a noticeable drop in applications for MBA courses in the USA. (II) If
the economy picks up, the situation could change. (III) This is partly because fewer people can
afford the annual tuition fee. (IV) Partly also, because new visa restrictions are making it harder for
foreigners to apply. (V) But most important of all one is no longer sure of landing a well-paid job
on graduation.

Açıklama: Parça Amerika’daki MBA kurslarına başvuranların sayısındaki düşüş ve bu düşüşün
sebepleri hakkında. 2. cümle ise konu dışı olarak ekononinin iyileşmesiyle durumun değişeceği
hakkında. Buradan ekonominin iyileşmesiyle MBA kurslarına başvuranların sayısının artacagı ile
ilgili bir düşünceye varmak ve bu ikisi arasında ilgi kurmak oldukça zordur. Zaten atıf kelimeleri bize
2 dışındaki cümlelerin birbirleriyle ilgisini gösteriyor.


(I) During the 1960s and 1970s, the decision was made to send humans into space, instead of just
shipping machines. (II) There were two main reasons for this. (Ill) One was the ability of humans to
respond to unexpected situations; the other was curiosity and the thirst for excitement. (IV) Long-
term journeys into space are particularly stressful. (V) There are, however, major problems to be
overcome by the human astronauts; these are medical, physiological, psychological and psycho-
sociological in nature.

AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 47 
Açıklama: Parçada ilk cümle konu cümlesi olarak sunuluyor ve insanların uzaya gönderilme
kararından sözediyor. 2. cümledeki this ile bu karara gönderme yapılarak iki tane sebepten
bahsediyor.3. cümle one was ve the other was ile bu nedenleri sıralıyor. Son cümle ise uzaya insan
gönderilmesinde sıralanan iki sebep olmasına rağmen aşılması gereken engellerden bahsederek
konuyla bağlantılı olarak konu cümlesini tamamlıyor. 4. cümlede uzun süreli seyehatlerden
bahsederek ( long-term journeys) paragrafın diğer cümlelerinden uzaklaşıyor. Zaten konu cümlesi 1.
cümle olarak anlaşıldıktan sonra onu takip eden diğer cümlelerde daha özel (specific) olmak zorunda.
Halbuki 4. cümle yeni bir paragraf oluşturabilecek kadar genel bir konu cümlesi özelliği taşıyor.


(I) Extinction, the end of a lineage, occurs when the last individual of a species dies. (II) The loss is
permanent, for once a species is extinct it can never reappear. (III) Extinctions have occurred
continually since the origin of life. (IV) The habitats of many animal and plant species have been
altered or destroyed by human activities. (V) By one estimate, only one species is alive today for every
2,000 that have become extinct.

Açıklama: Parça soyun tükenmesi üzerine ve bu çerçevede cümlelerin sıralanması gerekli. Halbuki 4.
cümlede insanların hayvan ve bitkilerin bulundukları yerleri değiştirmeleri ve yok etmeleri ile ilgili.
Bu yönüyle asıl konudan hayli uzak duran bir cümle.


(I) The film Last Samurai takes place in Japan in the mid-1870s and is based on the life of Saigo
Takamori, a samurai. (II) This samurai lived during the period of transition in which the country's
ancient feudal culture, symbolized by samurai warriors, was being rapidly replaced by western ways.
(III) Production of the film began at the 1000-year-old Engyoji temple in Himeji near Tokyo. (IV)
Throughout the film, the producers tried to be true to the elegant simplicity of Japanese architecture.
(V) The rest of the film was made in New Zealand, where they built a replica of a 17
century samurai
village, and in California.

Açıklama: Parça bir samurayın hayat hikayesine dayandırılmış son samuray filmi hakkında. Bu
samurayla ilgili bilgi verilip ; filme nerede başlandığı ve filmin nerede bitirildiği ekleniyor. 4.
cümlede ise muhtemelen Japon mimarisiyle ilgili başka bir filmden söz ediyor.Zaten filmin başlandığı
yer ve bitirilmesi ile ilgili cümleler arasına ( III-V) filmin konusunun girmesi bu film son samuray
filmi de olsa uymazdı.


(I) In any school, in any week of the year a dyslexic child experiences a huge amount of failure. (II)
Without self-confidence no real progress is possible. (III) With sequencing difficulties, any form of
writing or maths is going to present severe problems. (IV) The dyslexic child cannot fail to notice that
almost all the other children can do the work fairly easily. (V) He therefore concludes that he must be
stupid and his confidence goes.

Açıklama: Parçanın konusu olarak verilen 1. cümlede öğrenme güçlüğü çeken bir çocuğun çok fazla
başarısızlık yaşadığından söz ediyor. Diğer cümlelerin de bu durumlara örnekler vermesi ve özel
(specific) olması beklenir. Oysa ikinci cümle, kendine güven olmaksızın gerçek bir ilerlemenin
mümkün olmadığını dile getiriyor. Belki bu cümle 5. cümleden sonra ufak bir değişiklikle getirilse
parçaya oturabilir. Ama 2. cümle hem bulunduğu yer hemde genel (general) yani konu cümlesi
olabilecek bir anlatıma sahip olması bakımından, parçadan atılması gerken cümledir.

AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 48 

(I) The statistics are staggering. (II) Since 1981, an estimated 28 million people have died of AIDS.
(III) Today, 42 million men, women and children are believed to be living with HIV. (IV) What is
even more disturbing, 5 million new infections are occurring each year. (V) Indeed, vaccines have
helped to eradicate some of the worst diseases of the 20th century.

Açıklama: Parça bütünüyle aids istatistikleri ile ilgili iken son cümle diğer hastalıkları dahil edip
konudan uzaklaşıyor. Aynı zamanda istatiksel bir bilginin olmamasıda hemen göze çarpıyor.


(I) Archaeologists have to bear in mind some points when working with early historical chronologies
(II) This system can be confirmed and refined using astronomy. (III) The chronological system
requires careful reconstruction, and any list of rulers or kings needs to be reasonably complete. (IV)
The list, although it may reliably record the number of years in each reign, has still to be linked with
our own calendar if it is not to remain merely a “floating chronology”. (V) The artifacts, features, or
structures to be dated at a particular site have somehow to be related to the historical chronology,
perhaps by their association with an inscription referring to the ruler of the time.

