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ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
FOR STUDENTS OF PHYSICS AND ENGINEERING
BY
HAROUTUNE
Instructor
M.
DADOURIAN,
in the
M.A., Pii.D.
y Physics
l^
Shield
Scientific School
qf Yale University
D.
Park Place
1913
Copyright, 1913,
BT
D.
Stanbope lPce&
F. H.
PREFACE.
The
years,
following
recitations
work is based upon a course of lectures and which the author has given, during the last few
of the Sheffield Scientific School.
Department
It
has been the author's aim to present the subject in such a manner as to enable the student to acquire a firm grasp of
the fundamental principles of Mechanics and to apply
to problems with the
them
mental effort. In other words economy of thoiight is the goal at which the author has aimed. It should not be understood, however^ that the author has been led by the tendency toward reducing textbooks to collections of rules, mnemonic forms, and formuRules and drill methods tend toward the exclusion of lae. reasoning rather than toward efficiency in thinking. The following features of the treatment of the subject may be noted In order to make the book suitable for the purposes of more than one class of students more special topics are discussed than any one class will probably take up. But these are so arranged as to permit the omission of one or more without breaking the logical continuity of the subject. In deciding on the order of the topics discussed two more or less confficting factors have been kept before the eye, i.e., to make the treatment logical, yet to introduce as few new concepts at a time as possible. It is to secure the second of these ends, for instance, that the historical order of the development of mechanics is followed by discussing equilibrium before motion. This arrangement not only
of
minimum amount
IV
PREFACE
grades the path of the student by leading him from the easier to the more difficult dynamical ideas, but it also
gives
him time
mathe
matical tools.
As a result of the severe criticisms of Newton's laws of motion by such men as Heinrich Hertz, Ernst Mach, and Karl Pearson, authors of recent textbooks on Mechanics have shown a tendency to give either a new set of laws or none at all. There is no doubt that a subject hke Mechanics should start, as in the case of Thermod3rnaniics, with a few simple laws and the entire structure of the science should be based upon them. In the present work the following law
is
made
To
reaction, or,
the
sum
is subject at
any instant vanishes. Four concepts are associated with the term
torque, linear
action,
namely,
kinetic
reaction,
and
These are introduced one at a time and in connection with the apphcation of the law to a certain class of problems. Force is introduced with the equilibrium of a particle (pp. 15, 16), torque with the equihb
rium
of a rigid
body
with the motion of a particle (pp. 100106), angular kinetic reaction with the motion of a rigid body (pp. 218221). Thus by introducing the concepts of linear and angular reactions and by extending the meaning of the term action to include these reactions, the fundamental principle of Mechanics is put in the form of a single law, which is equivalent to Newton's laws of motion and which has the advantages of the point of view involved in D'Alembert's principle. This law has the directness and simpUcity of Newton's third law, so that the beginner can easily understand it and apply it to simple problems of equiUbrium, and yet it admits of wider interpretation and application with the growth of
PREFACE
the student's knowledge.
idea of the entire subject
V
this
By making
is
made
While appeal
is
made
troducing the principles of the conservation of dynamical energy and of the conservation of momentum they are shown to be direct consequences of the law of action and
reaction.
and of the law of action and by working out a number of problems by the application of both the law and the principles. The two types of motion, i.e., motion of translation and motion of rotation, are treated not only in the same general
of the conservation principles
manner, but are developed along almost parallel Unes. The simpler types of motion which are generally treated under Kinematics are given in the present work as problems in Dynamics. The author believes that the practice of divesting the physical character of the motion from the simpler types and reducing them to problems in integration is unfortunate. On account of their freedom from mathematical difficulties the simpler types of motion are particularly well adapted to illustrate the principles of dynamics. In order to differentiate between vectors and their magnitudes the former are printed in the Gothic type. In conclusion the author wishes to express his obligations to Mr. Leigh Page for reading the manuscript and to Dr. David D. Leib for reading the proofs and to both for many
valuable suggestions.
H. M. Dadourian.
Yalk University,
January, 1913.
Corporation
http://www.archive.org/details/analyticalmechanOOdadouoft
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
VAOB
Table of notations
Introduction
xi
1
Chapter
I.
two vectors
components
Chapter
Particle
II.
Equiubrittm of a Particle.
14
14
15
16
21
25
Chapter
Rigid body
III.
Theorems on the motion of rigid bodies Linear and angular action The law of action and reaction Conditions of wjuilibrium of a rigid body
Resultant of a .system of forces
Friction on journals
35 39 40 47
51
and pivots
Rolling friction
56
Chapter
IV.
Equilibrium
<>i
imble Cords.
61
Simplification of problems
62 63 67
ii
viii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter V.
Motion.
. PAGE
Analysis of motion
Fundamental magnitudes
Velocity
Angular velocity
Acceleration
Angular acceleration
73 74 77 86 89 97
Chapter VI.
Kinetic reaction
Motion of a Particle.
100
101
The law
of action
and reaction
Force equation Difference between mass and weight Motion of a particle under a constant force Motion of a particle imder a variable force
Chapter VII.
Center of mass
Moment
of inertia
Chapter
VIII.
Work.
164
169 172
a force a torque
work
180
Chapter IX.
Results of work
Kinetic energy of translation Kinetic energy of rotation
Energy.
185 186 188 191 193 196
Power
Potential energy
Conservation of energy
Chapter X.
Fields of force
Degradation of energy Force experienced by a particle in a field of force Torque experienced by a body in a field of force
TABLE OF CONTENTS
New
conditions of equilibrium
Stability of equilibrium
ix
rAOB
207 208
211
Newtonian potential
Field intensity
212
Chapter XI.
Angular kinetic reaction
The law
of action
and reaction
Experimental definition of
moment
of inertia
Torque equation Comparison Torque and energy methods Motion about a fLxcd axis Motion about instantaneous axes
Chapter XII.
Impulse
Momentum
Conservation of
momentum
mass
Motion
Impact
of center of
241 242
Central collision
244 249
261 253 258
Chapter XIII.
Angular
Impuljbe
momentum
mass
pendulum
relative to the center of
Motion
Chapter XIV.
Central
Motion of a Particle
in
field of force
Equations of motion
Motion of two gravitating particles Types of orbits Miww of a planet which has a satellite
Kepler's laws
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter XV.
Periodic Motion.
PAQK 297
Simple harmonic motion Composition of simple harmonic motions of equal period EUiptic harmonic motion
Appendix A.
Algebraic relations
Mathematical Formula.
337 338 339
Appendix B.
Logarithms of numbers Natural trigonometric functions Exponential functions
Mathematical Tables.
343 345 347
349
Index
TABLE OF NOTATIONS.
a = b = c = d = =
/
g
radias, length, constant.
mass.
of
restitu
distance.
A = B = C = D=
distance.
total energy.
nap.
base,
coef.
E=
tion.
h
i
k
I
m
n
p
q
r s
t
u
V
w
X y
z
= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = o
acceleration.
grav. acceleration.
vertical height, constant,
F = force, frictional force. G = moment of force or torque. H = height, force derived from
tential,
po
anguhir impulse.
V^.
constant.
length, direction cosine,
= moment of inertia. = radius of gyration, constant. L = length, linear impulse. M = mass. AT = normal component of force.
/
origin, point.
pressure, page.
P
Q = R = 5 = T =
variable magnitude,
radius, radius vector.
strain, length of curve.
point.
total reaction, resultant force.
stress.
time.
velocity.
velocity,
U =
volume.
potential energy.
velocity, potential.
V =
weight.
variable magnitude.
W
X
weight, work.
variable magnitude.
variable magnitude.
Y = Z
"S" ""
" "
"
<x,
0, y, 8
6,
<t>,\l>
= coastant angles. = variable angles. = angle of friction. n = coef. of friction. X modulus of elasticity. 7 angular acceleration. = angular velocity. ( = a small quantity, or angle. o surface density. T volume density.
p
=
A
Ji
"
"
s."
mm
<" 
"<^"
very
small
compared
with."
">" 
"i8great<'r than."
"is
"^"
1"
very
large
compared
n.
with."
n!  1'2'3.
curvature.
xu
lb.
TABLE OF NOTATIONS
= = = = = =
mass
inch,
foot.
pd.
in.
ft.
H.P.
horse power.
S.H.M.
A
time.
is
with a bar above it denotes an average magnitude. " any one of i " when used as a subscript denotes thus " Ft " stands for " any one of Fi, Ft, Ft, etc."
The
letter "
,"
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
INTRODUCTION.
of motion.
is the science has a twofold object First, to describe the motions of bodies and to interpret them by means of a few laws and principles, which are gen1.
of
Mechanics.
Mechanics
all
times
when
the circumstances of the motion for any one instant are the special laws which govern the
motion.
The
is
toward regarding
all
physical
phenomena as manifestations of motion. Complicated and apparently dissimilar phenomena are being explained by the interactions and motions of electrons, atoms, The kinetic theory of molecules, cells, and other particles. heat, the wave theories of sound and light, and the electron
theory of electricity are examples which illustrate the tendency toward a mechanical interpretation of the physical
universe.
This tendency not only emphasizes the fundamental importance of the science of mechanics to other physical sciences and engineering but it also broadens the aim of the
science
cal
and makes the dynamical interpretation of all physiphenomena its ultimate object. The aim of elementary
is,
mechanics
its
scope is limited to
which occur
2
2.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Divisions
of
customary to divide Mechanics into Kinematics and Dynamics. The former treats of the time and space relations of the motions of bodies without regard to the interactions which cause them. In other words, Kinematics is the geometry of motion. In Dynamics, on the other hand, motion and equiUbrium are treated as the results of interactions between bodies; consequently not only time and space enter into dynamical discussions, but also mass, the third element of motion. Dynamics in its turn is divided into Statics and Kinetics. Statics is the mechanics of bodies in equilibrium, while Kjnetics is the mechanics of bodies in motion. Chapters II, III, and IV of the present work are devoted to problems in statics, while the rest of the book, with the exception of Chapters I, V, and VII, is given to discussions The subject matter of Chapters I of problems in kinetics. and VII is essentially of a mathematical nature. In the former the addition and resolution of vectors are discussed,
Mechanics.
It is
is
Chapter
is
devoted
CHAPTER
I.
torque,
magnitudes.
scalars.
4.
Vectors
The
are rep
resented
by directed
lines or arrows.
length of the
cides with
For
they
the
physical
are
which
represent
vectors.
The
^
Fio.
1,
1.
and the
5.
In Fig.
for instance,
is
the origin
Notation.
Vectors
of the vector a.
letters printed in
will
be denoted by
same
Thus
in Fig.
the
denoted by a, but if it is desired to represent the length PQ without regard to its orientation a is used. 6. Equal Vectors. Two vectors are said to be equal if they have the same length and the same direction. It follows, therefore, that the value of a vector is not changed when it
vector
PQ
4
is
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
its
direction
and magni
tude.
7. Addition of Two Vectors. Let the vectors a and b, Fig. 2, represent two displacements, then their sum is another
vector, c, which is equivalent to the given vectors. In order to find c let us apply to a particle the operations indicated by a and b. Each vector displaces the particle along
its
There
FiG. 2.
is
brought to the point R. Thereis a displacement from P to R. But this is equivalent to a single operation represented by the vector c, which has P for its origin and R for its terminus. Therefore c is called the sum, or the resultant, of a and b. This fact is denoted by the following vector
is
Then applying
two operations
equation,
a
8.
+b=
c.
(I)
Order
b
of Addition.
If in Fig. 3
is
The order
the result.
by a and
then to R.
9.
moves from P
is
of the particle
Two
Vectors.
The operations
indicated
by a and
may
final
of two vectors suppose the a bead on the wire AB, Fig. 4. Move the wire, keeping it parallel to itself, until each of its particles is given a displacement represented by b. Simultaneously with the motion of the wire move the bead along the wire giving it a displacement equal to a. At the end of
^^
A
a
FiQ. 4.
these operations the bead arrives at the point R. If both the wire ajid the bead are moved at constant rates the
resultant vector c represents not only the resulting dis
placement but also the path of the particle. 10. Rules for Adding Two Vectors. The results of the last paragraphs furnish us with the following three methods for
changing
its direction,
other vector,
upon
The new
its
Parallelogram Method.
Move
vector
which has
common
origin of
The new
Let
11.
Two
Vectors.
a and
b, Fig. 5,
6
ant.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Then, solving the triangle formed by these vectors,
c2
we
obtain
= a2__52^2a6cos</>
h sin
(^
(II)
and
where
a, b,
tan^ =
(HI)
a\b cos
and
<f>
tively, while
Equation
(II)
a, b, and c, respecand c make with a. determines the magnitude and equation (III)
c are the
6
magnitudes of
and
c.
the direction of
Fig. 5.
Fig. 6.
Special Cases,
(a)
If
0.
a2
+ 62_^2a6,
d
= a + 6, =
0.
and
tan
0,
Thus
c has the same direction as a and b, while its magnitude equals the arithmetical sum of their magnitudes. (b) When a and b are oppositely directed, as in Fig. 6b, = TT. Therefore
c2
= =
a^
0,
+ 6^ 2 ah,
.'.
c
d
= a
=
0.
h,
and
tan
:.
7
of the
sum
the
while
its
direction
It is
is
same
if
as
evident that
the
magnitudes of a and b are equal c vanishes. Therefore two vectors of equal magnitude and opposite directions are the negatives of each other. In other words, when the direction of a vector is reversed its sign is changed. (c) When a and b are at right angles to each other, as in
Fig. 6c,
4>
^'
Therefore
and
tan Q

a
Difference of
12.
to
Therefore, to subtract
we add b
Thus
we have the
other.
y/
^ /
'
In order to subtract one vector from another reverse the one to he subtracted and add it to the other
vector.
xL^^ a
by them.
f ^^^*
,,
V
_
/\i
J^/
It IS
the
sum and
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES.
particle
is
Find the
resulting displacement.
and
c, Fig. 8,
we obtain
8
c2
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
= = = = = =
a
a2
(10 cm.)^
300 cm.2
10
17.3 cm.*
tsind
+ 6 cos
10 cm. sin (60)
10 cm.
d
+ 10 cm. cos
(60)
= =
J V3. 30.
Fig. 8.
PROBLEMS.
1.
25 cm. long.
The sum
of
two vectors
is
Show
difference of
Show
13.
nents.
The
Resolution
of
Vectors
into
projection of a vector
Compo y upon a
in of
line is called
along that
line.
The
vectors a^
and a components
?/axis,
a along the
tively.
rcaxis
and the
respec
The following
figure
from the
explanation.
*
Fig.
9.
The symbol
fore "
" will be used to denote approximate equality. There" should be read " equals approximately," or "equals about," or
="
"equals nearly."
x.
(V)
(VI)
(VII)
= V^7+a?,
a.
tan^=''
along all three axes of a rectangular system, Fig. 10, the following equations express the vector
terms of
its
components.
Fio. 10.
= ax+a+a,.
ai,
(IV)
at= a cos
Oy = a cos
oj,
(V)
= VoT+oTTo?,
the angles a
(vr)
coordi
where
14.
ai, 02,
and
03 are
nate axes,
Resultant of
Any Number of
Vectors.
Graphical Methods.
a, b, c, etc.,
may
be
move
b,
magnitude, until
its
without changing either its direction or its origin falls on the terminus of a, then
10
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
c until
its
move
origin falls
on the terminus of
b,
and so on
Then the resultant obtained by drawing a vector which closes the polygon and which has its origin at the origin of a.
open polygon.
is
The
validity of this
method
will
be
seen from Fig. 11, where r represents the resultant vector. Evidently the resultant vanishes when
the given vectors
form a closed
Fig. 11.
polygon.
add the components along each axis geometrically, beginning at the origin. This gives the components of the required vector. Then draw the rectangular parallelopiped determined by these components. The resultant is a vector which has the origin of the axes for its origin and forms a diagonal of the parallelepiped.* This method is based upon the following analytical method. 15. Analytical Method. Expressing the given vectors and their resultant in terms of their rectangular components, we have
resolve each vector into components along the axes;
Siy ~\~
&z
bi,+ bz
r^.
(1)
Tx
+ r +
r=a+b+c+
and
collecting the terms
rx\ry{ r,
(2)
we
obtain
= {a.x+b^\
)+(av+bj,+
+ (a,+ b,+
But
*
).
(3)
since the directions of the coordinate axes are indepenthe given vectors are in the same plane the parallelopiped reduces
When
to a rectangle.
11
equal the
vectors.
sum
of the corresponding
(3)
Therefore
along any one of the axes must components of the given can be split into the following three
bz
separate equations.
Tx
ax
r
+ Cx +
rv=afb+Cv+
r,
(4)
a,
+ bx + c, +
. I
It
was shown
in 11 that
the algebraic
sum
when two vectors are parallel of their magnitudes equals the magni
Fio. 12.
any number
of parallel vectors.
rx=ax+6x+Cx+
ry=ay\by\Cy\r,
'
'
'
(5)
= o, + 6. + c, +
r
Equations
(5)
determine
r
=
>
Vrx2r,2f
(6)
cos ai
=
r
r,
cos a2
=
r
>
cos as
r
r
*
(7)
where
16.
ai, ao,
and
aj are
the angles
of
axes.
Multiplication
and Division
a Vector by a Scalar.
When
a vector is multiplied or divided by a scalar the result is a vector which has the same direction as the original vector. If, in the equation b = wa, m be a scalar then b has the
direction as a but its
same
magnitude
is
times that of a.
12
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE.
A man walks 3 miles N. 30 E., then one mile E., then 3 miles S. 45 E., then 4 miles S., then one mile N. 30 W. Find his final position. Representing the displacements by vectors we obtain the graphical solution given in Fig. 13, where r represents the resultant displacement.
Fig. 13.
In order to find
r,
analjiiicaUy
we
first
determine
its
components.
Thus
[3
cos (60)
Ty
= = = = = = =
(2
+ V2)
3.41 miles.
[3 sin (60)
(2
V3  V'2  4)
miles.
1.95
..
Vfx^
+ r2
given by the following relation.
3.93 miles.
is
The
direction of r
,,,fl_^v^1.95 *^^^7;3:4r'
..
37.l.
Therefore the
final position of
the
man
is
S. 52.9
E.
from
13
The resultant
of
two vectors which are at right angles to each other The magnitude of the smaller vector is
a; find the
2.
magnitude of the greater vector. In the preceding problem find the resultant vector. 3. Find analytically the sum of three equal vectors which point in the following directions East, N. 30 W., and S. 30 W. 4. In the preceding problem make use of the first graphical method.
6. 6.
In problem 3
make
is
vector which
Find
its
compo
N. 30 W. N. 60 E.
(c)
W.
S. 30
If
(e) S.
60 E.
(d)
W.
3
is
(f)
E.
vector
is
in the xyplane.
is
its
Find the magnitude and direction of a. 8. Three vectors a, b, and c he in the xt/plane. Find their resultants analjiiically, taking the magnitudes of their components from the following tables
ttz
tty
hx
by
2,
Cs
0,
6,
Cy
6,
9, 7,
5,
5,
10.
3,
0,
2,
0, 5,
10,
0,
8,
3,
0,
8. 2.
8.
(4)
9.
6,
4,
make
10.
and P4, in the given order. The length of each tunnel and the angle makes with the meridian are given in the following tables. Find the lengths and directions of the tunnels which have to be dug in order to connect Pi with Pt and P directly.
Pi,
it
= = =
200
100
feet,
feet,
feet,
400
and makes 30 with the meridian. and makes 120 with the meridian. and makes 300 with the meridian.
Work out the preceding problem by the first graphical method. Work out problem 10 by the second graphical method.
Find the direction and magnitude of the force cxi>crienced by an one vertex of an equilateral tri
angle due to two unlike charges of 10 units each placed at the other vertices.
The
CHAPTER
II.
EQUILIBRIUM OF A PARTICLE.
ACTION AND REACTION. FORCE.
17.
Particle.
A body whose
it
is
called
In a problem any body may be considered as a particle so long as it does not tend to rotate. Even a
particle.
when
its
may
in discussing the
is
the earth
its
rotation about
Degrees
of
Freedom.
in w^hich a
called the
number
of degrees of
freedom of its motion. It equals the number of coordinates which are necessary in order to specify completely the posiA free particle can move in three indetion of the body. pendent directions, that is, along the three axes of a system of rectangular coordinates, therefore it has three degrees of freedom. When the particle is constrained to move in a plane its freedom is reduced to two degrees, because it can move only in two independent directions. When it is constrained to move in a straight line it has only one degree of
freedom.
19.
Force.
of a
body our attention is claimed not only by that body but also by others which act upon it. In order to insure concentration of attention problems in Dynamics are simbeing discussed, and
upon the
by
certain vec
tor magnitudes
known as forces. As an
14
illustration consider
EQUILIBRIUM OF A PARTICLE
15
the equilibrium of the shaded part of the rope in Fig. 14a. The shaded part is acted upon
by the adjoining
rope.
sections of the
i)
'
Therefore
we consider
the
by the
20.
forces
F and
F,
as
shown
is
in Fig. 14b.
Definition of Force.
Farce
vector
magnitude which
'
tion between
forces
upon another. The interactwo bodies takes place across an area, while the which represent them are supposed to be applied at
Therefore the introduction of the idea of force
one point.
is
a system of
A force which represents the action of one part of a body upon another part of the same body is called an internal force.
Internal Force.
22.
p
'
External Force.
Unit
Force.
The
called
an external
force.
engineering unit
is
of force
among
is
the pound.
The pound
the
by
The Law of Action and Reaction. The fundamental law Mechanics is known as the law of action and reaction. Newton (16921727), who was the first to formulate it, put the law in the following form. "To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction^ or the mutual actions of two bodies are equal and oppositely
24.
directed."
Let us apply this law to the interaction between a book and the hand in which you hold it. Your hand presses
in order to
keep
it
from
falling,
16
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
downward upon your hand. The law states that the action of your hand equals the reaction
book and is in the opposite direction. The book upon your hand because the earth attracts it. When your hand and the earth are the only bodies which act upon the book, the action of your hand equals and is opposite to the action of the earth. In other words the sum of the two actions is nil. Generalizing from this simple illustrareacts
we can put the law into the following form: To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction, or the sum of all the actions to which a body or a part of a body
tion
is
SA =
26.
0.*
(A)
The condi
obtained by replacing the term "action" by the term '^ force" in the last form of the fundamental law and then stating it in the form of a condition of equilibrium of a particle
tion.
Thus
in order
sum
that a particle be in equilibrium the which act upon it must vanish. F are the forces which Fi, F2, F3,
F1+F2+F3+
must be
rium.
+F=0
(I)
satisfied in order that the particle be in equilibEquation (I) is equivalent to stating that when the forces are added graphically they form a closed polygon.
of a
number
components
also
vanishes.
Therefore
sum we must
have
Xi+X2+Yi+Y2+Z1
+ Z2+
+x=o, +Y=0, +z = o,
of F^.*
(II')
(ir)
where
Xj, Yj,
and
Z, are the
components
Since the
are parallel
we
can.
EQUILIBRIUM OF A PARTICLE
write
17
them
as algebraic equations.
Therefore
we have
the
particle.
.
2X = Xi + X2+27^^1 + 72+. SZ = Zi + Z2 +
+X=0,* +r, = o,
(II)
+ Z
0.
The
In order
a particle he in equilibrium
the algebraic
sum
The
Represent the particle by a point and the action of each body which acts upon it by a properly chosen
forcevector.
Be
sure that
all
upon the particle are thus represented. Second. Set the sums of the components of the
act
unknown
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES.
force until the string
suspended by a string is pulled aside by a horizontal makes an angle a with the vertical. Find the tensile force in the string and the magnitude of the horizontal force in terms of the weight of the particle. The particle is acted upon by three bodies, namely, the earth, the
1.
particle
string,
Therefore,
we
It
The
'
2X
is
Xi
+ Xj +
+ Xn
is
identical with
and
X,+
+Xn.
18
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
by three forcevectors, W, T, and F, and then apply the conditions of equiUbrium. Setting equal to zero the sums of the components of the y forces along the x and ?/axes, we get
represent the actions of these bodies
Fig. 15,
SX = F  r sin a =
Solving equations
(a)
0.
(a)
SFs Tr+rcosa = 0.
and
(b)
(b)
we have
W
cos
and
F =Tsina = W tan a.
Discussion.
When
a=

