Engineering Dynamics, Inc
EDI
Wave Load
• For the design of offshore structures, the waves are characterized as
regular waves with reasonable accuracy.
• Several wave theories are available for the purpose of determining
the wave loads:
Airy‟s Linear Theory
Cnoidal Theory
Solitary Wave Theory
Stokes 5th Order Theory
Stream Function Theory
EDI
Wave Load
• The wave theory to be used is selected based on the
water depth and wave height.
• Wave loading on a member is categorized into Drag ,
Inertia, Diffraction, Slamming and Vortex Shedding
Induced load
• If the member size is small < (1/5) x Wavelength,
Morison‟s equation can be used to calculate the wave
loading.
• Morison‟s Equation:
Where : Cd is the coefficient of drag, Cm is coefficient of mass
D is the diameter, U is the velocity , µ is the fluid
density and A is the area.
U A ρ C U U D ρ 0.5C F
M D
· · · + · · · · =
Drag force Inertia force
EDI
Wave Load
• Various options available for defining coefficient of drag Cd and
coefficient of mass Cm
• (1) API Defaults
smooth Cd=0.65 Cm=1.6
rough Cd=1.05 Cm=1.0
Note: Cd & Cm are constant for all diameters
• (2) Wake Encounter Effects
As a wave moves past a vertical cylinder a wake
is produced. The turbulence produced by the
wake impinges on the cylinder again due to the
circular motion of the water particles in a wave
motion. The amount of turbulence affects
Cd and Cm.
EDI
Wave Load
• (2) Wake Encounter Effects (Continued)
Members within 15 degrees of vertical subject
to wake encounter effects.
Use KeuleganCarpenter number K to
calculate Cd and Cm.
K = Umo. Tapp/D
Umo = Max horizontal velocity (containing inline
current effects) at MWL under crest.
Tapp = Apparent wave period
D = Member diameter
EDI
Wave Load
• (2) Wake Encounter Effects (Continued)
Use relative surface roughness „e‟ to find the drag coefficient
for steady flow Cds from Figure C.2.3.14.
e=k/Deff
where:
k = average peak to valley height along
the surface of the marine growth
Deff = Dc + 2t
Dc = Diameter of clean tube
t = average thickness of marine growth
EDI
Wave Load
• (2) Wake Encounter Effects (Continued)
Use the KeuleganCarpenter together with the steady flow drag
coefficient Cds and figures C.2.3.15 and C.2.3.16 to find the drag
coefficient.
EDI
Wave Load
• (2) Wake Encounter Effects (Continued)
Similarly use figures C.2.3.17 and C.2.3.18 to find the mass
coefficient Cm.
EDI
Wave Load
• (2) Wake Encounter Effects (Continued)
Shielding Factor
Closely spaced members such as conductors may have a reduced
wave loading due to shielding. The amount of shielding depends upon
the centerline spacing and the wave velocity and period.
The shielding factor may be different for each wave direction. Both Cd
Cm are multiplied by the shielding factor.
Use shielding factor as follows:
A/S > 2.5 Use figure C2.3.19
0.5 < A/S < 2.5 Linear Interpolation
A/S < 0.5 No shielding
A=U
mo
T
app
/2t (amplitude of oscillation)
S=center to center spacing
EDI
Wave Load
• (2) Wake Encounter Effects (Continued)
Surface roughness input with the marine growth data (MGROV input line).
EDI
Wave Load
• (3 ) User defined coefficients of mass and drag
Input diameter verses coefficients of drag and mass. The program will
linearly interpolate for intermediate sizes (CDM input line).
EDI
Wave Load
• (4) Default table for clean and fouled members
EDI
Wave Load
Wave Kinematics Factor
Directional spreading of waves produces peak forces that are smaller than
those of unidirectional seas.
The wave kinematics factor is given by :
where n is the exponent of the Cos
n
u spreading function at spectral peak
frequency.
API Recommendations:
Kinematics Factor = 0.88 (hurricanes)
Kinematics Factor = 0.95 to 1.0 (extratropical storms)
• Note the Kinematics Factor multiplies the horizontal velocity and acceleration value
of the wave.
EDI
Current Load
• Current Profile
User defined current profile defined from mudline upwards.
Current Stretching options include:
 constant
 linear
nonlinear
User defined current blockage.
Blockage calculated automatically
using a reference elevation.
EDI
Wind Load
• Wind loads are calculated on all members above the mean water level as
per APIRP2A guidelines.
• Typically a wind load for a 5sec gust, is considered for global loading on
the decks.
• For shallow water fixed platforms (i.e. jacket type
structures) wind loads contribute less than 10% of
the total load.