Açıklama: Parça arkeologların tarihi kronolojilerle üzerine çalışmalar yaparken dikkat etmeleri
gereken noktolar üzrine ve 2. cümle dısında diğer cümleler bununla ilgili. 2. cümlede ise This system
in atıfta bulunduğu herhangi bir sey ilk cümlede yeralmıyor. Astronominin cümlede yeralıp
devamında da bundan söz edilmemesi 2. cümlenin parçayla ilgisi olmadığını rahatlıkla bize veriyor.


(I) Transport yourself back to the early 1960s before the now-famous television series Star Trek first
appeared. (II) At that time, only visionaries would have dared imagine that people of the 23rd century
would be learning about the world on huge flat-panel video screens and talking to one another across
the width of the planet using wireless devices. (III) Future weapons will dispense entirely with the
clumsy darts and wires. (IV) Yet today these scenes are commonplace. (V) So it is fitting that new
high-tech devices also have similarities with fictional technology as it was first presented on that
famous science-fiction series.

Açıklama: Parça yıldız savaşları serisi ile ilgili. 3. cümle ise gelecekteki silahlardan bahsediyor. Hem
parçadaki konuyla bağdaşmıyor hemde çok genel (general) olması bakımından yeni bir konu cümlesi
izlenimi veriyor. Burada ufak hilelerde söz konusudur. 2. cümledeki wireless ile 3. cümlede ki wires
arasında aldatıcı bir ilişki oluşturmaya çalışılmış.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 49 

(I)Carrier companies have made great strides in recent years with the introduction of simple package
tracking services. (II) Now they are racing to use the World Wide Web to gain market share by
providing more sophisticated services for their customers. (III) Their web sites can handle package
scheduling and pickup from start to finish. (IV) As a result, use of the World Wide Web has enabled
companies to create new business ventures which wouldn't otherwise have been feasible. (V) Anyone
in a major metropolitan area with a package to ship can use web sites to check delivery routes,
calculate shipping charges, and schedule a pickup.

Açıklama:Parçada kargo şirketleri basit kargo(paket) takip hizmetlerinin ortaya çıkışıyla büyük
ilerleme sağlamış. Şimdi de bu şirketler interneti kullanmak için yarış halinde ve interneti
müşterilerine değişik olanaklar ve kolaylıklar sağlamak için kullanıyorlar. Konu dışı olan 4. cümle ise
çok genel ve şirketlerin( belki kargo şirketleri de dahil ama konu dışı olan diğer şirketlerde içinde)
yeni iş yaratmalarına katkısından söz ediyor.


(I) X-rays, chemical analysis of paint and close scrutiny by expert eyes are all used to tell art
forgeries from the real thing. (II) But now computer scientists at America's Dartmouth College have
come up with a digital method for sorting the real from the counterfeit. (III) Drawings or paintings
are scanned at high resolution and a computer breaks them down into digital elements called
wavelets. (IV) An analysis of Madonna with Child by the Renaissance painter Perugino showed that at
least four people had worked on the six faces in the painting. (V) The wavelets are then analyzed
statistically to find consistencies or differences.

Açıklama:Parça sahteyi gerçekten ayırma yöntemleriyle ilgili. İlk cümlede bahsedilen yöntemlere ek
olarak yeni bir yöntem bulunmuş ve 3. ve 5. cümleler bu yeni yöntemin nasıl uygulandığı hakkında
bilgi veriyor. 4. cümlede ise bir resmin analizinin ortaya çıkardığı sonuçtan bahsediyor ki bu
parçamızdan uzak bir yargıdır.


(I) Egypt’s water consumption is limited by international agreement with its upstream neighbors.
(II) Existing irrigation systems are outdated and inefficient. (III) Under the Nil Waters Agreement of
1959 between Egypt and Sudan, Egypt is only allowed to take 55.5 cubic kilometers from the Nil
each year. (IV) In fact, its annual consumption is closer to 65.5 cubic kilometers. (V) It makes up the
difference by recycling water through various irrigation systems.

Açıklama: Parça Mısır’ın su tüketiminin komşularıyla yaptığı anlaşmalarla sınırlı olduğu, Nil’den
aldığı su ile kendi su tüketimi arasında farkın olduğu ( 10 ) , Mısır’ın bu farkı da sulama sistemleriyle
yaptığı dönüştürme işleminden telafi ettiğini belirtiyor. 2. cümlede ise konu dışı olarak sulama
sistemlerinin olumsuz yönlerinde bahsediyor.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 50 

Despite technological improvements which allow exploration to proceed rapidly, it is no simple matter
to obtain oil from undersea fields. Prospecting must be followed by the leasing of potential oil-
producing areas, and then by drilling to see whether oil is actually there. Offshore drilling platforms
must be constructed most efficiently so as to withstand the force of waves, especially during the
season for hurricanes. _____ .

A) Therefore, the technical difficulties of far more extensive offshore operations do not discourage
specialists in petroleum engineering
B) Naturally, the search for petroleum has repeatedly led geologists to sedimentary rocks under the
C) It is a fact that by no means all of the land resources of petroleum have been discovered
D) Actually, off California, Texas, and Louisiana, oil companies have drilled into the sediments of
the shelf and are obtaining oil
E) Indeed, winds, storm waves, fogs and the corrosive effects of seawater upon metal structures are
the major hazards that must be faced and overcome in offshore oil production

Açıklama: Parçada deniz altından petrol çıkarmanın kolay bir iş olmadığı işleniyor. Ve parça ilk
cümlenin devamında bunun zorluklarına değiniyor. Parça E ile tamamlanarak, deniz altının, rüzgarın,
sisin ve dalgaların platformlarda kullanılan metal yapılara verdiği zararların üstesinden gelmenin
gerekliliğiyle sonlamıyor. Zaten bir önceki cümledeki bazı anahtar kelimeler E de de yeralıyor.