,
0,
T=W
and
and
F=
0.
When a =
T = oo
F=oo.
force can
zontal.
2.
Therefore no
finite horizontal
make the string perfectly horiuniform bar, of weight and is suspended in a horizontal
strings of equal length
^^^ ^^
A
a,
length
position
I.
by two
and
Find the
acted upon by three bodies, namely the earth and the two
Ti, and T2, Fig. 16a.
The
it
On
the other
distributed
all
In the
last case
is
F and
F.
axes,
0,
Considering each particle separately and setting equal to zero the sums
we obtain
SZ s 27 =
for the first particle,
Ti cos Ti sin
F = a^=
a
0,
and
2X = SF ^
r2CosafF =
7^2
0,
sin
a
^=
0,
EQUILIBRIUM OF A PARTICLE
for the
19
second particle.
It follows
W
2 sin
a
I
V4  a
/'
W.
Fig. 16.
D18CU88ION.
The
On
the length of the strings becomes very large compared with that of the
;r
W as a limit.
shown
in Fig. 16b.
PROBLEMS.
when a particle is in equilibrium under the action of two must He in the same straight line. 2. Show that when a particle is in equilibrium under the action of three forces the forces lie in the same plane.
1.
Show
that
20
3.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Find the horizontal force which wiU keep in eqnihbrium a weight pounds on a smooth incUned plane which makes 60 with the
ring of weight
of 150
horizon.
4.
is
I,
the ends of which are attached to two points on the same horizontal Find the tensile force of the string if the distance between its ends
line.
is d.
compared with it. A body of weight is suspended by two strings of lengths h and h. The upper end of each string is attached to a fixed point in the same horizontal line. Find the tensile forces in the strings if the distance between the two points is d. 6. A weight is suspended by four equal strings, the upper ends of which Find the tensile are attached to the vertices of a horizontal square.
particle
is
in equilibrium
action of two equal forces, the one acting along the plane upwards and
Find the inclination of the plane. of equilibrium to find the magnitude and
number
of forces acting
upon a
particle.
Two
a smooth hemispherical bowl; find the reactions between the two spheres and between the spheres and the bowl. 10. The ends of a string, 60 cm. long, are fastened to two points in the same horizontal line and at a distance of 40 cm. apart; two weights are hung from points in the string 25 cm. and 20 cm. from
the ends.
zontal.
11. A single triangular truss of 24 feet span and 5 feet depth supports a load of 3 tons at the apex. Find the forces acting on the
Find the
if
hori
rafters
and the
tie
rod.
12.
A particle
of weight
inclined plane
by a
equilibrium
terms of
13.
in
F and W.
EQUILIBRIUM OF A PARTICLE
21
SLIDING FRICTION.
26.
Frictional Force.
is
Consider the
W,
which
forces,
in equilibrium
weight,
of the plane,
The
and independent
of these, N,
is
One
perpendicular
to the plane and is called the normal reaction. The other, F, is along the plane and is
called the frictional force.
Fio. 17.
The
normal reaction is due to the rigidity of the plane. It rethe tendency of the body to go through the plane. The frictional force is due to the roughness of the contact between the body and the plane. It prevents the body from sliding
sists
down
27.
the plane.
Angle of Friction.
As we
22
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
the equilibrium
is
when
slide
down
the plane.
disturbed and the body begins to This angle is called the angle of
friction.
This definition for the angle of friction does not is acted upon by other forces besides
weight and the reaction of the plane. The following definition, however, is vaUd under all circumstances: The angle of friction equals the angle which the total reaction makes with the normal to the surface of contact when the body is on
the point of motion.
28.
Coefficient of Friction.
of friction
by
(j),
we
obtain
F=R
N=R
Therefore
cos 0.
F = Nta,Ji<i> = 1^,
and
is
(HI)
coefficient
where m = tan
called
the
of friction.
The
contact.
is
which depend upon the surfaces in The last four equations hold true only when the body
and Kinetic
if it is
on
29.
Friction.
The
if
friction
which comes
at rest
into play
the body
is
and
kinetic friction
30.
Laws
of Friction.
The
in motion.
They hold
true within
these limits.
1.
Frictional forces
come
when a body
is
urged to move.
2.
urged to move.
Frictional force
is
EQUILIBRIUM OF A PARTICLE
4.
5.
23
Frictional force
is
The
Kinetic friction
is
Laws 1 to 4 hold true for both static and kinetic friction. The coefficient of friction between two bodies depends upon
the condition of surfaces in contact.
M is stances in contact.
Therefore the value of not a perfectly definite constant for a given pair of subvalues given in the following table are averages of
The
values obtained
by
several experimenters.
Cocffietent of friction.
Condition of aarfaoes in
contact.
Stetic
Kinetic.
on wood on wood on wood Heavy rope on wood Heavy rope on wood Cast iron on cast iron Cast iron on ca.st iron Cast iron on oak Leather on cast iron
Dry Wet
Polished and greased
Wet
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES.
1.
A body
which
is
on a rough horizontal
floor
a with
The body
is
acted upon by
W, the
Replacing
by
its
of equilibrium,
we obtain
IX mPcoaaF = 0, lY mPsma + N W
Therefore
=0.
F=P
cos a,
N ^WPsina,
P^
\
UrT'^ ^wT*.
* l*<^.
i ^^^
'
24
and
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
R = VF^ + N' = VP^ +W^2PW8m
since the
a.
But
body
is
on the point
of
F = nN holds.
Therefore
= Z==
'^
P
0,
cosa
PTPsina'
Discussion.
(b)
^,
(a)
When a =
R = VP^ + W^
and
yu
n = mdeter
When a =
(c)
R=
PW =
0,
Q, 0,
therefore
P=
TT.
TF,
and
is
minate.
When P =
m =
and
iJ
Fig. 19.
2.
body
^vhich rests
point of motion
The body
is
upon a rough inclined plane is brought to the up the inclined plane by a horizontal force. Find n and R, acted upon by three forces, Fig. 19,
P, the horizontal force,
W, the
Replacing
weight,
by
its
we
obtain
EQUILIBRIUM OF A PARTICLE
J
25
Discussion.
(b)
0,
(a)
When P =
= tan
a;
therefore
a =
<t>,
that
is,
the inclined
may
PROBLEMS.
body which weighs 100 pounds is barely started to move on a rough horizontal plane by a force of 150 pounds acting in a direction making 30 with the horizon. Find R and yu. 2. A body placed on a rough inclined plane barely starts to move when acted upon by a force equal to the weight of the body. Find the coefficient of friction, (a) when the force is normal to the plane; (b) when it is parallel to the plane. 3. A horizontal force equal to the weight of the body has to be applied in order to just start a body into motion on a horizontal floor. Find the
1.
coefficient of friction.
4.
weight
a
if
will
move
the weight
6. How would you determine experimentally the coefficient of friction between two bodies? Find the 6. A weight of 75 pounds rests on a rough horizontal floor. magnitude of the least horizontal force which will move the body if the
coefficient of friction
7.
is
0.4;
particle of weight
in equilibrium
the action of a force F, which makes the magnitude of the normal pressure equal W. The coefficient of friction is ft and the angle of elevation of
the inclined plane
8.
is
a.
An
insect starts
will it
down.
9.
Where
Find the magnitude and direction of the force. from the highest point of a sphere and crawls begin to slide if the coefficient of friction between
is
}?
The
an incUned plane,
friction.
Find the
a.
coefficient of
The
31.
The
is
number
upon a
particle
a a force which
resultant of
26
is
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
criteria by The resultant same motion, when appHed
which
to
may be
tested.
it, as that imparted by the given system of forces. We cannot use this test just now because we have not yet studied motion. Second: When the resultant force is reversed and appUed to the particle simultaneously with the given forces the particle remains in equilibrium. According to the second criterion, therefore, the resultant, R, of the forces Fi, F2, F, must satisfy the equation
. . .
 R+
or
(Fi+
F2
+ FJ = 0,1
j
.j^,.
^
R = Fi+F2+
obtain
+F.
we
X = Xi + X2 +
+ Xn,
+F, +z,
F = 71+72+Z =Zi+Z2 +

(IV)
where
and Z^ are the components of F^. The magnitude of R is given by the relation
X,,
Y,,
R = Vx^+Y^+Z^,
while the direction
is
(V)
cos ai
Y
K
>
cos a2
= ~f
ti
COS as
z =
tC
(VI')
he in the a:2/plane the ^component of each force equals zero. Therefore we have
Special
Case.
forces
When the
R=
VX2+F^
6
(V)
and
where
d is
tan
= ^,
xaxis.
(VI)
the angle
EQUILIBRIUM OF A PARTICLE
PROBLExMS.
27
1. Three men puU on a ring. The first man pulls with a force of 50 pounds toward the N. 30 W. The second man pulls toward the S. 45 E. with a force of 75 pounds, and the third man pulls with a force of 100 pounds toward the west. Determine the magnitude and direction of
Show Show
lies
lies
made by
the forces.
forces
Find the direction and magnitude of the resultant of three equal which act along the axes of a rectangular system of coordinates.
GENERAL PROBLEMS.
1.
A particle is
Prove that
in
R.
P
sin (Q,
^
R)
Q
sin (P,
^
R)
R
sin (P,
Q)
etc.,
Two
particles of weights
Wi and W2
rest
The particles are attached to the ends of a string of length /, which passes over a smooth peg vertically above the center of the sphere. If A is the distance between the peg and the center of the sphere, find (1)
radius a.
(2)
and
(3)
boom of a derrick are a and b Supposing the hinges at the lower end of the boom and the pulley at the upper end to be smooth, find the angle the boom makes with the vertical when a weight is suspended in equilibrium. 4. Find the tensile force in the chain and the compression in the boom of the preceding problem. 6. Two rings of weights Wi and Wt are held on a smooth circular wire in a vertical plane by means of a string subtending an angle 2 a at
The
lengths of the mast and the
respectively.
the center.
Show
is
given by
6.
and 40foot width has two queenEach truss is divided into three equal parts by two
28
posts.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
What
is
whea
there
Fig. (a).
7.
Fig. (b).
Find the force in one of the members of the truss of figure (b) A weight rests upon a smooth inclined plane, supported by two equal strings the upper ends of which are fastened to two points of the plane in the same horizontal line. Find the tensile force in the strings and the
8.
10.
A particle
In the preceding problem suppose the piano to be rough. is suspended by a string which passes through a smooth
The
other end of the string is attached to a smooth bead which is movable on the wire. Find the position of equilibrium supposing the bead and the suspended body to have equal weights. 11. A particle is in equihbrium on a rough incUned plane under the action of a force which acts along the plane. If the least magnitude of the force when the incUnation of the plane is a equals the greatest magnitude
when
12.
it is ,
show that
<l>
^
,
where
<t>
is
Two
weights
Wi and W2
rest
upon a rough
Find the greatest inclination the plane can be given without disturbing
the equilibrium.
13.
Two
by a
is
string, rest
upon a
the
and
nz, find
greatest inclination the plane can be given without disturbing the equi
In the preceding problem find the tensile force in the string. One end of a uniform rod rests upon a rough peg, while the other end is connected, by means of a string, to a point in the horizontal plane which contains the peg. When the rod is just on the point of motion it
14.
15.
EQUIUBRIUM OF A PARTICLE
is
29
particle resting
Show that 21 = na, where I is the length and n the coeflScient of friction. upon an inclined plane is at the point of motion
under the action of the force F, which acts downward along the plane. If the angle of elevation of the plane is changed from ai to at and the direction of the force reversed the particle will barely start to move up the plane. Express n in terms of ai and aj. 17. A string, which passes over the vertex of a rough double inclined Show that the plane must be tilted through plane, supports two weights. an angle equal to twice the angle of friction, in order to bring it from the position at which the particles will begin to move in one direction to the position at which they will begin to move in the opposite direction. 18. Three equal spheres are placed on a smooth horizontal plane and are kept together by a string, which surrounds them in the plane of their centers. If a fourth equal sphere is placed on top of these, prove that the
tensile force in the string is
19.
where
is
upon a rough
hori
What is
n which will enable them to support a smooth sphere of the same radius and material? 20. If the center of gravity of a rod is at a distance a from one end and 6 from the other, find the least value of n which will allow it to rest in all positions upon a rough horizontal ground and against a rough vertical
wall.
21.
string,
which
is
W at
Find
by means
of a
it
passes.
CHAPTER
III.
Rigid Body.
There
it
rigid.
There are no bodies which are strictly more or less under the action But in most problems discussed in this book ordiof forces. nary sohds may be treated as rigid bodies. A rigid body may have two 33. Motion of a Rigid Body.
be subjected.
All bodies are deformed
may
When
its
said to
have a motion
of trans
lation.
paths
it is
said to
have a
motion of rotation. The planes of the circles are parallel, while their
centers
lie
The
motion of a flywheel is a wfeUknown example of motion of Suppose A, Fig. 21, to be a rigid body which is rotation. brought from the position A to the position A' by a motion perpendicular of rotation about an axis through the point
to the plane of the paper, then the paths of
30
its particles
31
whose planes
lie
on the
34.
axis of rotation.
When
that each of
particles re
said to be uniplanar.
is
The
FiQ. 21.
fixed plane
35.
Theorem
Suppose the rigid body A, Fig. 22, to describe a uniplanar motion parallel to the planfe of the paper and let A and A' be any two positions occupied by the body. Then it may be brought from A to A' by a rotational displacement about an axis the position of which may be found in the following manner. Let P and Q be the positions of any two particles of the body in a plane
parallel
to
the
plane
is
of
the
at the
and P' and Q' be the positions of the same particles when the body occupies the position A'.
Fio. 22.
is
Then the
the
of
desired axis
plane
of
paper
the
and passes
intersection
perpendicular bisectors
the
lines
Therefore the body can be brought from any position A to any other position A' by & single rotational displacement.
The
A and
A'
32
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
by which we accombody from one of these positions to the other. But the result, which we have just obtained, is true not only for positions which are separated by finite distances but also for positions which are infinitely near each other. Therefore by giving the body infinitesimal
rotational displacements about properly chosen axes
it
may
all
it
occupies during
Instantaneous Axis.
As the body
its
is
made
to occupy
moves at right angles to itself and generates a cylinder whose elements are perpendicular to the guide plane. The elements of the cylinder are called instantaneoiis axeSy
because each acts as the axis of rotation at the instant when the body occupies a certain, position. The curve of intersection of the cylinder
centrode.
is
called the
is
of a cylinder which rolls in a larger cylinder a simple example of uniplanar motion. In this case the common element of contact is the instantaneous axis. As the cylinder rolls different elements of the fixed cylinder become the axis of rotation.
The motion
and motion of rotation are special In motion of translation the In axis of rotation is infinitely far from the moving body. rotation the cyUnder formed by the instantaneous axes
Motion
of translation
reduces to a single
37.
Theorem
II.
fine,
i.e.,
a rotation through the same angle about a parallel axis and a translation in a direction perpendicular to it. The truth of this theorem will be seen from Fig. 23, where the rigid body A is brought from the position A to the position A' by a single rotation about an axis through the point perpendicular to the plane of the paper. This displace
33
position
ment may be produced also by rotating the body to the A" and then translating it to the position A'.
Fio. 23.
PROBLEMS.
1.
Show
lation
2.
that in theorem II the order of the rotation and of the transbe changed. Show that the converse of theorem II is true.
may
Theorem in.
rotation.
A and A' be any two positions occupied by the rigid body and P and F' be the corresponding positions of any one
Let
Fio. 24.
Then the body may be brought from A to a motion of translation which will bring the particle from F to F' and then rotating the body about a properly chosen axis through F'. A special case of this
of its particles.
A' by giving
it
34
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
is
theorem
of the
translation
The most general displacement of a rigid 39. Theorem IV. body can be obtained by a displacement similar to that of a
screw in
its
nut, that
it.
is,
translation along
This theorem states that the axis of rotation of the last theorem can be so chosen that the translation is along the axis of rotation. In theorem III let PP', Fig. 25, be the path
of
any point
of
the
body
^q
[
r
"


^^^^"^^
^^
^^.^^''^^
'^'^''^'^
now
in
stages.
translate the
'c
ig.
.
Second translate the body along P"P' until Third: rotate the body about BB But by theorem II until it comes to the desired position. the last two operations can be accomplished by a single rotation about CC. Therefore the desired displacement can be obtained by a translation along and a rotation about the line CC. Evidently the last theorem holds for infinitesimal displacements as well as for finite displacements; therefore however complicated the motion of a rigid body it can be reproduced by a succession of infinitesimal screwdisplacements, each displacement taking the body from one position which it has occupied during the motion to another position Thus at every instant of its motion the infinitely near it. In general rigid body is displaced like a screw in its nut.
.
:
P"
35
change from instant to instant. In the case of the motion of a screw in its nut these do not change.
Translation
special
is
cases
of
screw
motion.
smaller
When
it
if
made
smaller and
advances
all
and
it is
less
Therefore
the pitch
made
not advance at
when
rotated.
Thus
rotation
is
is
zero.
On
the other hand as the pitch of the screw is made greater and greater the screw advances more and more during each
revolution.
when
the pitch
is
in
motion
of the screw
is
becomes a motion
of
translation.
Thus
translation
is
motion
in
infinitely great.
We have seen that a rigid body and independent types of motion, namely, motion of translation and motion of rotation. These motions are the results of two independent and entirely different kinds of actions to which a rigid body is
40.
Two Types
of Action.
different
We
will differentiate
between
two types of action by adding the adjectives "linear" and "angular" to the term "action." Thus the action which tends to produce translation will be called linear action and that which tends to produce rotation, angular action. 41. Torque. The vector magnitude which represents the angular action of one body upon another is called torque. 42. Couple. Although a single force is not capable of giving a rigid body a motion of pure rotation, two or more The external forces will do it when properly applied. simplest system of forces which is capable of producing It consists of two equal and rotation is known as a couple. opposite forces which are not in the same line, Fig. 26.
36
It is
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
evident from Fig. 26 that a couple
is
capable of
this is not
But
enough to show that the effect produced by a couple is the same as that produced by a torque. We must show also that the couple is not capable of producing a motion of translation. Consider the rigid body A, Fig. 27, which is acted upon by a couple. Suppose the couple did tend to
Fig. 26.
Fig. 27.
produce a translation in a direction BB'. Then pass through the body a smooth bar of rectangular crosssection in the direction of the supposed motion, so that the body is free to move along the bar but not free to rotate. When this constraint is imposed upon the rigid body it behaves like a particle and therefore cannot be given a motion by two equal and opposite forces. But since any motion in the
direction
J5J5'
is
not affected
by the presence
of the bar,
BB' must be wrong. Hence we see that when taken out the motion due to the couple will be one of pure rotation. When a rigid body is in equi43. Measure of Torque. librium under the action of two couples it is always found that the product of one of the forces of one couple by the distance apart of the forces of the same couple equals the
lation along
the bar
is
37
corresponding product for the other couple. In order, for instance, that the rigid body A, Fig. 28, be in equihbrium,
we must have
FD =
Therefore the
the measure of
F'D'.
product
FD
is
the torque of
by the
forces
F and
of
F,
distance
Thus denoting
Fio. 28.
we have
G=FD.
The
distance
(I)
D is
called the
arm
of the couple
are one
The torque of a couple whose forces pound each and whose arm is one foot is the unit of The symbol for the unit torque is the lb. ft. torque. 45. Vector Representation of Torque. Torque is a vector magnitude and is represented by a vector which is perpen44.
Unit Torque.
Fia. 29.
The
vector points
away
from the observer when the couple tends to rotate the body in the clockwise direction and points towards the observer
when
it
In the
in the
first
is
considered
to be negative
and
38
46.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Equal Couples.
Two
cou
when the
vectors
which represent their torques are equal in magnitude and have the same direction. The three couples in Fig. 30 are equal if Gi = 6^2 = Gz. Resultant of two couples is a third couple, whose torque is the
vector
sum
given couples.
PROBLEMS.
1.
couples of equal magnitude the forces of which act along the edges of the
The bases of the prism are equilateral triangles. In the preceding problem let the forces have a magnitude of 15 pounds each, the length of the prism be 2 feet and the sides of the bases
bases of a right prism.
2.
10 inches.
In problem 1 suppose the prism to have hexagonal bases. In problem 2 suppose the prism to be hexagonal. 5. A right circular cone, of weight and angle 2 a, is placed in a circular hole of radius r, cut in a horizontal table. Assuming the coefficient of friction between the cone and the table to be /x, find the least torque necessary to rotate the former about its axis.
3.
4.
47.
Moment
of a Force.
giving a rigid
to put
an axle
The
force
axle.
couple equals the product of the applied force by the shortest distance from the axle It is often more conto the line of action of the force.
39
When
this
is
called the
moment
of the
force applied.
leverarm.
The
lever
arm
of a force
is
In Fig. 31 the moment of and perpendicular to F about the axis through the point the plane of the paper is
the line of action of the force.
G=
where d
is
Fd,
(II)
the leverarm.
PROBLEMS.
1.
of its
2.
Prove that the moment of a force about an axis equals the moment component which hes in a plane perpendicular to the axis.
Prove that the sum of the moments of the forces of a couple about is constant and equals
any
Degrees of Freedom of a Rigid Body. A rigid body a motion of translation along each of the axes of a rectangular system of coordinates and at the same time it can have a motion of rotation about each of these axes. Therefore a rigid body has six degrees of freedom, three of
48.
may have
translation
and three
of rotation.
in
constrained to
move
reduced to five. When the point is constrained a straight line the number becomes four. When the point is fixed the body has only the three degrees of freedom of rotation. If two points are fixed the body can only rotate about the line joining the two points. ThereWhen a third fore its freedom is reduced to one degree. point, which is not in the line determined by the other two, is fixed the body cannot move at all, that is, it has no freedom of motion. The law from which 49. The Law of Action and Reaction.
freedom
to
is
move
in
is
40
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
all
bodies under
all
conditions;
But
law
lowing form.
The sum of all the linear and angular actions to which a body or a part of body is subject at any instant vanishes:
S(A,
+ AJ =
0.
(AO
But
since the
two types
other the
sum
of each type
sum vanishes. Therefore we can spUt the law into the lowing two sections.
To every linear action there linear reaction, or, the sum of which a body or a part of body
vanishes: SA, =
0.
is
all
is
(AO
To every angular action there is an equal and opposite angular reaction, or, the sum of all the angular actions to which a body or a part of body is subject at any instant vanishes:
SA,
50.
0.
(A)
If we replace
the term ''linear action" in the first section of the law by the word "force" and the term " angular action " in the second section of the law by the word "torque" we obtain the two conditions which must be satisfied in order that a rigid body be in equilibrium. Thus, in order that a rigid body be in equiUbriima the following conditions must be satisfied. The sum of all the forces acting upon the rigid body First.
must
vanish, that
is, if Fi,
F2,
Fi+F2+must be
satisfied.
+F=0
(III)
41
the rigid
The sum of
acting
.
.
upon
body mv^t vanish, that is, if d, Gj, G denote all the torques acting upon the body then the vector equation
G1
+ G2+
+G,=
(IV)
must be
satisfied.
The
the
components of
along each of the axes of a rectangular system of coordinates must vanish, that is,
i:X^Xi\X2h2:z
+X,= + z =
the
0,
(V)
Zi
+ Z2 +
0.
Second.
components of
all the
(vr)
2(7,
^ GJ + GJ' +
+ Gi"' = 0.
If two or more forces act in the same 51. Coplanar Forces. plane they are said to be coplanar. If a system of coplanar forces act in the xyplane then the conditions of equilibrium
^Y ^Yx+Y^^^G.^Fidi
where
F2,
. .
+F =
^^^
0,)
+ ^2^2+
+ Fd = 0,
axis
(VI)
di, d^,
.
which is perpenThe zcomponents of dicular to the plane of the forces. the forces and the x and ycomponents of the moments vanish identically. Consequently they need not be conF, respectively, about
any
sidered.
42
52.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Transmissibility of Force.
body may be considered to be appHed to any particle body which hes on the line of action of the force. In order to prove this statement consider the rigid body A, Fig. 32, which is in equihbrium under the action of the two
rigid
of the
Fig. 32.
equal and opposite forces F and F. Now suppose we change the point of application of F, without changing
either its direction or its
hne of application.
Evidently
its
the equilibrium
is
hne
the
of action
we
sum
sum
of their
axis.
Therefore the
its
hne of action
of apphcation.
53.
of a force
of importance
and not
point
Internal Forces.
Internal
librium of a rigid body. This is a direct consequence of the law of ''action and reaction." Since by definition the internal forces are due to the interaction between the particles of the system these forces exist in equal and opposite pairs, therefore mutually annul each other.
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES.
uniform beam rests with its lower end on smooth horizontal ground and its upper end against a smooth vertical wall. The beam is held from slipping by means of a string which connects the foot of the beam with the foot of the wall. Find the tensile force in the string and the reactions at the ends of the beam. There are four forces acting upon the beam, i.e., the two reactions, Ri and R2, the tensile force T and the weight W. Since both the ground and the wall are supposed to be smooth, Ri is normal to the ground, and Rj
1.
43
the string
beam and
by
and
2A'
a, respectively,
we have
s iJ,  r =
fli
0,
zr 
w= 0,
0,
Wo'= Rilsma+W^cos a =
where ^Go' denotes the sum of the moments of the forces about an axis through
the point 0' perpendicular to the xypl&ne.
we have
Ri
= W,
R=
cot a
W
and
Discussion.
axis
r=
2 VW^^* a IK 2 \//>o
Fig. 33.
It
was chosen through the point 0' in order to eliminate the momenta of as many forces as possible and thus to obtain a simple equation.
The
reaction Ri
is
beam
Rt
On
vary with a.
0,
When a = and
2.
both Rj and
T vanish.
As a
is
diminished from  to
increase indefinitely.
vertical wall.
The
same
coefficient of friction
ground
Ls
the
make with
and There are three forces acting on the ladder, i.e., its own weight Replacing Ri and Rj by their components and writing the equations of equilibrium we obtain
the two reactions Ri and Rj.
2X  f  AT, = 0, Sr  AT, + F,  PT ,
0,
2G'
bere a
is
F,/ cos
a+
AT,/ sin
 TT^ coe a =
0,
We
have further
44
Solving these
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
we
1
get
'
+ M^
1
'
+ m'
1
w,
w.
+ m'
Ri
tan
;^,
a=
2/x
Discussion.
value of
/i.
The
for a given
When n =
a=
0,
in equilibrium at
this
is
Evidently
true for any value of n greater than unity. Find the smallest force which, when appUed at the center of a carriage wheel of radius a, will drag it over an obstacle. The forces acting on the wheel are: its weight W, the required force F, and the reaction R. Since the first two meet at the center of the wheel, the direction of R must pass through the center also. Take the coordinate axes along and at right angles to R, as shown in Fig. 35, and let F make an angle d with the a;axis. Then the equations of equilibrium become
3.
0,'
'LGo'^WasaxaFsmd'a =
two equations we get
0.
sm
Since
the
and a are fixed F can be changed only by changing d. Therefore minimum value of F is given by the maximum value of sin 6, i.e..
,
which makes
F=
TF sin a.
45
we obtain
cos
sin
a=
a

