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it is not intended that the Code be used as a design handbook; rather, engineering judgment must be employed in the selection of those sets of Code rules suitable to any specific service or need.

The designer is responsible for complying with Code rules and demonstrating compliance with Code equations when such equations are mandatory. The Code neither requires nor prohibits the use of computers for the design or analysis of components constructed to the requirements of the Code. However, designers and engineers using computer programs for design or analysis are cautioned that they are responsible for all technical assumptions inherent in the programs they use and they are responsible for the application of these programs to their design.

and IX when reference May include:  Code Cases  Nonmandatory Appendices  Other sources which do not conflict with mandatory requirements . V. Classes of Materials  Mandatory Appendices  Section II. Methods of Fabrication  Subsection C.Shall include the requirements of:  Introduction  Subsection A. General Requirements Subsection B.


.  Inner pipe of double pipe heat exchangers and tubes in shell and tube  heat exchangers (where the pipe or tube is NPS 6 [DIN 150] or less.  Unfired steam boilers shall be 1/4 in.A.). (2. steam or water service vessels of UCS-23 materials shall be 3/32 in. (6mm) exclusive of corrosion allowance  Compressed air. (1.(b) Minimum thickness permissible of shells and heads is 1/16 in. except:  Heat transfer plates of plate type heat exchangers.5 mm) excluding corrosion allowance (C. after forming & regardless of product form and material.5mm) excluding corrosion allowance.

(c) Mill Under tolerance  Plate material shall not be ordered thinner than the design thickness. (0. (0.25 mm) or 6% under the design thickness. .  Vessels made of plate furnished with an under tolerance of not more than the smaller of 0.25mm) or 6% of the ordered thickness may be used at the full design pressure for the ordered thickness.01 in. the ordered thickness of the materials shall be sufficiently greater than the design thickness so that the thickness of the material furnished is not more than the smaller of 0. If the specification to which the plate is ordered allows a greater under tolerance.01 in.

 After determining the minimum t. the thickness shall be increased by an amount sufficient to provide the manufacturing under tolerance allowed in the material specification.(d) Pipe Under tolerance  If pipe or tube is ordered by its nominal wall thickness. the material specification manufacturing under tolerance on wall thickness shall be taken into account (except for nozzle wall reinforcement area requirements per UG-37). .

(Definitions. Such material must be deducted when determining design pressure.  Therefore. Appendix 3) . material designated for corrosion purposes cannot contribute to the strength of the vessel.(e) Corrosion Allowance In Design Formulas  All dimensional symbols used in all design formulas throughout this Division represent dimensions in the corroded condition. and added to the required thickness to determine design thickness.

(Proof testing) .  (c) No Design Rules  When no design rules are given and the strength of a vessel (or part) cannot be calculated with a satisfactory assurance of accuracy. Maximum Allowable Working Pressure shall be established in accordance with the provisions of UG-101. subject to the acceptance of the Inspector. it is intended that the manufacturer. shall provide details of design and construction which will be as safe as those provided by the rules of this Division. Where complete details are not given. (b) Special Shapes  Vessels other than cylindrical or spherical and those for which no design rules are provided in this Division may be designed under the conditions set forth in U-2.  U-2(g) This Division of Section VIII does not contain rules to cover all details of design and construction.

 Determined same as for maximum temperature.  May be determined by computation or measurement from equipment "in service" under equivalent operating conditions.  Auto refrigeration. (a) Maximum  Shall be not less than the mean metal temperature under operating conditions for the part under consideration.  Any other source of cooling. UG-20 Design Temperature .  Operational upsets.  Consideration includes:  Lowest operating temperatures.  (b) Minimum  Is the lowest expected "in service".  Atmospheric conditions.

and 3 are not permitted. Tables 1A. (c) Maximum  Design temperatures that exceed the temperature limit in the applicability column shown in Section II. 1B. design temperatures for vessels under external pressure shall not exceed the maximum temperatures given on the external pressure charts. Part D.  (e) Suggested methods for obtaining the operating temperatures of vessel walls in service are given in Appendix C. Subpart 1.  In addition. .  (d) The design of zones with different metal temperatures may be based on their determined temperatures.

