it is not intended that the Code be used as a design handbook; rather, engineering judgment must be employed in the selection of those sets of Code rules suitable to any specific service or need.

The designer is responsible for complying with Code rules and demonstrating compliance with Code equations when such equations are mandatory. The Code neither requires nor prohibits the use of computers for the design or analysis of components constructed to the requirements of the Code. However, designers and engineers using computer programs for design or analysis are cautioned that they are responsible for all technical assumptions inherent in the programs they use and they are responsible for the application of these programs to their design.

Classes of Materials Mandatory Appendices Section II. Methods of Fabrication Subsection C. General Requirements Subsection B. V. and IX when reference May include: Code Cases Nonmandatory Appendices Other sources which do not conflict with mandatory requirements
.Shall include the requirements of: Introduction Subsection A.

.

A.5mm) excluding corrosion allowance. Unfired steam boilers shall be 1/4 in. Inner pipe of double pipe heat exchangers and tubes in shell and tube heat exchangers (where the pipe or tube is NPS 6 [DIN 150] or less. (1. (2.). steam or water service vessels of UCS-23 materials shall be 3/32 in.5 mm) excluding corrosion allowance (C.
. after forming & regardless of product form and material. (6mm) exclusive of corrosion allowance Compressed air.(b) Minimum thickness permissible of shells and heads is 1/16 in. except: Heat transfer plates of plate type heat exchangers.

01 in. (0.25mm) or 6% of the ordered thickness may be used at the full design pressure for the ordered thickness.
.(c) Mill Under tolerance
Plate material shall not be ordered thinner than the design thickness.25 mm) or 6% under the design thickness. (0. Vessels made of plate furnished with an under tolerance of not more than the smaller of 0. the ordered thickness of the materials shall be sufficiently greater than the design thickness so that the thickness of the material furnished is not more than the smaller of 0.01 in. If the specification to which the plate is ordered allows a greater under tolerance.

After determining the minimum t. the material specification manufacturing under tolerance on wall thickness shall be taken into account (except for nozzle wall reinforcement area requirements per UG-37).(d) Pipe Under tolerance If pipe or tube is ordered by its nominal wall thickness.
. the thickness shall be increased by an amount sufficient to provide the manufacturing under tolerance allowed in the material specification.

(e) Corrosion Allowance In Design Formulas All dimensional symbols used in all design formulas throughout this Division represent dimensions in the corroded condition. and added to the required thickness to determine design thickness. Appendix 3)
. (Definitions. Such material must be deducted when determining design pressure.
Therefore. material designated for corrosion purposes cannot contribute to the strength of the vessel.

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure shall be established in accordance with the provisions of UG-101. shall provide details of design and construction which will be as safe as those provided by the rules of this Division. (c) No Design Rules When no design rules are given and the strength of a vessel (or part) cannot be calculated with a satisfactory assurance of accuracy. it is intended that the manufacturer. U-2(g) This Division of Section VIII does not contain rules to cover all details of design and construction. (b) Special Shapes Vessels other than cylindrical or spherical and those for which no design rules are provided in this Division may be designed under the conditions set forth in U-2. (Proof testing)
. subject to the acceptance of the Inspector. Where complete details are not given.

Determined same as for maximum temperature. Any other source of cooling. May be determined by computation or measurement from equipment "in service" under equivalent operating conditions. Consideration includes: Lowest operating temperatures. (a) Maximum Shall be not less than the mean metal temperature under operating conditions for the part under consideration. Atmospheric conditions. Auto refrigeration.
UG-20 Design Temperature
. Operational upsets. (b) Minimum Is the lowest expected "in service".

. (e) Suggested methods for obtaining the operating temperatures of vessel walls in service are given in Appendix C. Part D. Subpart 1. 1B. and 3 are not permitted. Tables 1A. design temperatures for vessels under external pressure shall not exceed the maximum temperatures given on the external pressure charts. (d) The design of zones with different metal temperatures may be based on their determined temperatures. (c) Maximum
Design temperatures that exceed the temperature limit in the applicability column shown in Section II. In addition.

The MDMT marked on the nameplate shall correspond to a coincident pressure equal to the MAWP. the largest value shall be used to establish the MDMT marked on the nameplate. Additional MDMT’s corresponding with other MAWP’s may also be marked on the nameplate (see footnote 37). When there are multiple MAWP’s.
.