EDI
Wind Load
• Wind load criteria options available
API
ABS
Australian criteria
Cyclonic or NonCyclonic criteria
EDI
Wind Load
API –RP2A 21
st
Edition Criterion APIRP2A 20
th
Edition Criterion
Gust effects Included Gust effects not included
Where: z = height t = gust duration
Uo = one hour wind speed at reference height of 10 meters (32.8 ft)
EDI
Wind Load
API –RP2A 21
st
Edition Criterion verses APIRP2A 20
th
Edition
Criterion
EDI
Wind Load
ABS Criterion
Shape Coefficient Cs
Beams 1.5
Cylinders 0.5
Sides of buildings 1.5
Overall Projected Areas 1.0
EDI
Wind Load
ABS 2000 Criterion
Where:
P = pressure
z = height
Cs = shape factor
Ch = height coefficient
Vz = wind velocity at height z
Vref = wind velocity at reference height of 10m
Zref = reference height of 10m
 = 0.9 – 0.16 for 1 min average wind
 = 0.125 for 1 hour average wind
EDI
Wind Load
Wind Load on Members
EDI
Wind Load
• Wind Load on Inclined Areas/Members
Where : p is pressure
A is the total area exposed to wind load in the direction of wind
o is the angle between the direction of the wind and the axis of the
member (or plane of surface)
EDI
Wind Load
• Wind Areas
Wind areas or are defined to account for the wind loading on unmodeled
items such as derricks, buildings, mechanical equipment, flare booms, etc.
A wind area is designated by a two character area identifier and consists of
one or more surfaces defined using AREA input lines.
The orientation of the surface is specified either by entering the projections
of it on planes normal to the global axis or by specifying the area along with
the azimuth and elevation angles.
EDI
Wind Load
• Wind Areas
If more then one projected plane is specified for the same area identifier
then the resultant area is used.
It is recommended that if an object has projected areas in two or three
planes that two separate wind areas be defined rather than specifying two
projections together.
EDI
Wind Load
• Wind Areas
The surface shape may be designated as flat or round together with a
corresponding shape factor.
The wind force components are calculated by multiplying the calculated
wind pressure by the shape factor and the projected areas. The wind force
is assumed to act at the specified centroid of the surface.
EDI
Wind Load
Wind Areas
The wind load is distributed over the specified number of joints.
If more than one joint distribution is specified, the program assumes that
these joints are connected to a rigid body to which the wind force is applied.
The load is distributed to each joint by assuming the rigid body is supported
at each joint by three translational and three rotational springs.
The stiffness of the translational springs is unity while that of the rotational
springs is 0.01 in the unit system the problem is defined.
Wind Shield Zones
By default, members located above the water surface receive wind loading.
The program allows the specification of wind shield zones where members
do not receive wind loading.
Wind shield zones are defined by specifying the bottom and top elevation of
the zone. Elevations are defined using global z elevation.
EDI
Special Elements
SACS Special Elements :
Wishbone Elements
Gap Elements : Compression Only Element
Tension Only Element
No Load Element
User defined Load Deflection Element
Friction Element
EDI
Special Elements
Wishbone Element:
Wishbone Element is a factious element connecting two coincident
joints used to model special boundary conditions between
connecting structures.
6 inch
direction of offset
For example : Pile inside leg, conductor guide.
two coincident joints
member end release
at one joint
10 0 1 1 1
x y z rx ry yz
1
EDI
Special Elements
Compression only elements:
Compression only element can be used to model supports during load out
where loss of contact may occur between the structure and the support due
to uneven fabrication yard surface or motion of barge. Initial gap spacing
can also be defined on the MEMB2 input line.
EDI
Special Elements
Tension only elements:
Tension only elements/ Cable elements can be used to model slings for a
lift analysis in conjunction with moment member end releases. Pre
tension can be defined on the MEMB2 input line.
EDI
Special Elements
No Load elements:
No load elements can be used to model tie downs for the pre
transportation analysis phase. The no load switch can then be turned
off for the transportation analysis and the results from the two can
then be combined directly. Same model can be used for both analysis.
No load elements can also be used for loadout analysis to model loss
of support.
EDI
Special Elements
User defined loaddeflection elements:
User defined load deflection elements can be used to define non
linear load deflection characteristics.
Many uses: Contact problems, suction pile behavior…etc
P
o
o
EDI
Special Elements
Spring Elements
Any or all degrees of freedom of a joint may be designated as a translation or
rotation elastic spring provided that the degree of freedom is designated as
fixed (i.e. „1‟) on the respective joint description line.
When all three translational and/or rotational degrees of freedom are fixed,
the support joint coordinate system may be redefined using two reference
joints on the „Joint Elastic Support‟ line. The support joint local Xaxis is
defined by the support joint and the first reference joint. The local XZ plane is
defined by the support joint and the reference joints with the local Zaxis
perpendicular to the local X axis.
EDI
Special Elements
Dented Members
Accounts for local indentation and overall deformation. The local dent and the
overall deformation are in the direction of member local z direction. The
length of the dent is the length of the member or length of segment. The local
z can be orientated in any direction using a chord angle or a reference joint.
Code check in accordance to modified API equations to account for reduction
in cross section and overall deformation as per J.T. Loh paper “Ultimate
Strength of Dented Tubular Steel Members”
EDI
Special Elements
Super elements:
A super element can be defined to be a portion of the structure which has
been modeled and reduced down to a set of boundary joints in terms of a
reduced stiffness matrix and reduced loads – also known as substructuring.
Super elements can be useful where: The model is too large for analysis,
where portions of the structure are repeated or for linearization of the
foundation.
Method:
The structure is broken down into two portions. The boundary elements on
the substructure are defined by boundary conditions of 222222.