. When there are multiple MAWP’s. The MDMT marked on the nameplate shall correspond to a coincident pressure equal to the MAWP. Additional MDMT’s corresponding with other MAWP’s may also be marked on the nameplate (see footnote 37). the largest value shall be used to establish the MDMT marked on the nameplate.

 The operating and test conditions including the maximum difference in pressure between  The inside and outside of the vessel. . consideration must include the following.When determining design pressure.  At least the most severe condition if coincident pressure and temperature expected in normal operation.  Any two chambers of a combination unit.

excluding any metal specified as corrosion allowance (UG-25). together with the effect of any combination of loadings listed in UG-22 which are likely to occur for the designated coincident temperature. .UG-98 Maximum Allowable Working Pressure  (a) It is the maximum permissible pressure at the top of the vessel in its normal operating position.  (b) The MAWP for a vessel part is the maximum internal or external pressure. at the designated coincident temperature specified for that pressure. including static head thereon as determined by the rules and formulas of this Division.

/1728 cubic inches = 0.433 lb./foot (for water) .0. The loadings to be considered in designing a vessel shall include those from:  Internal or external design pressure (UG-21). / cu. inches x 12 inches = 0.1 cubic foot of water at 62°F = 62.62.0361 lb. .0361 cu. inch .35 lb. .  Weight of the vessel & normal contents under operating or test conditions (this includes additional pressure due to the static head of liquids).35 lb.

such as lugs. (e) cyclic and dynamic reactions due to pressure or thermal variations. or from equipment mounted on a vessel. and mechanical loadings. (i) abnormal pressures. (h) temperature gradients and differential thermal expansion. . where required. (g) impact reactions such as those due to fluid shock. and legs (see Appendix G). and seismic reactions. such as those caused by deflagration. skirts. (2) vessel supports. snow. rings.(d) the attachment of: (1) internals (see Appendix D). saddles. (f) wind.

 Materials meeting more than one specification and/or grade may be used provided all requirements for the selected specification and/or grade are met. Part D. The maximum allowable tensile stress values permitted for different materials are given in Subpart 1 of Section II.  A listing of these materials are included in Subsection C. .

this fact shall be indicated in the Data Report. . (See Appendix E). or by using some other suitable method of protection.  Where corrosion allowances are not provided. (a) the user or his designated agent (see U-2) shall specify corrosion allowances other than those required by this Division.  (b) vessels or parts subject to thinning by  Corrosion  Erosion  Mechanical abrasion shall have provision made for the desired life of the vessel by a suitable increase in the thickness over that determined by the design formulas.

except as permitted by ULW76 for vent holes in layered construction.  (d) No additional thickness need be provided when previous experience in like service has shown that corrosion does not occur or is of only a superficial nature.  (e) Telltale Holes  May be used to provide some positive indication when the thickness has been reduced to a dangerous degree. .  Shall not be used in vessels which are to contain lethal substances [seeUW-2(a)]. (c) Material for these purposes need not be of the same thickness for all parts of the vessel if different rates of attack are expected for the various parts.

. (6mm) of the lowest point. (e) Telltale Holes  (f) Openings for Drains  Vessels subject to corrosion shall be supplied with a suitable drain opening at the lowest point practicable in the vessel. or a pipe may be used extending inward from any other location to within 1/4 in.

except as permitted in Appendix 32. when such loadings are expected. (a) The minimum required thickness of shells under internal pressure shall not be less than that computed by the following formulas except as permitted in Appendix 32 (local thin areas). In addition.  UG-16(c) Mill under tolerance  UG-16(d) Pipe Under tolerance  UG-16(e) Corrosion Allowance in Design Formulas .  The provided thickness of the shells shall also meet the requirements of UG-16.a. provision shall be made for any of the loadings listed in UG22.  UG-16(b) requires that minimum thickness be determined after forming and exclusive of any c.

UG-27 Thickness of Shells Under Internal Pressure  (b) The symbols defined below are used in the formulas of this paragraph. or the efficiency of ligaments between openings. for ligaments: UG-53 . or the efficiency of. whichever is less For welded vessels: UW-12. appropriate joint in cylindrical or spherical shells. t = minimum required thickness P = internal design pressure R = inside radius of the shell course under consideration S = maximum allowable stress value (see UG-23 and the stress limitations specified in UG-24 E = joint efficiency for.