The operating and test conditions including the maximum difference in pressure between The inside and outside of the vessel. consideration must include the following. Any two chambers of a combination unit.When determining design pressure.
. At least the most severe condition if coincident pressure and temperature expected in normal operation.

(b) The MAWP for a vessel part is the maximum internal or external pressure.UG-98 Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
(a) It is the maximum permissible pressure at the top of the vessel in its normal operating position. excluding any metal specified as corrosion allowance (UG-25). including static head thereon as determined by the rules and formulas of this Division. together with the effect of any combination of loadings listed in UG-22 which are likely to occur for the designated coincident temperature.
. at the designated coincident temperature specified for that pressure.

/ cu./foot (for water)
. inches x 12 inches = 0. .
. /1728 cubic inches = 0.0361 cu.35 lb.62.1 cubic foot of water at 62°F = 62.35 lb. inch . The loadings to be considered in designing a vessel shall include those from: Internal or external design pressure (UG-21).0.433 lb. Weight of the vessel & normal contents under operating or test conditions (this includes additional pressure due to the static head of liquids).0361 lb.

saddles. (h) temperature gradients and differential thermal expansion. (e) cyclic and dynamic reactions due to pressure or thermal variations. such as lugs.(d) the attachment of: (1) internals (see Appendix D). such as those caused by deflagration. and legs (see Appendix G). skirts. (2) vessel supports. where required. snow. and mechanical loadings.
. (f) wind. or from equipment mounted on a vessel. rings. and seismic reactions. (i) abnormal pressures. (g) impact reactions such as those due to fluid shock.

A listing of these materials are included in Subsection C. Part D. Materials meeting more than one specification and/or grade may be used provided all requirements for the selected specification and/or grade are met.
. The maximum allowable tensile stress values permitted for different materials are given in Subpart 1 of Section II.

or by using some other suitable method of protection. this fact shall be indicated in the Data Report. Where corrosion allowances are not provided. (a) the user or his designated agent (see U-2) shall specify corrosion allowances other than those required by this Division. (b) vessels or parts subject to thinning by Corrosion Erosion Mechanical abrasion shall have provision made for the desired life of the vessel by a suitable increase in the thickness over that determined by the design formulas.
. (See Appendix E).

except as permitted by ULW76 for vent holes in layered construction. Shall not be used in vessels which are to contain lethal substances [seeUW-2(a)]. (e) Telltale Holes May be used to provide some positive indication when the thickness has been reduced to a dangerous degree.
. (c) Material for these purposes need not be of the same thickness for all parts of the vessel if different rates of attack are expected for the various parts. (d) No additional thickness need be provided when previous experience in like service has shown that corrosion does not occur or is of only a superficial nature.

. (6mm) of the lowest point. or a pipe may be used extending inward from any other location to within 1/4 in. (e) Telltale Holes
(f) Openings for Drains
Vessels subject to corrosion shall be supplied with a suitable drain opening at the lowest point practicable in the vessel.

provision shall be made for any of the loadings listed in UG22. In addition.a. UG-16(b) requires that minimum thickness be determined after forming and exclusive of any c. The provided thickness of the shells shall also meet the requirements of UG-16. except as permitted in Appendix 32. (a) The minimum required thickness of shells under
internal pressure shall not be less than that computed by the following formulas except as permitted in Appendix 32 (local thin areas). UG-16(c) Mill under tolerance UG-16(d) Pipe Under tolerance UG-16(e) Corrosion Allowance in Design Formulas
. when such loadings are expected.

UG-27 Thickness of Shells Under Internal Pressure
(b) The symbols defined below are used in the formulas of this paragraph. for ligaments: UG-53
. whichever is less For welded vessels: UW-12. or the efficiency of ligaments between openings. appropriate joint in cylindrical or spherical shells. or the efficiency of. t = minimum required thickness P = internal design pressure R = inside radius of the shell course under consideration S = maximum allowable stress value (see UG-23 and the stress limitations specified in UG-24 E = joint efficiency for.