The same joints exist on the master model with no special boundary
conditions.
The substructure is reduced using the Superelement module.
The super element is imported into the master model during analysis via the
super element tab under the analysis options.
EDI
Post  Processing
• Member Design
– APIWSD
– APILRFD
– Norsok
– Eurocode
– Danish
– British
– Canadian
– Linear Global (Section 17)
• Joint Design
– APIWSD
– APILRFD
– Norsok
– Danish
– Canadian
– MSL
– Linear Global (Section 17)
EDI
Post  Processing
• Element Code Check
KFactors / Effective Buckling Lengths
• Kfactors or effective buckling length, but not both, may be specified for
buckling about the local Y and Z axes. Kfactors are specified on the pertinent
GRUP line in columns but may be overridden on the MEMBER line in
columns.
• When Kfactors are used, the effective buckling length is calculated as the K
factor multiplied by the actual member length. When effective lengths are
specified on the MEMBER line, then the effective buckling length is
determined by multiplying the K factor from the GRUP line with the effective
length value on the MEMBER line.
EDI
Post  Processing
• Element Code Check
X Brace KFactors
For X bracing the K factor for compression elements is 0.9 when one pair of
members framing into the joint must be in tension if the joint is not braced out
of plane.
EDI
Post  Processing
• Element Code Check
K Brace KFactors
For K bracing the K factor for compression elements is 0.8 when one pair of
members framing into the joint must be in tension if the joint is not braced out
of plane.
EDI
Post  Processing
• Element Code Check
Reduction Factor Cm
Cm can be based upon a constant value of 0.85, based upon end moments or
axial load calculations or set to 1.0. The various options are defined on the GRUP
line on column 47.
Alternatively enter „M‟ in column 34 of the OPTIONS line to exclude the value of
the reduction factor Cm for combined axial compression and bending unity check,
or enter „C‟ to globally set the value of Cb to 1.0
EDI
Post  Processing
• Element Code Check
Cb
The value for Cb for members with Compact or Noncompact Sections with
Unbraced length greater than Lb can be taken as 1.0 (default) or based upon end
moment calculations as shown below by entering B in column 33 of the OPTIONS
line.
EDI
Post  Processing
• J oint Can
API RP2A 21
st
Edition Supplement 2 guidelines implemented.
Joints checked against API specified validity ranges.
Where validity ranges have been infringed, Joint Can will report the lesser
capacity based upon actual geometry or the limiting dimension.
Joint capacities dependant of joint classification (i.e. K, X and Y)
EDI
Post  Processing
• J oint Can
Basic Capacity of joints without overlap is given by:
Strength Factor Q
u
varies with the joint and load type (Table 4.31 API RP2A
21
st
Edition Supplement 2)
EDI
Post  Processing
• J oint Can
Chord Load Factor Q
f
Values for C
1
, C
2
and C
3
vary by joint type (Table 4.32)
FS = factor of safety
P
c
and M
c
are axial
and bending moment
resultants in chord
EDI
Post  Processing
• J oint Can
Joints with Thickened Cans
Lc is the chord length. Pa dependent upon chord length (BRCOVR)
where :
is the thickened can reduction factor
T
n
is nominal chord member thickness
T
c
is the chord can thickness
(P
a
)
c
is axial allowable based upon
chord geometric and material properties
EDI
Post  Processing
• J oint Can
Strength Check Interaction Ratio
EDI
Post  Processing
• J oint Can
API assumes compression capacity is
limited by brace. Joint Can assumes Qu for
compression is the same as for tension.
Grouted Joints
The Q
f
calculation for double skinned joints is based upon the chord thickness T
With load sharing between the chord and inner tube accounted for.
Implementation to Overlapped Joints Currently under consideration
Ovalization failure capacity estimated by using effective
formulation. T=chord thickness, Tp = Inner tube thickness
EDI
Post  Processing
• J oint Can
Mixed Class Joints
For mixed class joints the axial term in the interaction equation can be
based upon either interpolation or ratio calculations.
Interpolation
Ratio
In which k, x and y are
proportions of the
classification
EDI
PSI  Capabilities
Foundations can be modeled using
two approaches:
(1) Adhesion (API + User defined)
(2) PY, TZ data (API + User
defined)
Adhesion – Linear (surface friction)
PY, TZ – Nonlinear load deflection
curves.
.
EDI
PSI  Capabilities
Piles can be modeled as tubular or H
sections.
Po Effects accounted for.
Finite Difference approach used
Mudslide condition simulation
capabilities.
Creates equivalent linearzied
foundation superelements to be
used by dynamic analyses in lieu of
pile stubs.
Creates foundation solution file
containing pile stresses to be used
for fatigue analysis.
EDI
PSI  Capabilities
• The Pile and Pile3D programs, which
are subprograms of PSI, may be
executed alone to calculate the
behavior of a single pile. In addition
to the features outlined above, the
• Pile program has the following
features:
• Determines an equivalent pile stub
that yields the same deflections and
rotations as the soil/pile system.
EDI
PSI  Modeling
• Pile head Joint
• The interface joints between the linear structure and the nonlinear foundation
must be designated in the SACS model by specifying the support condition
„PILEHD‟ on the appropriate JOINT input line. NOTE: The „PILEHD‟ support
condition represents fully fixed condition in lieu of a PSI analysis.