The minimum thickness or Maximum allowable Working Pressure of cylindrical shells shall be the greater thickness or lesser pressure as given in (1) or (2) below.  (c)(l) Circumferential Stress (Longitudinal Joints)  (c)(2) Longitudinal Stress (Circumferential Joints15 ) 15 These formulas will govern only when the circumferential joint efficiency is less than one-half the longitudinal joint efficiency. or when the effect of supplemental loadings (UG22) are being investigated. (c) Cylindrical Shells. .

 (c)(l) Circumferential Stress (Longitudinal Joints)  (c)(2) Longitudinal Stress (Circumferential Joints) .

Example: Assume P = 150 PSI S = 17. 500 psi R = 24 inches E=1.0  (c)(l) Circumferential stress (Longitudinal Joints)  (c)(2) Longitudinal Stress (Circumferential Joints) .

000 psi E = 1. solve for the MAWP of the cylinder using both formulas.1) P =    409.4 x 0. Comparing Internal and External Formulae P=? * The question mark defines what is being solved for.8 psi Ro .0“ and Routside = 18.0.Example: Given a cylindrical shell with the following variables.500) 18.(0.0 x 0.4t 18.3 .500 7500 App 1 (1 .5" SEt 15. t = 0.500" S = 15.0 R = 18.5 .000 x 1.

found to have an inside diameter/radius.UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells Example 1: Internal Formula A vessel shell has corroded to an inside radius of 24. In these cases we must use the inside formula of UG-27 .500 psi. What is the required thickness? Other terms sometimes used: Corroded internally.18” its working pressure is 500 psi and its stress allowed is 17. etc.

. attacked by corrosion under insulation (CUI) etc.38” its working pressure is 500 psi and stress allowed is….what is the required thickness? Other terms sometimes used: found externally corroded.UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells Example 2: External Formula A vessel shell has corroded to an outside diameter of 24. . Here we would have to use the formula of Appendix 1.

its original thickness was .500” and the original inside radius was 24.18 ” its working pressure is 500 psi and its stress allowed is …. .5 ” = Ro Original radius outside Now we can use the formula of Appendix 1-1 if we chose to. 24” + .500 = 24. A vessel shell has corroded to an inside radius of 24.0 ” ** for inside calculations use R = 24.18 (actual) To use the outside formula we can add the original thickness to the original inside radius.UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells Example: Internal Formula or External Formula 3.

D.000 psi. What is its present Maximum Allowable Working Pressure? Here you must use the O. The joint efficiency. Formula since you cannot determine the present internal corroded radius.343”. A vessel shell has an outside radius of of 24.! .0. not having the original thickness you cannot determine the original I. E = 1. The shell has corroded internally to a thickness of 0.0 ” its working pressure is 500 psi and its stress allowed is 15.D.UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells Example: External Formula for Thickness 4.

t) =12.353) = 12. Its original thickness was .85 R = 12.0”. A cylindrical shell has been found to have a minimum thickness of .800 psi E = .353".0" + 0.375 (orig.022 corroded inside radius Ro= 12.375-.375” original outside radius . What is its present MAWP ? P = 300 psi t = .0" + (.375“ with an original inside radius of 12.UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells Here is an example of working a problem using both inside and outside dimensions having all the information needed.353" S = 13.

UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
Here is a graphical representation of the problem:

R corroded = 12 + (0.375 – 0.353) = 12.022”
t Corroded = 0.353"

t Corroded = 0.353"

t Orig. = 0.375"

Routside = 12.0" + 0.375 (orig. t) = 12.375”

UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells

Radius Inside for MAWP using UG-27(c)(1).

SEt 13,800 x .85 x .353 4140.69 UG - 27(c)(1) P  = =  338.46 psi R  0.6t 12.022 + (0.6 x .353) 12.2338
Radius Outside for MAWP using App: 1 (1-1).

App 1 (1 - 1) P =

SEt 13,800 x .85 x .353 4140.69  Answer: Yes   338.46 psi Ro - 0.4t 338.46 12.375 - 300 (0.4 psi > psix .353) 12.2338

UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
Please use this approach for all calculations. Givens: t = P= R= S= E= Sketch

I.D. ?