.
(c)(l) Circumferential Stress (Longitudinal Joints)
(c)(2) Longitudinal Stress (Circumferential Joints15 )
15
These formulas will govern only when the circumferential joint efficiency is less than one-half the longitudinal joint efficiency. or when the effect of supplemental loadings (UG22) are being investigated. The minimum thickness or Maximum allowable Working Pressure of cylindrical shells shall be the greater thickness or lesser pressure as given in (1) or (2) below. (c) Cylindrical Shells.

(c)(l) Circumferential Stress (Longitudinal Joints)
(c)(2) Longitudinal Stress (Circumferential Joints)
.

500 psi R = 24 inches E=1.Example: Assume P = 150 PSI S = 17.0
(c)(l) Circumferential stress (Longitudinal Joints)
(c)(2) Longitudinal Stress (Circumferential Joints)
.

Comparing Internal and External Formulae
P=?
* The question mark defines what is being solved for.500" S = 15.0 R = 18.Example: Given a cylindrical shell with the following variables.8 psi Ro .1) P = 409. solve for the MAWP of the cylinder using both formulas.500) 18.
t = 0.0.3
.500 7500 App 1 (1 .000 x 1.0“ and Routside = 18.5 .4 x 0.(0.5"
SEt 15.4t 18.000 psi E = 1.0 x 0.

What is the required thickness? Other terms sometimes used:
Corroded internally.UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
Example 1: Internal Formula A vessel shell has corroded to an inside radius of 24. etc.500 psi. found to have an inside diameter/radius.
In these cases we must use the inside formula of UG-27
.18” its working pressure is 500 psi and its stress allowed is 17.

38” its working pressure is 500 psi and stress allowed is….UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
Example 2:
External Formula
A vessel shell has corroded to an outside diameter of 24.what is the required thickness? Other terms sometimes used: found externally corroded.
. Here we would have to use the formula of Appendix 1.. attacked by corrosion under insulation (CUI) etc.

500” and the original inside radius was 24.18 ” its working pressure is 500 psi and its stress allowed is ….5 ” = Ro Original radius outside Now we can use the formula of Appendix 1-1 if we chose to.
.its original thickness was .18 (actual)
To use the outside formula we can add the original thickness to the original inside radius.500 = 24. A vessel shell has corroded to an inside radius of 24.0 ” ** for inside calculations use R = 24.
24” + .UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
Example:
Internal Formula or External Formula
3.

0.!
.343”. Formula since you cannot determine the present internal corroded radius. not having the original thickness you cannot determine the original I.UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
Example: External Formula for Thickness
4.D.0 ” its working pressure is 500 psi and its stress allowed is 15. A vessel shell has an outside radius of of 24. The shell has corroded internally to a thickness of 0. The joint efficiency. What is its present Maximum Allowable Working Pressure?
Here you must use the O. E = 1.D.000 psi.

A cylindrical shell has been found to have a minimum thickness of .0" + 0.0”.353" S = 13.375” original outside radius
.022 corroded inside radius Ro= 12.375-.0" + (.800 psi E = . Its original thickness was .85 R = 12. What is its present MAWP ? P = 300 psi t = .353) = 12.UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
Here is an example of working a problem using both inside and outside dimensions having all the information needed. t) =12.375“ with an original inside radius of 12.375 (orig.353".

**UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
**

Here is a graphical representation of the problem:

**R corroded = 12 + (0.375 – 0.353) = 12.022”
**

t Corroded = 0.353"

t Corroded = 0.353"

t Orig. = 0.375"

Routside = 12.0" + 0.375 (orig. t) = 12.375”

UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells

Radius Inside for MAWP using UG-27(c)(1).

**SEt 13,800 x .85 x .353 4140.69 UG - 27(c)(1) P = = 338.46 psi R 0.6t 12.022 + (0.6 x .353) 12.2338
**

Radius Outside for MAWP using App: 1 (1-1).

App 1 (1 - 1) P =

SEt 13,800 x .85 x .353 4140.69 Answer: Yes 338.46 psi Ro - 0.4t 338.46 12.375 - 300 (0.4 psi > psix .353) 12.2338

**UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
**

Please use this approach for all calculations. Givens: t = P= R= S= E= Sketch

I.D. ?

Code Paragraph UG-27 (c) (1)

t=?