• Pile Local Coordinate System
The pile default local coordinate system is defined with the local X axis
pointing upward from the pile head joint along the pile axis defined by the pile
batter joint or batter coordinates. By default, the local Y and Z axis orientations
are load case dependent. For each load case, the local Y axis is automatically
oriented such that it coincides with the direction of maximum pilehead
deflection.
The orientation of the local Y and Z axes may be overridden by the user by
specifying the rotation angle about the local X axis in columns 5156 on the
PILE line
EDI
PSI  Modeling
• Specifying Elevations for Soil Resistance Curves
• Within a soil stratum, the PSI program connects the input PY or TZ points
with straight lines to fully define the pile/soil interaction curve for arbitrary
displacements in that stratum. At depths between specified soil strata, PSI has
the ability to linearly interpolate between curves or to use a constant TZ
curve. Interpolation between different strata may be achieved by omitting the
bottom of strata location.
EDI
PSI Solution Procedure (PY, TZ)
The jacket structure is initially reduced to a super element at each pile head.
EDI
PSI Solution Process
Iterative Solution Procedures
Stiffness Table Approximation
(5%)
Fine Tune Solution
SOLUTION
EDI
Pile Head Axial Force vs. Axial Deflection
F
ax
(d)
d
Actual Solution
Stiffness Table Approximation
Solution Objectives
EDI
Stiffness Table Approximation
• Approximate model of the pile head behavior
• Pile head forces are sampled for a range of points
• Linear interpolation between the points
• Reduction of computation time
• Improved chance of solution for highly nonlinear problems
• Automatically generated (internal) … OR …
• Userspecified with the TABR line
EDI
TABR lines
Excerpt from PSI Listing
File
*********************** TABR CARD IMAGES *******************
TABR AXIAL DF .0250 .10 PL1 SOL1
TABR DEFLECTN 0. 2.0 5.0 PL1 SOL1
TABR ROTATION .01500. .0150 PL1 SOL1
TABR TORSION 0. 100.0 PL1 SOL1
TABR AXIAL DF .0557.44430 PL2 SOL2
TABR DEFLECTN 0. 2.0 5.0 PL2 SOL2
TABR ROTATION .01500. .0150 PL2 SOL2
TABR TORSION 0. 100.0 PL2 SOL2
TABR AXIAL LD 7500. 0. 7500. PL3 SOL3
Axial Adhesion Model
cm/in
rad
kipsft/kN
m
cm/in
kN/kips
EDI
Userspecified TABR lines
• PSI Listing File
Cut and paste into PSI Input File
Manually refine using Datagen
• Single Pile Analyses (Pile, Pile3D)
Generate SPA Data
Additional refinement as needed
Starting
Points
Non  Convergence
Alternative Method to refine TABR data
EDI
PSI Convergence Tolerances
Iterative Solution Procedures
Stiffness Table
Approximation
Fine Tune Solution
SOLUTION
Force Tol.
(0.5%)
Deflection Tol.
(5%)
Rotation Tol
(0.0001)
Deflection Tol
(0.001)
EDI
Convergence Report
** ITERATION DATA FOR LOAD CASE XXXX **
ITERATION RMS DEFLECTION RMS ROTATION
1 0.039673 0.000027
2 0.001083 0.000003
3 0.000070 0.000000
MAXIMUM PILEHEAD FORCE DIFFERENCE= 7.53085 %
4 0.022679 0.000026
MAXIMUM PILEHEAD FORCE DIFFERENCE= 7.67680 %
5 0.000626 0.000001
MAXIMUM PILEHEAD FORCE DIFFERENCE= 0.35047 %
Excerpt from PSI listing file
• Stiffness Table
Approximation
• Fine Tune Solution
EDI
Trouble Shooting – A checklist
• Review convergence report
• If necessary, use TABR lines
• Check tolerances and controls
• Review soil data
• Investigate each pile using Single Pile Analysis
• Fully constrain the pile heads and run SACS
EDI
Future Developments
• Shallow Foundations
Spudcan Foundations
Soil Plasticity Models (Collapse only)
• API RP 2AWSD /21 Supplement 3
CPT Methods (loose soils, dense silt)
Scour Depth Guidelines
EDI
Solution Objectives (lateral)
F
z
(d
z
,θ)
θ
d
z
Actual Solution
Stiffness Table Approximation
Lateral Pile Head Force vs.
Lateral Deflection and Rotation
EDI
PSI/Pile Module
• PSI Utilities
Plot Soil Data
Plot Pile Capacity
Plot Pile Load
EDI
Grouted J oints – J oint Can
The following technique is used to determine the internal loads of a
leg.
1.The internal moment in the leg is determined by ratio the moment of
inertia of the combined section to that of the leg only.
2. Similarly, the axial load in the leg is based upon the ratio of
the combined section area to that of the leg only.
EDI
Grouted J oints – J oint Can/Fatigue
The following methods are available for determining the effective thickness of a
leg for joint can and fatigue analysis.
1. Effective thickness based upon moment of inertia of composite section
EDI
Grouted J oints – J oint Can/Fatigue
The following methods are available for determining the effective thickness of a
leg for joint can and fatigue analysis.