Code Paragraph UG-27 (c) (1)


SEt P= R + 0.6 t

UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
Problem # 1 Find the Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) of a 12 inch inside diameter shell. This shell is seamless and is stamped RT 2. It has an allowable stress value of 16,600 psi and the wall thickness is .406”. No corrosion is expected.

UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
Givens: Plugged in from the question! P=? t = .406 R = D/2 = 12/2 = 6.0 ” this formula uses the Radius. S = 16,600 psi E = 1.0 per UW-12(d) Seamless shells and heads From UG-27 (c) (1) Circumferential Stress

SEt P= R + 0.6 t
16,600 x 1.0 x.406 6739.6 P=   (6.0 ) + ( 0.6 x .406) (6.0)  .2436

D.2436 As can be seen the calculations are simple. inside or outside. Givens: P= SKETCH t= ect.UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells 6739. ? t=? . it is more a matter of deciding on the correct formula to use. Once again use the approach.44 psi 6.6 P=  1079. I. and transferring the givens accurately to the formula.

6 P=   1079.2436 . SEt P= R + 0.406 6739. we still round down to 1079 psi.6 x .999 we cannot round to 1080 .0 ) + ( 0.0 x.406) 6.UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells About rounding answers.44 psi (6. In the ASME Code and for the exam you must round DOWN for pressure allowed so in our solution below we would round down to 1079 psi.600 x 1.6 t 16. Even if our solution had been 1079. This is the conservative approach taken by the Codes in general and of course is different for the normal rules of rounding.

The shell's inside radius is 2'-0". The longitudinal joint is type 1 (table UW-12) and no radiography was performed.000 psi. The shell is made of carbon steel rolled plate with an allowable stress of 15.UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells Problem # 2 Find the minimum required thickness of a cylindrical shell designed for a working pressure of 100 psi. SKETCH Type 1 Category A No RT t=? .

6 x 100) 10440 .70 ) .6 P 100 x 24 2400 t= = = .UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells Givens: t=? P = 100 psi R = 24" S = 15000 E = .70 ( From Table UW-12 column C) From UG-27 (c) (1) Circumferential Stress PR t= S E .(0.000 x .0.2298 " (15.

Even it had been .(0.230”.6 P 100 x 24 2400 t= = = .0.000 x .UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells When rounding thickness required we must round up.6 x 100) 10440 . PR t= S E . The most conservative thing to do.2291 we would still round up to .230”. So our example below would round to .70 ) .2298 " (15.

The vessel will be stamped RT 1. . The shell’s Category A and B. The material’s stress allowable is 17. no corrosion is expected.500 psi. Type 1 welds have been fully radiographed.UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells Problem # 3 Determine the minimum required thickness of a cylindrical shell designed for an internal pressure of 50 psi.

10'.0" Type 1 Category A&B Full RT t=? .D.UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells Long Joint (Circumferential Stress) SKETCH: I.

172" (17.6 x 50) 17470 .0 ) .1717 " rounds to .0 (RT 1) From UG-27 (c) (1) PR t= S E .500 x 1.0.(0.UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells Givens: t=? P = 50 R = 10’ x 12” = 120”/2 = 60" S = 17500 E = 1.6 P 50 x 60 3000 t= = = .

75 inches. From the question above fill in the givens below. The O. is 12.Class Quiz UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells 1. The stress allowed on the shell material is 15.D.000 psi. Givens: t= P= S= E= R or Ro = State Code Paragraph and Formula: SKETCH: . B pipe. Calculate the thickness required for a vessel’s seamless shell made of SA-106 gr. The vessel will be stamped RT 2. The shell will operate at a maximum of 500 psi. UW-11(a)(5)(b) has been applied.

000 x1.375 t  .4 P Givens: t=? P = 500 psi S = 15.0 per UW-12(d) Ro = 12.Solution 1) From: Appendix 1-1 PRo t SE  0.210” .2097" (15.4 x 500) Answer: Required t = .2097” Rounds to .75  6.375" 2 500 x 6.0)  (0.000 psi E = 1.