therefore
a=
Vh (2 o h),
and
F=
Vh{2ah).
Fio. 35.
Since cos ^
the
first
R=
W cos a
a
first
Discussion.
It will
two
of the equations
When
is
zero,
F =
and
R = W. On
PROBLEMS.
when h =
a,
F =WasidR =
0.
1.
is
the geometric
it
by weighing
in both
weight of 25 pounds
uniform bar weighing 10 pounds is supported at the ends. A is suspended from a point 20 cm. from one end. Find the pressure at the supports if the length of the bar is 50 cm. 3. A uniform rod which rests on a rough horizontal floor and against
2.
a smooth vertical wall is on the point of the two ends of the rod.
slipping.
46
4.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
passes
In moving the body 6 inches nearer to one of the supports the pressure on the support increases by 100 pounds. What is the weight of the body if 5 pounds is the weight of
the rod?
6.
is
having lengths Zi and h. The lower ends of the strings are attached to the ends of the rod, while the upper ends are tied to a peg. Find the tensile
force in the strings.
6. A safety valve consists of a cylinder with a plunger attached to a uniform bar hinged at one end. The plunger has a diameter of I inch and is attached to the bar at a distance of 1 inch from the hinge. The bar is 2 feet long and weighs 1 pound. How far from the hinge must a slideweight of 2 pounds be set if the steam is to blow off at 120 pounds per square inch? 7. The two legs of a stepladder are hinged at the top and connected Find the tensile force in the at the middle by a string of negligible mass.
string
plane.
and the pressure on the hinges when the ladder stands on a smooth The weight of the ladder is W, the length of its legs I, and the
a.
of
and az with the horizon. Find the angle which the rod makes with the horizon and the pressure on the planes. 9. A rectangular block is placed on a rough incUned plane whose inclination is gradually increased. If the block begins to slide and to turn
ai
about
10.
its
uniform rod rests with one end against a rough vertical wall and the other end connected to a point in the wall by a string of equal
length.
Show
is
make with
the wall
11.
tan"
'
is
A
A
uniform rod
is
is
attached to the
ends and
is
Show
vertical wall
ladder 25 feet long and weighing 50 pounds rests against a making 30 with it. How high can a man weighing 150
it
begins to shp?
The
coefficient of
A rod of neghgible weight rests wholly inside a smooth hemispheriis clamped on to the rod at a point bowl of radius r. A weight whose distances from the ends are a and 6. Show that the equihbrium
cal
47
is
given by sin 6
ab
,
2Vr^ab
:, ,
where d
the angle
it
makes with the plane of the brim of the bowl which is horizontal. 14. Prove that when a rigid body is in equilibrium under the action of three forces their lines of action lie in the same plane and intersect at the same point.
16.
members
1,750 lbs)
16.
Supposing the weights of the following figures to be in equilibrium The circles which are tangent to other
64.
body
and a rotation
about, a certain
prevented by a single force opposed to the translation and a single torque opposed to the rotation. Thus a single force and a single torque can be found which will keep a rigid body in equilibrium against the action of any system of forces.
48
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
resultant of a system of forces consists, therefore, of
The
and a single torque which, when reversed, will keep the rigid body in equiUbrium against the action of the
single force
Let
Fi,
let
the xy
+X, +F,
(VII)
(VIII)
^>
(IX)
where the terms in the righthand members of the first two equations are the components of the given forces, and 6 is
the angle R makes with the
a^axis.
Go denotes the resultant torque and di, d2, dn denote the distances of the origin from the lines of action of the forces, then
if
.
. .
On
Go
If
F,di\F2d^
+ FA.
(X)
we
by the moment
of the resultant
Mi + F2(^+
n D=
2(Fd) '
+FX
(XI)
or
>
from the
origin.
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE.
Find the resultant of the six forces acting along the sides of the hexagon of Fig. 36. Taking the sum of the components along the x and y directions, we have
49
F.
r = 03FsinJ2F8inf +
= fVs. .: R = VF^^^YF^ = 2F tan d = y/S.
So
about
+ 2F8inf + /'8inJ
u 3
and
an
FiQ. 36.
we obtain
RD =
therefore
(2F
+ SF + 2F + F + 2F\F)a
= D=
11 Fa,
5.5 a,
where a
is
the distance of the center from the lines of action of the forces.
56.
Let R be the
,
F2,
F,
which act
upon a
rigid
body.
parallel, the
sum
Thus
i2=Fi + F2f
and
+/^n,
RD =
Fidi
+ F^d^ +
+ Fj^.
Now take the 2axis parallel to the forces and let Xi and j/< denote the distances of F, from the yzpl&ne and the xzplane, respectively. Then the last equation may be split
into
a:axi8
two parts, one of which gives the moments about the and the other about the yaxis. Thus,
+ Fx
^F^y^A
^^"^
'
where x and y are the coordinates of the point in the xyplane through which the resultant force passes. In other
60
words, (x,y)
is
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
the point of application of the resultant force.
is
The The
resultant force
last
two equations
may

forms
HFx
(XIII)
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE.
Find the resultant of two
in the
parallel forces
rigid
body
same
direction.
Let
forces.
Then
and
or
R=
Fi
+ F^,
\
FiXi
F2X2
'
Fi
+ F2
^1 F2
since X2
But
x and
X X Xi x Xi are
X2
the
we have
F2
or
dr
Therefore the distances of the resultant from the given forces are inversely proportional to the magnitudes of the latter.
PROBLEMS.
Find the resultant force and the resultant torque due to the forces P and 2 P which act along the sides of a square, taken in order. 2. Three forces are represented in magnitude and line of action by the sides of an equilateral triangle. Find the resultant force, taking the
1.
P, 2 P, 4
The
form a right
isosceles triangle of
sides a, a,
and a \/2.
of the
The magnitudes
moments
The sum
same
Show
is
equivalent to a couple.
51
action
is
Three forces are represented in magnitude, direction, and line of by the sides of a triangle taken in order; prove that their resultant a couple the torque of which equals, numerically, twice the area of the
6.
triangle.
sides of
an
make
PI\'OTS.
Friction
on Journal Bearings.
If
of Fig.
38
fits
is
comes
a sliding friction, therefore the laws of sliding friction may be assumed to hold good. The most important of these laws is: the frictional force which comes into play
into play
is
is,
in the relation
independent of N. We will assume therefore that this law holds at each point of the surface of contact and thus reduce the problem under discussion to one of sliding friction. There is an important difference, however, between the problem under discussion and the problems on friction which we have already discussed. In the present problem the normal reaction is not the same at all the points of
n
is
We
must apply,
therefore, the
which the normal reaction may be considered to be constant. Let the element of surface be a strip, along the length of the shaft, which subtends an angle dd at the axis of the shaft. Further let dH be the normal reaction over this element of surface, and d be the corresponding frictional force; then we have dF= uidN = np'l'ade, where p is the normal reaction per unit area or the pressure, a is the radius of the shaft, and I the length of the bearing.
52
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
F=
and
nal
I 'p
de
G=
ixaH
f'p do.
In order to carry out the integral of the foregoing expressions we have to make some assumption with regard to the nature
Fig. 38.
of dependence of
p upon
6.
relation
between p and
6 it is
the sm*
component of the normal reaction must equal the load which rests upon the bearings. If P denotes this load, then p must satisfy the condifaces of contact, of the vertical
tion
P=
=
where
Jo
al
sin e
'dA
Jo
Ip sin d dd,
is
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE.
The normal pressure on the bearings
find the total frictional force
is
p=posmd;
and the
53
F we
obtain
F = nalpoCmidd^
=
make p
satisfy the condition
IMilpo.
we
P = airpsmdde.
Substituting the given value of p in the righthand
member
of the pre
ceding equation
we have
P=
_ ~
P
alpoC'sm^ddd
Jo
'
iralpo
= ^^'
2P
Therefore
F = '^P TT
G = aP. IT
and
It will
be observed that the total frictional force varies with the load and independent of the radius and of the length of the bearing; in other words it is independent of the area of contact.
is
/
PROBLEMS.
surfaces of contact, derive the expressions for the total frictional force
and
point of the surfaces of contact to be constant, derive the expressions for the total frictional force and the resisting torque due to friction.
3.
Derive expressions for the total frictional force and the resisting is given by the
posin'd.
58.
Friction
is
pivots also
54
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
is
arm of the
f rictional
force varies
is
constant
of the
dN
reaction
ment
39;
then
if
dF
denotes
we have dF^fidN
=
where p
sure.
;
fxp
dAy
is
Evidently p
con
dA
=
The
is
ira^np.
Fig. 39.
obtained as follows
G = rrdF
Jo
nix
=
=
where
IT
Jo
'
jj.pdA
rup
r^
rdd 'dr
up
dr
f TraVp
P is
55
friction in the
I'
2b
2.
Supposing the normal pressure to be constant, derive an expression due to friction in the conical pivot of the adjoining
3. In the preceding problem suppose the vertical component of the normal pressure to be constant. 4. In problem 2 suppose the horizontal component of the normal pressure to be constant.
6.
for
tho resisting torque, due to friction in the spherical pivot of the adjoining figure.
56
6.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Prove that the
resisting torque
due to
friction
is
pivot than for a solid pivot, provided that the load and the load per unit
Show
is
pivot
that the resisting torque due to friction for a hemispherical about 2.35 times as large as that for a flat end pivot.
ROLLING FRICTION.
59.
Consider a
cylinder,
is in equiUbrium on a rough horizontal plane under the action of a force S* In addition to this force the
cylinder
is
acted upon
by
its
weight and by the reaction of the plane. Applying the conditions of equilibrium we obtain
i:x
= sF=o,
Tf + iV=0,
SF=
:^Go^NDSd=0,
where F and N are the components of R, the reaction of the plane, while D and d are,
respectively, the distances of
the points of application of R and S from the point 0, about which the moments are taken. These equations give us
= V^2^TF2,
and
If the cylinder is just
(1)
(2)
motion
and consequently
F^fxN, S
^
(3)
57
and
(3),
we
obtain
nd.
D=
The
distance
(xrv)
is
Equation (XIV)
Friction Couple.
body
to
roll.
It is evident
tions that a change in the value of d does not aflfect the values
of
N and
is
F,
it
This
as
does not change the value of n. should be, since, according to the laws of shding
consequently
it
depends only upon the nature of the surfaces in change in d, however, changes the value of D; in other words, it changes the point of apphcation of R. When d = 0, that is, when S is applied at the point of contact, D = 0, in which case the body is urged to shde only. But when d is not zero the force S not only urges the body to slide but also to roll; therefore, in addition to the resisting force F, a resisting torque comes into play. This torque, which is due to the couple formed by N and W, is called
friction, n
contact.
PROBLEMS.
1.
gig
is
so constructed that
is
when the
The
gig rests
Find the
move
the gig.
Find the smallest force which, acting tangentially at the rim of a flywheel, will rotate it. The weight and the radius of the flywheel, the
radius of the shaft, and the coefficient of friction between the shaft and
its
rim.
between the axle and its bearings. The diameters of the wheel and the axle are 10 feet and 8 inches, respectively.
Find the
coefficient of friction
58
4.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
ground.
is
ground find the smallest weight which must be suspended at one end
of the horizontal diameter in order to
move
the wheel.
GENERAL PROBLEMS.
an Find the proportion of the weight carried by the legs when a particle is placed on the table. 2. A rectangular board is supported in a vertical position by two smooth pegs in a vertical wall. Show that if one of the diagonals is
1.
equilateral triangle.
parallel to the line joining the pegs the other diagonal is vertical.
3. A uniform rod rests with its two ends on smooth inclined planes making angles a and /8 with the horizon. Where must a weight equal to that of the rod be clamped in order that the rod may rest horizontally?
4.
uniform ladder rests against a rough vertical wall. Show that it can make with the horizontal floor on which it rests is
given by tan 6
for the floor
5.
coefficients of friction
respectively.
suspended by two equal strings attached to the ends. In position of equilibrium the strings are parallel and the bar is Find the torque which will turn the bar, about a vertical horizontal. axis, through an angle 9 and keep it in equilibrium at that position. 6. The line of hinges of a door makes an angle a with the vertical. Find the resultant torque when the door makes an angle jS with its equiuniform rod
librium position.
7.
The
magnitude
ifind
8.
b, c,
it acts upon and is Prove that the polygon will be in equilibrium if all the forces are directed towards the inside of the polygon. 9. A force acts at each vertex of a plane convex polygon in a direction parallel to one of the sides forming the vertex. Show that if the forces are proportional to the sides to which they are parallel and if their directions are in a cyclic order their resultant is a couple. 10. A uniform chain of length I hangs over a rough horizontal cylinder of radius a. Find the length of the portions which hang vertically when
Each
force
perpendicular to
59
is
/.
is on the point of motion under its own weight, (1) when a compared with I, (2) when it is not negligible compared witli
equal weights are attached to the extremities of a string which hangs over a rough horizontal cylinder. Find the least amount
Two
by which either weight must be increased in order to start the system to move. The weight of the string is negligible. 12. Three cylindrical pegs of equal radius and roughness are placed at the vertices of a vertical equilateral triangle the two lower corners of which are in the same horizontal line. A string of negUgible weight is attached to two weights and slung over the pegs. Find the ratio of the weights if they are on the point of motion. 13. A sphere laid upon a rough inclined plane of inclination a is on the
point of sliding.
14.
Show
weight
A w
fixed
on the
ring.
is
Show
that
if
greater than
A uniform rod is in equilibrium with its extremities on the interior rough vertical hoop. Find the limiting position of the rod. 16. A weight is suspended from the middle of a cord whose ends are attached to two rings on a horizontal pole. If w be the weight of each ring, /z the coefficient of friction, and / the length of the cord, find the greatest distance apart between the rings compatible with equilibrium.
16.
of a
CHAPTER
IV.
Simplification of Problems.
The
all
simplest
phenome
non
in nature
is
the result of innumerable actions and the factors which conrequire unlimited
reactions.
The
consideration of
phenomenon would
Fortunately the factors which enter into analytical power. dynamical problems are not all of equal importance. Often the influence of one or two predominate, so that the rest can be neglected without an appreciable departure from the actual problem. Any one who attempts to solve a physical problem must recognize this fact and use it to advantage by representing the actual problem by an ideal one which has only the important characteristics of the former. This was done in the last two chapters in which bodies were treated as single particles and rigid bodies, and the problems were thereby simpUfied without changing their character. The same procedure will be followed in discussing the equiUbrium of flexible cords, such as belts, chains, and ropes. These bodies will be represented by an ideal cord of negUgible crosssection
and
of perfect fiexibihty.
The
solution of
the idealized problems gives us a close enough approximaIf, however, closer approximation for practical purposes. tion is desired smaller factors, such as the effects of thickness and imperfect fiexibihty, may be taken into account. A cord is said to be perfectly flexible if it 62. Flexibility. ofifers no resistance to bending; in other words, in a perfectly flexible cord there are no internal forces which act in a
direction perpendicular to
its
length.
60
61
The
important features of a suspension bridge which should be considered in order to simpUfy the problem: 1. The weights of the cables and of the chains are small
of the roadbed.
The roadbed is practically horizontal. The distribution of weight in the roadbed may be
can, therefore, obtain a sufficiently close approxima
considered to be uniform.
We
tion
if
we
the chains have no weight and the distribution of weight in the roadbed
is
With
upon that
y
1
V
\
\
u
^ ^
'^K^^
f
fl
^k
Fio. 41.
f\
The
to the
forces are
tally at 0.
The tensile force To, which acts horizonThe tensile force T, which acts along the tangent curve at P. The weight of that part of the bridge
:
be the weight per unit is between and P. If length of the roadbed and x denotes the length O'P', then
which
SXs SFs
roi7'cos^=0; u)x}rsin0=O;
.'.
Tcos^n.
TsinB^wx.
(1)
.'.
(2)
62
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
It is evident from equation (1) that the horizontal component of the tensile force is constant and equals To. Squaring equations (1) and (2) and adding we get
T^
= To^^w^x\
(3)
Thus we see that the smallest value of T corresponds to and equals To, while its greatest value corresponds X =
to the greatest value of x.
If
is
\/t,
Wm'
In order to find the equation of the curve which the cable assumes we eliminate T between equations (1) and (2). This gives
tan
e
= X.
To
(4)
ax
we
get
2 To
where
c is the
constant of integration.
But with the axes we have chosen, y=0 when x=0. therefore c = 0. Thus the equation of the curve is
y=^^^\
which
is
(5)
Let
cable.
Then iorx =
,y=H,
(6)
fl=^^i)'.
It is evident
from the
is
last
the sag.
63
The
bridge
is
bridge has a weight of 1.5 tons per horizontal foot and has a span of 400 Supposing the dip of the bridge to be 50 feet find the values of feet.
the tensile force at the lowest and highest points of the cable.
64. Equilibrium of a Uniform Flexible Cord which is Suspended from Its Ends. The problem is to determine the nature of the curve which a .^ y perfectly uniform and flexi
ble cable will assume when suspended from two points. Let AOB, Fig. 42, be the curve. Consider the equilibrium of that part of the cable which is between the lowest point
under
consideration
is
The tensile force at the point 0, To. The tensile force at the point P, T. The weight of the. cable between the
Since the cable
the curve.
is
points
and P.
perfectly flexible To
and
are tangent to
or or
TcosO^To,
(1)
Tsiad^wa,
(2)
is
where
Squaring equations
(1)
and
(2)
r=ro' + ti;V.
Eliminating
T between
we
get
(4)
T tan
d,
which
is
64
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
In order to express equation
(4) in
terms of rectangular
coordinates
we
replace tan
by
ax
^ and obtain
(5)
w
But
ds^
dx
= dx^+dy^,
dy =
Vs2 +
a2
= VsHo^ + c,
where a =
and c
To
is
s=
0,
a,
then
= Vs^ + a^,
or s
= \^y^a\
and replacing
ds^
(7)
by
+ dy^) we have
dx'
+ dy' = 4^.' y^ a^
V?/2
dx=
^2
dy
ady
1 Va2ady i Va^ y^
where i=
(8)
1.
we
get
65
get
(9)
when x =
0,
therefore
c'
0.
Thus we
y = acos,
ix
= a cosh,
a
(10)
= ?(e^+ei),
(II)
which are
different forms of the equation of a catenary. Discussion. Expanding equation (12) by Maclaurin's Theoremf we obtain
In the neighborhood of the lowest point of the cable the value of X is small, therefore in equation (13) we can neglect all the terms which contain powers of x higher than the
second.
= a + fi 2a
(14)
It will
equation of a parabola.
is
and consequently the horizontal distribution of mass very nearly constant, which is the important feature of the Suspension Bridge problem. The nature of those parts of the curve which are removed from the lowest point may be studied by supposing x to be
X
large.
Then
since e~'
(11) re
duces to
y'l^
See
(15)
t Sec
Appendix
Avm.
Appendix At.
66
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
definition of
P and
from equax+P
tion (15)
we have
2y=e
Dividing equation (16) by equation (15) we get
p
(16)
2=6",
or
P=
Length of Cable.
a loge
2.
and
(11).
[e"
"j
(17)
1
^
1
"<
where the right member of equation (18) is obtained by expanding the righthand member of equation (17) by Maclaurin's Theorem. If D and L denote the span and the length of the cable, respectively, we have s = ^ L when x= ^ D. Therefore substituting these values of s and x in equation (18) and
replacing a
by
its
value
we obtain
w'
.D'
48
(19)
67
the cable is stretched tight To is large compared with Therefore the higher terms of the series may be neglected and equation (19) be put in the following approximate form.
w.
When
Hence the
is
^i^',
approximately.
PROBLEMS.
two smooth p<^, with its ends in the form of a catenary. If the two p^s are on the same level and at a distance D apart, show that the total length of the string must not be less than De, in order that ecjuilibrium shall be possible, where e is the natural logarithmic base. 2. In the preceding problem show that the ends of the cord will be on the Xaxis. 3. Supposing that a tel^raph wire cannot sustain more than the weight of one mile of its own length, find the least and the greatest sag allowable in a line where there are 20 poles to the mile. 4. Find the actual length of the wire per mile of the line in the pre1.
hanging
hangs
ceding problem.
6. The width The middle point
of a river
is
it.
Is* approximately i/
H*
is
Show
if
mini
mum
The posts are supposed to be evenly spaced and number. 7. A uniform cable which weighs 100 tons is suspended between two The lowet )oint of points, 500 feet apart, in the same horizontal line. the cable is 40 feet below the pointji of support. Find the smallest and
required by sagging.
large in
65.
Friction Belts.
The
flexible
is
in
68
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
at the ends of the cord,
it is
and the
in con
Fig. 44.
cord which
is
Consider the equiUbrium of an element of that part of the The element is in contact with the surface. acted upon by the following three forces: The tensile force in the cord to the right of the element. The tensile force in the cord to the left of the element.
The
Let the tensile force to the left of the element be denoted by T, then the tensile force to the right may be denoted by
T+
dT.
On
if
R denotes
the reaction of
element
will,
its
the surface per unit length of the cord, the reaction on the We is R ds, where ds is the length of the element.
as usual, replace
R by
its frictional
component F and
normal component N.
69
Taking the axes along the tangent and the normal through
the niicidle point of the element and applying the conditions
of equilibrium
i:A'
we obtain
0,
i:Y=Nds r8in^(r+dr)sin^ = 0,
or
dTcos +Fds =
2
do
0,
and
where dd
is
Ard82 7'sin^drsin^=0,
2
'
But
is
sup
posed to be perfectly
tangent
Therefore
6 is
the tangents, and consequently the angle between the normals, at the ends of the element.
indefinitely small its cosine approaches unity
itself, f
therefore
cos
in the last
=
dd 2
J and sm
.
do 2
= de
2
(1) (2)
and
NdsTdd\\dTde=0.
Neglecting the differential of the second order in equation (2) and then eliminating ds between equations (1) and (2)
we
get
^=d^=^dtf,
where m
*
(3)
is
The
negative
P (d)
and d are
70
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
equation and passing from the logarithmic to the exponential form, we have
where c is the constant of integration. If d is measured from the normal to the surface at the point where the righthand
side of the cord leaves contact
we obtain
c.
T=
To
when
0,
Applying
this con
T=
Discussion.
d
is
Toe*"".
(4)
Equation
It must be observed that measured in the same direction as F; in other words, opposite the Therefore T or To direction towards which the cord is urged to move. has the larger value according to whether 6 is positive or negative. As to be suspended from the righta concrete example suppose a weight hand end of the cord and to be held in equilibrium by a force F applied at from faUing the lefthand end. If F is just large enough to prevent then the cord will be on the point of moving to the right, therefore 6 is
F=
In case F
is
TFe""".
tive.
F=
Wef^.
The value of T drops very rapidly This fact with the increase of 6. is made clear by drawing the graph The graph of equation (4), Fig. 45.
*^"
^^
^^'
^
be constructed easily by making use of the halfvalue period of the If P denotes the period, then, by definition, the ordinate is reduced to onehaJf its value every time P is added to 6* We have therefore
may
curve.
ceding section
in equation (4)
this definition of P and the one given in the preaccounted for by the difference in the signs of the exponents and in equation (14) of the preceding section.
71
by the
last
equation
we
get
or
1 Pilog.2
()
i
Tlius
if
..
.7
.
<
(4)
and
(5)
"
Therefore taking 0.53 for
2*'
(6)
hemp
Hence
= 2 t, wc obtain
27.3.
Application to Belts.
other side.
The
is
tensile force
The
relation
between the
two sides of the belt is given by equation (4). Thus if Ti denotes the tensile force on the driving side and Ti that on the slack side, then
Ti
Tie"'
or
T,
T^e"'.
(4')
The
have
difference
between Ti and T2 is the effective force which Denoting the effective force by F, we
F=
= =
Ti
Tj
(7)
We
which we have obtained are applicable to actual problems only when the crosssection of the cord is negligible compared with that of the solid with which it is in contact.
72
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
PROBLEMS.
1.
weight of 5 tons
is
by means
steam windlass. If ju = 0.25 what force must a man exert at the other end of the rope? 2. By pulling with a force of 200 pounds a man just keeps from surging a rope, which takes 2.5 turns around a post. Find the tensile force at the other end of the rope, /i = 0.2. 3. A weight is suspended by a rope which makes li turns around a clamped pulley and goes to the hand of a workman. If n = 0.2, find the force the man has to apply in order (a) to support the weight, (b) to
of a rope which takes 3^ turns around the
of a
drum
raise
4.
it.
Two men,
each of
whom
On
men
can support
sailor
is
it
alone
if
the rope
makes
bow
is
used to keep the stern of a boat being turned by the engines. Find the pull
exerted by the boat upon the hawser under the following conditions
[Hint.
(5)
and
27r,
(6)
.]
(a)
e^l
6
0.2.
(g)
M
/x
= = = = =
0.1.
(b)
1
1
T,
'f,
= = =
0.5.
(h)
ft
^"^
0.4.
(0)6 =
(d)
ti
(i)
/I
fjL
(J)
e
ft
3T,
137r
ti
(e)e =
(f)
M =
/x
(k)
IX
^,
77r
0.2.
0)
ft
M =
0.5.
6.
an
effective force of
tensile force
(a)
on both
6
(b)
(c)
d d
(d)
= = = =
= = n = =
ju /x
fjL
0.5.
6 6 d d
0.4.
0.3. 0.5.
(g)
(h)
= = = =
m =
/x
0.2.
= n = n =
0.3.
0.5.
0.4.
7. In the preceding problem find the width of the belt, supposing the permissible safe tensile force to be 50 pounds per inch of its width.
CHAPTER
MOTION.
V.
FUNDAMENTAL MAGNITUDES.
66.
Analysis of Motion.
(b)
(c)
A A
moves.
is
covers.
(d)
An
covered.
67.
Relativity of Motion.
Reference System.
The
first
important inference to be drawn from the foregoing analysis is the fact that motion presupposes at least two bodies, namely, the body which is supposed to move and the body The words "motion" and to which the motion is referred. *'rest" become meaningless when applied to a single particle with no other body for reference. Whenever we think or talk about the motion of a particle we refer its motion,
consciously or unconsciously, to other bodies.
to which motion
is
The body
referred
is
The
fast
choice of a particular
question of convenience.
enough to disconmiode its occupants he will be blamed, not because he is moving at the rate of, say, 20 miles per hour with respect to the ground, but because he is moving
at the rate of 4 miles per hour with respect to the car.
In
and not the ground. On the other hand if the man wants to leave the moving car, it is of great importance for him to
73
74
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
is
going to land.
In this
The first two of the four Fundamental Magnitudes. we analyzed motion are similar; therefore three distinct conceptions are associated with motion. The first of these is the idea of body, or of matter; the second is that of distance, and the third is that of time. Distance and time are terms which are too familiar to be made clearer by definitions, therefore we will not attempt to define them. In their efforts to reduce natural phenomena to their simplest terms scientists have come to the conclusion that all physical phenomena are the result of motion. It is the main object of science to describe the comphcated phenomena of nature in terms of motion, in other words, to express all physical magnitudes in terms of the three magnitudes involved in motion. Therefore time, mass, and length are called fundamental magnitudes and all others derived
conceptions into which
magnitudes.
Fundamental Units. The units of time, length, and called fundamental units, while those of other magnitudes are called derived units.
69.
mass are
70.
The Unit
of
Time
is
mean
solar day,
and
is
71.
The Unit
of
Length
is
The
between two
parallel lines
drawn upon a
certain platinum
We
com
MOTION
pare and
ties.
76
bodies by means of these properIn selecting one of these properties to represent the
identif}^ different
body
in
fulfills
that it is intimately related to motion and that it is constant. Weight is often used to represent a body in its motion. So far as bodies on the earth are concerned weight is intimately connected with motion, but
Besides,
it
two conditions
is
not constant.
when bodies
have a
definite
meaning.
Therefore weight does not satisfy The property which serves the
purpose best is known as mass. It is intimately connected with motion and is constant.* The nature of this property will be discussed in the next chapter. Therefore we will content ourselves
by
defining
mass as
which
Unit of Mass.
is
is 1Qjfji
The
latter
is
Dimensions.
the composition of one derived magnitude in a manner different from the way they enter into that of a second. Length
alone enters into the composition of an area, while velocity
all three of the fundamental magnitudes combine in work and momentum. The expression which gives the manner in which time, length, and ma.ss combine to form a derived magnitude is called the dimensional formula of that magnitude. Thus the dimen
and momentum
[//]
are, respec
[A]^[L%
(r][L7l, and
 [MLr],
where A/, L, and T represent length, mass, and time. The exponent of each letter is called the dimension of the d
Cf.
101.
76
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Thus area has two dimensions in length dimension in both time and mass, while momenand zero tiun has one dimension in mass, one dimension in length, and minus one dimension in time. Magnitudes of different 75. Homogeneity of Equations. dimensions can neither be added nor subtracted. Therefore in a true equation the sum of the magnitudes of one kind which are on the left of the equation sign equals the sum of the magnitudes of the same kind which are on the
letter represents.
When all the terms of an equation have the same dimensions the equation is said to be homogeneous. The C.G.S. System is used in 76. Systems of Units. most of the civilized countries and by scientists all over the world. In this system the centimeter, the gram, and the second are the fundamental units. Englishspeaking people use another system, known as the British gravitational system, in which weight, length, and time are the fundamental magnitudes and the pound, the foot, and the second are the fundamental units. Thus the unit of time is the same in both systems. The following equations give the relation between the centimeter and the inch with an error of less than onetenth of one per cent.
right.
1 in.
1
The relation between the mass of a body which weighs one pound and the gram is given by the following equations
with an error of
less
kg.
pd.
= =
where kg.
is
while pd. denotes the mass of a body which weighs one pound in London and is often called poundmass. Denoting
MOTION
the pound (weight) by
2.205 lbs.
its
77
usual abbreviation
we have
VELOCITY.
77.
Displacement.
of a particle with
slightly
changed
it
is
said
to
have been
s,
displaced,
and the
its
vector
Fig. 46,
which has
origin at
its
is
terminus at the
78.
V
p
called a displacement.
Velocity.
dergoes
equal
a particle undisplacements in
If
o
p,Q
^
a is
have a constant
velocity.
In this
in
covered per second. When, therefore, a distance an interval of time t, the velocity is given by
8
covered
equal displacements are meant displacements equal Therefore conin magnitude and the same in direction. stant velocity means a velocity which is constant in direction as well as in magnitude.
By
The magnitude
is
of velocity
without regard to
its
direction
called speed.
motion.
following,
Therefore
we need a
at
which
is
perfectly general.
The
velocity of
a particle
any point of
it
its
path equals,
which
is in the
and has
maa
p. 100.
78
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
In order to express this definition of velocity in analytical
a changing speed.
of time
Pz,
The most
natural
is
way
of determining
which the particle takes to pass two points. Pi and which are equidistant from P, y
then to divide the distance P1P2 by This gives that interval of time. the average speed from Pi to P2, which may or may not equal the If, however, actual speed at P.
speed at P, because there is less o chance for large variations. If we Fig. 47. take Pi and P2 nearer and nearer the average speed approaches more and more to the value at
P.
P P ~
is
the
speed at P.
In other words
ds
(I)
is
is
a vector which has s for its magnitude and which gent to the path at the point considered, that is,
V
*
tan
s.
(10
The
Differential Calculus
Newton adopted a notation in which the derivative of a variable with respect to another variable is denoted by s. This notation is not convenient when derivatives are taken with respect to several variables. The notation introduced by Leibnitz is more convenient and is the notation which Newton's notation, however, is often used to denote is generally adopted. On account of the compactness of s differentiation with respect to time.
pendently.
s
ds
compared with
57,
we
will
MOTION
79.
79
of Velocity.
The
dimensions
is
of velocity are
The C.G.S.
cm,
unit of velocity
the
is
' .
The
80.
Let
v,
Fig. 48,
Fig. 48.
denote the velocity at P, then the magnitude of nent along the xaxis is
its
compo
v,=
V cos 6
=
as
ds
J
cos d
at
ds cos 6
dt
dx
(II)
'Jt='Similarly
dt
^'
and
dz
V,
z.
dt
Equations (II) state that the component of the velocity of a particle along any line equals the velocity of the projection of the particle
upon that
line, in
80
locity along
is
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
any direction equals the rate at which distance covered along that direction. The velocity and its components evidently fulfill the
V
relation
= VyT+^^Ty?.
moves
(Ill)
When,
in the
xyplane, 2
0,
therefore
(iir)
The
direction of
v, in this case, is
given
by
(IV)
tan
d=^,
X
a^axis.
where
6 is the
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE.
particle
Find the path, the velocity, and the components of the velocity of a which moves so that its position at any instant is given by the
X
following equations
at,
(a)
y=\gt\
Eliminating
t
(b)
between
(a)
and
(b),
we obtain
2a2
T
To
find the
y;
path
is
component velocities we
This gives
a,
differentiate (a)
and
(b)
with
X y
.'.
= =
giV
s/a^
gt'.
The horizontal compoDiscussion. nent of the velocity is directed to the right and is constant, while the vertical component is directed downwards and increases at a constant rate.
We
equations
is
Fig. 49.
body which
elevated position.
MOTION
PROBLEMS.
81
L
its
Find the path and the velocity of a particle which moves so that
position at
any instant
(a)
is
X X X
(b)
(c)
x^at,
y y
co/,
/ 2/
(d)
(e)
= = X =
<=
at,
a sin
(g)
2.
(0 X X
v
a a
= = = =
0/
^i.
b cos wf.
6<.
y y
a*',
= =
= Vx*
+ y* f i*.
81.
The
accord
dr
(1)
The
is
ob
tained
tor.
through
projection
moves through
is
= rde
dt
(2)
Fio. 60.
The components
and y by
Vr
and
v^
may
be expressed in terms of x
rxy
(8)
and
0>
?^ tan'
(4)
av
82
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Differentiating (3)
we obtain
_ ~ ~
dr
dt
_x
dx
,ydy
(5)
^r dt = ices 6 + y sin 6.
r dt
Differentiating (4)
we
v^
get
dd
^dt
j.^yyx
= y cos i sin
These components
satisfy the relation
d.
(6)
(7)
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE.
A
and
= =
a cos
kt,
(a) (b)
sin kt.
Find the equation of the path, the velocity at any instant, and the components of the latter. Squaring and adding (a) and (b) we eliminate t and obtain
x^
\
y^
a^
Differentiating (a),
we have
''~
dt
= ka sin = ky.
Differentiating (b),
kt
we obtain
dy
= =
ka cos kt
kx.
Fig. 51.
MOTION
Therefore
83
 Vi + V*  k Vx + y*
The
direc
Thus the
any
instant
tand
The components
to the path:
e.g.,
Vr
and
is
Vp
may
constant:
ds.
Therefore
and
dB
ds
ka.
'''di'^di
82.
Motion.
with
Fio. 52.
move with
Further
vj
Let the system of axes X'PtY' have Pt for its origin and its axes parallel to those of the system XOY.
yO and (xj, j/t) be the positions, and the velocities of Pi and Pj with respect to XOY.
let (xi,
vi
and
Then
84
if {x', y')
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
denotes the position and
v'
respect to X'PiY',
we
get
X ^
y'
Xi
Xi,
2/2.
= yi
to the
time
X =2^1
y'
X2j
Therefore
v'
(x2
+ y2)
(V)
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE.
Two
particles
move
speeds of v and 2 v. Find their relative velocities. Let the slower one be chosen as the reference particle, and
let
the angle
is
6.
of
Pi relative to P2
Vi'
Vi
V2.
But
Vi
1;
and
V2
=
v'
v,
therefore
 2y 2y = V V5 4 cos 6.
=
\/4
v2
.
cos
t;2
P.
Fig. 53.
Discussion.
of ^ is a multiple of
TT,
therefore cos 6
and
v'
v.
When
MOTION
of a diameter cos d
85
3
,
1,
therefore f/
p.
When
by an angle which
is
0; therefore
V5.
PROBLEMS.
1.
An
automobile
is
moving at the
is
rate of 30 miles
Two
on
What b
the veloci
A man
of height h walks
If
(a)
on a
level street
away from an
(6)
electric
man
is v,
with respect to
Two
particles
move,
this
train.
6.
an automobile party
On doubling the speed of the automobile the wind appears to come from the northwest. Fmd the actual direction and magnitude of the velocity of the wind.
traveling westward at the rate of 15 miles an hour.
7.
circle
Find the velocity of a particle moving on the circumference of a with uniform speed relative to another particle moving with equal
circle.
10.
Prove
tliat
x*
+ y 