SEt P= R + 0.6 t

**UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
**

Problem # 1 Find the Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) of a 12 inch inside diameter shell. This shell is seamless and is stamped RT 2. It has an allowable stress value of 16,600 psi and the wall thickness is .406”. No corrosion is expected.

**UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
**

Givens: Plugged in from the question! P=? t = .406 R = D/2 = 12/2 = 6.0 ” this formula uses the Radius. S = 16,600 psi E = 1.0 per UW-12(d) Seamless shells and heads From UG-27 (c) (1) Circumferential Stress

SEt P= R + 0.6 t

16,600 x 1.0 x.406 6739.6 P= (6.0 ) + ( 0.6 x .406) (6.0) .2436

?
t=?
. and transferring the givens accurately to the formula.D.6 P= 1079.2436
As can be seen the calculations are simple.UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
6739.
I.44 psi 6. it is more a matter of deciding on the correct formula to use. Once again use the approach. Givens: P= SKETCH
t=
ect. inside or outside.

406 6739.6 P= 1079. we still round down to 1079 psi. This is the conservative approach taken by the Codes in general and of course is different for the normal rules of rounding. In the ASME Code and for the exam you must round DOWN for pressure allowed so in our solution below we would round down to 1079 psi.
SEt P= R + 0.0 ) + ( 0.6 t
16. Even if our solution had been 1079.600 x 1.44 psi (6.406) 6.999 we cannot round to 1080 .6 x .0 x.UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
About rounding answers.2436
.

000 psi.
SKETCH
Type 1 Category A No RT
t=?
. The longitudinal joint is type 1 (table UW-12) and no radiography was performed. The shell's inside radius is 2'-0". The shell is made of carbon steel rolled plate with an allowable stress of 15.UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
Problem # 2
Find the minimum required thickness of a cylindrical shell designed for a working pressure of 100 psi.

70 ( From Table UW-12 column C) From UG-27 (c) (1) Circumferential Stress
PR t= S E .0.70 ) .6 x 100) 10440
.000 x .2298 " (15.(0.UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
Givens: t=? P = 100 psi R = 24" S = 15000 E = .6 P
100 x 24 2400 t= = = .

230”.6 x 100) 10440
. So our example below would round to .230”.6 P
100 x 24 2400 t= = = .000 x .2291 we would still round up to .2298 " (15. Even it had been .(0.70 ) .0.UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
When rounding thickness required we must round up. The most conservative thing to do.
PR t= S E .

. The material’s stress allowable is 17. Type 1 welds have been fully radiographed. The shell’s Category A and B. no corrosion is expected.UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
Problem # 3 Determine the minimum required thickness of a cylindrical shell designed for an internal pressure of 50 psi. The vessel will be stamped RT 1.500 psi.

0"
Type 1 Category A&B Full RT
t=?
. 10'.D.UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
Long Joint (Circumferential Stress)
SKETCH:
I.

1717 " rounds to .(0.UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
Givens: t=? P = 50 R = 10’ x 12” = 120”/2 = 60" S = 17500 E = 1.6 P
50 x 60 3000 t= = = .6 x 50) 17470
.172" (17.0.500 x 1.0 (RT 1)
From UG-27 (c) (1)
PR t= S E .0 ) .

D. The stress allowed on the shell material is 15. is 12. B pipe. Calculate the thickness required for a vessel’s seamless shell made of SA-106 gr.000 psi. The O. UW-11(a)(5)(b) has been applied. From the question above fill in the givens below. The vessel will be stamped RT 2.Class Quiz UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
1. The shell will operate at a maximum of 500 psi.
Givens: t= P= S= E= R or Ro = State Code Paragraph and Formula:
SKETCH:
.75 inches.

2097" (15.4 P
Givens: t=? P = 500 psi S = 15.000 psi E = 1.75 6.000 x1.375" 2
500 x 6.0 per UW-12(d) Ro =
12.375 t .Solution
1) From: Appendix 1-1
PRo t SE 0.4 x 500)
Answer: Required t = .2097” Rounds to .210”
.0) (0.