In an earthquake, the toll depends largely on four factors. _____ . Then there is the type and quality
of housing. The time of day is a further important factor. Finally there is the population density.

A. The first is the magnitude of the earthquake itself
B. All of these are outside our control
C. Of these only two can be controlled by man
D. If only we knew when an earthquake was likely to occur, we could be better prepared
E. In these recent earthquakes, the toll of human life was needlessly great

Açıklama: Görüldüğü üzere verilen bilgiler bir sıra halindedir. Bu sıradan ilki boş olarak bırakılmış.
Bu da bizi The first ile başlayan A şıkkına götürür.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 51 

A recent survey carried out by the UK lecturers' union shows that almost a quarter of respondents rate
their academic freedom as limited, poor or non-existent. _____ . In 30% of cases, that pressure had
come from the organization paying for the research.

A. Researchers in every sector know that they must get positive results into journals
B. Most worrying is the results of this loss of integrity on medical research
C. Some researchers said they had been pressurized to alter results, delay their publication or even
bury them
D. The public loss of confidence in science has reached serious proportions and must be faced
E. Those with access to the truth are too often those with most to gain from avoiding it

Açıklama: Burada zaman uyumu önemli hale gelmiş. Aslında paragraf sorularında parça cümleler
dizisi olduğu için zaman uyumu çok fazla aranmaz. Fakat parçada ani zaman değişikliklerine,
mantıksızlıklarına dikkat etmek gerekir. Yukarıda soruda dikkat edilirse parça tamamen geçmiş zaman
ile oluşturulmuş. Dikkat edilirse seçeneklerde başka bir zaman geçişi sağlayacak bir bağlaç
bulunmuyor. Dolayısıyla boşluğa gelecek cümlenin de geçmiş zaman olması gerekir.


When nuclear power was first proposed in the 1940s, it seemed like a gift from heaven, for it seemed
to offer a cheap, clean and inexhaustible source of electricity. _____ . These new advantages include
the fact that nuclear power generates no greenhouse gases and it does not come from countries of
doubtful stability. But, in the popular imagination, it is still associated with a host of problems.

A) The question of waste disposal, however, is another problem that has yet to be solved
B) Indeed, no new American nuclear plant has been ordered in nearly 25 years
C) Scientific research and political developments have since brought new advantages to the fore
D) Fear of terrorist bombing is the latest source of anxiety
E) As was expected, the cost of nuclear fuel proved to be very low

Açıklama: Boşluktan sonraki these new advantages kısmının atıfta bulunduğu şeyi şıklarda bulmak
biz doğru seçenek olan C ye kolaylıkla götürüyor.


Although social and medical interventions have helped people live longer, none of the techniques have
affected the aging process. _____ . But, there is a change: there are far more 65-year-olds today than
there used to be because the past century’s efforts reduced early mortality.

A) Fewer young people now die of infectious diseases as sanitary conditions have improved greatly
B) This is because people are living longer
C) A healthy 65-year-old in 1900 would be physically indistinguishable from his or her counterpart in
D) Improved working conditions have also contributed, to a noticeable extent, to an increased life
E) Attention to diet also plays an important role


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 52 
Açıklama: Boşluktan sonraki but (ama) bağlacı bize boşluktan önceki cümlenin kendisinin zıttı
olduğunu anlamamızı sağlıyor. Boşluktan sonra bir karşılaştırma yapılmış. Bu karşılaştırma zıt
karşılaştırma şekliyle C de yeralıyor. C’ deki indistinguishable kelimesi boşluktan sonraki a change
ve than there used to be ile zıtlığı oluşturmada bizlere yardımcı oluyor.


An organism must divide its energy between maintenance, repair and reproduction. _____ . As a
result, organisms face a tough problem: What is the best allocation of finite metabolic energy to
maximize reproduction and repair?

A) Actually, some organisms do have unlimited energy
B) No creatures are capable of living indefinitely
C) The reproductive life of an organism may be even shorter
D) As an organism ages, the problems become less acute
E) Even a well-fed organism has to cope with energy limitations

Açıklama: Boşluktan sonraki soru bölümünde enerjinin ayrılmasından (tahsis edilmesi) söz ediyor.
Konu cümlesinde de organizmanın enerjisini bakım, onarım ve üreme arasında pay etmesi gerektiği
vurgulanıyor. Enerji ile ilgili A ve E seçenekleri göze çarpıyor. Enerjinin pay edilmesi organizma için
sıkı bir problem teşkil ediyorsa organizmanın enerjisinin kısıtlı olduğu sonucunu çıkarabiliriz. Buda
bizi sınırsız enerji (unlimited energy) sahip organizmalardan bahseden A şıkkından uzaklaştırıp; iyi
beslenmiş bir organizmanın bile enerji kısılaması ile baş etmesi gerekliliğinden söz eden E şıkkına


“If you want one year of prosperity, grow grain. If you want ten years of prosperity, grow trees. If you
want 100 years of prosperity, grow people.” _____ . It sums up how the entry of China’s massive
labour force into the global economy is bringing prosperity to the nation.

A) China certainly has a huge, cheap workforce
B) Indeed, China has effectively doubled the global labour force
C) Actually, China’s growth rate is steadily increasing
D) China is having a dramatic effect on the world economy
E) This is an old Chinese proverb

Açıklama: Boşluktan önce tırnak içinde bir çin atasözü verilmiş. Boşluktan sonraki it sums up kısmı
bu atasöznü özetliyor. Buda bizi E seçeneğine götürüyor.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 53 

There are seven euro banknote denominations, which can be recognized easily by their look and feel. -
---. On the other, they feature bridges, signifying co-operation between the nations of Europe and the
rest of the world.

A) It is generally agreed that the euro has proved beneficial to businesses
B) The eight euro coins have a common side and a national side
C) Indeed, on January 1st 2002, twelve national currencies made way for just one
D) On one side, the bank notes show windows and gateways, symbolizing a spirit of openness
E) Euro banknotes and coins have had a profound impact outside the participating countries

Açıklama: Parçada boşluktan sonraki kısım banknotun diğer yüzünden ( on the other) bahsediyor.
Boşluktan önceki kısmınında öteki yüzünden (On one side = bir yüzünde) bahsetmesi uygun olur.
Zaten bu ve benzeri sorularda on one side--- on the other side, the former--- the latter, first---then---
thirdly--- finally, the previous--- the latter, gibi genellikle birbirini takip eden ifadelere dikkat etmek
soruyu yapmamızı oldukça kolaylaştıracaktır.