r*^.
IL Prove
analytically that
r. Vy
p^costf
r^ sin
{
p,sind,
Py cos 9.
18.
r,
86
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
ANGULAR VELOCITY.
When the motion of a particle then the angle which the axial plane, i.e., the plane determined by the particle and the axis, describes, is called an angular displacement. Angular disvector magnitude placement is a which is represented by a vector drawn along the axis; as in the case of the vector representation
83.
Angular Displacement.
is
referred to
an
axis,
of a torque.
tions are
The
directional rela
the same;
that
is,
the
and
is
considered as positive
is
when
the rotation
It points
counterclockwise.
and
is
is
negative
relation
clockwise.
The
may
be found from a
ds cos
<i>
where ds
is the linear displacement of the particle P, dd is the corresponding displacement about an axis through the is perpendicular to the plane of the paper, and point
<f>
the angle ds makes with the normal to the axial plane. When r is constant is zero, and the particle describes a circle, in which case the last equation becomes
</>
dd=
~
r
or

MOTION
84.
87
Unit Angle.
In
6=1 when =
r;
by an arc equal
to the radius
Angular Velocity.
Why?
time rate at which the axial plane sweeps over an angle. When constant it is numerically equal to the angle swept over per second. If we denote the angular velocity by ca its magnisimilar to that of linear velocity.
tude
is
defined
by
Angular velocity is a vector quantity which is represented by a vector drawn along the axis of rotation. The vector points towards the observer when the rotation is counterclockwise, and away from the observer when it is clockwise. The angular velocity is said to be positive in the first case and negative in the second case. Angular velocity has the dimensions of the reciprocal of time.
in]
[r'j.
is
The
'
sec.
The
of a particle
between the linear and the angular velocities may be obtained from equations (VI) and (I).
dd
"""dt
dsco9>4t
dt
PCO80
r
(VII)
88
where
Vp is
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
the component of the Unear velocity in a direction
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE.
A
its
v.
Find
on the
cir
cumference and perpendicular to the plane of the circle. Let P (Fig. 55) be the position
of the particle
Move
the par
from P to P' and denote the linear and angular displacements by ds and dd respectively. Then the angle subtended by PP' at is onehalf that subtended at C.
Hence
dd=^d<}>
^Ids
'
2 a
dd
dt
2 a dt
~
Thus the angular
particle
v_
2a'
is
velocity about
PROBLEMS.
The radius of the earth is 4000 miles and that of its orbit 93 million Compare the angular velocities of a point on the equator with miles. respect to the sun at midday and midnight.
1. 2. In what latitude is a bullet, which is projected east with a velocity 1320 feet per second, at rest relatively to the earth's axis; the radius being taken as 4000 miles?
of
MOTION
89
8. A belt passes over a pulley which has a diameter of 30 inches and which makes 200 revolutioius per minute. Find the linear speed of the belt and the angular speed of the pulley. i. The wheels of a bicycle, which are 75 cm. in diameter, make 5000 Find the speed of the rider; the angular revolutions in 65 minutes. speed of the wheels about their axles; the relative velocity of the highest
A point moves with a constant velocity V Find its angular velocabout a fixed point whose distance from the path is a. 6. A railroad runs due west in latitude X. Find the velocity of the train if it always keeps the sun directly south of it. 7. Fiml the expression for the angular velocity of any point on the rim of a wheel of radius a, moving with a velocity v, the wheel is supposed to be rolling without slipping. Discuss the values of the velocity for
6.
ity
special points.
8.
the rim with respect to the center of the wheel, and the velocity of the
center with respect to the point of contact with the ground.
9.
The end
is
If
the
origin
outside the circle find the velocity along and at right angles to
the vector.
10.
and discuss
it.
ACCELERATION.
When the velocity of a particle changes have an acceleration. The change may be in the magnitude of the velocity, in the direction, or in both; further it may be positive or negative. Therefore the term
86.
Acceleration.
it is
said to
Retardation
is
negative acceleration.
in a straight path with a velocity which increases or dimini.shes at a constant rate its acceleration equals, numerically, the change in the velocity per second and is said to be constant
If the particle
moves
where
f is
vi
and
vs
90
Since
vi
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
and
V2
are in the
same
be a
The
is
and
manner
in
The magnitude
of
its
any point
which
instant
velocity
changes at the
The
this definition
may
be obtained
Sup
pose
it
is
acceleration at
ities at
P (Fig. 56) Let vi and V2 denote the veloctwo neighboring points Pi and P2. Then the ratio
f
= V2t
Vl
t,
which
it
move
from Pi to
P2.
Therefore
f is
In general this average acceleration But by taking will not be the same as the acceleration at P. the difference nearer and nearer to P between the and P2 Pi
that interval of time.
average acceleration and the required acceleration may be made as small as desired. Therefore at the limit when Pi, P,
and P2 become successive positions of the particle, the average acceleration becomes identical with the acceleration at P, and the last equation takes the form
f
=
v.
(VIII)
MOTION
It
91
the vector difference of
is
which
87.
is,
in general, different
The
Thus
unit of acceleration
C.G.S. unit

sec.
Therefore the
or
'.
if
the velocity of a
sec.^
particle increases
by an amount
of one
cm
during each
unit of
sec.
second
it
The engineering
acceleration
sec. 2
PROBLEMS.
1.
unit.
2.
c J find
its
value
ft.
and
miles
;
^^^
sec'
hr.^
8.
A

train
moving at the
ft.
to rest in
two minutes.
cm.
;
terms of
rate of 30 kilometers per hour is brought Find the average acceleration and express it in J km. and
z
sec'
88.
sec*
hr.'
Components of Acceleration along Rectangular Axes. Suppose a particle to describe a path in the xyp\a.ne. Then if vi and V2 be the velocities at two neighboring points, we can write dv = V2 vi = (x2+ y2)(xi+ yi) = dxf dy. dx dy , ^ dv
dt
dt
v,
dt
But
since
fx
+f
^'^^'
dt^dt
92
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
last
The
^'~
dx
dt
and
f=5^
dt
dy
Therefore the component of the acceleration along a fixed line equals the time rate of change of the component of the
velocity along that line.
It follows
from the
last
d^ _ """'
..
dt
(IX)
"^
dt
f=VWW,
tan
(X)
(XI)
5=^,
a:axis.
where
89.
6 is
the angle
The
tangential
component
of the acceleration at
(Fig. 57)
equals the rate at which the velocity increases along the diIn order to find this rate we rection of the tangent at P.
consider the velocities at two neighboring points Pi and P2.
be the velocities at these points and ci and 2 vi and V2 make with the tangent at P. Then the change in the velocity along the tangent at P,
Let
vi
and
V2
is
ei.
Dividing this by the corresponding interval of time we obtain the average rate at which the velocity increases from
MOTION
Pi to Pi along the tangent at P.
tangential acceleration
is
V2
93
Therefore the average
/.=
COS
t^l
COS
This average approaches the actual tangential acceleration at P as Pi and P2 are made to approach P as a limit. But
Fig. 57.
the angles
ci
and
C2
approach
Therefore
and
their cosines
approach unity.
is
limit
<*0
p'"
L
dv
_d^
~
dt'
_..
''
By
similar reasoning
/
we obtain
^2
sin
2 t
Vi
sin
normal acceleration between Pi and P2. The P is the Hmiting value of this expression as Pi and P2 approach P. But as these points approach P, vi and Vz approach v, the velocity at P, while
for the average
94
sin
i
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
2,*
respectively.
Therefore
limit
y7
^,
(XII)
=  ^^ = where
9
i+ei
is
the rate at
which
But the
direction equals
Therefore
if p
we have
and
f=y
(XIII) shows that/
(^"I)
and
p are
measured
in opposite directions.
must
Since p is measured from the center be directed towards the center of curis
vature.
always directed
The
section
(a)
and the conclusions to be drawn from them. The magnitude of the tangential acceleration is
v\
(6)
The normal
acceleration
is
of curvature
and has
for its
Jn
*
magnitude;
MOTION
(c)
95
is
The magnitude
given by
the relation
(d)
y=
y/ y2
__
v^ _^.
The
total acceleration
is
defined
by
tan^ = ^=^.
(e) When the path is straight, that is, when p = oo the normal acceleration is nil; therefore in this case the total
,
acceleration
(J)
is
When
=
r,
the path
circular
then p
r
90.
Let
be any point
is
of the path at
to be considered.
neighboring points Pi and P2, and let vi and vz be the velocities at these points. Then the change in the radial velocity
from Pi to P2 is obtained by subtracting the radial component of vi from that of va. Replace vi and V2 by their components along and at right angles to ri and rj, respectively, and denote these components by Vr Vp, and Vr,, Vp,; then it will be seen from the figure that
in going
(^r,
COS
62
yp,
sin
2)
{Vr,
cos
ci
f Vp, sin n)
is
Therefore the
radial
component
"^
of the acceleration
<2
is
ci
/ =
limit r <*o L
^" ^^^
 ^P. sin 6a i
Vr,
cos
t;p.
sin f{\
J
where t is the time taken by the particle to go from Pi to Pj. But as the points Pi and P2 approach P as a hmit, the following substitutions
become
permissible.
96
COS
i
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
cos
62
1*,
Wp,
sin
ei
=
Wp,
ei,
sin
62
62.
Vr, 
Vr, =
dVr,
Vp, =
1 + 62 =
dd.
Making these
we obtain
limit n'''''^''''<^'
+ '') 1
_dvr _
do
dh
dt^
(XIV>
'\dtl'
a;axis.
where
e is
Fig. 58.
By
similar reasoning
we obtain
the component of
See Appendix
An.
MOTION
f
'
97
sin
ei
*^"
^^
limit r
*o
gg
t^p.
cos
t2
(^
t^r.
+t^p.
cos tQ l
J
limit [
"<"
")+<'''
""'^
dr
s,
i(rM,
o> is
(XV)
where
PROBLEMS.
1.
y 2px so that its velocity Find the total velocity and the
the expressions for the path, velocity, acceleration, and the various com
last
two
y
= = =
at,
a/,
a**,
y y
(d)
(e)
(f)
x x x
= = =
at,
y y y
a/,
acosut,
= = =
he''*.
h sin w<.
ht.
4.
t the velocity and the acceleration of a particle ay and y = ax. particle describes a circle of radius a with a constant speed v.
Find
6.
/x, fy,
Work
91.
Angular Acceleration.
Angular acceleration
du)
is
the time
Therefore, denoting
by
7,
we have
'"'di^'^
(XVI)
dt'
'
If the
1
rad
'
in
is
said to
1 sec.
98
acceleration.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Therefore the unit
is
the
'.
The dimen
sec.^
by
[T~^].
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE.
A particle moves
are given
its
position at
any instant
by the equations
X y
Find the acceleration and its components. In a previous illustrative example, p. 82, it was shown that these equations represent uniform circular motion, with the following data:
V
Vx
03
Vr
= =
k,
0,
Vp
ka.
Therefore
fx
=~
k^(^
cos kt
dvjr
fy
'"^
dt
__ ~
uif,
"'''
_n f _ JrV0,
,;
f^id,
^^"r dr'^
(a
'"''""'
0.
._
^""
v^
p"
ka^.
k^a^
= k =
dt
PROBLEMS.
1.
in
2 minutes.
2.
Find the average angular acceleration. flywheel making 250 revolutions per minute
is
retarded by a
constant acceleration of
'
How many
sec.=^
wheel
3.
make
before stopping?
it
come to
4. Find the angular velocity and angular acceleration of a particle which moves in a maimer defined by the following pairs of equations
(a)
(b) p
(c)
(d)
6.
= = p = p =
p
6 6 6 e
cof
= = = =
b sin h cos
bt. bt.
ost. oot.
it.
MOTION
GENERAL PROBLEMS.
Rnd
motion
is
99
the velocity, the acceleration, and the path of a particle whose defined by the following pair of equations
1.
X X
2.
3. 4.
6. 6. 7.
X X X
x2
X
x*
8. 9.
X
x^
= = = = = = = = =
ac**,
y
ut,
asinco^,
a sin
asin {wt
+ 8), + 5),
= he^*. = a sin 2 ut. y bcos2 ut. y = bsin (cot + 5). y = bcos {o}t + 5). y = (U^.
y y
y^
=
= = =
bx.
10.
+ y^ = a\
+ y'
bK
CHAPTER
VI.
MOTION OF A PARTICLE.
KINETIC REACTION.
92.
Kinetic Reaction.
which we found so useful in studying equihbrium, is apphcable not only to problems of equilibrium but also to those of motion. In applying it to motion, however, we must extend the meaning of the term ''reaction" so as to include a form of reaction which is known as kinetic reaction. In
order to understand the nature of kinetic reaction consider
the following ideal experiment:
Suppose you hold one end of a long elastic string, the other end of which is attached to a rectangular block placed upon a perfectly horizontal and smooth table. Let another
person pull the block along the plane of the table and thereby While the string is being stretched you stretch the string. have to exert a force on it in order to keep your end of it fixed. At any instant the force with which you pull the string equals and is opposite to the force with which the string pulls your
hand.
rected.
The action equals the reaction and is oppositely diThe same is true about the block and the person who
holds
it.
What
is
will
happen
if
the block
is
released?
Will
the force which the string exerts on your hand cease as soon
as the block
released?
No.
The
string pulls
on
until it
The elasticity of the string urges it to assume its natural length. But this cannot be accomplished without moving the block. Therefore the string moves the But in order to start the block the string must exert block. it, and this in spite of the fact that the weight of force on a
place instantaneously.
100
MOTION OF A PARTICLE
the block
block.
is
101
of the plane so
exactly balanced
by the reaction
move
the
Therefore
it
we conclude
attempt to start
offers resistance to
into motion. In other words, the block a force which accelerates it. This resist
is
similar to frictional
and
namely,
is
it is
not aggressive.
itself
The
its
kinetic
state of
is
reaction of a
rest or of rest or
body manifests
only when
motion
interfered with.
body which
at
any
its
set in
motion or
changed kinetic reaction appears; further the kinetic reaction of a body is greater the greater the acceleration imparted to it. 93. Generalization of the Law of Action and Reaction. When the terms ''action" and "reaction" are used so as to mean kinetic reactions as well as forces and torques, then the law is directly applicable to problems of motion as well as to problems of equilibrium. It will be remembered that in Chapter III the law was split into two sections, of which the second section is not appHcable to single particles. Therefore we need to consider here only the first section, which
velocity
states
To every linear action there is always an equal and opposite linear reaction, or the sum of all the linear actions to which a body or a part of a body is subject at any instant vanishes.
SA, =
0.
(A,)
If we replace the term "linear action" by the terms "force" and "linear* kinetic reaction" the law may be put
The
adjective "linear"
is
is
rclivted to forces
related to torques.
102
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
The sum of all the forces acting upon a body plus the linear kinetic reaction equals zero, or the resultant of all the forces acting upon a body equals and is opposite to the linear kinetic reaction.
Sum
or
of all forces
+ linear
kinetic reaction
Resultant force
= (linear
(A/)
kinetic reaction).
Now let
ing section.
us apply the law to the experiment of the precedAfter the block is released it is acted upon by
its
The law
states
is
balanced the pull of the string is the Therefore the kinetic resultant force.. reaction of the block equals the pull of the string and has a direction opposite to that in which the block is pulled. 94. Definition of Mass. In the block
experiment suppose the free end of the string to be connected to a spring balance which is fixed on the table, Fig. 59. Further suppose the block to be set in motion as in the previous experiment. Let one person observe the readings of the balance and another the acceleration
of the block.
If Fi, F^, Fz, etc.,
denote
Fig. 59.
it
fol
?J.
?J
/a
= W,
(I)'
/2
MOTION OF A PARTICLE
where
103
w is a constant.
The constant
But
states that
is
of proportionality, m,
called the
mass
of the block.
for mass.
We
body by
the
magnitude of
acceleration.
95.
Measure
of Kinetic Reaction.
and a block, set up on a smooth horizontal Let two persons attend to each set of apparatus: one to observe the readings of the balance and the other to
table.
observe the acceleration of the block. Suppose the blocks to be set in motion as in the last experiment, and the pull
registered by each balance observed at an instant when the corresponding block attains a certain definite acceleration /.
denote the readings of the balances and mi, m^, m^, etc., the masses of the blocks, it will be found that the following relations hold good
if
Then
^ = ^ = ^==/. mi
7^2 7W3
(II)
Equations
(II)
state that
accelera
Therefore equations
action of a
its
(I)
body
is
mass by
(III)
acceleration; that
kinetic reaction
= kmf,
where k
is
the
constant of proportionahty.
When
in
the
becomes unity,
m/.
which
(HI')
104
If
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
to express the fact that kinetic reaction
we want
and ac
we put
and
write,
kinetic reaction
= wf.
(IV)
Equations (I) and (II) and consequently equation (IV) hold good not only when the acceleration is due to a change
in the
a change
is
due to
this fact
60, be a particle attached to the end of an inextensible string, which passes through the hole 0, in the middle of the smooth and hori
Let P, Fig.
is
fastened
If
we
OP we
a circle point with a speed about the 0, equal to the speed of projection. We will further observe that the balance registers a pull.
U
5
3
Fig. 60.
Now
during
forces,
let
its
us examine the forces experienced by the particle motion. The particle is acted upon by three
its
namely,
per
Thus the particle is pulled toward the point O, but somehow manages to keep the same distance from it; and this in spite of the fact that it is not acted upon by forces which would counterbalance the pull of the string. The explanation is plain. While
the resultant force.
MOTION OF A PARTICLE
particle
is
105
accelerated.
is, the particle is being Therefore kinetic reaction manifests itself and acts in a direction opposed to that of the acceleration, that is,
away from the point O. Hence the pull of the string. But the pull which comes into play is just enough to overcome the kinetic reaction, therefore the particle neither
approaches to, nor recedes from, the point 0. Suppose we project the particle with different velocities, observe the corresponding readings of the spring balance,
the normal acceleration, p. 94. Let Fi, F^, Fz, etc., denote the readings of the balance and /i, fi, /a, etc., denote the
accelerations; then
we
between
by equations
(I).
if
On the
other hand
we
to the string
Therefore
opposed to the latter. The kinetic reaction of the last experiment may be differentiated from that of the experiments of sections 92 and 94 by emphasizing the fact that the former comes into play when there is a normal acceleration, while the latter manifests itself whenever there is acceleration along the tangent.
acceleration
is
and
The
is
the vector
sum
of
the two.
The
(a)
few sections
may
be
summed up
m'v
in
the following
manner
and
has a
mv,.
(IV')
106
(b)
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
The normal
kinetic reaction has a
to that of the
magnitude
and In
normal
acceleration.
away from
(IV")
The
a magnitude
my/
^
'v^\
V*