Class Quiz 2. What is the maximum allowed working pressure on the following shell? The shell’s inside radius is 52 inches. The allowable stress for the shell's material is 15.000 psi. Givens: SKETCH: t= P= S= E= R or Ro = State Code Paragraph and Formula: .850 inches. The joint efficiency of the shell's Category A joint is 1. and the shell’s thickness is .0 From the question above fill in the givens below.

6t Givens: t = .000 x1.750 P  52  .0 R = 52” P 15.81 psi 52.510 Answer: 242.000 psi E = 1.Solution 2) From: UG – 27 (c) (1) SEt P R  0.510 12.850  52  (0.850” P= ? S = 15.6 x .850) 12.0 x .81 psi (rounds to 242 psi) .750 P  242.

However that formula in its published form is only useful for the calculation of vessel shells that are designed without a corrosion allowance. . Most of the time a corrosion allowance must be given to vessel part. The designer determines the optimum inside diameter and length of the vessel to obtain that volume. Example: A vessel is being designed for a specific volume of water. The engineer set the inside diameter at 48” so it must be constructed with that inside diameter.UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells You are now familiar with the basic cylindrical shell formula from UG-27. resulting in an inside radius of 24” to be used in the calculation.

6 t Inside diameter = 48.0 + 0.6 t .125” resulting in the following. SEt P= (24  0.) t= SE .a .125” Inside radius used in calculations = 24.0. The basic formula of UG-27 would be modified to be. P (R  c .6 P or P= SEt (R  c.a. = 1/8” = 0.0” Inside radius = 24.125) + 0.125 = 24.a) + 0.0” c.UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells In the design calculation the engineer adds the corrosion allowance to the radius.

450”. To calculate we would use a radius of 24.125 -.500 – 0. However here we use actual measurements.075” .050”.500” and rolled to the 24.0 + (0. it retirement radius would be 24.125” This is no different from what occurs during the evaluation of an in service vessel that has corroded. This would leave a remaining corrosion allowance of . Corrosion has occurred and the new minimum wall thickness is 0.450) or 24.0” inside radius.050 = .UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells The vessel shell would be constructed of the required calculated thickness and then rolled to an inside radius of 24”. Suppose the vessel shell above was built with a thickness of 0.

28 inches.375". The inside radius is 84”. The shell has corroded down to 1. A vessel shell has a design pressure of 200 psi.Class Quiz 1. and an allowable stress of 14. What is its current calculated MAWP in accordance with rules of Section VIII Division 1? Givens: t = P= ? S= E= R= . The nameplate is stamped RT1 . Its original t was 1.800 psi.

6 t 14.0 x1.768) 18.28) P P 18.863) (rounds to 223 psi) .a) + 0.095” SEt P= (R  c.944  223.800 psi E = 1.095  (0.800 x1.28) = 84.0 RT 1 R = 84” = 84’ + (1.375-1.095  (0.944  84.28” P= ? S = 14.28 P  84.6 x1.Solution From: UG-27 ( c )(1) Givens: t = 1.23 psi 84.

The provided thickness of the heads shall also meet the requirements of UG-16.  (a) In addition. . (a) The required thickness at the thinnest point after forming of ellipsoidal.  (b) The thickness of an unstayed ellipsoidal or torispherical head shall in no case be less than the required thickness of a seamless hemispherical head divided by the efficiency of the head to shell joint. hemispherical. except as permitted in Appendix 32. except as permitted in Appendix 32 (Localized Thin Areas). torispherical. provision shall be made for any of the loadings listed in UG-22. conical and toriconical heads under pressure on the concave side (plus heads) shall be computed by the appropriate formulas in this paragraph.

 (c) The symbols defined below are used in the formulas of this paragraph.  Dt = inside diameter of the conical portion of a toriconical head at its point of tangency to the knuckle.  t = minimum required thickness of the head after forming  P = internal design pressure  D = inside diameter of the head skirt. [ = D. measured perpendicular to the axis of the cone. or inside diameter of a conical head at the point under consideration. measured perpendicular to the longitudinal axis. or inside length of a major axis of an ellipsoidal head.2r(l-cos a)] .