(I) Infants all over the world begin to smile at about the same age. (II) Whether they are born in a
remote African village or in a middle class American home, it seems to make no difference. (III)
Unfortunately, this usually occurs when they see familiar faces or hear familiar voices (IV) This
suggests that age is more important in determining the onset of smiling than are the conditions of
rearing. (V) Moreover, blind babies smile at about the same age as sighted-infants, suggesting it is
an innate response.

Açıklama: Parça bebeklerin gülümsedikleri yaşının tüm bebeklerde tüm dünyada aynı olduğundan
bahsediyor. Bu gerçeğim gülümsemeye başlamada, yaşın diğer durumlardan daha önemli olduğunu
ileri sürüyor ve bunu son cümledeki kör bebeklerinde aynı yaşta gülümsemeye başladığı gerçeğiyle
destekliyor. 3. cümlede this kelimesinin gönderme yapabileceği bir unsur 2 cümle de yer almıyor.


(I)In the past century US life-expectancy climbed from forty-seven to seventy-seven. (II) Similar
rises happened in almost every country. (III) And this process shows no sign of stopping. (IV) Such a
pill could give us an extra twenty years of life. (V) According to the United Nations, by 2050 global
life expectancy will have increased by another tenyears.

Açıklama : Parçada yaşam süresinin artışından, bu artışın sadece Amerikada değil neredeyse tüm
ülkelerde olduğundan bahsediliyor ve bu artış sürecinin durma belirtisi göstermediği ifade edilip
geleceğe yönelik bir artış tahmin ekleniyor. 4. cümlede bahsi geçen yaşam süresini uzatan hapa (such
a pill) parçanın diğer cümlelerinde hiçbir şekilde değinilmemiş.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 54 

It used to be argued that, once there were just two major companies involved in civil aircraft
manufacturing, aircraft prices would rise. (II) There are few engineering tricks left that could give one
or other a technological edge. (III) That theory has been thoroughly discredited. (IV) The best
indicator of new-aircraft prices – the average price per seat on flights – has been declining for several
years. (V) This is due, of course, to the brutal competition between the two rivals.

Açıklama: Dikkat edilirse 3 cümlede that theory gözümüze çarpıyor. Dolayısıyla bunun gönderme
yaptığı şey 1. yada 2. cümlede bulunmak zorundadır. İkinci cümlede bu görülmemektedir. 1. cümlede
argue fiili bunun bir iddia, teori olduğu konusunda bize yeterli ipucu sağlamaktadır. Değinme (atıf)
kelimeleri ile ilgili alıştırmalar için kitabın paragraph alıştırmaları bölümüne bakınız.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 55 

Genel Bilgi : Okuma anlama soruları herkesin en fazla zorlandıkları söyledikleri soru tipidir. Ama
unutmamak gerekir ki sorulan soruların tamamımının cevabı tam karşınızdadır. Bu sizin satır aralını
okuyup, algılayıp, yorumlamanıza bağlıdır. Sizler çevirmen değilsiniz dolayısıyla sizden birebir
parçanın çevrilmesi istenmiyorum. Kabataslak paragrafı anlayıp, önemli noktaları belirleseniz yeter.
Bilmediğiniz kelimelere var diye ben anlamadım yapamam gibi kaygılara kapılmayın. Bilmediğiniz
kelimelerde olsa yine de soruların çoğu zaman cevaplanabilir olduğunu unutmayın.


The main concern of the passage is …..
The aim of the writer in this passage is to …
The passage is mainly concerned with …
The main point made by the author …
The passage largely deals with …
The main argument of the passage is …
The main subject of the passage is …
The main point made in the passage is that …
The passage describes …
The passage emphasizes …
The passage gives a general account of …
The aim of the passage is …


Family-owned companies are bad for business, a new study argues at least when they dominate a
large portion of a country’s economy. [ FINDINGS OF THIS STUDY ARE AS FOLOWS ] Outside
the United States and Britain most major corporations are in the hands of a few wealthy families,
rather than, as in the US and Britain, being owned by a wide network of shareholders. The power of
thesesmall families often extends far beyond the companies they own directly, thanks to a system of
“control pyramids” in which they exercise indirect control over a large number of smaller companies.
This concentration of corporate power doesn’t merely leave-a high percentage of wealth in the hands
of billionaires. it also retards growth, diminishes efficiency, and limits economic freedom. Moreover,
“a tiny elite that cannot be sacked,” as the study puts it, is likely to pursue “economic entrenchment”,
in which property rights and financial openness are restricted to protect a few families’ economic and
political prerogatives or rights.

The aim of the passage is to ----.

A) highlight the different ways in which business is carried on in the US and in Britain
B) compare small family businesses and large corporations
C) present the findings of a research project into the nature of large, family-owned corporations
D) discredit the practices of big business, especially when shareholders are involved
E) contradict the conclusions of a study into the practices of large, family-owned corporations


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 56 

Engineering is akin to writing or painting in that it is a creative endeavour that begins in the mind’s
eye and proceeds into new frontiers of thought and action, where it does not so much find as make
new things. Just as the poet starts with a blank sheet of paper and the artist with a blank canvas, so the
engineer today begins with a blank computer screen. Until the outlines of a design are set down,
however tentatively, there can be no appeal to science or to critical analysis to judge or test the design.
Scientific, rhetorical or aesthetic principles may be called on to inspire, refine and finish a design, but
creative things do not come of applying the principles alone. Without the sketch of a thing or a
diagram of a process, scientific facts and laws are of little use to engineers. Science may be the theater,
but engineering is the action on the stage.

The writer’s main aim in this passage is to ----.