p2
and has a
= mv.
(IV)
FORCE EQUATION.
96.
Force Equation.
=
Equation
the mass
(V)
is
mv.J
It states that
the
upon a
by the
acceleration
the latter.
Since the magnitude of v
is
y^
v^ +
vector notation
(VI)
F=
m\/v'
+ ~^.
In equation (VI) v represents that part of the acceleration which is due to the change in the magnitude of the velocity
is
direction.*
97.
Componentforce Equations.
Splitting
equation (V)
to the di
into
MOTION OF A PARTICLE
rections of the tangent
107
we obtain
mv,
(VII)
(VIII)
and
F=m.
p
The negative
component
path.
(VI)
sultant force
The last two equations may be obtained directly from by considering them as the force equations for special Thus when the path of the moving particle cases of motion. is a straight line p = oo, and consequently
F=
mv.
(Vir)
On
when
the particle
speed y =
and
therefore
F= m~'
p
(Vlir)
change, that
is, if
the particle
F= my
where
r is the radius of the circle.
(VIII")
The following is a useful set of componentforce equations obtained by sphtting equation (V) into three component equations which correspond to the directions of the axes of
a rectangular system:
(IX)
Equations (IX) emphasize the fact that the component of the resultant farce along any direction equals tfie product of
108
the
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
mass by
the
component of
same
direction.
98.
When the
member of the force equation vanishes, that is, when the acceleration is nil, the resultant force vanishes. But this is the condition of the equilibrium of a particle,
righthand
a case of motion in which acceleration is zero. For the equilibrium of a particle it is necessary that the resultant force vanish, but this condition is not sufficient because while the acceleration vanishes when F = 0, the velocity may have any constant value. In other words a particle may be in motion even when the resultant of the forces which act upon it vanishes. Therefore in order that a particle stay at rest not only must the resultant of the forces
therefore equilibrium
is
vanish but
99.
it
must be
these forces.
of bodies
Dimensions of Force. In discussing the equilibrium we only compared forces because it was all that was
necessary; besides
we had no means
of expressing forces in
terms of other physical magnitudes. But now the force equation enables us to express forces in terms of the three fundamental magnitudes and thus to connect them with
other physical quantities.
If
we
we obtain
The C.G.S. unit of force is the dyne. Units of Force. a force which gives a body of one gram mass a unit This is denoted symboUcally by the following acceleration.
100.
is
It
formula:
sec.^
The
is
we have
body
already defined
MOTION OF A PARTICLE
109
which has a mass of about 453.6 gms. The weight of a bodyis the force with which it is attracted towards the center of the earth. Therefore if m denotes the mass of a body and g the magnitude of the acceleration which the gravitational
attraction of the earth imparts to bodies, the force equation gives us
W = mg,
where
earth.
(X)
is
The value
of ^ is
and
The maximum
therefore for
variation, however,
it
is less
most purposes
32.2
'
or 981
'
are close
in
sec.^
sec.''
any
be
The
relation
may
Thus
pd.
ft.
32.2
sec/
ft.
32.2
pd.
sec."
= 4.45X10'SHLcm:
sec.''
4.45
10*
dynes,
where "lb." is the symbol for the pound (weight) and "pd." the symbol for the mass of a body which weighs one pound. In order to emphasize the distinction between the two they are often called poundweight and poundmass.
101.
Difference between
it
The beginner
often finds
body and
this,
its
"When
between the mass of a weight. He is apt to ask such a question as I buy a pound of fruit what do I get, one
difficult to distinguish
110
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
poundmass or one poundweight?"* The difficulty is due to the fact that the common methods for comparing the
masses of bodies make use of their weights. There are two general methods by which masses may be compared, both of which are based upon the force equation. Let Fi and F2 be the resultant forces acting upon two bodies having masses mi and rrh, and /i and fi be the accelerations produced. Then the force equation gives
Fi F2
= mji, =
m^J^,
and
(1)
= ^*7" m2
F2 /i
If
last
equation becomes
^F\
F2
nh
This gives us a method of comparing masses, of which the common method of weighing is the most important example.
" The fruit * This question may be answered in the following manner. which you get has a mass of 1 pd. (about 453.6 gm.) and which weighs 1 lb. If the fruit could be shipped to the moon during the (about 4.45 X 10^ dynes) passage the weight would diminish down to nothing and then increase to about onesixth of a pound. The zero weight would be reached at a point about ninetenths of the way over. Up to that position the weight would be with respect to the earth, that is, the fruit would be attracted towards the earth; but from there on the weight would be with respect to the moon. The mass of the fruit, however, would be the same on the earth, during the passage, and on the moon. It would be the same with respect to the moon as it is with Mass is an intrinsic property of matter, therefore it respect to the earth. does not change. Weight is the result of gravitational attraction; consequently it depends upon, (a) the body which is attracted, (b) the bodies which attract it, and (c) the position of the former relative to the latter. It is evident therefore that when a body is moved relative to the earth its weight
.
changes."
MOTION OF A PARTICLE
and W2 denote the weights of two bodies and ni2, then by equation (X) we obtain
If TFi
111
of masses
mi
Wi = W2 =
and
where g
is
1
ntig,
nhg,
T=,
mi = Wi
the
common
attraction.
(2) If the forces acting upon the bodies are equal the masses are inversely proportional to the accelerations
mt
/i
This gives us the second method by which masses may be compared. The following are more or less practicable appUcations of this method (a) Let A and B (Fig. 61) be two bodies connected with a long elastic string of negligible mass, placed on a perfectly
FiQ. 61.
smooth and horizontal table. Suppose the string stretched by pulling A and B away from each other.
evident that
force, that
to be
It is
when
same
for
both
bodies. Therefore if f\ and /j denote their accelerations at any instant of their motion, the ratio of their masses is given by the relation
Tnt
fi
(b)
112
to be fitted
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
on a smooth horizontal rod
it.
they
If,
If
the rod
is
away from
however, the bodies are connected by a string of negligible mass they occupy positions
on the two sides of the axis, which depend upon the ratio of the masses. So far as the motion along the rod is concerned, each body is equivalent to a particle of the
same mass placed at the center of mass of the body.* Suppose, as it is assumed
in
Fig. 62,
the horizontal
Fig. 62.
smooth inner
wall; further
Then
if
at the center of
a particle of equal mass is nected by means of a massless string of proper lengths, the positions of the particles will remain at the centers of mass of the given bodies even when the rod is set rotating about
the vertical axis.
on the mass of each body placed and the two particles conlie
Now
and
let
rrii
of the particles
and
/i
/2 their accelerations
of the
tube
Then
the same at
F = mji =
or
nh
*
/i
of this statement see p. 242.
For a proof
MOTION OF A PARTICLE
But
if ri
113
denote the distances of the particles from the axis of rotation, and P the period of revolution, then
rz
and
/=
Therefore
=p^
and
/,=
 = _^.
^
Case
I.
Rectilinear Motion.
Suppose
which
a particle of
is
mass
gives
to be acted
upon by a
force F,
constant in
Then
Since both
constant.
/,
the acceleration,
is
also
Integrating equation
(I')
once
we
obtain
=ft
\c,
where
a constant to be determined by the initial conLet the initial velocity be denoted ditions of the motion. by Vo] then v= Vq, when t = 0, therefore c= Vq and
c is v
Vo^ft.
(1)
Substituting
ds
j
and
integrating,
at
s^Vothhft^^C.
Let
s
0,
when t =
0; then c'
0.
Therefore
(2)
(2)
8 =Vot\hft'.
Eliminating
between equations
(1)
and
we
get
(3)
t;2=t'o'+2/s.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Equations of Motion.
(1), (2),
114
103.
The
The
force equation
v,
equations
and
(3),
which connect
force
s,
called equations
of motion.
equation will be
are obtained
force equation will be called the integral equations of motion. 104. Special Cases: A. Motion when the Force is Zero.
by integrating the
When
is
zero.
There
become
v= Vo= = VqI.
const.,
B.
Falling Bodies.
fall
body is its weight TTzg. Therefore the acceleration of the motion is g, the gravitational acceleration due to the
ing
So long as the distance through very small compared with the radius of the earth, g may be considered to remain constant. Therefore the motion of falling bodies may be treated as a special case of rectilinear motion under a constant force. Hence the equations of motion of a falling
attraction of the earth.
falls
is
in equations (1) to
When a body falls from rest the initial velocity is zero. Therefore we must put Wo = in the last three equations
before using
them
is
from
rest.
When
tion
is
a body
projected vertically
upward the
accelerain other
words,
negative.
MOTION OF A PARTICLE
g
115
must be replaced by {g) before they are applied to the motion of bodies which are projected vertically upwards.
PROBLEMS.
L A
and
steel plate
weighing 10 pounds
is
The
Is it necessary to
apply a force to the string in order to give the plate a desired velocity?
Why?
2.
What
will
sec.
in
5 seconds.
3.
How
Find the tension of the string supposing it to be constant. have traveled in the meantime? In the preceding problem the string is just strong enough to support
What
is
have a
6.
In the preceding problem suppose the contact to be rough and to coefficient of friction equal to 0.1.
bullet
is
fired
Find the
stone
.
is
of 10
sec.
How
will it
move
if
the coefl&cient of
friction
7.
is
0.1?
An
and
rises to
in
man
in the elevator
pounds.
8.
A man
lift
can just
in
lift
How much
can he
9.
when
ft
it
^.?
sec.*
An
and
rises
a constant
if
Find the tension of the rope which pulls the elevator weighs 2000 pounds; neglect the frictional forces.
10.
up
at
body
is
projected vertically
upward with a
velocity of 50
'
sec.
bottom? 11. What is the lowest level, over the enemy's camp, to which a balloon can safely descend, if the enemy is provided with guns which have muzzle velocities of 2000 feet per second?
will it strike the
When
116
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
12. A body, which is dropped from the top of a tower, strikes the ground half a second after it passes by a window 84 feet above the sidewalk. Find the height of the tower. 13. In the preceding problem find the velocity with which the body
14.
A man
of a
window 50
of the elevator.
How long
will it
if
the elevator
is
ft
^ ? sec.
106.
There
are
two
is
forces acting
of the plane.
The weight
downwards.
the plane,
mg
is
and acts
The
N,
reaction of
normal to
smooth.
Therefore setting
the
sum
of the corresponding
components
of the forces
we
obtain
dv = w^
mg sm a,
A^
and
=
last
mg cos
a.
The
up
to zero
equation states that forces along the normal add and therefore do not affect the motion. We
first
equation, which
dv
dt
= gsma =
const.
MOTION OF A PARTICLE
117
Therefore the equations of motion are obtained by subThus we have stituting g sin a for/ in equations (1) to (3).
V
s
= = v^ =
Vo
{
gt sin a,
Vot\ ^ gt^
t>o^
sin a,
+ 2 gs sin a,
PROBLEMS.
1.
height.
number of particles slide down smooth inclined planes of equal Show that the time taken by each particle to reach the base is
it
shdes.
Given the base of an inchned plane, find the height so that the horizontal component of the velocity acquired in descending it may be
greatest possible.
down a smooth
one up and the other Find the velocities of projection if the particles pass each other at the middle of the plane. 4. Show that the time taken by a particle to slide down any chord
3.
Two
inclined plane.
circle is
"/". where a
6.
is
circle.
particle
I
projected
down an
h.
inclined
plane of length
and height
time another particle is let fall the same point. Find the velocity of the projection of the
first
particle
if
pier.
will
Show that the length of the chute which make the time of sliding down it a miniis
mum
d y/2.
107.
Rough
last
The
only
dif
and the
one
is
is
plane
On
account of friction
the reaction
the plane.
Denoting
118
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
the frictional component of R by F and the normal component by N, and equating the components of the kinetic reaction along and at right angles to the plane to the simis of the corresponding components of the forces we obtain
m
But
if
/x
= mg sin a
F,
(a)
=
is
N mg cos a.
[p.
(b)
F=fjiN
22]
(b)].
= nmg cos a
Substituting this value of
[by
in equation (a)
we obtain
mzor
dv
at
dv
37
(sm
a n cos a),
Therefore the equations
Thus the
acceleration
is
constant.
by
/x
cos a)
= = v^ =
V
Vq
\
gt (sin
VQt\
gt^ (sin
fo^
+ 2 gs (sin a
PROBLEMS.
cos a).
1.
is
If the
frictional resistance is 15
poxmds per
Find the velocity it can Take 10 pounds per ton for the resistance and consider the tracks to be horizontal. 3. In the preceding problem suppose the tracks to have a grade of 1 in 200 and find the velocity (a) going down grade and (b) going up grade.
2.
The
pull of a locomotive is
2500 pounds.
MOTION OF A PARTICLE
108.
11
equations of
The problem is to find the motion of two particles connected by means of a string of negligible mass which is slung over a smooth pulley. Let mi and rrh be the masses of the particles. Then considering each partiE. Atwood's Machine.
cle separately
we obtain
the following
wi =
nh
where T
is
T^mig,
(a)
= T m29,
T between
equations
(b)
Eliminating
and
(b)
we obtain
(mi
+ '^) j7 =
dv
dt
('"i
~ ^)
9
Of
(c)
rrii
m^
(d)
Fio. 65.
mi +
7^2
Therefore the acceleration is constant and consequently the equations of motion are obtained by substituting this value of the acceleration in equations (1) to (3) of page 113:
mi mi
mi +
Eliminating
TTh
dv
between equations
(a)
and
(b)
we have
(e)
2mim2
Ttlit
Vh
120
Discussion.
consider
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Instead
we can
them
as a single
Thus
(total
moving mass)
(mi
(acceleration)
rriig
= sum
m^g,
of the forces,
or
= + mz) at
which
is
PROBLEMS.
1.
Two
particles of
mass Wi and
is
ntz
are suspended
by a
string
which
is
to itself
it will
move with an
acceleration of
niz
+ m2 + mj
2. In the preceding problem suppose the table to be rough and find the acceleration, fx = 0.5. 3. Discuss Atwood's machine supposing a frictional force to act be
tween the
string and the pulley (the latter is supposed to be fixed) take the frictional force to be equal to the tensile force in that portion of the
;
string which
is
moving up.
,
Case U. Parabolic Motion or Motion of Projectiles. Consider the motion of a particle which is projected in a When we direction making an angle a with the horizon. neglect the resistance of the air, the only force which acts
109.
is its
weight, mg.
motion
we have
(1)
j,
(2)
where
r
dij
of the acceleration
at
we
get
X=Ci,
and
y=
gt
}
C2.
MOTION OF A PARTICLE
121
Therefore the component of the velocity along the xaxis remains constant, while the component along the yaxis
Let
Vq
Vq
cos a
cos a,
and
Therefore
C2=
sm
a.
(3)^
x= X=
y V=
cos a, COS
and
(4)
./i:^_
Fio. 66.
is
Vq
sm a
we
Cz,
(6)
gt
obtain
X=
and
Vq
cos
a't+
y=VoS\nat^gt'^\ d.
<
But when
sequently
0,
x = y=Q, therefore
C3
C4
0,
and con(7)
X=
y=
Vq t^
cos a
sin
. t,
I ^i*.
(8)
122
It
is
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
interesting to note that the motions in the
two directions
are independent.
The
is
mo
the same as
Vq
if
sin a.
The
projectile virtually
velocity,
and
falls
tional acceleration.
The Path.
by
eliminating
between equations
y
(7)
and
x^,
(8).
This gives
(9)
= xta,na
2^0 COS^a
which
is
The Time of
ground
its
Flight.
(8)
When the
zero.
^/coordinate
is
ior y in equation
we
^^2z^osina^
(10)
The Range.
tjovered
by the
found by replacing
in equation
in equation (9).
By
R=
Vq^
sin
a cos a
(11)
Vq^
g sin 2 a
"Since
It
is
and g are constants the value of R depends upon a. evident from equation (11) that R is maximum when
Vq
sin 2
fore,
1,
or
when a =
.
is,
there
fi
= ^'.
Q
(12)
MOTION OF A PARTICLE
through the point of suspension the particles
zontal plane.
6.
127
the bodies are given the same angular velocity about a vertical axis
will lie in
If
how will
the tensile
The moon
moon due
If
for the
make
vanish at the equator show that the plumb line at any latitude would
become
10.
In the preceding problem what would the length of the day be?
11.
if
particle
is
VT^; show
become
13.
when the
a railroad track be raised at a curve in order that there be no lateral pressure on the rails when a train makes the curve at the rate of a mile a minute? The radius of the curve
should the outer
is
How much
is
4 feet 8 inches.
will
upset
if it
greater
thani/^,
rails of
raised,
where g denotes the gravitational acceleration, r the radius of the curve, a the distance between the rails, and h the height of the center of mass of the locomotive above the tracks. 16. Show that if there is no lateral pressure on the outer rails, while a car takes a curve, the relation
tan 6
is satisfied,
where 6
is
the angle the floor of the car makes with the hori
zon, V
is
When the n. Bodies Falling from Great Distances. distance from which a body falls is not negligible compared with the radius of the earth the gravitational acceleration cannot be considered as constant during the fall. Therefore
111.
M
128
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
the variation of the gravitational attraction must be taken According to the law of gravitational attracinto account.
tion the force between
of the following form:
is
F= 7^:r'
where
(1)
and m' are the masses of the spheres, r is the dis^ tance between their centers, and 7 is a positive constant. The negative sign indicates the fact that r is measured in a
direction opposed to that in which
acts.
When
is
the grav
small com
^ M
QCL^
where
is
and g the gravitational acceleration on the surface of the earth. In order to show this observe
that
when the body is on the surface of the earth, that is, when r = a, the force is mg, the weight of the body. Therefore replacing in equation (1) F by mg and m' by and solving for 7 we obtain
Substituting in equation
(1) this
value of 7
we
get
(3)
F=^
for the force
fall
during
its
dv^_mga^
Dropping
for 37 at
(4)
and writing
ar
,_v
we
MOTION OF A PARTICLE
Separating the variables and integrating
129
we have
Now suppose
the
body
starts to fall
r
from a distance
c
r'
from
v=
when
r'
and
= ^.
Therefore
()
v^= 2ga
t^
^ves the velocity at a distance r from the center. When the body falls from an infinite distance r' = oo and the velocity at any distance is
t^
= aV/^it
(7)
of the earth
is
y,=
^2ga
miles 7
sec.
=
If the
. .
(8)
body
starts to fall
r.
..
Therefore about seventyone per cent of the velocity attamed in falling from an infinite distance is developed in the last
4000 miles.
PROBLEMS.
1.
meteorite
it
falls
to the earth.
Supposing
fixed point
it
by a
inversely as the cube of the distance of the particle from the fixed point.
fall
to the point
if it
starts
from
distance d.
130
3.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Discuss the motions of a particle which
fixed point.
is
repelled
from a fixed
point with a force which varies directly as the distance of the particle
from the
112. in. Motion of a Particle in a Resisting Medium. As a concrete example of motion in a resisting medium consider the motion of falling bodies, taking the resistance of the atmosphere into account. At any instant of the motion two forces act on the body, i.e., the weight of the body and the resistance of the air. Denoting the resisting force by
F we
get
m = mgF
for the force equation.
last
(1)
In order to be able to integrate the equation we must make an assumption as to the nature
I.
of F.
Case
where h is a positive constant. Substituting in the force equation this expression for F we obtain
or

ki
= gkv,
last
(2)
where k = .
Rearranging the
equation
*
"l
Integrating
=kdt.
log(y) = /bf+c,
or
;
^
rC
e"
e~**.
MOTION OF A PARTICLE
Let
V
131
Vo
when
0,
then
e'
t^o
Therefore
f=(D'
or
(3)
in
by plotting the time as There are four special abscissa and the velocity as ordinate. cases which depend upon the following values of the initial
terpretation which comes out clearly
velocitj''
(a)
t^=
0,
(b)
Vo<^y
yo>.
69 represent these cases.
(c)
Vo=^,
(d)
Curves
and
(d) of Fig.
It is evident
that whatever
initial
value
moving
force.
Integrating
get
equation
(3)
we
Fio. 69.
Let
when
<
0,
then
Therefore
e*').
(4)
132
If
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
plot the last equation for the four different cases of
we
we obtain
It is
Case
II.
Resistance Propor
for slowly
moving
bodies.
It is
found
Fig. 70.
varies, approximately, as the square of the velocity, while between these values it varies as the cube and even higher powers of
under 1000 feet per second and over 1500 feet per second the resistance
The experimental data on the subject are the velocity. not enough to find a law of variation which holds in all
cases.
If
we assume the
body becomes
dv w
(JLJ/
= mg = g
kiv^,
or
dt
kv^,
(5)
where
tion
= k= h
constant.
we
replace
7:
by
y
ds
at
get
vdv
= kds.
,2_9
MOTION OF A PARTICLE
Integrating
133
we have
or
t;2 ?
= =
e.e2*.
k Let V
Vo
when s =
0,
then
e'
Vq^
y
Therefore
t;^
=?
A;
+ ^,2_ 1^,2...
?.
(6)
PROBLEMS.
1.
A man
Kin
hr.
rate of 20 7^ equals 1000 dynes per square centimeter of the resisting sur
face.
If
600
'
is
sec.
height.
his
Take the
re
particle
in
resisting
medium and
an
in
acted upon by no other force except that due to the resistance of the me
dium.
finite
Show
it will
when the
resistance
is
propor
bullet
is
v^.
Sup
134
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
velocity of the bullet, find the expression for the highest point reached.
flight.
to the velocity.
113.
IV. Simple
Harmonic Motion.
ticle is called
simple harmonic
when
acted
upon by a force which is always directed towards a fixed point and the magnitude of which is proportional to the distance of the particle from the same point.
X
A
.^TN
1
m
/
4
t
>2P\
/P
J^
J
A
FiQ. 71.
Let
line
A A'
its
path^
dis
Fig. 71,
and
i.e.,
placement,
point,
by x we obtain
F= kH,
dv
or
at
72
(1>
nothing more or
less
foregoing definition of simple harmonic motion. The facThe negative sign in equation (1) tor k^ is a constant.
indicates the fact that the force
MOTION OF A PARTICLE
it.
135
along the xaxis the velocity has dx no components along the other axes, consequently v =
Since the motion
is
Therefore equation
(1)
may
d'^x
7/1
d^x
(2)
,
dt^= "
where w* =
dx
^'
(2)
by
or
v= Vc^
c^
is
w^x^,
where
Let
=Vq
when
(3)
x=0,
then
c"
Vo^
Therefore
V
= Vvo^w^x\
(2)
equation
rewrite
we have
sm
or
=
x=
u)t+ c
sin
{(at
\c^
= a sin
where
c'
(at he')
is
a=.
0)
Let
x=0
when t =
then
c' = 0,
and
(4^
X = a sin ut
136
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
equation (4) is plotted with the time as abscissa and the displacement as ordinate the wellknown sine curve is obtained, Fig. 71.
It is evident
When
the
maximum value
both from equation (4) and from the curve that of x is equal to a. This value of the dis
placement is called the amplitude. The minimum value of a; is a displacement equal to the amplitude in the negative Therefore the particle oscillates between the direction.
points
A and
ut
A'.
positive
when
Zi
,
>
t> etc.
Ji
In other
at the
when
 