The value of L for elliptical heads shall be obtained from Table UG-37  a = one-half of the included (apex) angle of the cone at the center line of the head (see fig. 1-4) . for welded vessels. for hemispherical heads this includes head-to-shell joint. r = inside knuckle radius  S = maximum allowable stress value in tension as given in the tables referenced in UG-23. use the efficiency specified in UW-12  L = inside spherical or crown radius. except as limited in UG-24 and (e) below  E = lowest efficiency of any joint in the head.

shall be determined by:  NOTE: For ellipsoidal heads with t/L< 0. the rules of l-4(f) shall also be met.002. . (d) Ellipsoidal Heads with t/L >0.17D and a spherical radius of 0. The required thickness of a dished head of semi-ellipsoidal form.90D.  An acceptable approximation of a 2:1 ellipsoidal head is one with a knuckle radius of 0.002. in which half the minor axis (inside depth of head minus head skirt) equals one-fourth of the inside diameter of the head skirt.

002. the rules of 1 -4(f) shall also be met. shall be determined by:  Note: For torispherical heads with t/l <0.002. (e)Torispherical Heads with t/L >0. . The required thickness of a torispherical head for the case in which the knuckle radius is 6% of the inside crown radius and the inside crown radius equals the outside diameter of the skirt [see (j) below].

or P does not exceed 0. When the thickness of a hemispherical head does not exceed 0.665SE.356L. the following formula shall apply: . (f)Hemispherical: Heads.

using C = 0. ellipsoidal. (i) When an ellipsoidal. hemispherical is of a lesser thickness than required by the rules of this paragraph. it shall be stayed as a flat surface according to the rules of UG-47 for braced and stayed flat plates. torispherical. or hemispherical head is formed with a flattened spot or surface. the diameter of the flat spot shall not exceed that permitted for flat heads as given in Formula (1) in UG-34.  (o) If a torispherical.  (p) Openings in formed heads under internal pressure shall comply with the requirements of UG-36 through UG-47.25. .

conical.this is a test to see if you should use this formula or the ones given in Appendix 1.UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure on the Concave Side (a) The required thickness at the thinnest point after forming of ellipsoidal. hemispherical. and toriconical (not on exam) heads under pressure on the concave side (plus heads) shall be computed……. Not on Exam! (c) The symbols defined below are used in the formulas of this paragraph: . torispherical. (b) The thickness of an unstayed ellipsoidal or torispherical head shall in no case be less than….

in. in. (mm) . for hemispherical heads this includes head-toshell joint. psi (kPa) D = inside diameter of the head skirt. use the efficiency specified in UW-12 L = inside spherical or crown radius.UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure on the Concave Side t = minimum required thickness of head after forming. (mm) P = internal design pressure (see UG-21). for welded vessels. or inside length of the major axis of an ellipsoidal head. (mm) S = maximum allowable stress value in tension. in. E = lowest efficiency of any joint in the head.

These calculations will use the exact same conditions for service.UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure on the Concave Side There are 5 formed heads listed in UG-32. which do you suspect will be the thinnest allowed? Which do you think will be the thickest required? • Which is in the middle? . Ellipsoidal and Torispherical. • • With all things being equal. stress allowed. The next series of slides are example calculations of all three types for thickness required. You will be responsible for the calculations of these 3 only. and pressure. Hemispherical. dimensions. Joint E.

stress and.UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure on the Concave Side Givens: The same pressure. dimension values will be used for all heads.0 for seamless heads ( Ellipsoidal and Torispherical ) = 48" for the inside spherical radius for the hemi-head = 96" for the inside crown radius of the torispherical head = 96" inside diameter of the ellipsoidal = ? Required wall thickness. Let’s determine which type of head will be the thickest required and which will be the thinnest allowed. inches .85 for spot RT of Hemi-head joint to shell = 1. P S E E L L D t = 100 psi = 17500 PSI = .

0.UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure On The Concave Side Problem # 1 Given the above data find the required thickness of a seamless ellipsoidal head.(0.2744 " (2 x 17. From UG-32 (d) PD t= 2SE .2 x 100) 34980 .0) .500 x 1.2 P t= 100 x 96 9600 = .

85)  (0. From UG-32 (f) PL t= 2SE .2 x 100) 29730 .1614 " ( 2 x 17.500 x 0.0.UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure On The Concave Side Problem # 2 Using the same data.2P 100 x 48 4800 t   0. calculate the required thickness of a hemispherical head.