A) show how many different types of creativity there are
B) stress the creative and constructive aspects of an engineer’s work
C) compare and contrast the way poets and painters work
D) show that literary creativity is superior to the painter’s creativity
E) establish the fact that it is the engineers’ scientific knowledge that makes him creative


Bu soru köklerinin yeraldığı sorular, parçada açıkça belirtilen ifadelerin farklı biçimlerde şıklarda
ifade edilmesiyle ilgilidir. Yani –restatement- soru tipinde uygulanan teknikler bu soru tiplerinede
uygulanır. Burada parçada geçen kelimelerin, ifadelerin eşanlamlıları, zıt anlamlılarI, gramer
ifadelerinin aynı anlama gelecek varyasyonları kullanılır. Bir çesit özetleme, değişik şekilde ifade
etme alıştırmasıdır.

The writer points out that …
The writer makes the point that …
The writer suggests that
The passage explains that …
According to the writer …
One imprtants point made in the passge that
It is suggested in the passage that …
We see in the passage that
It is stated in the passage that …
It is pointed out in the passage that …
It is obvious from the passage that …
As explained in the passage that…
It is clear from the passage that …
According to the passage that …

Yukarıdaki soru kökleri parçanın tamamına yöneliktir. Fakat KPDS-ÜDS-YDS sınavlarında bu soru
köklerine parçadan eklemeler yapılarak, test çözenin nereye bakacağı sınırlandırılır ve bu soruyu
çözenin işini kolaylaştırıp, ona zaman kazandırır. Örneğin;

The passage explains that in recent decades earthquakes…
It is obvious from the passage that dogs are…
It is stated in the passage that the educational theories…
The writer points out that technological advances during the industrial revolution…

Görüldüğü gibi bu soru köklerinin cevaplarını bulmak için parçanın, verilen sınırlı bilginin bulunduğu
kısmına bakmak yeterlidir.

AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 57 

We should care about dying languages for the same reason that we care when a species of animal or
plant dies. It reduces the diversity of our planet. In the case of language, we are talking about
intellectual and cultural diversity, not biological diversity,[ DIVERSITY OF SPECIES AND
PLANTS] but the issues are the same. As a result of decades of environmental publicity and
activism, most people have come to accept that biodiversity is a good thing. But linguistic diversity
has not enjoyed the same publicity. Diversity occupies a central place in evolutionary theory because
enables a species to survive in different environments. Increasing uniformity holds dangers for the
long-term survival of a species. The strongest ecosystems are those which are most diverse. It has
often been said that our success in colonizing the planet can be accounted for by our ability to develop
diverse cultures which suit different environments.

According to the writer, diversity on earth ----.

A) is rapidly becoming reduced owing to lack of public interest in it
B) consist not only of the diversity of species and plants but also of languages and cultures
C) has only recent become a research concern among environmentalists
D) has encouraged man to exploit his environment
E) can best be maintained through the preservation of different languages


In this century, the wealth and success of nations will depend like never before on the ability to
produce and use knowledge. Universities have long been instrumental in generating knowledge and
ideas. But in an increasingly globalized world, and in the face of rapid scientific change, they will
need to think about a set of new challenges and how best to prepare their students for the coming
decades. Universities will need to teach a new kind of literacy, in which global awareness will play an
important role. They also need to deal with the dilemmas posed by the accelerating pace of change
brought on by scientific and technological advances. We are on the brink of once-in-human-history
progress in combating disease through the application of modern science. Doctors will have at their
disposal blood tests that will tell you with substantial predictive power how long you will live and
from what diseases you are likely to suffer. The Internet and the application of information technology
may well represent the most profound change in the way knowledge is disseminated since the printing
press. We are close to understanding the first second of the history of the cosmos.

According to the passage, universities are under an obligation to ensure that their students ----.

A) have the chance to work alongside foreign students
B) are equipped to deal with the changing conditions of the coming decades
C) are introduced to international perspectives in every area of study
D) are taught not specific facts as much as broad ways of thinking
E) all have a good grounding in science and technology


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 58 

Bu soru köklerine ait cevap parçadan direkt çıkarılmaz. Parçada geçenleri özümseyip yorumlayarak
parça çerçevesinde sonuçlara, çıkarımlara varmalıyız. Örneğin parçada nehir suların boz, bulanık
aktığından söz ediliyorsa bir buradan suyun çamurlu ve kirli olduğu sonucuna varabiliriz.

It is implied in the passage that …
One infers from the passage that…
It can be understood from the passage that
We can understand from the passage that…
We learn from the passage that…
The passage implies that…
From the passage we understand that…
One may conclude from the passage that…
It is shown in the passage that…
One may infer from the passage that…
As we learn from the passage that


The discovery of an ancient tomb in modern China is so commonplace that it often annoys as much
as excites, because it can delay construction for months or even years. So when archeologists were
called in last May to check structures discovered during the expansion of a bone-meal factory in a
southern suburb of Beijing, they weren’t expecting to find anything of great interest. To the
archeologists’ surprise, the structures were the remains of two traditional domed tombs, each over a
thousand years old. One was flooded and badly damaged, but the other contained beautifully-
preserved wall frescoes from the 10th century. “It’s only recently that the Chinese have been
publishing artifacts from ancient tombs, and it’s unusual to see them in the Western press,” says Dr
Jessica Rawson, Professor of Oriental Art and Archeology at Oxford University.

We learn from the passage that the Chinese ----.