2
a)
etc.
Therefore
CO
the particle returns to the same point after a lapse of time 2 TT This interval of time is called the period of equal to
CO
is
denoted by P.
Thus
(5)
P = CO
PROBLEMS.
1.
in
a straight groove
is
acted upon
by a
force
which
and which
that the
Show
motion is harmonic. 2. Within the earth the gravitational attraction varies as the distance from the center. Find the greatest value of the velocity which a body would attain in falling into a hole, the bottom of which is at the
center of the earth.
3.
Show
that
when a
particle describes a
its
GENERAL PROBLEMS.
which moves with constant acceleration is doubled in a distance of 3 kilometers. It travels the next 1 A kilometers in one minute. Find the acceleration and the initial velocity.
1.
The speed
of a train
MOTION OF A PARTICLE
2.
137
Show
during the (n
3.
l)th
2n
is
;r
2n+ 1
h.
1 
any
in
Find the shortest time in which a mass m can be raised to a height h by means of a rope which can bear a tension T. 6. A train passes another on a parallel track. When the two locomotives are abreast one of the trains has a velocity of 20 miles per hour
and an acceleration
of 3
',
sec'
per hour and an acceleration of
again,
6.
'
.
How
sec*
and how far will they have gone in the meantime? mass of 1 kg, is hanging from a spring balance in an elevator. After the elevator starts the balance reads 1100 gm. Assuming the acceleration of the elevator to be constant, find the distance moved in
5 seconds.
7.
of
mass
and
inclination
stands with
its
What
horizontal force
must be
with
applied to the plane in order that a particle placed on the plane simulta
may
be
in contact
fall vertically
down
as
if
The
by 0.02
of the weight
When
full
Find the least time in which the train can travel between two stopping stations 5 miles apart, the tracks being level. 9. Give a construction for finding the line of quickest descent from a point to a circle in the same vertical plane, 10. A mass mi falling vertically draws a mass mj up a smooth inclined plane which makes an angle of 30 with the horizon. The masses are connected with a string which passes over a small smooth pulley at the top of the plane. Find the ratio of the masses which will make the
acceleration ?
11.
particle
is
projected
If
up an
inclined plane
T,
is
and
<t>
0)
<t>)
\Ti)
sin sii
(a
138
12.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
The time
of descent along straight
the same.
Find the
and hangs
cord equals
14.
^x
If it slides freely,
and length I passes over a smooth peg show that the tension of the
length on one side
is x.
(I
\i
x)
',
when the
masses
tance
15.
m.
if
in
seconds they
move through
its
rrh
a dis
h.
be
16.
length must
mu descending vertically,
draw
up the plane
Show
that
if
smooth
18.
particle falls
which equals 'ir~^, where 7 is a constant and r is the distance of the particle from the fixed point. Show that starting from a distance a the particle
will arrive at
2 c? =^
19. A particle falls towards a fixed point under the attraction of a force which varies with some power of the distance of the particle from the cenFind the law of force, supposing the velocity acquired ter of attraction. by the particle in falUng from an infinite distance to a distance a from the center to be equal to the velocity acquired in falling from rest from a dis
tance a to a distance
20.
4
it
A particle
is
is
would have acquired had it fallen from an infinite Supposing the force of attraction a constant and r is the distance of the particle from
the center of attraction, show that the time taken to cover the distance
of projection
of attraction
is
n+l
1
_ a
ntlV TV/' 27
MOTION OF A PARTICLE
21.
139
From
the following data show that the velocity with which a body
moon
is
about
1 .5
to be at rest.
The mass of the moon is A of that of the earth. The radii of the earth and the moon are 4000 miles and 1100 miles, respectively. The distance between the earth and the moon is 240,000 miles. 22. Taking the data of the preceding problem, show that if the earth and the moon were reduced to rest they would meet, under their mutual
attraction, in
CHAPTER
VII.
There are two useful conceptions, known as center of mass and moment of inertia, which greatly simplify disIt is, therefore, cussions of the motion of rigid bodies. desirable to become familiar with these conceptions before taking up the motion of rigid bodies. 114. Definition of Center of Mass. The center of mass of
a system of equal particles is their average position; in other words, it is that point whose distance from any fixed plane
is
all
system.
Let Xi, 3C2, Xz, Xn denote the distances of the particles of a system from the ?/2:plane then, by the above definition, the distance of the center of mass from the same plane is
.
JO
Xx+X'^+Xz+
n
+Xr,
I,x.
When the particles have different masses their distances must be weighted, that is, the distance of each particle must be multiplied by the mass of the particle before taking the average. In this case the distance of the center of mass from the 2/2plane is defined by the following equation
(W1+7W2+
+ m^ X = miXx\ rrhXi
140
f
ma:,
141
_ Emx
similarly
(10
and
Evidently mass.
x, y,
_ Hmz
and
z are
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES.
1.
Taking the origin of the axes at the particle which has the mass m, and taking as the xaxis the line which joins the two particles we get
0
nma
2m
Fig. 72
2. Find the center of mass of three particles of masses m, 2 m, and 3 m, which are at the vertices of an equilateral triangle of sides o. Chooeing the axes as shown in Fig. 73 wc have
+ 2 ma + 3 ma cos 60* m f 2m + 3m
=
i\ a,
+ + 3 ma s in 60 6m
J>/3a,
0.
'
142
115.
ticles
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Center of
Mass
of
Continuous Bodies.
signs of equation
form a continuous body we can replace the summation (I') by integration signs and obtain the
mass
x=
xdm*
f dm
I
y='^
Jo
5
/
dm
(I)
dm
z
dm dm
Zo
*Jo
where
curves
Find the center of mass of the paraboUc lamina bounded by the y"^ = 2px and x = a, Fig. 74. Obviously the center of mass Ues on the xaxis. Therefore we need to
1.
Fig. 74.
*
In general
if
is
limits xi
and xi
is
given
by the
relation: y
=
Xj
Xi
./zj
ydx.
143
Taking a
strip of
have
dm = a2ydx
=
where
of
<r is
2<T
VTpx dx,
of integration
dm
in equation (I)
and changing
2a
we obtain
\x V'2 px dx
2iT
rxidx
__.
Cxidx
= 3a
5
'
2.
y*
Find the center of mass of the lamina bounded by the curves 4 ax and y = bx, Fig. 75.
Let
dxdyhe
dm = adxdy.
Therefore substituting in equation
of integration
(I)
limits
we obtain
Jft,^<^y<^
,_
Jo
/.ft*
Lydydx
/nV
Jb,
AM
Jbt /tVgx
^y^
Jo
^y^
ia
f^''{2V^bx)xdx
if
J^**(2axx')dx
i
J^{2VMbx)dx
8a
56*'
J^ {2V^bx)d^
2a
'
"
144
3.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Find the center of mass of a semicircular lamina. and the element of mass as shown in Fig. 76 we have
Selecting the coordinates
dm =
crpdd'dp,
Jo = J\
y 'apdpdd
JC cpdpdB
J
Jo Jo
r fpHmddpdd
pdpdB _4a
x
0.
PROBLEMS.
Find the center of mass of the lamina bomided by the following curves
(1)
(2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
(8)
= mx, y = mx, and y = a. = a sin x, y = 0, x = 0, and x = ir. y^ = ax and x^ = by. x^ + y^ = a^, x = 0, and y = 0. bV + ahj^ = a^b\ x = 0,andy = 0. r = a(l + cose). r = a,d = 0, and d = d. r = a,r = b,d = 0, and ^ = 7y y
Homogeneous Solid of Revolution, any solid obtained by revolving a plane curve about the xaxis. Then the center of mass The position of the center lies on the axis of revolution. of mass is found most conveniently when the element of mass is a thin slice obtained by two transverse sections. The expression for the noass of such an element is
Let
116.
Center of
Mass
of a
Fig. 77 represent
dm = T
Trt/^
dx,
of the sUce>
where t is the density of the soUd, y the radius and dx its thickness.
145
Fig. 77.
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE
Find the center of mass of a paraboloid of revolution obtained
by revolvbetween
parabola y^
the lines x
= 2px = and
which
x
lies
= a. dm = nry^ dx = nr 2 pz dx',
2TTpj^x^dx
^
=
2Trrp
Ti
Jo
I
xdx
Fig. 78.
PROBLEMS
Find the center of mass of the homogeneous
solid of revolution gener
rx,x n
=
a,
h,
and y
0.
(2) x'
4 ay, X
+ oy
sinx, X
y*
f
0,
and x
=
6',
(6) x
a*,
x' h y'
and x
0.
146
117.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Center of
Mass
of Filaments.
can be treated as a geometrical curve. Taking a piece of length ds as the element of mass and denoting the mass per unit length by X we have
it
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE.
Find the center of mass of a semicircular filament. (a) Taking x^ + t/^ = a^ to be the equation of the
circle
we
get
dm = \ds
^^+(1^
dx
= Xa
r
J'" Va^
dx
dx
X'
.t2
 Va2
Fig. 79.
2a
we have
a for
its
equation.
Therefore
dm = \ds = \add.
C
^
IT
x\add
C
<^
TT
acos9dd
2a
^"""^^
/'
de
147
Find the center of mass of a uniform wire bent into the following
curves:
(1)
(2) (3)
(4)
An
y
J/*
= =
a sin
x,
between x
4 ax, between x
cycloid x
The
(6
sin 6), y
{1
two
successive cusps.
(5)
(1
+ cos 0).
Body of Any Shape and Distribution examples of the last few pages by special methods in order to bring out the are worked out fact that in a great number of problems the ease with which the center of mass may be determined depends upon the
118.
Center of
of
Mass.
The
Mass
of a
illustrative
The
be used whatever the shape of the body or the distribution of its mass: (a) When the bounding surfaces of the body are given in the Cartesian coordinates the mass of an infinitesimal cube is taken as the ele^' ment of mass:
mass
may
dm =
(b)
dxdy dz.
the bounding
When
of
surfaces
chosen as shown in Fig. In this case the fol80. lowing is the expression for the element of mass
is
dm = T
=
(c)
is
p do
'
dp
'
d<f>
sin
Fig. 80.
When
the density,
t,
it
148
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES.
1.
(a)
Find the center of mass of an octant of a homogeneous sphere, Suppose the bounding surfaces to be
a;2
7/2
+ 22 =
=
o^
a;
0,
0,
and
0.
Then the
and x
Q and y
= =
a,
y
2
= =
"s/a^
x^,
x"^
and
= Va^
I
y^.
Therefore
xdxdydz
dxdydz
I j Jo Jo
3a ^
and by symmetry y
'
= 
o
(b) Suppose the equations of the bounding surfaces to be given in spherical coordinates, then we have
a,
<^
0,
and
<^
I
Fig. 81.
The
and
6
=
= =
a,
and and
=
X
2
4*
X
/2
/a ca
I
Therefore
J2 X
'2
*'0
r^
./o
X ri
rsin^cos<^l
( f Jo Jo Jo
*
C r'smd dr dB
ra
d4>
149
Find the center of mass of a right circular cone whose density from the apex, the distance
the axis.
T
dm =
iry^
dx
72
where
fore
ti is
There
Fio. 82.
PROBLEMS.
1.
Find the center of mass of a right circular cone, the density of which
Find the center of mass of a circular plate, the density of which
Find the center of mass of a cylinder, the density of which varies
Find the center of mass of a quadrant of an ellipsoid. Find the center of mass of a hemisphere, the density of which varies as the distance from the center.
4.
6.
119.
etc.,
Let mi, Wj, Center of Mass of a Number of Bodies. be the masses and x'l, X2, etc., be the a:co6rdinates of the
Then
if
x denotes
we can
write
xdm
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
xdm{
150
_o
Jo
xdm\
dm+
'0
dm+
t/O
miXi
+ rrhXj +
Similarly
= HmZj
Therefore the mass of each body may be considered as being concentrated at its center of mass.
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE.
Find the center of mass of the plate indicated by the shaded part of
Fig. 83.
Suppose the plate to be separated two parts by the dotted line. Then the coordinates of the center of mass of
(a)
into
b 
and
yi
\
V
'Vc" ^
a
^
On
and
1/2
= 2b
b
Fig. 83.
Therefore the coordinates of the center of mass of the entire plate have the following values
b
,
mi
b a
\
m^
2b  a
mi
+ Mi
y=
mi
+ m2
ab(ba)+(Ta(ba)
~
<r6(6a)^+cra(6a)^^
ab (6 o)+(ra {ba)
b^
ab {\ia)\a (ba) a
b^
+ aba^ 2(a + b)
+ abg} 2 (a + 6)
151
OA
Then
if
have the same thickness and density the positive and the negative
Therefore the two scjuare
fonn a system which is equivalent to the actual plate represented by the shaded area of the figure. Hence the center of mass of the square plates is also the center of mass of the given plate. The masses of the square plates are ab^ and ao*, while the coordinates of their centers of mass are
x'
= y'=
and
i"=y"=^A^.
^~
<ra2)
X =
= ^
b^
2 (a
+ aba^ + 6)
'
first
method.
PROBLEMS.
1.
following figures:
2.
A A
a.
Find the
center of mass
8.
is c.
and
is cut from a right circular cylinder of the same base Find the center of mass of the remaining solid. 4. A right cone is cut from a hemisphere of the same base and altitude. Find the center of mass of the remaining solid. 6. A right circular cone is cut from another right circular cone of the same base but of greater altitude. Find the center of mass of the remain^
right cone
altitude.
ing solid.
6.
is
152
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
=
2 px
Find the center of mass of the remaining solid oloid and the cone have the same base and vertex.
a.
and X
if
the parab
MOMENT OF INERTM.
120.
Definition of
Moment
of Inertia.
The
inertia
of a
body about an
products of the masses of the particles of the body by the square of their distances from the axis.* Thus if dm denotes an element of mass of the body and r its distance from the axis then the following is the analytical state
ment
of the definition of
moment
r^
of inertia:
(II)
dm.
(II) is
Jo
The
integration which
is
involved in equation
often
simplified
by a proper choice of the element of mass. The choice depends upon the bounding surfaces of the body and the position of the axis; therefore there is no general rule by which the most convenient element of mass may be selected.
There is one important point, however, which the student should always keep in mind in selecting the element of mass, namely, the distances of the various parts of the element of mass from the axis must not differ by more than infinitesimal lengths,
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES.
1.
inertia of
its
sides.
Y
dm
!5
Suppose the lamina to lie in the xyFurther suppose the side with plane. respect to which the moment of inertia is to be found to lie in the xaxis. Then the most convenient element of mass is ^ a strip which is parallel to the xaxis. Fig. Let a be the length (Fig. 84), b the "width, and a the mass per unit area of the lamina, then
^7
84.
dm =
* For a physical definition of
crady.
inertia
moment of
and
its
meaning see
p. 220.
153
is
y; therefore substi
dm and
its
we obtain
ya
aa dy
= =
for the desired
\aab'
\inb\
moment
of inertia.
The
from those in equation (II) because the independent variable is changed from m to y. 2. Find the moment of inertia about the xaxis of a lamina which is bounded by the parabola x^ = 2py and the straight line y = a. (a) Choosing a horizontal strip for the element of mass we have
dm =
<T
'2xdy.
/a
y^xdy
m=
2xdy
a
=^ \<j
V2 pa.
strip for the
.'.
ma\
element of mass,
in
dm s adxdy.
.'.
J J
^
<T
y^'ffdxdy
a n/2 pa,
154
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
PROBLEMS.
1.
2.
of inertia of of inertia of
axis.
3.
in the shape of
an
5. Find the moment of inertia of a triangular plate about an axis which passes through one of its vertices and is parallel to the base. 6. Find the moments of inertia of the following laminae with respect
by the thin
vertical lines.
a
2b 2a bl
3K
2b
2a
b
3b a
2a 2b
a
2b 2a
T
(c)
Lr
(d)
Lr
(e)
(a)
(b)
The Theorems on Moments of Inertia. Theorem I. moment of inertia of a lamina about an axis which is perpendicular to its plane equals the sum of the moments of inertia
121.
with respect
to
lie
in the plane of
on the first axis. Suppose the lamina to be in the a:2/plane, then the theorem states that the moment of inertia about the 2axis equals the sum of the moments of inertia about the other
axes, that
is,
two
(III)
The
itself.
Iz=
^^
dm
{x^
+ y^) dm
Jo
/
x^dm\
y^dm
155
is
from
this
rotated about the zaxis Ix and / change, in general, but their sum remains constant.
The moment of inertia of a body about 122. Theorem U. any axis equals its moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the center of mass
plus the product of the rnass
of the body by the square of
the distance between the two
axes.
Let the axis be perpendicular to the plane of the paper and pass through the point 0, Fig. 86. Further let dm be any eleFio. 86. ment of mass, r its distance from the axis through 0, and r^ its distance from a parallel axis through the center of mass, C. Then if a denotes the distance between the axes we have
dm
=
Jo
/
("""c^
rj^dmj
a^dm2a\
Jo
r,
cos d
dm
Jo
=
But by the
and
therefore x
/,.
+ ma^ 2a/
x dm.
mass
is
xdm =
mx,
mass
at the origin;
last
integral vanishes.
Thus we get
I,\maK
(IV)
123.
Radius of Gyration.
is
"
156
axis of
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
a point where
its
if all
would not change. Let denote the mass of a body, I its moment of inertia its radius of gyration with respect to a given axis, and relative to the same axis; then the definition gives
centrated
of inertia
moment
K'^m,
(V)
or
If
K=\J'
Kc denote the radius of gyration relative to a parallel axis through the center of mass, then by equations (IV) and (V)
we obtain
K''
KJ'
+ a\
(a)
(VI)
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES.
1.
of inertia of
about
its
surface.
Let
disk.
mass we have
4
(jj
dm =
where
thickness.
Trr
dr,
Therefore the
of the disk
is
2TrlT rfidr
'0 Jo
rlira*
'
Fig. 87.
The moment
of
of inertia
is
theorem
II.
Thus
= =
+ nw}
I ma^.
It will be noticed that the thickness of the disk does not enter into the expressions for / and /' except through the mass of the disk. Therefore
is
a cylinder
or thin
enough to be
called
a circular lamina.
W
CENTER OF MASS AND MOMENT OF INERTIA
157
2. Find the moment of inertia of a cylinder about a transverse axis through the center of mass.
Let m,
a,
I,
and t
and
Further
let
center of mass of the cylinder; then taking a slice obtained by two right
mass we
dly
get,
f
by theorem
z*
II,
dlf^
dm,
where
dm
is
moments
of
inertia of the
element about the given axis and about a parallel axis through
is
two
But by theorem
dl^
+ dl^ =
=
d/
dij/
dly',
example
dl,=
Therefore
dl,/
a*
dm
2
a}
dm
we
get
dly
Integrating the last equation
/
= (^ +
z'
we have
z^dm
/
r +1
158
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
ma^
+ nraH^
,
= ^(4+r2)
3.
of inertia of
diameter and about a tangent line. Let m, a, and r be the mass, the radius, and the density of the sphere,
Then, taking the axes and the element of mass as shown in Fig. 89, we have
respectively.
dly
+ z^ dm, =  dli + z^ dm
=
dly"
y'^dm+J^ z^dm
y*dz{TTr
= = _
TIT
/"
I
r"
\
z^y^ dz
[dm
= TTy^dz]
'^ fj
8T7ra^
(a^
z^ydz
15
=
and
lyt
ma^ ma^
= =
Iy\
I ma^.
124.
Theorem
III.
The moment of
to that
inertia of a
homogeneous
of in(a)
moment
which fulfill
of the cylinder.
(6)
One
lamina occupies
through
the entire area of the longitudinal section of the cylinder the axis.
159
Let y, Fig. 90, be the axis with respect to which it is moment of inertia of the cy Under. Let dly denote the moment of inertia of an element bounded by
to the Faxis,
and
dly, denote
moment
of inertia of the
same element
relative to the
Y Y
/!*
1
'
/
1
.'
'
"^
'
Vi
'
'
H H
hi IA
'r^
^
1
1
^\\
'r!,
Fig. 90.
mass
of the
element.
Then, by theorem
dly
II,
we have
dm,
where (x^ + z^) is the square of the distance between the two axes. Similarly the moment of inertia of the element about the F'axis which is parallel to the Faxis and intersects the
same elements
of the cylinder,
is
given by
dly =
dly"
2*
dm.
= =
dly'
+ x^ dm
dm
\
Ki^
x^ dm,
160
^ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
of the element of masslast
equation
we have
x^dm.
Jo
mass has its own y'axis similarlyplaced. Therefore ki is the same for all the elements of mass and remains constant during the integration. Hence
Each
of the elements of
x^dm
= h + h,
x^ dm.
It is not difficult to see
that
of
/i is
the
the elements
It is equal,
mass
about the Faxis of the lamina (A in the figure) which would be obtained if the entire cyUnder could be compressed into the transverse section through the Faxis. On the other hand h equals the moment of inertia about the Faxis of the lamina {B in the figure) which would be obtained if the cylinder could be compressed into the longitudinal section through the Faxis.
therefore, to the
of inertia
moment
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE.
As an illustration
of p. 157. of the last
illustrative
example
Fig. 91.
Applying the theorem we see that the moment of inertia of the cylinder equals the
sum
of the
moments
of inertia of the
two laminae of
Fig. 91.
161
and that
/i
+ /2
,
= 2"2""^J''=^^ 2 2
3
1 ma} \ma^
=
=
which
is
(7aJ_,
xdx
Ki + r2>
by the
direct
method.
PROBLEMS.
spect
Find the moment of inertia of a hollow circular cylinder with re(a) its geometrical axis, (b) an element, (c) a transverse axis through the center of mass. 2. Find the moment of inertia of an elliptical cylinder with respect to, (a) its geometrical axis, (b) a transverse axis through its center of mass and parallel to the major axis of a right section. 3. Find the moment of inertia of a rectangular prism with respect to, (a) its geometrical axis, (b) a transverse axis through the center of mass and perpendicular to one of its faces. 4. In the preceding problem suppose the prism to be hollow. 6. Find the moment of inertia of a prism, the cross section of which is
1.
to,
an
equilateral triangle, with respect to, (a) its geometrical axis, (b)
its
its
Find the moment of inertia of a hollow sphere with respect to, (a) a diameter, (b) a tangent line. 8. Find the moment of inertia of a spherical shell of negligible thick7.
line.
Find the moment of inertia of a right circular cone with respect to, (a) its geometrical axis, (b) a transverse axb through the vertex. 10. In the preceding problem suppose the cone to be a shell of negligible thickness.
11.
Find the
is
moment
of inertia of a paraboloid of revolution with a transverse axis tluough its vertex. The radius
is h.
of the base
162
12.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Find the moment
of inertia of
an ellipsoid with respect to, (a) one one end of one of the axes parallel to the
ellipsoidal
other.
13.
125. General Method. The special methods which have been discussed in the last few pages are desirable but not
moments
of inertia of bodies.
In
type of bodies and then making use of the various theorems we can use the general expressions for dm which were given on p. 147 and obtain the moment of inertia directly from equation (II).
As an
of the
illustration of this general
of inertia
straight edges.
boundmg
and
z
surfaces are
2/2
+ 22 = ^2,
r^dm
^ n
x'=Q, y
0,
0.
we have
= =
(b)
^U
ima^.
Jo
Jo
{y'
+ z')dxdydz
a,
=1
0,
and p
a.
Therefore
= C
^
r'^dm
(p2p2sin2 0cos2
IT
0)dm
sin' e
= 8t
f^ f^ f /0 *'
./o
(sin
cos20) dB
d<t> df>
= fma2
: :
163
re
Routh's Rule.
The following
is
Moment
_
sum
The denominator
The
of the righthand
is
member
is 3, 4,
or 5 ac
plane:
a
+ 6^
its
plane:
Elliptical lamina;
its
plane:
=m
4
its sides
g'f
fe'
_
a'