500 x 1. From UG-32(e) 0.1P 0. (These are also called ASME flanged and dished heads.1 x 100) 17490 .885 x 100 x 96 8496 t= = = .0) .885PL t= S E .0.UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure On The Concave Side Problem # 3 Determine the required t of this torispherical head. by the way).(0.4857 " (17.

.162”) There have been several exams where the question was asked.275”) Hemispherical = .1614 (Rounds to .UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure On The Concave Side So we have from thickest to thinnest.4857” (Rounds to . all things equal: Torispherical = .486”) Ellipsoidal = . “ Which is required to be thickest” or “ Which can be the thinnest” Remember this.2744 (Rounds up to .

They are never seamless. their Joint E comes from Table UW-12 based on the Type of weld and the extent of Radiography applied.* . The spot RT of UW-12(d) does not apply to the Joint E used to calculate a Hemispherical head. As mentioned previously they essentially form a Category A seam between the head and the other part.UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure On The Concave Side One last important comment: Hemispherical heads while they can be formed seamless are not considered seamless heads by Section VIII. * Remember This.

000 psi. The vessels will have a MAWP of 350 psi and will be in lethal service and stamped RT1. The joint used to join the head to shell will be a Type No. Calculate the required thickness of a 2 to 1 Ellipsoidal head with an inside diameter of 48 inches. 2 from Table UW12. The stress allowed on the head's material will be 15.Class Quiz 1. Givens: t= P= S= E= D= State Code Paragraph and Formula: SKETCH: .

Solution #1 From: UG-32 (d) Givens: t=? P = 350 psi S = 15.000 x1.0)  (0.0 Full RT 1 D = 48” inside diameter PD t 2 SE  0.2 P t 350 x 48  .000 psi E = 1.2 x 350) .5613" ( 2 x15.

Class Quiz 2. The head's material has a stress allowable of 13. Can this head remain in service at 100 psi per Code? Givens: SKETCH: t= P= S= E= L= State Code Paragraph and Formula: . its inside crown radius is 56 inches.800 psi. A Torispherical head has corroded to a thickness of .353 " . The shell is seamless and the spot radiography of UW-11(a)(5)(b) has been applied to the vessel.

353 P = 100 psi S = 13. (13.800 psi E = 1.1 x100) .885PL t= S E .800 x1.0 L = 56” crown radius 0.Solution 2) From: UG-32 (e) Givens: t = .0)  (0.1P 0.885 x100 x 56 t  3593" Answer: No the head may not remain in .0. service.

The head's Inside diameter will be 64 inches.500 psi? The Category A type 1 joint that attaches the head will be spot radiographed.Class Quiz 3. A Hemispherical head is being considered as a replacement on a vessel with a MAWP of 200 psi. What would be its required thickness if the head's material has a maximum allowable stress of 17. Givens: t= P= S= E= L= State Code Paragraph and Formula: SKETCH: .

2 P 200 x 32.Solution 3) From: UG-32 (f) Givens: t=? P = 200 psi S = 17.2 x 200) Answer: the required thickness = .2154" ( 2 x17.85)  (0.500 x .500 psi E = .0 t  .0” inside spherical radius (D/2) PL t 2 SE  0.85 Spot RT per UW-12(b) and Table UW-12 Column B L = 32.2154” .

What would the required thickness for a seamless Ellipsoidal head be given the following variables? The Category B weld that will attach this head would not have UW11(a)(5)(b) applied.0” .85 No spot RT per UW-12(d) D = 64. Givens: t=? P = 200 psi S = 17.500 psi E = .Class Quiz 4.

Solution 4) From: UG-32 (d) Givens: t=? P = 200 psi S = 17.2 P 200 x 64 t  .85)  (0.4308" Answer: thickness required = .500 psi E = .0” PD t 2 SE  0.85 No spot RT per UW-12(d) D = 64.500 x .4308” ( 2 x17.2 x 200) .

. cover plates and blind flanges shall conform to the requirements of this paragraph. the dimensions of the component parts and the dimensions of the welds are exclusive of extra metal required for corrosion allowance. (a) The minimum thickness of unstayed flat heads.  In this figure. UG-34.  Some acceptable types of flat heads and covers are shown in Fig.