2. Effective thickness based upon moment of inertia of the walls instead of
composite section.
EDI
Grouted J oints – J oint Can/Fatigue
The following methods are available for determining the effective thickness of a
leg for joint can analysis.
3. Square root of the sum of the squares of the leg and pile thickness.
EDI
Grouted J oints – Fatigue
The following methods are available for determining the effective thickness of a
leg for fatigue analysis.
4. API RP2A 21
st
Edition Supplement 2 recommendations.
5.Effective thickness based upon NORSOK standards
EDI
Ring Stiffened J oints – Fatigue
SCF‟s factored using Smedley and Fisher ring stiffened formulation.
The RING input line may be used to define the ring dimensions and the ring
group.
The ring stiffened connection input line CONRST may be used to apply the
rings to a particular brace and the location of the ring.
EDI
Modal Extraction : DYNPAC
• Some of the main features and capabilities of the DYNPAC MODULE are:
• Determines Natural Frequencies
and modes of vibration.
• Accounts for structural mass and
fluid added mass automatically
• Supports lumped or consistent
mass generation
• Determines modal mass participation
to allow determination
of number of modes required for
subsequent forced dynamic analysis.
EDI
Modal Extraction : DYNPAC
Analysis Procedure:
Linearize Foundation (Pile Superelement)
 identify load cases for pile linearization, load cases dependent upon type of
analysis.
 include dead load
 run PSI to generate Pile superelement.
Modal Analysis
 specify retained degrees of freedom.
 Identify load cases to be converted to mass.
 check cumulative mass participation factors.
 check natural frequency and period (dynamic response low if period less
that 2 seconds)
EDI
Load Path Dependent SCF’s
For any tubular connection, all braces that lie in a plane with the Chord or within 15
degrees of that plane are considered in the calculation of load path SCF‟s
The chord member is selected on the following hierarchy:
1. Largest diameter
2. Largest wall thickness
3. Highest Yield stress
4. Members that are inline with a 5 degree tolerance
EDI
Load Path Dependent SCF’s
J oint Classification
KTconnection: Axial load in middle brace opposes axial load from outside brace.
For a KT connection the load to be transferred is taken as the
smallest value of:
1) Center brace axial load
2) Twice the axial load component
normal to the chord.
The KT percentage for each brace is ratio of the
transferred KT normal axial load component and the
original axial load value.
The remaining axial loads are then considered for
K joint load transfer.
EDI
Load Path Dependent SCF’s
J oint Classification
For a K joint the axial load component normal to the chord is balanced by the axial
load component normal to the chord in other braces (on the same side of the
chord).
The brace with the smallest normal axial load component is considered first with
the brace containing the largest opposing normal axial load component.
The balanced load is subtracted from the opposing brace and the process is
repeated until all K joints are identified.
Any X joint load paths are considered next for braces on opposite sides of the
chord. The largest opposing normal axial force is considered first. The balanced
load is subtracted from opposing brace and the process is repeated until all X joints
are identified. Braces with remaining unbalanced axial loads are treated T/Y joints.
EDI
Load Path Dependent SCF’s
SCF Determination
The load path dependent SCF is calculated as a weighted average of the
applicable KT, K, X and TY joints as:
SCF = R
KT
*SCF
KT
+ R
K
*SCF
K
+ R
X
*SCF
X
+ R
TY
*SCF
TY
where R
KT
, R
K
, R
X
, and R
TY
are the ratios of each type of joint action.
EDI
Importing FE J oint Mesh
J oint Meshing
Two approaches are available for importing meshed joints into a SACS „stick‟
model.
1. FEMGV
Precede can generate a FEMGV batch file once a joint has been isolated by
inserting a joint on the braces and chord members to define the portion of the joint
that needs to be meshed. Precede will require the joint name, the number of
elements around the circumference of a brace with the smallest diameter and also
the element type.
The batch file can then be subsequently read into FEMGV and the mesh is
generated automatically.
FEMGV can generate a FEMGV neutral file which can be read back into Precede
and the mesh can be incorperated into the rest of the model by tools provided in
Precede.
EDI
Importing FE J oint Mesh
J oint Meshing (Continued)
2. SACS Mesh Joint Utility
Very simple to use. Provide joint name to mesh, the mesh intensity ( limits 0.5 – 2,
mesh intensity 1 = approx 28 nodes around the circumference of the smallest
brace) and the model file name.
The mesh utility will automatically mesh the joint and output a OCI file containing
the „stick‟ model with the joint mesh incorporated.
FEMGV  Mesh J oint Utility
FEMGV allows the user to control the length of brace/chord to be meshed. Also
gives choice of element types. Cannot mesh joints with overlapped braces.
Mesh Joint Utility allows the meshing of overlapped joints. No user control over the
length of brace/chord member to be meshed. Meshing restricted to triangular palte
elements (this is not a disadvantage).
EDI
Fatigue Analysis
• Fatigue analysis is required due to the cyclic loading imposed
on the Jacket tubular joints by wave
loads.
• Fatigue analysis could be of two types:
Deterministic Fatigue
Spectral Dynamic Fatigue
• SCF for tubular joints are based on
parametric equations available for the
class of joint under consideration.