A) show archeologists a great deal of respect
B) are very proud of their ancient archeological heritage
C) are very skilled in the art of frescoes
D) often have mixed feelings when an ancient tomb is discovered
E) used to prefer tombs without domes to those with domes

Açıklama: Yorum çıkara sorularında yazılı olanı değil yazılı olandan çıkarılabilecek yorumlara
odaklanırız. The discovery of an ancient tomb in modern China is so commonplace that it often
annoys as much as excites = MIXED FEELİNGS ----- ANNOYANCE,
EXCITEMENT. Hem kızgınlık hemde heyecan olmasını karmaşık duygular olarak yorumlayabiliriz.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 59 

The natives of the Lewis Island know wind – sometimes too well. Every winter the Atlantic gales
come blasting across the northern tip of Scotland’s Outer Hebrides. The wind hardly slows down even
after striking land; in the island’s marshy interior, gusts regularly exceed 160kph. Everyone stays
indoors but the sheep. Tourists arrive in summer, lured by mild temperatures and unspoiled
countryside; even so, there’s rarely a calm day. “The weather here is changeable”, says Nigel Scott,
spokesman for the local government. “But the wind is constant”. The brutal climate could finally be
Lewis’s salvation. The place has been growing poorer and more desolate for generations, as young
people seek sunnier prospects elsewhere. But now the energy industry has discovered the storm-swept
island. The multinationals AMEC and British Energy are talking about plans to erect some 300 outsize
wind turbines across a few thousand hectares of moorland. If the 500 million-pound project goes
through, the array will be Europe’s largest wind farm, capable of churning out roughly 1 per cent of
Britain’s total electrical needs – and generating some badly needed jobs and cash for the people of

We understand from the passage that, in summer, the island of Lewis ----.

A) attracts visitors as nature there has remained unspoiled
B) enjoys a warm, wind-free climate
C) is one of the most attractive of the islands that make up the Outer Hebrides
D) has little to offer its inhabitants by way of a living other than fishing
E) can offer its inhabitants even less in the way of a livelihood than it can in the winter

Açıklama: attracts visitors as nature there has remained unspoiled = Tourists arrive in summer,
lured by mild temperatures and unspoiled countryside; - ATTRACT = LURE UNSPOILED
COUNTRYSIDE =UNSPOILED NATURE. Bozulmamış, el değmemiş bir yerin doğasının
bozulmamış olduğu muhakkaktır.


1. Parçada yer alan bir kelime soru kökünde yada doğru seçenekte direkt olarak yer alabilir.

Educational technology------------- educational technology
In the 18
century------------------- in the 18

2. Parçada geçen bir kelime eş anlamlısı, türüne göre sıfat, zarf isim, fiil halleriyle, kelimenin
değişik bir haliyle ve de yaptığı çağrışımlarla ( akraba kelimelerle) soru kökünde yada doğru
seçenekte direkt olarak yer alabilir.

Nutrition nourishment, food, diet, digestion
Regenerate regeneration, renew, recreate
Pivotal important, crucial, essential, importance, vital
Restrict restriction, limit, limitation
Maintain maintenance
Hazard hazardous, dangerous, menace, peril, harm
Invent invention, inventor, creativity
Ability capacity, gift, talent, skill, able, capability, aptitude, skilled, talented
Rival contestant, rivalry, competition
Tendency propensity, trend, inclination, tend
Wealty affluent, rich, prosperity

AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 60 
Book read, reading, publication
The bird the animal
Use consume, consumption
Help assist, assistance, helpful, aid
Quick quickly, rapid, rapidly, swiftly
Rude impolite, impoliteness, rudeness

3. Parçada geçen bir gramer yapısı denk yapılarla soru kökünde ve doğru seçenekte geçebilir.

Since ------- as, because,
If------------ unless, as long as, provided that
Although--- even though, though, despite, in spite of, but, nevertheless
Active------ passive

Yukarıda sıralanan üç madde aynı anda görülebilir.

1-2-3. maddelere örnekler:

We learn from the passage that in the opinion of Halley, _____ .
A. a comet may, at some point in the future, strike Earth

Parçada geçen ifade:

But Halley noted something else as well: a comet crossing the orbit of the earth might one day collide
with us.

According to the passage , it was decided, after careful consideration, that the height of the
drawbridge _____ .

A. should be the same as that of the previous one.

Parçada geçen ifade:

When an examination of the bridges records show that
The state decided to build a new drawbridge with the same height as the old one.

According to the passage, as the economic strength of the developing world increases, one of
the drawbacks this leads to is _____ .

A. governments begin to interfere in the affairs of neighbours and ,hence, may cause political

Parçada geçen ifade:

As economies in the developing world get stronger, governments are getting more assertive and
meddling with both companies and neighbouring countries, increasing political risks.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 61 
4. Yanlış seçeneklerde kullanılması muhtemel sıfat, zarf ve belirleyiciler kesin olarak metin
içerisinde ifade edilmedikçe ( bizzat kendileri ya da eşanlamlılarıyla) aşağıda sıralananların yer
aldığı şıklar yanlış cevap olacaktır.

always, only, never, hardly, none, little , most, much, few, all, every, sole, complete, entire, full, many,
some, invariably, fully, wholly, entirely, absolutely, mostly, mainly, largely, greatly, primarily,

5. Yanlış seçenek parçaya göre çok genel çok özel olabilir.

Regular exercise may contribute to the diet. ( parça diyete etkisi)
Regular exercise may contribute to overcome the stroke. ( yanlış seçenek felçe etkisi)

Most of these people spend their evenings watching television. ( parça most)
All of the people watch television in the evenings. (yanlış seçenek all)

6. Parçada geçen ifadelerin çok dışında ifadeler, farklı yönlerine gönderme yapan ifadeler veya
hiç sözü geçmeyen ifadeler yanlış seçeneklerde kullanılabilir.

Contrary to popular belief, moderate exercise actually decreases your appetite. (Parça)
Exercise can be usefull for increasing your appetite. (Yanlış Seçenek)

Computer technology is becoming an increasingly essential part of the modern learning process.
( Parça )
Computer technology is widely used in the medicine world as a usefull tool. (Yanlış Seçenek)

Volcanos have caused some of the worst disasters in history, including wiping out entire cities and
killing thousands of people. ( Parça )
The flooding of the Red River in Manitoba a few years back caused millions of dollars in damage.
( Yanlış Seçenek )

7. Yanlış seçeneklerin belirli bir kısma kadar olan kısmı parçaya göre doğru fakat bu kısma
yapıştırılan yanlış bilgi şıkkın tamamını yanlış yapabilir. Çabuk karar vermeyip şıkkı sonuna
kadar okuyalım.

Global warming affects most people in the world, especially those living in low-lying areas near the
sea. ( Parçada Geçen Cümle )

The majority of people in the world is influenced negatively from the global warming particulary
those living near the mountanious areas.