000 psi. What is the maximum allowed working pressure on the following shell? The shell’s inside radius is 52 inches. and the shell’s thickness is . The joint efficiency of the shell's Category A joint is 1.850 inches. The allowable stress for the shell's material is 15.0 From the question above fill in the givens below.Class Quiz
2. Givens: SKETCH: t= P= S= E= R or Ro = State Code Paragraph and Formula:
.

850” P= ? S = 15.81 psi (rounds to 242 psi)
.510
12.6t
Givens: t = .6 x .0 R = 52”
P
15.000 psi E = 1.81 psi 52.750 P 52 .750 P 242.0 x .Solution
2) From: UG – 27 (c) (1)
SEt P R 0.850)
12.850 52 (0.000 x1.510
Answer: 242.

Most of the time a corrosion allowance must be given to vessel part. Example: A vessel is being designed for a specific volume of water.UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
You are now familiar with the basic cylindrical shell formula from UG-27. resulting in an inside radius of 24” to be used in the calculation. The engineer set the inside diameter at 48” so it must be constructed with that inside diameter. The designer determines the optimum inside diameter and length of the vessel to obtain that volume. However that formula in its published form is only useful for the calculation of vessel shells that are designed without a corrosion allowance.
.

6 t
.0” Inside radius = 24.
P (R c .0.6 t
Inside diameter = 48. The basic formula of UG-27 would be modified to be. = 1/8” = 0.6 P
or
P=
SEt (R c.a.125” resulting in the following.) t= SE .a) + 0.125) + 0.0” c.125 = 24.
SEt P= (24 0.125” Inside radius used in calculations = 24.a .0 + 0.UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
In the design calculation the engineer adds the corrosion allowance to the radius.

UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
The vessel shell would be constructed of the required calculated thickness and then rolled to an inside radius of 24”.0 + (0. Corrosion has occurred and the new minimum wall thickness is 0.125”
This is no different from what occurs during the evaluation of an in service vessel that has corroded.050 = .0” inside radius.500 – 0. However here we use actual measurements.125 -.075”
. This would leave a remaining corrosion allowance of .050”. To calculate we would use a radius of 24.500” and rolled to the 24.450”. Suppose the vessel shell above was built with a thickness of 0. it retirement radius would be 24.450) or 24.

Class Quiz
1. Its original t was 1. What is its current calculated MAWP in accordance with rules of Section VIII Division 1? Givens: t = P= ? S= E= R=
.28 inches. and an allowable stress of 14. The inside radius is 84”. A vessel shell has a design pressure of 200 psi. The shell has corroded down to 1.375". The nameplate is stamped RT1 .800 psi.

0 RT 1 R = 84” = 84’ + (1.Solution
From: UG-27 ( c )(1)
Givens: t = 1.095”
SEt P= (R c.800 psi E = 1.095 (0.28) = 84.0 x1.6 t
14.28 P 84.800 x1.095 (0.944 84.768) 18.6 x1.23 psi 84.a) + 0.28” P= ? S = 14.944 223.863)
(rounds to 223 psi)
.28) P P 18.375-1.

(a) In addition. except as permitted in Appendix 32. The provided thickness of the heads shall also meet the requirements of UG-16. except as permitted in Appendix 32 (Localized Thin Areas). (b) The thickness of an unstayed ellipsoidal or torispherical head shall in no case be less than the required thickness of a seamless hemispherical head divided by the efficiency of the head to shell joint. (a) The required thickness at the thinnest point after forming of ellipsoidal. provision shall be made for any of the loadings listed in UG-22. hemispherical. torispherical.
. conical and toriconical heads under pressure on the concave side (plus heads) shall be computed by the appropriate formulas in this paragraph.

or inside diameter of a conical head at the point under consideration. measured perpendicular to the axis of the cone. measured perpendicular to the longitudinal axis. [ = D. or inside length of a major axis of an ellipsoidal head. (c) The symbols defined below are used in the formulas of this paragraph. t = minimum required thickness of the head after forming P = internal design pressure D = inside diameter of the head skirt.2r(l-cos a)]
. Dt = inside diameter of the conical portion of a toriconical head at its point of tangency to the knuckle.

for welded vessels. for hemispherical heads this includes head-to-shell joint. r = inside knuckle radius S = maximum allowable stress value in tension as given in the tables referenced in UG-23. 1-4)
. use the efficiency specified in UW-12 L = inside spherical or crown radius. except as limited in UG-24 and (e) below E = lowest efficiency of any joint in the head. The value of L for elliptical heads shall be obtained from Table UG-37 a = one-half of the included (apex) angle of the cone at the center line of the head (see fig.