• Number of cycles to failure N
i
is
obtained from the SN curve.
• SN curve used is selected based on
the particular weld detail.
EDI
Fatigue Analysis
• In Deterministic Fatigue, discrete number of waves are used to
characterize the total fatigue environment
• Partial Damage from the sea state =
• Damage is accumulated over all sea states (Miners Law):
• Deterministic analysis has been done for many years and has
proven to be a reliable approach for dynamically insensitive
structures, and for situations where all fatigue waves
are of sufficiently long wave periods to avoid peaks
and valleys of the structures transfer function.
• Very sensitive to the waves chosen for the analysis
i
i
N
n
..........
N
n
N
n
N
n
N
n
3
3
2
2
1
1
i
i
+ + + =


.

\

=
¿
i
D
EDI
Fatigue Analysis
• The spectral fatigue approach utilizes wave spectra and transfer
functions, thus allowing the relationship of the ratio of
structural response to wave height as a function of wave
frequency to be developed for the wave frequency range.
Therefore spectral fatigue accounts for the actual distribution
of energy over the entire wave frequency range.
• In Dynamic Spectral Fatigue , Spectrum used to define the fatigue
environment are:
• JONSWAP
• OchiHubble
• PiersonMoskowitz
• These Spectra are inbuilt in SACS
EDI
Fatigue Analysis
•Fatigue program features are as below
• Includes a wide range Stress Concentration Factor
(SCF) theories and allows user defined input.
• Automatic redesign of chords or braces may be
done to determine required joint can or brace stub
thickness
• API, AWS and NPD fatigue failure (SN) curves are
built into the program. Also allows user defined
input.
• Generates output for the Interactive Fatigue Module for Interactive redesign.
J182 J186J182 TUB 45.7 1.0 K BRC 3.74 5.03 4.76 4.74 4.84 0.26334 B 94.93
J182 JF2J182 TUB 55.9 2.5 K CHD 3.74 2.31 1.88 1.88 1.99 3.70E03 T 6,763.51
Chord
Len.(m)
Out of
Plane
Service
Life
Stress Concentration Factors
OD
(cm)
WT
(cm)
Joint
Type
Member
Type
Original Dimensions
Joint Member Type ID Inplane Damage Location
Axial
(Crown)
Axial
(Saddle)
MEMBER FATIGUE REPORT (DAMAGE ORDER)
EDI
Dynamic Spectral Fatigue
Analysis Procedure:
Linearize Foundation
choose load cases for developing foundation superelement
Modal Analysis to generate mass and mode files
 check cumulative mass participation factors
Run Wave Response to generate Transfer Function for each direction.
 use waves of constant steepness to generate transfer function.
 avoid waves under 1 foot ( 30cm )
 check transfer function for overturning moment and base shear.
 solve for equivalent static loads.
Run Fatigue
 choose appropriate spectrum
 choose SN and SCF options
EDI
Earthquake Analysis
Two approaches available:
1)Response Spectrum:
A response spectrum depicts the maximum
response to a ground motion of a series of single
degree of freedom oscillators having different natural
periods but the same amount of internal damping.
2) Time History
Time History is a continuous record of ground motion or response.
EDI
Earthquake Analysis
Analysis Method:
1. All support points are assumed to be moving with the ground.
2. Each mode of vibration is assumed to act as a single degree of freedom.
3. Solve equations of motion for each mode.
4. The response from each mode for each direction (X, Y and Z) is combined using
the SRSS (Square Root of the Sum of Squares) method to obtain the multi
directional response. The SRSS approach is used on the assumption that the
responses from different directions are uncoupled
5. The response for each mode in each direction is also combined using the CQC
(Completer Quadratic Combination) method. For the cases where there is sufficient
modal separation in different directions the CQC method devolves into the SRSS
approach.
EDI
Earthquake Analysis
Analysis Method:
6. The dynamic response program creates a common solution file containing end
forces, stresses, reactions and displacements. Because these results are obtained
by combining modal results using RMS techniques, end forces, stresses…etc. have
no sign associated with them and are taken as all positive values.
7. The dynamic response generates two sets of load cases for both the member
check and the joint check.
8. The seismic results are then combined with the results from a static analysis.
This is followed by element code check and joint can check.
EDI
Earthquake Analysis
Damping:
Damping effects are important and for structure immersed in fluid the damping is a
nonlinear effect since damping is a function of the amplitude of response. Three
options for damping available.
1.Linear modal damping. (API recommends overall modal damping of 5% (SDAMP
line)
2. User defined amplitude to be used in fluid damping calculation (FDAMP line).
3. Program will calculate through iterative technique as follows (FDAMP line):
(a)Calculate the response based upon an assumed amplitude.
(b) Calculate equivalent fluid damping based upon this response.
(c) Repeat this process until the response until the response amplitude agrees with
the amplitude used for equivalent fluid damping.
EDI
Earthquake Analysis
Strength Requirements:
Zone Z 1 2 3 4 5
G 0.005 0.10 0.20 0.25 0.40
G is the ratio of the effective horizontal ground acceleration to gravitational acceleration.