_.
a'
ma*
/
Ellipsoid;
a* r = = m a^ +
5
z
2 ,  ma*. 5
about one of
its
axes:
CHAPTER
WORK.
VIII.
Work. The mechanical result produced by the action of a force in displacing a particle may be considered to be proportional to the interval of time during which the force In other acts or to the distance through which it moves. words, we can take either the time or the displacement as the standard of measure. The effect measured when the time is taken as the standard is different from that which
127.
is
obtained
when
the displacement
called impulse.
is
is
made
the standard.
The
first effect is
It will
be discussed in a
later chapter.
this chapter.
128.
is
The second
of
Measure
Work.
said to do work.
When a force moves a body it The amoimt of work done equals the by the distance through which the body
In this
defi
considered to be constant.
When it is vari
during the time taken by an infinitesimal displacement the Therefore if the parforce may be considered as constant. ticle P, Fig. 92, is displaced through ds, under the action of the force F, the work
done
is
dW = F 'ds
where a
is
cos a,
When
the displacement
finite
the
of
of the
164
amounts
work done
in
WORK
successive infinitesimal displacements.
165
Therefore the work
done
in
any displacement
is
W=
When
("f cos a
is
curved the direction of ds coincides with that of the tangent to the curve. Therefore F cos a is the tangential component of the force. In other words the tangential component of force does all the work.
Hence
W =fFrds.
The normal component does no work because
is
(!')
the particle
it.
Case
in
I.
in direction
integrand.
magnitude, Therefore
and
W=
The
direction of the force.
cos a ds.
the path upon the Therefore the product of the force by the projection of the path upon the line of action of the
last integral equals the projection of
Case II.
When
work done.
the force
is
is
and the
displace
ment
is
constant.
Therefore
W = F cos a
Case III.
ds
= Fs cos a.
When
the force
is
is
Therefore
W
Case IV.
Fs.
is
placement a = ^
and cos a =
0.
it
Hence
W =Q.
Therefore
166
path.
129.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
In this case the motion of the particle
is
not due to
Work Done
These
be illustrated by considering the work done in raising a body from a lower to a higher level against the gravitational attraction of the earth. Consider the work done in taking a particle from A to 5, along each of
special cases
may
comes under Case III; the force and the motion are the same direction. Therefore the work done is
in
= mgh,
where h is the vertical height of B above A. (b) Suppose the particle to be taken along the straight line AB. This comes under Case II. The angle between the force and the direction of motion is
constant.
Therefore
W
where
I
= mgl cos
a,
is
I
But
since
a=h,
(a),
the
is,
work done
is
Fig
mgh. the particle to be taken along the curve AB. Suppose (c) This comes under Case I. Then
that
the same as in
W = mgJo cos a ds
I
= mg =
Jo mgh.
dh
[since ds cos
dh]
WORK
167
Therefore the work done against the gravitational force in taking a body from one position to another depends only upon the vertical height throiigh which the body is raised and noi
upon
the path.
Dimensions and Units of Work. Work is a scalar magnitude and has for its dimensions [ML^T~^. The C.G.S.
130.
unit of
of one
work dyne
is
the
erg.
It equals the
in displacing a particle
its
is
It is
^^~.
1
The
is
erg
also used.
10^ ergs.
(ft.lb.).
The
British unit of
work
the footpound
It is
earth in lifting one pound through a vertical distance of one foot. Since the work done in lifting bodies is mgh, we
pd.
X 32.2^ X
sec.'*
sec.'^
1 ft.
32.2 KLik.^
where pd. represents the poundmass. 131. Work Done by Components of Force. The work done by a force F in giving a particle a displacement ds is F cos d ds, where 6 is the angle between F and ds. Let X, Y, and Z be the rectangular components of F, then the direction of F
is
defined
I,
by
its
direction cosines
X Y Ft
,
and ^.
t
Therefore
if
Y Y Z* d=rHmfn*
168
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
and
nZ) ds
\
Z dr,
where dx, dy, and dz are the components of ds along the axes. Thus the total work done in a finite displacement is
given by
W = Jo V cos d ds
/
=
Equation
the
Jo
rxdx+
of
Jo
["Ydy^ f'z
Jo
dz.
(II)
(II) states
that the
sum
of the
amounts
PROBLEMS.
number of footpounds in one Joule. Find the number of ergs in one footpound. '3. Find the work done in dragging a weight w up an inclined plane 'of length I, height h, and coefficient of friction fi. 4. A body of 100 kg. mass is dragged up, then down, an inclined plane. Compare the work done in the two cases if the length of the plane is 15 m., the height 5 m., and the coefficient of friction 0.5. 6. What is the work done in winding a uniform chain which hangs from a horizontal cylinder? The chain is 25 m. long, and has a mass of 125 kg. 6. A body has to be dragged from a point at the base of a conical hill to a point diametrically opposite. Show that, if the angle which the sides of the hill make with the horizon equals the angle of friction, the work done in dragging the body over the hill is less than in dragging it around
1. Find the
'2.
the base.
from a height of 3 feet imder the 2000 pounds due to steam pressure. At the end of its fall it makes a dent of 1 inch depth in an iron Find the total amount of work done in making the dent. The plate. Jiammer weighs 1000 pounds. 8. In the preceding problem find the average resisting force. 9. A locomotive which is capable of exerting a drawbar pull of 1.5 tons The locomotive and the tender weigh is coupled to a train of six cars. 50 tons. The cars weigh 15 tons each. Find the time it takes the locomotive to impart to the train a velocity of 60 miles per hour and the work done under the following conditions.
7.
steam hammer
its
falls vertically
action of
of a force of
WORK
(a)
169
Horizontal tracks and no resistance, Horizontal tracks and a resistance of 12 pounds per ton.
(b)
(c)
Down
Same
a grade of
as in
(c)
in
(d)
(e)
(f)
Up
but with a resistance of 12 pounds per ton. a grade of 1 in 200 with no resistance.
as in (b) but with a resistance of 12 pounds per ton.
of 5 pds.
is
Same
10.
mass
How much
work
will
have to be done
in order
to the surface?
The weight of a body varies, within from the center. Take 4000 miles to be
the earth,
the depth
of the shaft.
11.
132.
Suppose the
rigid
body >1,
The displacement may be considered to be] due to a single force which forms a
paper.
may
be considered
of
mass of
Fio. 94.
Taking the latter view, let dF be the resultant force* acting upon the element of mass dm. Then since dm can move only at right angles to the line r, which joins it to the axis, dF must be perpendicular When the body is given an angular displacement cte, to r. dm is displaced through ds, therefore the work done by dF is
dF
is
and
dm
the body.
170
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
is
where dG
total
the
moment
all
work done by
dF about the axis. Thus the the forces acting upon all the elements
of
is
dW= rdGdd
^
j^
{d& is the
same
for every
=<^X
= Gdd,
where G
is
element of mass.)
sum of the moments about the axis of all the upon the elements of the body, i.e., the resultant torque about the axis. The work done in giving the body a finite angular displacement is, therefore,
the
forces acting
rGdd W= Jo
= Ge
[when
(III)
is
constant].
Therefore work done hy a constant torque in producing an angular displacement equals the product of the torque by the
angle.
,
PROBLEMS.
1.
weight of 10 tons
is
is
to be raised
of the
the screw
^ inch
on the screw is 2 feet long. Supposing the work done by the torque to be expended entirely against gravitational forces, find the force which must be applied at the end of the bar. 2. A ball, which is suspended by a string of negligible mass, is pulled aside until the string makes an angle e with a vertical line. Show that the work done is the same whether it is supposed to have been done in
raising the ball against the action of gravitational forces, or in rotating
the ball and the string, as a whole, about a horizontal axis through the point of suspension, against the action of the torque.
3. In the preceding problem take the following data and calculate, by both methods, the amount of work done. Weight of ball = 12 ounces,
length of string
4.
feet,
and
60.
which
it is
of the rod
WORK
6.
171
In the preceding problem suppose one end of the rod to be fixed, is firmly attached to the middle of another rod perpen
it. A torqae of 10 poundsfoot is necessary in order to keep the second rod in a position turned through 15 about the axis of the first rod. How much work must be done in order to produce an angular deflection of 45 ?
6.
If in
is
applied at points 4 inches from the axis of rotation, find the forces appUed
and show that the work done by the forces equals the work done by the
torque.
7.
Making the
work done
in giving
fly
For
this
and
the following
(b) Vertical
(c)
latter
Normal pressure is constant. component of the total reaction is constant. Normal pressure is a sine function of the angular position; the being measured from the horizontal plane through the axis of the
Normal pressure
varies as the square of the sine of the angular posi
shaft.
(d)
tion.
8.
in giving
The
is
The
the shaft
0.05,
ing conditions:
(a)
(b) Vertical
(c)
Normal pressure is constant. component of the total reaction is constant. Normal pressure varies as the sine of the angular position, measured
from the horizontal plane through the axis of the shaft. (d) Normal pressure varies as the square of the angular position. 9. Derive an expression for the work done in giving an angular
placement to a load which
10.
is
dis
The
rotating parts of a water turbine which weigh 50 tons are supflatend pivot.
is
portcfl
by a
The diameter
0.03.
of the shaft
lost
is
10 inches and
per revolution.
for the
Supposing the normal pressure to be constant derive an expression work done in giving a loaded spherical pivot an angular displaceSupposing the normal pressure to he constant derive an expression work dune in giving a loaded conical pivot an angular displacement.
ment
12.
for the
172
13.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Find the work lost per 8 inches in diameter and has a flatend bearing; the coeflScient of friction being 0.01.
revolution
if
A vertical
the shaft
14.
a load of 5 tons. Find the work lost per supported by a collarbearing pivot which has an inner diameter of 6 inches and an outer diameter of 8 inches. The
15.
revolution
the shaft
is
HOOKE'S LAW.
133.
Stress.
When a
body
which tend to change its between its contiguous elements, the body is said to be under stress. The measure of stress is force per unit area:
forces
forces
S=j,
(IV)
where S denotes the stress, F the force, and A the area on which the latter acts. 134. Pressure, Tension, and Shear. Stresses which occur in bodies are often of a complex nature, but they may be resolved into three component stresses of simple character. These are called pressure, tension, and shear. Pressure tends to compress, tension to extend, and shear to distort bodies. Shearing stress is the result of a compressive stress com
bined with a tensile stress at right angles. A special case of shear, which comes into play within a shaft when the
latter is twisted, is called torsion.
135.
stress.
Strain.
Strain
is
the
deformation produced by
The measure
if
For instance,
s=j,
I
(V)
where
'
WORK
136. Hooke's Law. with the strain which
173
stress
produces
is
known
as Hooke's law.
S=Xs,
(VI)
where X is the constant of proportionality, and is called the modulus of elasticity. 137. Elastic Limit. Hooke's law holds true so long as stress is small enough to leave no appreciable permanent deformation. In other words, Hooke's law holds true strictly only while the body under consideration behaves like a perfectly elastic body under the action of the given stresses.
more or less imperfectly elastic that is, stresses always leave bodies with permanent strains. Therefore at
All bodies are
;
applied
is
close
def
enough
permanent
ormation is negligible compared with the total deformation produced by the stress. If a considerable portion of the deformation becomes permanent the body under stress is said to have reached its elastic limit, when Hooke's law does not give a close enough approximation and consequently cannot be used. 138. Young's Modulus. The modulus of elasticity of a body which is being stretched is called Young's modulus. Let the body be an elastic string, a wire, or a rod, and let A be the area of its crosssection, L its natural or unstretched length, and I the mcrease in length due to stretching. Then we have
S=
Therefore
and
= L
T = A
^7
X.J.
174
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
of a substance equals, numerically,
which is made of the given substance, to double its During the process of stretching Hooke's law is, of course, supposed to hold. Let L 139. Work Done in Stretching an Elastic String. denote the natural length of the string and x its length at
length.
any instant
done
Then
the
work
by dx
is
dW=Tdx
= AS dx,
where T
is
*S
S=\s.
In this case
s
= X L
Therefore
'dx
dW=A'\ X
and
L
{x
W
"2L
L+l
L) dx
A_72
where
X'
AX, and
is
crease in length.
as abscissa
and
W as
ordinate
140.
Let
C, Fig. 96,
be a cyhnder which contains a compressible fluid and which When the piston is displaced is provided with a piston. toward the left work is done against the force with which If dx denotes the disthe fluid presses upon the piston.
WORK
placement and doi
175
work
dW=Fdx
= pAdx
^pdv,
where p is the pressure in the fluid, A the area of the piston, and dv the change in the volume of the fluid. Therefore the total work done in compressing the fluid from a volume Vi to a volume t'2 is
W=When
in
pdv.
(1)
the law connecting p and v is given the work done compressing or expanding a fluid can be found by carrying out the integration indicated in equation (1). During expansion, however, the displacement has the
same
positive.
Representation of the
in the
PFDiaWhen the volume gram. of the expanding fluid is Fig. 96. plotted as abscissa and the pressure as ordinate, a curve is obtained, which repreSuch a sents, graphically, the law connecting p and v. It is evident from representation is called a PV diagram.
Work Done
equation
y
i2,
by the curve, the yaxis, whose equations are v =^ V\ and represents the work done in compressing the fluid
(1) that
vertical lines
from
t'l
to
fv,.
142.
176
is
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
which case the relation between p
i.e.,
called isothermal, in
V is
and
pv =
k.
(2)
by equation
=
143.
A^log^.
(3)
If no
exchange of
heat
is allowed between the gas and other bodies while the former is being compressed the compression is called adiabatic. The law which connects p and u in an adiabatic compression or expansion of a gas may be expressed by the relation
pV =
where 7 and k are constants
(4),
k,
(4)
Substituting
which
is
given by equation
we obtain
W
71
7
144. Modulus of Elasticity of a Gas. Let dv denote the change in volume due to an increase in the pressure of a gas
by an amount
dp.
Then the
stress is
dv
or
^=v^' dv
(6>
WORK
The modulus
a given
of elasticity X
is
177
not a definite constant for
amount
Therefore the
dv
order that the value of X may have any meaning at all. There are two states for which X is calculated, namely, the isothermal and the adiabatic states.
145.
Isothermal Elasticity.
is iso
thermal
pv
= k
and
..
= \f dv
X=^ = p.
V
(7)
Adiabatic Elasticity.
When
the gas
is
compressed
adiabatically
pV^
= k
=  kyv"^^
and
dv
.'.
= ypv'K \=yp.
(8)
147.
end
of the
fixed,
Suppose
der.
is nil
at the axis
and
in
Further
the strain
with the distance from it. Since Hooke's law holds these statements are true with regard to the stress in the cylinder.
178
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Let dF denote the force acting on the area, on the upper base, of a ring of radius r and width dr, then the stress
dF
equals
But
if d is
2irr 'dr
base and
Td
y.
.
dF
2 rrdr
is
X
I
In this case X
elasticity or,
called
modulus of shearing
Solvget
dF we
dF=^dr'dr.
Therefore the torque acting upon the area
of the ring
is
dG = r'dF
_ G= =
where G
is
2_eX
I
6r^ dr.
X j6
I
T^dr
(9)
'J
21
Fig. 97.
to
power of the radius and inversely as the length. On the other hand for a given shaft the torque varies directly with
the angle of twist.
The
is
^21'
.wa^
(10)
WORK
It will
179
power
Rod.
of the radius
and
Work Done
is
in Twisting a
Work
done by a
obtained by substituting the expression for the torque in the work equation. Thus
torque
W^J'Gdd.
=
=
where
^J/rf^
pfl=/
[byeq.(9).]
(11)
k= X^*
21
PROBLEMS. L What are the dimensions of stress, strain, and modulus of elasticity? 2. A steel rod of Jinch radius is found to stretch 0.004 inch in 10
inches of its length when a load of 10,000 pounds Find the Young's modulus of the rod.
8.
is
gradually appUed.
of a brass wire
is
10.8
10"
^2^.
cm.'
Find
the load (in pounds) necessary in order to produce an elongation of 0.5 mm.
in 1 meter.
4.
The diameter of the wire is 1 millimeter. The modulus of shearing elasticity of a steel shaft is
11
10*
pounds
What
end
1 .5 inches in diameter, is twisted through an angle of 9" by a force of 1500 pounds acting 6 inches from the axis of the rod. If on removal of the stress the bar recovers its original position, calculate the modulus of shearing elasticity of the rod. 6. Taking the data of the preceding problem find the force necessary to pve an angle of twist of 2* to a rod 15 inches long, 0.5 inch in diameter.
long and
7.
An
it
/ is
stretched to twice
its
length
when
supports a weight
W.
The ends
level
and a distance d apart, while the weight Find the position of equilibrium
of the weight.
8.
natural length.
180
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
done by the spider in climbing to the ceiling equals J mgh, where m is the mass of the spider and h its distance from the ceiling. 9. The outer end of a flat spiral spring is fixed, while the inner end is attached to the center of a bar 20 cm. long, in such a way that the bar is Two forces of 500 dynes each applied parallel to the plane of the spring. at the ends of the bar, at right angles to the bar and parallel to the plane
of the spring, can keep the bar turned through an angle of  radians.
What
giving
10.
three turns?
In the preceding problem find the work done in giving the bar three turns. What portion of the total work is done in the last turn? 11. Prove that the following is the expression for the torsional rigidity of a hollow shaft:
where
12.
is
Derive expressions for the saving of material and loss of rigidity due to making a shaft of a given external diameter hollow. 13. Find the value of the quotient of the inner to the outer radius
which will make the quotient of the sa\'ing of material to the loss of rigidity a maximum. 14. The weight and the length of a shaft are fixed; find the ratio of the inner to the outer diameter which wiU make the rigidity of the shaft
and the
length are fixed; find the ratio of the inner to the outer diameter which
make
VIRTUAL WORK.
149.
Principle of Virtual
Work.
The
concept of work
enables us to formulate a principle, called the principle of virtual work, which can be applied to equilibrium problems
to great advantage.
In order to derive this principle consider a particle which Evidently the resultant force acting upon is in equilibrium. the particle is nil and remains nil so long as the particle is in the equilibrium position. But when the particle is given a
WORK
181
small displacement, the resultant force assumes a value difIf the displacement is small enough, so ferent from zero.
that the departure from equilibrium position and conse
called
virttial
displacement
We
is
by the
virtual
Let
the particle
in
in equilibrium.
When
the particle
is
given a
magnitude and direction so that a virtual force dF acts upon the particle during the displacement. Then the virtual
is
work
dF 'd8=Fi'd8x\F2'ds2
where
ds.
is
(VII)
dsi,
ds^,
etc.,
But
member
righthand
member
first
order
we
F2
rfs2
f
0.
(VIII)
Equation (VIII) states: when a particle which is in equilibrium is given a virtual displacement the total amount of work done by the forces acting upon the particle vanishes. This is
the principle of virtual work.
particles,
work is applicable not only to but also to any system which is in equilibrium. If the system is acted upon by torques as well as forces, then the sum of the work done by the virtual torques and
principle of virtual
The
Fidsi+F2ds2\
iGiddi
+ G2dd2{
0.
(IX)
182
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES.
1.
in equilibrium
0,
Two
shown in
string of length
of the string.
The
the
\
weigfit^.of
and the reaction of the table. Suppose a sUght displacement to be given to the system by pressing downward at the joint. The work done by the force which produced the displacement equals the sum of the work done by the other forces which act upon the rods during the displacement. But since both the force appUed and the displacement produced
pull of the string, the reaction at the joint,
is
negli
done by
is
zero.
The
rods do not contribute to the virtual work because each of the reactions is
perpendicular to the corresponding
Fig. 99.
surface of contact along which the displacement takes place. Therefore the weights and the tensile force of the string contribute all the virtual work. If dl and dh denote, respectively, the increase in length of the
string and the distance through which the centers of mass of the rods are lowered during the virtual displacement the virtual work takes the form
llT'^
+ Wdh)
0.
But from the figure I = a sin 6, and h = a cos d. Therefore dl = a cos 6 dB and dh = a sin 6 dB. Making these substitutions and simplifying we
obtain
T=
2Wia.nd.
WORK
8. Find the mechanical advantage of the jackscrew. Let p be the pitch of the screw, I the length of the lever arm, applied and P the force derived. Then
183
the force
since at
is
supposed
Then
if
virtual
GdePdh =
0.
Therefore
Fld0=^.
Fig. 100.
is
P F
_2irl p
'
PROBLEMS.
1.
By
(a)
the lever;
(b) the
(c)
Apply the
(b)
(c)
principle of virtual
work to
(a) illustrative
(d)
3.
problem 1 on page 17; problem 4 on page 20; problem 6 on page 46; problem 16 on page 47.
of equal weight
is
Four rods
square.
The system
two
of the joints so us to
string.
keep the
184
4.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
An
elastic
band
of weight
I is
slipped over a
smooth
vertical.
The
force necessary
Find the
lfH=3.
dk
^iMir
V J
fa)
CHAPTER
ENERGY.
160.
IX.
Results of Work.
upgrade.
(b)
(c)
^ ^ ^
The result of work done against frictional forces is heat.. The amount of heat generated is proportional to the amount The heat may be utiUzed, at least theoretiof work done. cally, to do work. Thus a part, if not all, of the original
work may be recovered.
The apparent
tational forces
is
result of the
The work done may be recovered by letting the train come down to its former level and thereby do work. Therefore the work done against gravitational forces may be considered
to be stored up.
work done against the kinetic is an increase in the veThe work done may be recovered by locity of the train. letting the train overcome a force, which tends to reduce
The apparent
result of the
its original
value.
Therefore in
In fact in
work done
is
is
In the
first case,
however, work
186
186
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
heat into work special means, such as heat engines, etc., have to be used, which do not belong to the domain of
considered as
lost.
On
tions
151.
Energy.
Potential, Kinetic,
Energy
stored
Work
up
overcoming kinetic reactions is called kinetic energy. Work stored up while overcoming nonfrictional forces, such as gravitational forces, is called potential energy. Work done while overcoming frictional forces is called heat energy.
152.
Transformation of Energy.
Potential,
kinetic,
and
heat energy are different (at least apparently*) forms of the same physical entity, i.e., energy. Energy may be changed from any one of these forms into any other form. Whenever
such a change takes place energy is said to be transformed. Transformation of energy is always accompanied by work. In fact the process of doing work is that of transformation The amount of energy transformed equals the of energy.
same as those
KINETIC ENERGY.
153.
By
definition kinetic
kinetic reaction
Since there is no moin giving the particle its velocity. tion along the normal to the path of the particle no work is done against the normal component of the kinetic reaction. Therefore we need only consider the work done against the
tangential component.
* Recent developments in physical sciences tend to show that dififerences between different forms of energy are only apparent and that all forms of
energy
ENERGY
Denoting the kinetic energy by
tion into analytical language
187
T and
we obtain
rds ds
Jo dt
1 _ hmv\
dv
(I)
Therefore the kinetic energy of a particle equals onehalf the product of the Tnass by the square of its velocity. Since both and
t'2
must be a
positive magnitude.
The
the arithmetic
particles.
sums Thus
T=^Zmv\
When
where
164.
all
(II)
is
Work Done
a Particle.
If
increased from
Vq
to v then the
=m
vdv
= TTq.
*
^
I
'
Tho
first,
th<
fa/'f.
that,
ia t,h< wrnrlf
Hnno AyAJn^^
it
was explained
Chapter VI.
188
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
PROBLEMS.
1.
Show
and
that the dimensions of work and kinetic energy are the same.
2.
long,
of
300
10 m.
^.
sec.
age frictional force. The angle of elevation of the plane is 30. 3. A body of 100 gm. mass, which is projected up an inclined plane,
arrives at the top of the plane with a velocity of 150
'.
Find the
sec.
and
The
is
30.
a velocity
of
1500
ft
',
and leaves
it
ft
sec.
How many
planks
6.
In the preceding problem find the average resisting force which the The bullet weighs  ounce. offer. A catapult, which consists of an elastic string 15 cm. long, with its
ends tied to the prongs of a forked piece of wood, is used to throw stones. What velocity will it give to a stone of 5 gm. mass when stretched to twice
its
natural length.
7.
The modulus
by a weight of 750 pounds in faUing through a distance of 4 feet is to be absorbed bj'^ a heUcal spring, 5 inches Find the modulus of elasticity of the spring so that it will not be long. compressed more than 1 inch.
kinetic energy acquired
8.
The
bullet
size
its
power
of
The
resisting
force
is
supposed to be constant.
155.
Axis.
Suppose the
an
Consider the kinetic energy of an element of mass dm at a distance r from the axis. If v denotes the velocity of the element and dT its kinetic energy, then
the paper.
l'*.2,.2
r^o}^
dm,
[v
rco]
ENERGY
where w
is
189
Therefore the
total kinetic
is
= i/ls
where /
of the
is
(IV)
of inertia
the
moment
axis of
rotation.
for
moment
role in
Fig. 101.
same
motion of rotation as mass, the linear inertia, plays in motion of translation. The expression for the kinetic energy of a rotating body may be put in a little different form by substituting for / its value in terms of the moment of inertia about a parallel Thus axis through the center of mass.
= ^mt;,2+ ^7,0,2,
where
Ve is the velocity of the center of mass. thus divided the kinetic energy into two parts
(V)
We
have
(a) kinetic
energy due to the motion of translation of the body as a whole with the velocity of the center of mass, (b) kinetic energy due to the rotation of the body about an axis through the center of mass. 166. Work Done in Increasing the Angular Velocity of a Rigid
Body.
It
was shown