90D. in which half the minor axis (inside depth of head minus head skirt) equals one-fourth of the inside diameter of the head skirt.17D and a spherical radius of 0. shall be determined by:
NOTE: For ellipsoidal heads with t/L< 0.
. the rules of l-4(f) shall also be met.002.
The required thickness of a dished head of semi-ellipsoidal form. An acceptable approximation of a 2:1 ellipsoidal head is one with a knuckle radius of 0.002. (d) Ellipsoidal Heads with t/L >0.

002. the rules of 1 -4(f) shall also be met. (e)Torispherical Heads with t/L
>0.
The required thickness of a torispherical head for the case in which the knuckle radius is 6% of the inside crown radius and the inside crown radius equals the outside diameter of the skirt [see (j) below]. shall be determined by: Note: For torispherical heads with t/l <0.
.002.

the following formula shall apply:
.665SE. or P does not exceed 0.356L. (f)Hemispherical: Heads. When the thickness of a hemispherical head does not exceed 0.

(o) If a torispherical. the diameter of the flat spot shall not exceed that permitted for flat heads as given in Formula (1) in UG-34.25. ellipsoidal. (p) Openings in formed heads under internal pressure shall comply with the requirements of UG-36 through UG-47. or hemispherical head is formed with a flattened spot or surface.
. it shall be stayed as a flat surface according to the rules of UG-47 for braced and stayed flat plates. torispherical. hemispherical is of a lesser thickness than required by the rules of this paragraph. (i) When an ellipsoidal. using C = 0.

torispherical.this is a test to see if you should use this formula or the ones given in Appendix 1. conical. (b) The thickness of an unstayed ellipsoidal or torispherical head shall in no case be less than…. and toriconical (not on exam) heads under pressure on the concave side (plus heads) shall be computed……. hemispherical.UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure on the Concave Side
(a) The required thickness at the thinnest point after forming of ellipsoidal. Not on Exam! (c) The symbols defined below are used in the formulas of this paragraph:
.

or inside length of the major axis of an ellipsoidal head. in. psi (kPa) D = inside diameter of the head skirt. in. (mm)
. (mm)
S = maximum allowable stress value in tension. (mm) P = internal design pressure (see UG-21). for hemispherical heads this includes head-toshell joint. use the efficiency specified in UW-12 L = inside spherical or crown radius.
E = lowest efficiency of any joint in the head. for welded vessels. in.UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure on the Concave Side
t = minimum required thickness of head after forming.

UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure on the Concave Side
There are 5 formed heads listed in UG-32.
The next series of slides are example calculations of all three types for thickness required. stress allowed. which do you suspect will be the thinnest allowed? Which do you think will be the thickest required?
•
Which is in the middle?
.
Hemispherical. and pressure. dimensions. Joint E. • • With all things being equal. Ellipsoidal and Torispherical. These calculations will use the exact same conditions for service. You will be responsible for the calculations of these 3 only.

Let’s determine which type of head will be the thickest required and which will be the thinnest allowed. P S E E L L D t = 100 psi = 17500 PSI = .UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure on the Concave Side
Givens: The same pressure.85 for spot RT of Hemi-head joint to shell = 1. inches
. dimension values will be used for all heads. stress and.0 for seamless heads ( Ellipsoidal and Torispherical ) = 48" for the inside spherical radius for the hemi-head = 96" for the inside crown radius of the torispherical head = 96" inside diameter of the ellipsoidal = ? Required wall thickness.

500 x 1.(0.0.2 x 100) 34980
.
From UG-32 (d)
PD t= 2SE .0) .UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure On The Concave Side
Problem # 1
Given the above data find the required thickness of a seamless ellipsoidal head.2 P
t= 100 x 96 9600 = .2744 " (2 x 17.

1614 " ( 2 x 17. calculate the required thickness of a hemispherical head.2 x 100) 29730
.
From UG-32 (f)
PL t= 2SE .2P
100 x 48 4800 t 0.500 x 0.0.UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure On The Concave Side
Problem # 2 Using the same data.85) (0.