Using the response spectrum, the
ordinates of the spectrum should
be multiplied by the factor G for
the zone in which the platform is
located.
The resulting spectrum should be
applied equally along both principal
horizontal axis and one half in the
Vertical direction. All three spectra
should be applied simultaneously and
responses combined using CQC
method.
EDI
Earthquake Analysis
Strength Requirements:
The strength requirements are intended ensure that no significant structural
damage can occur due to a strength level earthquake.
For strength level earth quake both the member check and joint check
allowables may be increased by 70 percent.
Tubular Joints
Joints for the primary structural members should be sized for either
the tensile yield load or the compressive buckling load of the brace.
EDI
Earthquake Analysis
Strength Requirements:
Tubular Joints – calculation of allowables.
The punching shear stress allowable, v
pa
is :
The factor Q
f
is given by :
In which the factor A is computed as :
Where f
AX
, f
IPB
and f
OPB
are stress in the chord due to twice the strength level
seismic loads in combination with gravity, buoyancy, hydrostatic pressure or
or the full capacity of the chord away from the joint can – whichever is the less.
EDI
Earthquake Analysis
Strength Requirements:
Tubular Joints – calculation of unity check
For combined axial and bending stresses in the brace the following
interaction equation should be satisfied:
For earthquake analysis the terms corresponding to bending are
ignored since we are checking against the tensile yield loads or the
compressive buckling load of the brace.
Joint can requirements for a earthquake analysis can be activated by specifying
the EQK option on the JCNOPT line and also by specifying 2.0 for the joint
load case factor on the STCMB line.
EDI
Earthquake Analysis
Ductility Requirements
Rare Intense Earthquake:
In seismically active areas, rare intensive earthquake motion may involve inelastic
action and structural damage may occur. The ductility requirements are intended to
ensure that the structure and the foundation have enough reserve capacity to
prevent collapse in the event of a rare intense earthquake.
Equivalent Static Loads:
The Dynamic response module can output equivalent static loads corresponding to
The modal responses being combined to generate the highest amount of base
shear or overturning moment in 20 directions (every 18 degrees)
EDI
Earthquake Analysis
Design Criteria:
Equivalent Static Loads:
The Dynamic response module can output equivalent static loads corresponding to
the modal responses being combined to generate the highest amount of base
shear or overturning moment in 20 directions (every 18 degrees).
For rare intense earthquakes the equivalent static loads can be used to design the
foundations and also conduct an elastoplastic analysis of the structure to design
against failure.
EDI
Earthquake Analysis
Design Criteria:
Lowlevel Earthquake:
For areas where the ground acceleration is less than 0.05g no earthquake analysis
is required. For areas where the ground acceleration is between 0.05g – 0.1g a low
level earthquake analysis is required. The joint check requirements for a low level
earthquake are the same as those for an inplace analysis.
The joint can requirements for a lowlevel earthquake analysis can be activated by
specifying LLEW option for API working stress design , LLEL for API LRFD design
on the JCNOPT line and also by using the DLOAD load line in the Joint can input
file to identify the dead load case used in static analysis.
EDI
Spectral Wind Fatigue
Method:
1.Conduct modal extraction analysis – determine mode shapes and natural
frequencies.
2.
2. Each mode of vibration is assumed to act as a single degree of freedom.
3.Determine Mechanical Transfer function H(f) for each mode.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
where K
i
is the generalized stiffness matrix, f
n
is the natural frequency and c
is percent damping.
EDI
Spectral Wind Fatigue
Method (continued):
4. Determine o
RMS
response for each mode.
where S
i
(f) is the Harris spectrum given by:
where L
H
is the reference length (1800m), k is the surface roughness
coefficient (0.0025) and v
10
is the wind speed at 10m reference height.
EDI
Spectral Wind Fatigue
Method (continued):
5. The response for each mode is combined to obtain the total response using the
CQC (Completer Quadratic Combination) method.
where I and k refer to the i
th
and the k
th
mode and P
ik
is the modal correlation
coefficient.
EDI
Spectral Wind Fatigue
Method (continued):
6. Wind velocities are assumed to conform to the Weibull distribution.
Wind velocities are selected to define the Weibull distribution time slices and velocity
ranges for integration limits to calculate fraction of occurrence.
EDI
NonLinear Analysis : Collapse
• Salient Features of Collapse Module are
• Linear and nonlinear material behavior
• Includes member Global / Local
buckling including 8 or more hinge
points per member
• Includes tubular joint flexibility, joint
plasticity and joint failure due to
excessive strain
• Includes strain hardening and residual
stress
• Creates analysis results file which is
read by Collapse View Program which
shows failure progression and the
gradual plastification and collapse
mechanism graphically
EDI
Pushover Analysis
• Pushover Analysis conducted to determine
the reserve strength ratio of a jacket
structure.
Loading applied to the structure in sequence.
Apply all gravity loads first.
Apply environmental storm loading.
Increase magnitude of environmental
loading until the structure fails.
RSR = Base Shear at 100% storm Load
Base Shear at Failure
Other approaches define failure with
100, 500, 1000, 5000,…year storms
First Failure
EDI
Ship Impact Analysis is carried out to determine the
Reserve Strength in the structure after the collision.