8. Parça sorularında pratik yapıp soruların nerelerden geleceğini daha okurken tahmin
edebilmek bizlere çok büyük fayda sağlayacaktır. Parçada kıyaslama- benzetme- ayırma ( while,
whereas, similiar to, just as, differ from vb. ), zıtlık ( although, even though, but, however vb ) ,
sebep sonuç ( as a result of, because of, since , as ), sayısal ve zaman gösteren ifadelere ( 3000-
250 cm , 1997, 21st century), özellikle dikkat edilmelidir. Çünkü buralar soru sorulmasına son
derece uygun yerlerdir. İsterseniz bu dediklerimi paragraf sorularında kendiniz deneyerek

9. Hem parçada hemde verilen şıklarda sıfat ( important, unsuitable, favourable, high ) ve
zarflara ( extremely, more importantly, quickly, mainly ) dikkat etmek son derece önemlidir.
Unutmayın şıklarda upuzun cümledeki tek bir sıfat ya da tek bir zarf tüm cümle aslında
parçadan çıkarılabilecekken, o cümleyi yanlış şık yapmaya yetecektir.


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 62 
10. Zamanınız ne kadar yetiyor bilmem ama parça sorularında ilk okumanızı çok fazla altını
çizmeden, okuduğunuz cümleyi anlamasanız bile geri dönmeden sonuna kadar hızlıca okumak
ve kabataslak bir fikir edinmek önemlidir. İkinci okumanızı detayları anlamaya yönelik

11. Unutmayınız sizler çevirmen değilsiniz parçada geçen her kelimeyi anlamak ya da diğer bir
deyişle bilmediğiniz kelimelere takılıp kalmak ve çevirmen gibi parçayı bire bir aklınızdan olsun
Türkçeye çevirmek zorunda değilsiniz. Biraz somutlaştırmak, terminolojiden biraz arındırmak,
parçada bilmediğimiz yerlere x ler y ler koyarak genel İngilizcemizle parçayı çözümlemeye
çalışmak çoğu zaman yetecektir. Yani parçada yabancı bir isim varsa Cin Ali deyin, bir mekan
ismi varsa ne bileyim Ankara deyin, bir bina ise sizin apartmanınız olsun. Hicvedin, resmedin,
komikleştirin, xxxx ler yyyy ler kullanın, tanıdık bildik bir şeylere dönüştürün.

12. Bazı kelimeler paragraflarda anlatılanın düşüncenin tutarlılığı, kesinliği hakkında bizlere
önemli bilgiler aktarır, düşüncenin sınırını belirler. Paragraflarda bunlar üzerinden gelecek
sorular dikkat ettiğimiz taktirde kaçmayacaktır.


With breast cancer, as with many common diseases, there is no obvious breakthrough on the horizon.
( çok açık bir biçimde göğüs kanseri tedavisinde bir gelişmenin, bir atılımın ufukta olmadığını
anlıyoruz. Sözü eden kişi ümitsiz.)


Of all speech impediments stammering is probably the most embarrassing.
( Yazanın düşüncesi kekemeliğin muhtemelen en utanç verici konuşma bozukluğu olduğu yönünde.)


Today's inflation figure is certainly too high.
( Enflasyonun yüksek olduğu şüphe götürmez şekilde açıktır.)

Diğer bazı kelimeler: unlikely, completely, naturally, clearly, apparently, absolutely, almost,
approximately, only …

13. Bazı paragraph soruları yazarın konu ile ilgili tutumu üzerinedir. Böyle sorularda da bazı
kelimelere dikkat etmek gerekir. Bu kelimeler endişe, şaşkınlık, korku, eleştiri ve benzeri
durumları anlatmak içindir.


This disease is surprisingly difficult to catch as most people have a natural resistance to it.


Regrettably we have to house families in these inadequate flats.

Diğer bazı kelimeler: luckily, fortunately, unfortunately, unkindly, cruelly, sadly


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 63 

Europe's economies have converged in several areas. More interestingly, there has been convergence
in economic growth rates.


Most organizations are, quite understandably, suspicious of new ideas.


Admittedly, the Bush administration was slacker on spending than the Reagan administration.

Örnek : Parçanın ilk okumasını hızlı yapın, ikinci okuma detaylara inin, somutlaştırın, tanıdık şeyler
koyun, resmedin ve altını çizin. Alta resimde yapacaktım ama word çok müsaade etmiyor silah resmi,
yaşlı resmi falan. Başka türlü resmetmeye çalışsam dosyanın boyutu çok büyürdü.

The official language of the Czech Republic is Czech, a highly complex western Slavic tongue. Any
attempt from foreigners to speak Czech will be heartily appreciated, so do not be discouraged if
people fail to understand you, as most will be accustomed to hearing foreigners stumble through their
language. If you don’t know any Czech, brush up on your German, since, among the older generation at
least, it is still the most widely spoken second language. Russian, once the compulsory second language
has been practically wiped off the school curriculum, and the number of English speakers has been
steadily increasing, especially among the younger generation.

1. Official Language – Czech- Slavic

2. Eloğlu Çek dili konuşunca biz çekler ☺

3. German 2. yaygın dil – Czech Dedeler-Nineler arasında yaygın

4. Russian bir zamanlar zorunlu- şimdi okul müfredatında bile yok

5. İngilizce konuşanların sayısı hızla artıyor özellikle yeni yetmeler

1. It is clear from the passage that …………. .
A) more Czechs speak German than any other foreign language (1)
B) as their own language is so difficult, Czechs prefer German
C) everyone in the Czech Republic speaks several languages
D) Czechs usually laugh at foreigners who try to speak Czech
E) Czechs learn English during childhood and German later

2. The author informs us that ..……….. .
A) it is now illegal for Czechs to speak Russian
B) Czechs do not want to speak German as it reminds them of the German occupation
C) most Czech schools offer courses in the Russian language
D) the influence of Russia is still felt in certain areas of the Czech Republic
E) Czechs were once required to study Russian at school (3)


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 64 
3. Acoording to th passage …..……… .
A) German is the official language in Alabania, too
B) the natives of the country treat badly to others
C) Czech youth is in a dilemma today
D) Czech is a Slavic language (1)
E) the Czech people detest tourists

Örnek :

Daha zor bir metinle devam edelim. Diyelimki parçamız bu :

Contrary to common knowledge, the water, milk and meat of coconuts only begin the list of uses of this
versatile tree. The outer husk of the ripe nuts contains fibres that, when separated, can be twisted into
twine rope of amazing toughness. It is quite resistant to rot from dampness or seawater. Despite the
advent of nails and screws, this rope continues to be widely used for binding together the timbers of
houses and the parts of canoes, tools and the like. Expert craftsmen can make sizeable ropes, which, after
use, become quite flexible. The inner shell of the ripe nut can be cut and carved into ladles, scrapers,
combs and cups and will take a high polish. Furthermore, the sap of the coconut can be fermented to
make a pleasant tasting wine, while the fresh sap can be used as food for babies.