(0.0.0) . (These are also called ASME flanged and dished heads. by the way).4857 " (17.885PL t= S E .500 x 1.
From UG-32(e)
0.UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure On The Concave Side
Problem # 3 Determine the required t of this torispherical head.1P
0.1 x 100) 17490
.885 x 100 x 96 8496 t= = = .

486”) Ellipsoidal = .4857” (Rounds to .UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure On The Concave Side
So we have from thickest to thinnest. all things equal: Torispherical = .2744 (Rounds up to .275”)
Hemispherical = .
. “ Which is required to be thickest” or “ Which can be the thinnest” Remember this.1614 (Rounds to .162”)
There have been several exams where the question was asked.

*
. their Joint E comes from Table UW-12 based on the Type of weld and the extent of Radiography applied. * Remember This. They are never seamless. As mentioned previously they essentially form a Category A seam between the head and the other part.UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure On The Concave Side
One last important comment: Hemispherical heads while they can be formed seamless are not considered seamless heads by Section VIII. The spot RT of UW-12(d) does not apply to the Joint E used to calculate a Hemispherical head.

Givens: t= P= S= E= D= State Code Paragraph and Formula: SKETCH:
. The stress allowed on the head's material will be 15. 2 from Table UW12.000 psi. The vessels will have a MAWP of 350 psi and will be in lethal service and stamped RT1. Calculate the required thickness of a 2 to 1 Ellipsoidal head with an inside diameter of 48 inches.Class Quiz
1. The joint used to join the head to shell will be a Type No.

2 P
t
350 x 48 .000 x1.2 x 350)
.Solution
#1 From: UG-32 (d)
Givens: t=? P = 350 psi S = 15.5613" ( 2 x15.000 psi E = 1.0 Full RT 1 D = 48” inside diameter
PD t 2 SE 0.0) (0.

Class Quiz
2. The head's material has a stress allowable of 13. The shell is seamless and the spot radiography of UW-11(a)(5)(b) has been applied to the vessel. Can this head remain in service at 100 psi per Code? Givens: SKETCH: t= P= S= E= L= State Code Paragraph and Formula:
.800 psi.353 " . A Torispherical head has corroded to a thickness of . its inside crown radius is 56 inches.

800 x1.800 psi E = 1.0) (0.Solution
2) From: UG-32 (e) Givens: t = .0.1 x100)
.0 L = 56” crown radius
0. (13. service.885 x100 x 56 t 3593" Answer: No the head may not remain in .1P
0.353 P = 100 psi S = 13.885PL t= S E .

The head's Inside diameter will be 64 inches. What would be its required thickness if the head's material has a maximum allowable stress of 17. Givens: t= P= S= E= L= State Code Paragraph and Formula: SKETCH:
.Class Quiz
3.500 psi? The Category A type 1 joint that attaches the head will be spot radiographed. A Hemispherical head is being considered as a replacement on a vessel with a MAWP of 200 psi.

85) (0.2154”
.2 P
200 x 32.500 x .2154" ( 2 x17.Solution
3) From: UG-32 (f)
Givens: t=? P = 200 psi S = 17.500 psi E = .0 t .0” inside spherical radius (D/2)
PL t 2 SE 0.2 x 200)
Answer: the required thickness = .85 Spot RT per UW-12(b) and Table UW-12 Column B L = 32.

What would the required thickness for a seamless Ellipsoidal head be given the following variables? The Category B weld that will attach this head would not have UW11(a)(5)(b) applied. Givens: t=? P = 200 psi S = 17.0”
.500 psi E = .85 No spot RT per UW-12(d) D = 64.Class Quiz
4.

85) (0.2 x 200)
.2 P
200 x 64 t .4308” ( 2 x17.85 No spot RT per UW-12(d) D = 64.4308" Answer: thickness required = .Solution
4) From: UG-32 (d)
Givens: t=? P = 200 psi S = 17.500 psi E = .500 x .0”
PD t 2 SE 0.

(a) The minimum thickness of unstayed flat heads. Some acceptable types of flat heads and covers are shown in Fig. cover plates and blind flanges shall conform to the requirements of this paragraph. UG-34. In this figure.
. the dimensions of the component parts and the dimensions of the welds are exclusive of extra metal required for corrosion allowance.