Vessel mass, added mass coefficient and velocity at
the time of collision is specified on ENERGY line.
Impact load case and impact joint defined on
IMPACT input line.
Run Collapse – impact load will be applied until all
kinetic energy is absorbed. The structure will then
automatically unload and the post impact loading
can be applied.
SACS can optionally account for vessel
deformation. Local indentation energy can be
accounted for by either meshing the impacted
member or using API methodology.
Ship Impact Analysis (Static)
EDI
Dynamic Response
Force Driven Analysis
Force time history, Periodic and Engine vibration analyses are supported.
The main capabilities and features for force driven analysis are detailed below:
Force Time History
1. Linear, quadratic, or cubic interpolation available for the time history input.
2. Automatic load case selection based on overturning moment, base shear, joint
displacement, etc.
3. Variable time step integration procedure.
4. Time history plots including modal responses, overturning moments, base
shear, etc.
5.Generation of equivalent static loads for force/time history collapse analysis.
EDI
Blast Analysis
Large Deflection, ElastoPlastic Non
Linear Finite Element Analysis is performed
in SACS for Blast loads.
Blast Resistant Design to minimize the risk
to people and facilities from the hazards of
accidental explosions.
Dynamic Response Module can be used to
apply blast load profile to the structure at
discrete time steps.
Dynamic Response
EDI
Blast Analysis (continued)
Dynamic Response will generate a structural output file
containing incremental loading (including dynamic and
static components).
Dynamic Response will also output a load sequence
file for Collapse.
Run Collapse for nonlinear elastoplastic
analysis using incremental loading.
Collapse shows plasticity over time
with each load step representing a
time increment.
Dynamic Response
EDI
Dynamic Ship Impact
Use Dynamic Response module to determine dynamic
structural response due to impact.
Set analysis option to SHIP on the DROPT line.
Define vessel mass, velocity, direction of motion and
the impact joint on the SHIP input line.
Define the time history source as SHIP on the time
history load line THLOD.
Prepare Collapse input with control parameters
and load sequence for dead loads.
Run dynamic response.
Dynamic will output Collapse load sequence
and incremental loading containing dynamic
and static components of the structural
response
Dynamic Response
EDI
Dynamic Response
Earthquake/Base Driven Analysis
Both spectral earthquake and time history earthquake analyses are supported.
Some of the seismic analysis capabilities follow:
Spectral Earthquake
1. API response spectra are built into the program.
2. Supports user defined response spectra.
3. Spectral motion can be described as acceleration, velocity, or displacement.
4. Modal combinations using linear, SRSS, peak plus SRSS, or CQC methods.
5. Ability to use a different response spectrum for each direction.
6. Combines seismic results with static results automatically.
EDI
Dynamic Response
Earthquake/Base Driven Analysis
Time History Earthquake
1. Includes earthquake time history libraries.
2. User defined input time histories.
3. Linear, quadratic, or cubic interpolation available for the time history input.
4. Variable time step integration procedure.
5. Automatic load case selection based on overturning moment, base shear, etc.
6. Graphical representation of output variables.
EDI
Dynamic Response
Engine/Compressor Vibration
1.Supports mechanical unbalanced forces and gas torques in addition to
reciprocating loads.
2. Linear and/or nonlinear interpolation of forces between running speeds.
3. User can select specific joints to monitor or monitor all joints.
4. Allows user defined phasing of forces and moments within a load case.
5. Can automatically combine maximum response of various load cases.
6. Generates plots of input data versus time for any load case.
7. Calculates periodic forces amplitudes and periods from force versus time input.
EDI
Dynamic Response
Spectral Wind Analysis
The wind spectral fatigue and extreme wind analyses are supported. Some of
the spectral wind analysis capabilities are as follows:
Extreme Wind
1. Determines dynamic amplification factors automatically.
2. Generates common solution file containing internal loads, stresses, reactions
and displacements multiplied by its own dynamic amplification factor.
3. Includes cross correlation of modal responses using the Complete Quadratic
Combination (CQC) modal combination technique.
4. Plots generalized force spectrum and response spectrum for each wind speed.
5. Uses Harris Wind spectrum.
EDI
Dynamic Response
Spectral Wind Analysis
The wind spectral fatigue and extreme wind analyses are supported. Some of
the spectral wind analysis capabilities are as follows:
Wind Fatigue
1. Uses Harris Wind spectrum.
2. Optionally creates Fatigue input file automatically.
3. Distributes wind speed utilizing a Weibull distribution.
4. Assumes Rayleigh distribution of RMS stresses.
5. Handles multiple wind directions in same analysis execution.
EDI
Dynamic Response
Ice Force Analysis Ice Vibration
The ice vibration analysis capability includes the following features:
1. Automatically includes ice stiffness.
2. Maximum and minimum peak selection.
3. Automatic cycle count for fatigue analyses.
4. Creates fatigue input data automatically.
5. Full plot capabilities including ice forces, modal responses,
overturning moments, base shear, etc.
6. Variable time step integration procedure.
EDI
SACS
Engineering Dynamics
2113 38
th
Street
Kenner
LA 70065
USA
Telephone: (504) 443 5481
www.sacsedi.com