Bizim bilmediğimiz kelimeler çok diye düşünelim ama paniğede kapılmayalım. Unutmayın
zor parçaların soruları genelde kolay olur. ☺ Yapanlarda çok anlamıyor demek ki ☺ İşte
sizleri düşünerek parçayı sizin gözünüzle görmeyi deneyeyim

Contrary to common knowledge, the water, milk and meat of coconuts only begin the list of uses of this
versatile tree. xxxxxxxx ripe nuts contains yyyyyyyy that, when separated, can be zzzzzzzzzzz rope of
amazing toughness. It is quite resistant to rot from dampness or seawater. Despite the advent of nails and
screws, this rope continues to be widely used for binding together aaaaaaaaaaa houses and the parts of
canoes, tools and the like. Expert craftsmen can make sizeable ropes, which, after use, become quite
flexible. The inner shell of the ripe kkkkkkkkkk can be cut and carved lllllllllllllllllllllllllll bs and cups
and will take a high polish. Furthermore, bbbbbbbbbbbbb coconut can be oooooooooooooo to make a
pleasant tasting wine, while the fresh fffffffffffff can be used as food for babies.

1. Bu coconut ağacı yaygın olan kanının aksine çok versatile(fazla kullanım alanı olan )’ milk, water,
meat te kullanılıyomuş. ( Hepsi yiyecek ) ☺
2.Olgun nuts’ın outer husk’ının fibresleri var bunlar ayrılınca şaşırtıcı sertliğe sahip bir rope (ip)
3. Bu ip dampness ( rutubet) ve deniz suyuna karşı dirençli.
4. Nailler ve screws ler olmasına rağmen bu çeşitli şeyleri binding yapmak için hala yaygın bir
biçimde kullanılıyor.
5. Expert craftsmen kişiler bu ipi çeşitli boyutlarda yapabiliyor ve bu ipler kullanıldıkça esnek oluyor.
6. Ripe nut ın inner shell (iç kabuğu) kesiliyor ve birtakım şeylere dönüşüyor. Ve high cila
7. Cocunut ın sap’ı fermented (bi şey yapılıyor, bi işlemden geçiriliyor) ediliyor ( mayalanıyor) ve hoş
tatlı şarap oluyor,
8. Taze sap’I bebekler için yiyecek olarak kullanılıyor. Sonuçta wine da bebek yiyeceği de sap’tan

Mümkün olduğunca kelime bilgisi az, kabataslak böyle anlayanlara göre birtakım şeyler

AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 65 
1. According to the passage, twine rope …….……. .
A) can be used for some of the same functions as nails (4) nailler olmasına rağmen diyor
dolayısıyla aynı işi göriyor.
B) is the best possible material for making small boats
C) cannot be made into small ropes, but only big ones
D) can easily be damaged if not protected from rain and sea water
E) is sometimes used in the manufacture of polishes

2. We learn from the passage that, despite the many uses of the coconut, it is ……….… .
A) better known among people as a source of food (1)
B) not very profitable for the grower
C) very difficult to grow, harvest and process the nut
D) only the experts who know how to use it to the full
E) most commonly used as a material for making ropes

3. It is clear from the passage that ……………. .
A) baby food made from coconut palms contains a bit of alcohol
B) wine made from the coconut palm tastes surprisingly like baby food
C) the same part of the coconut palm is used to make wine and baby food ( 7 – 8 )
D) baby food made from the coconut palm has a great nutritive value
E) wine made from the coconut tree tastes better than other types

Bir tane daha örnek verelim

The development of geology owes much to the work of non-professional observers. ( topic sentence ve
devamı bunun nedenleriyle ilgili ve bu konu üzerine geliştiriliyor.) In no other science, with the possible
exceptions of astronomy and archaeology, has the keen amateur participated so actively or contributed so
much. This is mainly because experimental methods of investigation involving complicated apparatus
typical of chemistry, physics and biology are of only limited use in geology, (2. sorunun cevabı ) which
results from the fact that geological processes work slowly (3. soruya ipucu) and depend on factors
beyond human control. The advance of geological knowledge has depended on simple observations,
patiently gathered (3. soruya ipucu) , of the outcrops of rocks, their thicknesses, their angles and their fossil
13. The purpose of the passage is to explain …………….. .
A) some experimental methods of geological investigation
B) why geology is a science suitable for enthusiasts’ contribution( özellikle topic sentence ve
devamının bu düşünce doğrultusunda geliştirilmesi )
C) gradual developments in the field of geology over the years
D) why it is so difficult to gather geological information
E) how experts analyse geological data gathered in the field

14. It is clear from the passage that complex equipment for geological investigation …………… .
A) is vital to almost every part of the geologist’s work
B) is of no use whatsoever in the development of geology
C) may be easily mastered and used by the amateur
D) only plays a small part in the field of geology
E) is much the same as that used in other scientific fields


AHMET BAŞAL                                KPDS‐UDS HATIRLATMA ‐ 66 
15. The author informs us that because of the way geological processes take place, …………. .
A) humans will never really understand how geology works
B) sophisticated equipment is vital to the geologist’s work
C) several other sciences can be useful to the study of geology
D) data needs to be gathered over a long period of time
E) it takes a long time to train in order to become a geologist