. when the blind flange is of the types shown in Fig. UG34 sketches (j) and (k). covers and blind flanges shall conform to one of the following three requirements. (c) The thickness of flat unstayed heads.  (c)(l) Circular blind flanges conforming to the standards referenced in Table U-3.

segmented or otherwise noncircular . obround. (c) Flat unstayed heads. rectangular. covers and blind flanges shall be calculated by the following formula:  (c)(2)Circular  (c)(3) square. elliptical.

in vessel shells and heads over a minimum required thickness of 3/8 in (10mm). (89mm) dia.  (c)(3) Openings in vessels not subject to rapid fluctuation in pressure do not require reinforcement other than that inherent in the construction under the following conditions:  (a) welded. (10mm) or less  2 3/8 in.  (c)(2)(b) Openings in flat heads shall be reinforced as required by UG-39. (60mm) dia. . brazed or flued connections with a finished opening not larger than:  3 1/2 in. (c)(2)(a) Openings in Cylindrical or conical shells. or formed heads shall be reinforced to satisfy the requirements of UG-37 except as given in (3) below. in vessel shells or heads with a required minimum thickness of 3/8 in.

.  UG-36(c)(3)(b) threaded. shall have their centers closer to each other than the sum of their diameters  example . UG-36(c) exemptions to reinforcement consideration.  UG-36(c)(3)(c) no two unreinforced openings. studded or expanded connections in which the hole cut in the shell or head is not greater than 2 3/8 in. (60mm) dia. continued. in accordance with (a) or (b) above..

 (d) Openings Through Welded Joints  Additional provisions governing openings through welded joints are given in UW-14. provided the weld meets the RT requirements of UW-51 for a length equal to three times the diameter of the opening with the center of the hole at midlength.  Defects that are completely removed in cutting the hole shall not be considered in judging the acceptability of the weld. .  UW-14 (a) Any type of opening that meets the requirements for reinforcement given in UG-37 or UG-39 may be located in a welded joint.  UW-14(b) Single openings meeting the requirements given in UG36(c)(3) may be located in head-to-shell or Category B or C butt welded joints.

or C weld for material 1 1/2 in. UW-14(c) In addition to meeting the radiographic requirements of (b) above. (38mm) thick or less. the requirements of UG-53 (ligaments) shall be met or the openings shall be reinforced in accordance with UG-37 through UG-42. B.  UW-14(d) Except when the adjacent butt weld satisfies the requirements for radiography in (b) above. (13mm) to the edge of a Category A. . when multiple openings meeting UG-36(c)(3) are in line in head-to-shell or Category B or C butt welded joints. the edge of openings in solid plate meeting the requirements of UG-36(c)(3) shall not be placed closer than 1/2 in.

. UG-36(b)(2)  Tube holes with ligaments. UG-36(e)  Large head openings.36(c)(3)  Openings in flat heads. UG. (b) General. The rules of this paragraph apply to all openings other than:  Small openings. UG-53  Reinforcement shall be provided in amount and distribution such that the area requirements for reinforcement are satisfied for all planes through the center of the opening and normal to the vessel surface. UG-39  Openings designed as reducer sections.


 Design parameters can be reviewed. such as  Code Edition and Addenda  Pressure and Temperature  Materials  Size  Loadings and Service Conditions  Based upon the design parameters. fabrication requirements can be reviewed such as:  Welding  Nondestructive Examination  Heat Treatment  Impact Testing  Forming and Bending Limitations  Pressure Testing  Data Reports and Stamping .

you are in a better position to determine meaningful inspection involvements using documents such as:  Calculations  Drawings & Bills of Material  Purchase & Receiving Documents  Process Control Documents  Special Process Procedures (WPS. Based upon a review of design parameters and fabrication requirements.) . HT. NDE. etc.

have the computer program capabilities and results been verified as accurate? .Design Review Tips  Has the correct construction Code Section been selected and used?  Is the Code Edition/Addenda correct?  Have the required calculations been prepared?  Do the design documents include criteria as supplemented by the QC system?  Are design documents reviewed/approved by appropriate personnel?  Are you reviewing the latest revision to the design/fabrication document?  If the design work is computer generated.