(c) The thickness of flat unstayed heads. covers and blind flanges shall conform to one of the following three requirements. UG34 sketches (j) and (k).
. (c)(l) Circular blind flanges conforming to the standards referenced in Table U-3. when the blind flange is of the types shown in Fig.

elliptical. obround. rectangular. segmented or otherwise noncircular
. covers and blind flanges shall be calculated by the following formula: (c)(2)Circular
(c)(3) square. (c) Flat unstayed heads.

in vessel shells and heads over a minimum required thickness of 3/8 in (10mm). in vessel shells or heads with a required minimum thickness of 3/8 in. (89mm) dia. (c)(3) Openings in vessels not subject to rapid fluctuation in pressure do not require reinforcement other than that inherent in the construction under the following conditions: (a) welded. (60mm) dia. brazed or flued connections with a finished opening not larger than: 3 1/2 in. (10mm) or less 2 3/8 in. or formed heads shall be reinforced to satisfy the requirements of UG-37 except as given in (3) below. (c)(2)(b) Openings in flat heads shall be reinforced as required by UG-39. (c)(2)(a) Openings in Cylindrical or conical shells.
.

(60mm) dia. in accordance with (a) or (b) above. studded or expanded connections in which the hole cut in the shell or head is not greater than 2 3/8 in. UG-36(c)(3)(b) threaded. UG-36(c)(3)(c) no two unreinforced openings. continued... UG-36(c) exemptions to reinforcement consideration. shall have their centers closer to each other than the sum of their diameters example
.

UW-14 (a) Any type of opening that meets the requirements for reinforcement given in UG-37 or UG-39 may be located in a welded joint. provided the weld meets the RT requirements of UW-51 for a length equal to three times the diameter of the opening with the center of the hole at midlength. UW-14(b) Single openings meeting the requirements given in UG36(c)(3) may be located in head-to-shell or Category B or C butt welded joints. Defects that are completely removed in cutting the hole shall not be considered in judging the acceptability of the weld.
. (d) Openings Through Welded Joints Additional provisions governing openings through welded joints are given in UW-14.

the requirements of UG-53 (ligaments) shall be met or the openings shall be reinforced in accordance with UG-37 through UG-42. UW-14(c) In addition to meeting the radiographic requirements of (b) above. the edge of openings in solid plate meeting the requirements of UG-36(c)(3) shall not be placed closer than 1/2 in. (13mm) to the edge of a Category A. B.
. when multiple openings meeting UG-36(c)(3) are in line in head-to-shell or Category B or C butt welded joints. UW-14(d) Except when the adjacent butt weld satisfies the requirements for radiography in (b) above. or C weld for material 1 1/2 in. (38mm) thick or less.

The rules of this paragraph apply to all openings other than: Small openings.
. UG-53 Reinforcement shall be provided in amount and distribution such that the area requirements for reinforcement are satisfied for all planes through the center of the opening and normal to the vessel surface. UG-36(b)(2) Tube holes with ligaments. UG. UG-39 Openings designed as reducer sections. UG-36(e) Large head openings. (b) General.36(c)(3) Openings in flat heads.

.

such as Code Edition and Addenda Pressure and Temperature Materials Size Loadings and Service Conditions Based upon the design parameters. fabrication requirements can be reviewed such as: Welding Nondestructive Examination Heat Treatment Impact Testing Forming and Bending Limitations Pressure Testing Data Reports and Stamping
. Design parameters can be reviewed.

etc. Based upon a review of design parameters and fabrication requirements. NDE. HT.)
. you are in a better position to determine meaningful inspection involvements using documents such as: Calculations Drawings & Bills of Material Purchase & Receiving Documents Process Control Documents Special Process Procedures (WPS.

have the computer program capabilities and results been verified as accurate?
.Design Review Tips
Has the correct construction Code Section been selected and used? Is the Code Edition/Addenda correct? Have the required calculations been prepared? Do the design documents include criteria as supplemented by the QC system? Are design documents reviewed/approved by appropriate personnel? Are you reviewing the latest revision to the design/fabrication document? If the design work is computer generated.