any number
the
190
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
of the increments in the kinetic energies of the individ
sum
ual particles.
Therefore
TF=S (my2imyo^).
sign
by
dm
Vo^
dm)
(r^co^
dm dm
r^ojo^
dm)
r^
r^
cjo^ /
Jo
dm
(VI)
=
where
wo
^Ic^'^Ic^o',
and
co
and the
PROBLEMS.
1.
The
is
4 feet
What must be
its initial
Neglect
at a time
The power of a 15ton car was shut off and the brakes were put on when the car was making 50 miles an hour. On each of the 8
Find the
by the
car before
coming to
rest.
The
diameters of the
coeflficient of fric
and the wheels is 0.2. 3. A 100ton locomotive making a mile a minute is to be stopped within 500 yards. What brakeshoe force must be appUed? The diameters of
The
coefficient of friction
is 0.3.
Find the amount of heat which would be generated if the rotation The mean density of the earth of the earth about its axis were stopped.
5.5
4000 miles;
1 calorie
ENERGY
6.
191
by the heat computed
80 calories per gram.
in the preceding
6.
The
is
The winder
of a spiiming top
cylindrical piece
inch in diameter.
ir
1 pound has to be applied to from untwisting itself. After the spring is given a twist of 2 turns the top is released. Find the kinetic energy the top would acquire if there were no frictional forces. 7. In the preceding problem find the angular velocity of the top supposing it to consist of a circular plate of 2 inch radius, and of J pound weight. 8. If the top of the preceding problem turns for 2 minutes before stopping, find the mean torque due to friction and resistance; also find the total number of revolutions made. 9. A top is given a motion of rotation by pulling at a string wound around it. Derive an expression for the energy communicated, (a) when
radians a force of
is
constant; (b)
when
it
is
unwound.
POWER.
157.
Power.
Power
is
is
done.
When
comes
P=^.
Power
is
(VII)
The C.G.S.
a scalar quantity and has the dimensions [ML^T~^]. unit of power is the erg per second. This unit too small for engineering two is purposes; therefore larger units are adopted, which are called the watt and the kilowatt.
following relations define these imits:
1
The
watt
iJ5i!!
1
sec.
= 10^?^.
sec.
1
kilowatt
10'
watts
sec.
io>o?rs?.
192
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
British unit of
The
power
H.P.
is
by
the
following equation
1
= =
33,000^*'
nun.
550
ft. lbs.
sec.
PROBLEMS.
1.
horse power speed the train can attain on a level track if there is a constant resisting force of 15 pounds per ton.
2.
Show that 1 horse power equals about 746 watts. The engine of a train, which weighs 150 tons, is of 200
.^
Find the
3.
maximum
The diameter
of the cylinder of a
steam engine
is
is
9 inches,
and
its.
of revolutions per
Each
of the
2 cylinders of a locomotive
is is
is
16 inches in diameter,,
is
feet,
mean
effective
pressure
5.
Find the power developed. rate of 50 miles an hour,^ Find the power, in kilowatts, transformed by engine which pulls the train. The resistance
moves at the
Find the horse power developed by an engine which moves a train at up an incline of 1 in 300. The train weigha
is
A A
horse power.
What
is
The width
20 inches.
150horsepower steam engine has a piston 18 inches in diameter which makes 100 strokes per minute. Find the mean effective pressure
steam in the cyhnder. The length of the stroke is 24 inches. The average flow over the Niagara Falls is 10,000 cubic meters per second. The average height is 160 feet. Find the power, in kilowatts,
of the
9.
if all
A
1
fire
engine
ft '
through a
sec.
nozzle
inch in diameter.
to drive the
pump,
if
ENERGY
nozzle
water.
11.
is
193
Find the power of a machine gun which projects 600 bullets per
'
of
sec.
mass.
12.
muiute.
13.
power and makes 150 revolutions per Kxpress the torque transmitted in poundsfoot and dynescm.
An
minute.
nets.
14.
electric motor develops 25 kilowatts at 900 revolutions per Find the torque on the rotating armature due to the field magfriction.
N^lect
Find the power of a clock which has a maximum run of 8 days. The weight which moves the works has a mass of 10 kg. At its highest position the weight is 15 inches above its lowest position. 16. A twinscrew steamer has engines of 20,000 horse power and when working at full power the engines make 75 revolutions per minute. Find the torque transmitted by the shaft of each screw. 16. The pitch of the screw propeller of a ship is 25 feet. The power
transformed by the propeller is 15,000 horse power, when the ship makes 20 knots. Assuming that there is a slip of 10 per cent at the propeller screw and that the efficiency is 0.75, find the torque transmitted by the shaft, also the thrust on the bearings. 17. A feed pump delivers water into a boiler at the rate of 20 lbs. an hour. If the pressure in the boiler is 150 lbs. per square inch above the atmospheric pressure, find the effective horse power of the pump.
POTENTIAL ENERGY.
158. Configuration. The arra ngement of the parts of a system is culled the c onfiguration of the system. The system which consists of this book and the earth, for instance, is in one configuration when the book is on the desk and in. another configuration when it is on the floor. During the transfer of the book from the floor to the desk the system passes, continuously, through infinite number of configurations, be
diflferent positions
Conservative Forces.
If
the
work done
in bringing
is
194
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
independent of the manner in which the change of configuration takes place, the forces acting upon the system are said to be conservative forces. Gravitational forces are examples of conservative forces. This is evident from the result of 129 where it was shown that the work done against gravitational forces in taking a body from one point to another is independent of the path along which the body is carried. 160. Dissipative Forces. Forces which are not conserva
All fric
tional
161.
and
Potential Energy.
any configuration equals the work done against the conservative forces which act upon the system, in bringing it from a standard configuration to the configuration in question. For instance, if the unstretched state of an elastic string
in
taken to be its standard configuration, then the potential energy of the string at any stretched state equals the work done in producing the extension. The potential energy of this book when on the table equals the work done in raising it from the floor to the table, provided the book is considered to be at the standard configuration when it is on the floor. The selection of the standard configuration is quite arbitrary and is a matter of convenience only. It is evident from the definition of potential energy that its value is zero at the standard configuration. Comparing the definitions of potential_e nergy and of conis
servative forces
we
see that_diej)otential_en^r^^a^^
independent of the manner in which the system is brought from the standard configuration. This is equivalent to stating that the potential energy of a system depends upon its configuration. But coordinates define the configuration of a system; therefore potential energy is a
configuration
is
function of the coordinates. If the sea level is taken as the standard configuration,
i.e.,
ENERGY
energy of a body, due to gravitational
of the vertical height of the
fact
it
195
forces, is
a function
sea level; in
mg
its
162.
The
difference be
tween the potential energy of a system in two different configurations equals the work done in taking the system from the configuration of lower potential energy to that of higher
potential energy.
figuration
Let the point A, Fig. 102, represent the standard conand the points B and C represent two other con
Fio. 102.
figurations.
Then
if
at
B and C
respectively, then
energies
Ub=Wab, Uc=Wac,
where Wab and Wac are equal, respectively, to the work done in going from A to B and from A to C. Therefore
Uc Ub=WacWab= Wbc,
(VIII)
where Wbc equals the work done in taking the system from B to C. Thus the work done against conservative forces acting upon a system equals the increase in the potential
energy of the system. 163. Isolated System.
A system which
is
external forces is called an isolated system. An isolated system neither gives energy to external bodies nor receives energy from them. This is an immediate result of the definition of an isolated system, because exchange of energy
by
196
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
presupposes work by or against external forces, which in its turn presupposes interaction with external bodies. But
since
no external
of energy.
164.
The
One of
the greatest achievements of the nineteenth century was the recognition and the experimental verification of the great
as the principle of the conservation of energy, which states that the total amount of energy of an
generalization
known
is
isolated system
constant.
an be changed into other forms, and the distribution of the energy within the system may be altered, but the total amount In other words, energy may be of energy remains constant.
of the interaction of the different parts of
By means
may
Kinetic and potential forms of Dynamical Energy. energy are called dynamical energy. The distinction between dynamical and nondynamical energy, such as heat energy, chemical energy, etc., is a matter of convenience.
165.
Heat energy may be treated as kinetic energy, but in order to do that molecules and their individual motions have to be taken into account. On the other hand chemical energy may be treated as potential energy if molecular and
atomic forces can be taken into account. It is to avoid the compUcations of the molecular structure of bodies that these forms of energy are considered as nondynamical. When all the 166. Conservation of Djmamical Energy. forces acting within an isolated system are conservative the interchange of energy is confined to the potential and kinetic forms of the energy of the system. Therefore applying the general principle of the conservation of energy we see that in such a system the sum of the dynamical energy remains constant, that is,
r+C7= const.
(IX)
ENERGY
If To
197
initial
values of
T and
U, then the
T{U=To+Uo
and
Therefore
if
TTo={U
Uo).
(X)
only conservative forces act between the various sum of the potential and
words, the gain in the kinetic energy equals the loss in the potential energy. Equation (X) will be called the energy equation.
167. Conservation of Dynamical Energy and the Law of Action The principle of the conservation of dynamand Reaction. ical energy may be obtained from the Law of Action and Reaction. In order to prove this statement consider an isolated conservative system. Suppose the configuration of the system to have changed under the action of its interLet Uo and U be the potential energies in the nal forces.
initial
and
final
configurations,
is
respectively.
Then the
(UUo).
During the change in the configuration of the system the positions and the velocities of the particles, which form the Therefore let Sq and s denote sjrstem, undergo changes. the positions, and vo and v the velocities of any particle in the initial and final configurations of the system. Further let F denote the resultant force which acts upon the particle. Then the change in the potential energy of the system due to the displacement of the particle from So to s is
 f'Frds*
where Fr is the tangential component of the force. The normal component contributes nothing to the work. There
Potential energy
is,
by
definition, the
forces againt
obtained by computing the work done by internal forces the result is the negative of the change in the potential energy. Hence the negative sign.
internal forces.
ia
198
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
equals the
sum
of the
on
all
= 2 fPrds,
all the particles of the system. Therefore substituting the expression for Fr, which was obtained by applying the law of action and reaction to the motion of particles, we obtain
(C/C/o)
= 2 Jm'.rfs
dv
= 2(1 mv^
= (^^0),
where
To
I mvo^)
and T
configurations.
system in the initial and in the final Rearranging the terms of the last equation
U{
we
get
T= Uo+
To=
const.
which
energy.
is
Therefore the principle of the conservation of dynamical energy and the law of force are not independent of each other but form two different aspects of the same
universal principle.
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE.
Taking into account the variation of the gravitational attraction with the distance of a body from the center of the earth, find the potential energy of a body with respect to the surface of the earth.
of its distance
Outside the earth the weight of a body varies inversely as the square from the center of the earth. Therefore denoting this
variable weight
by
F we
have
F = \,
ENERGY
where
A;
199
is
a constant and
r is
the earth.
But
mg,
is
= mg when r =
the earth.
a,
where a
the radius of
we
,
obtain
or &
mg =
Or
mga*.
Therefore
and
U= JCPdr a
=
mga^
Ja
r*
= mga^ ('')
\a
Ti
Fig. 103.
Discussion.
Fig. 103,
Plotting
we obtain
the curve of
where the
mga
When r = a, U = 0; as it should. When r=cc,U = mga. Therefore is the maximum value of the potential energy. In the figure this is
evident from the fact that the cur\'e approaches asymptotically to the
line
U=
mga.
When r=
2 a,
U = ^^
4000 miles the potential energy equals half its maximum value. It will be seen from the following analysis that for small heights the potential energy may be considered to increase linearly with A, where h is the height above the surface of the earth:
mga'
\a
a\hJ
mga
a mgh,
* The s3rmbol8 "<#C" and "^" Thus "h<^a" should be read "h
+h
when
h<^a.*
will
is
very small compartHi with a." On the other hand "a "a is very large compared with h."
a"
or "h
is
200
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
PROBLEMS.
which is 50 feet long, 40 feet wide, and 10 feet deep is Find the potential energy of the water relative to a plane 25 feet below the bottom of the reservoir. 2. A particle slides down a curve in a vertical plane and "loops the loop." Find the minimum height the starting point can have above the center of the "loop." The radius of the "loop" is 15 feet. 3. Find the least velocity with which a bullet will have to be projected
1.
reservoir
full of
water.
so that
it will
is
let
go?
axis,
and radius a is rotating about a horizontal making n turns per second. How high can it raise a mass m', which is suspended from the cylinder by means of a string of negligible mass? 6. A particle, which is attached to a point by a string of negligible mass, has just enough energy to make complete revolutions in a vertical circle. Find the velocity at the highest and at the lowest points. 7. In the preceding problem show that the tension of the string is zero when the particle is at the highest point and six times the weight of the
cylinder of
mass
particle
8.
when
it is
particle starts
from
its
is
a smooth sphere
and
slides
down under
which
9.
particle
it
Where will it leave the sphere? suspended by means of a string is pulled to one
weight.
it is let
own
side until
go.
Find
the position at which the tension of the string equals the weight of the
particle.
10.
In the preceding problem show that the total energy remains conAlso find the velocity at the
elastic string
lowest position
11.
when a =
60.
ENERGY
GENERAL PROBLEMS.
20t
1. What should be the tractive force of a locomotive in order that it may be able to give a train of 150 tons a velocity of 45 miles per hour within
The
is
given in pounds by
\
OA v*, where
eflBciency is
is 46 and its 25 feet find the number of gallons of water which have to be delivered to the wheel per minute. 4. A belt running at a speed of 1500 feet per minute transmits 25 horse
The
effective horse
power
of
70 per cent.
If
power.
Assuming the
tensile force
twee
6.
the safe
tensile force
belt.
6. Find the power which may be transmitted by a belt under the follomng conditions: The width of the belt is 10 inches. The pulley which the belt drives is 4 feet in diameter and makes
0.4.
of width.
In the preceding problem find the tensile force on the slack side
In problem 6 suppose the arc of contact to subtend
120**
of the belt.
8.
at the
In the preceding problem find the tensile force per inch width of
friction in the bearings of
a flywheel
and 10 inches
long.
0.004.
minute.
The normal
11.
of contact.
total reaction to
202
12.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Find the power
lost
due to
a water
The
The The
13.
is
supported by a
turbine
In the preceding problem suppose the shaft which carries the rotating system to be hollow, with an inner diameter of 6 inches and outer
diameter of 12 inches.
14. In problem 12 suppose the bearing to be a hemispherical pivot with constant normal pressure. 16. In the preceding problem suppose the vertical component of the
CHAPTER
FIELDS OF FORCE AND
168.
X.
NEWTONUN
POTENTIAL.
a particle experiences a force when placed at any point of a region the region is called & field
Fields of Force.
If
of force.
field of
The
a charged body, and the magnetic field of a magnet are examples of fields of force. The potential 169. Potential Energy and Fields of Force. energy of a system is due to the overlapping of the fields For instance, the earth and the moon of force of its parts. are not connected by anything material, yet they form a system which has potential energy, because they are in each The fact that a stretched other's gravitational field of force. elastic string has potential energy seems to contradict this statement, but this contradiction is only apparent. The potential energy of the stretched string is also due to the overlapping of the fields of force of its parts. In this case, however, molecules form the parts of the system.
170.
The
amount of work is done during the displacement. If the body is not acted upon by forces which are external to the field, then by the principle of the conservation of energy, the energy of the body remains Therefore the amount constant during the displacement. lost by one form of the energy of the body is gained by the other. The work done is the measure of the amount of the
energy transformed.
the conservation of energy does notthrow question, " Which form of energy is the
203
204
loser
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
and which the gainer?"
It merely states that the loss In order to know the direction of the transhave to appeal to another principle; i.e., the
:
formation
we
move in afield of force moves in such a way as to diminish its potential energy* This principle is nothing more or less than a simple statement of human experience with things that "run down." The principle states that water flows down hill under the action of gravitational forces, that a clock runs down, etc. 171. Force Experienced by a Particle in a Field of Force. Consider a particle in a field of force. When the particle is displaced through a distance ds, under the action of the forces of the field, a certain amount of work is done which equals Fds, where F is the resultant force due to the field.
body which
is free to
Therefore,
by the
diminished by an amount
along the direction of the
equal to Fds.
Let the rate of increase of
U
,
displacement be denoted by
tion in the potential energy.
then
ds
is
the diminu
work
Fds=
es
ds, '
or
*
^=T^t ds
This principle
(I)
may be
called the
of thermodynamics.
t It
should be remembered that the forces which enter into the equations
U
of
its
F ds and F = ^
potential energy.
In the second
equation
by
virtue
energy denotes the external force which has to be appUed to the particle in
FIELDS OF FORCE
205
component equations we
have
x= ~
Y=
Z=
Equations
tion
dU
dx'
dU
dy'
(I')
dU
dz
(I) and (F) state that the force along a given direcwhich a particle experiences by virtue of its potential energy
Body
in a Field of Force.
work G dd
is
done, where
field.
through an angle dd. Then an amount G is the torque which the body
experiences in the
tion
By
and degradation of dynamical energy this work must come from the potential energy of the body in the field.
Therefore denoting the rate of increase in the potential energy
of the body,
axis,
by
we
fill
dd
have
Gdd=dd,
or
G =
(II) states
its
^'
(")
Equation
ences by virtue of
order to overcome the forces which the particle experiences because of its position in a field of force, and thereby to bring the particle from the standard
configuration to the one in which
it
206
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES.
1.
experiences
Find the force which a particle placed upon a smooth inclined plane by virtue of its potential energy. Also find the components
is
normal
is
and the
xaxis
Then
is
if
denotes
its
mgh.
is
^=
Thus the
tion
(I').
f = (^^^^=^^is
Fig. 104.
The components
Thus
X=
dh  dU =  mgr =
dx
0.
dx
is nil.
dU
dy
dh dy
is
downwards and
mg sin
a.
ry = Z
dU = mg = mg
az
dh
oz
cos a.
move
mally into the plane and has a magnitude equal to mg cos a. The components along the xaxis and the zaxis produce no motion because
equals zero and
Z is
exactly balanced
verified
foregoing results
may be
i.e.,
common method,
2.
by taking
is
projections of
mg
free to rotate
6.
the earth.
FIELDS OF FORCE
207
C the
Then
energy
U=
mgh
cos 6).
= mgD{l
body
is
dU
= mgD sin 6.
This
may be easily verified by considFig. 105. moments of the forces which act upon the body. The forces which act upon the body are the reaction of the axis and the weight of the body. The moment of the reaction is nil; therefore the resultant moment is entirely due to the weight and
result
ering the
equals
G = mgd = mg Dsind,
which
is
The
negative sign
\b
clockwise.
173.
New
Condition of Equilibrium.
Equations
(I),
(I'),
and
(II)
provide us with a
is
of conservative systems.
III that a system
in
new condition for the equilibrium It was shown in Chapters II and equilibrium when the resultant force
in equations
and the resultant torque vanish. Therefore setting F and G equal to zero (I) and (II) we obtain
dS
^=
de
(III)
0,
where the differentiation in the first equation is with respect to any direction and that in the second with respect to an angle about any axis. But when equations (III) are satisfied,
is,
the value of
U is either
Therefore the
208
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
in order
that
a conservative system be in
its potential
The equilibrium
when
of
a.
body
is
said to be stable
if it is
not upset
the body
is
we can denote
point
(xi, yi,
Zi)
by the
Ui
functional relation
U{xi,yi,Zi).
{xi,
2/1,
Zi)
to be a position of equi
given a displacement
8x,
the
new
position becomes
U2 =
U{xi\8x,yi,Zi).
in powers of 8x we
/(m^+
where the subscripts
X, y,
and
must be replaced by
Xi, yi,
and
zi,
coordinates of the equilibrium position. But since the particle is in equilibrium at the point
{xi,
2/1,
2i)
"^
dX/i
0.
Since
8x,
the displacement,
is
small
we can
member
^^v.^m^.r.
FIELDS OF FORCE
Case
I.
209
is
Suppose
be positive.
Then
U2
U1
and consequently Ui is a minimum. But according to the principle of the d^radation of energy a body, which is free, moves in such a way as to diminish its potential energy. Therefore when the force which produced the displacement 5a; is removed the particle returns to the point (xi, yi, 21), where Evidently the equilibits potential energy is a minimum. rium is stable in this case.
positive
Case
is
if
II.
Suppose)
is
^1
to be negative.
J7i
Then
U2
U1
left
is
a maximum.
Therefore
to itself,
its
will
where
potential energy
is
a maximimi.
librium
unstable.
Case III.
Suppose ^J
(
to be zero.
The
order of the
first
differential coefficient
which which
first
differential coefficient
does not vanish is even. (c) All of the differential coefficients vanish. It is evident that when (c) is true the potential energy of the particle has a constant value and does not change with the position of the particle. Therefore when the particle is left to itself after giving it a small displacement it will
neither return to its original position nor go on changing
its
position.
is
The
is
potential energy
is
particle
equilibrium
It
stable.
is
may be shown that when (a) holds the equilibrium is On the other hand when (b) is true the equilibrium
first differential coeffi
cient
is
positive or negative.
210
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
three types of equihbrium are illustrated
horizontal plane.
The
by the three
sume on a
Fig. 106.
NEWTONIAN POTENTIAL.
175.
Newtonian Law
of Force.
is
The law
of force
between
called a
Newtonian law
of force if
and which
and inversely as the square of the distance between them. The forces between two material particles, between two small electrical charges, and between two small magnetic poles obey the Newtonian law of force. The following are the famiUar forms in which the law is written for material, electrical, and magnetic particles, respectively.
F= y mm
where
ticles
F=
F=
mm
(IV)
When the interacting pary, k, and n are constants. are in free space the numerical value of the constants
is
k and n
unity, while
T=6.7X
176.
108
When the forces which Newtonian Field of Force. act in a region obey the Newtonian law of force the region is called a, Newtonian field of force.
FIELDS OF FORCE
177.
211
Newtonian Potential. The potential energy of a unit point of mass placed at a a Newtonian field is called the The standard configuration or the potential at that point. position of zero potential is taken to be infinitely far from
the center of the
field.
of a
body
equals the work done in bringing the body from the position of zero potential energy, therefore the following definition is
The
178.
unit mass
from an
Potential
Due
U the potential energy of a particle of mass m' placed in the field of force of the first particle, r the distance between the two particles, and V the potential at the Then by the definitions of V and U position of m' due to m.
of the particle,
m
(V)
= l,nF)dr,
Joo
where
F is
But
Therefore
F= 
mm'
7
,
V= ym
dr
j
= ^^.
The negative
(VI)
sign indicates the fact that when a particle is brought to the field of another attracting particle work will be done by the particle and not by the agent which brings Therefore the potential due to a material particle, as it. we have defined it, is everywhere negative, except at infinity where it is zero. In case of electrical and magnetic masses potential is defined as the work done in bringing a unit posiTherefore tive charge, or unit positive pole, from infinity.
212
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
and a
Mass. When the due to a number of particles (material, electrical, or magnetic), the potential at a point equals the algebraic sum of the potentials due to the various particles. Thus if mi, m^, m^, etc., be the masses of the particles and n, ra, Tz, etc., their distances from the point
Potential
Due to Any
Distribution of
is
field of force or
is
\
V=  f 7 mi
T/
nh
\
7
r2
ri
(VII)
When
Thus
the field
is
may
r^. v=y Jo r
180.
(vir)

a potential
Let
or a field of force,
when placed
H denote
Then,
if
is
the
force experienced
at that point,
we
have, by definition,
H = ,^
(VIII)
and
H = . m
m'\ds
ds \m'l
FIELDS OF FORCE
213
ds
Similarly
dV
dy
(IX)
and
dV
dz
at
Therefore the component, along any direction, of the intensity any point equals the rate at which the potential diminishes
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES.
1.
tial
and
a spherical shell. Let P, Fig. 107, be the point and R its distance from the center of the Then taking a zone for the shell.
element of mass, as shown in the
figure,
we get
Fio. 107.
dm =
and
r
9 '2irasaid
add,
= ViR acosdy
+ a sin^O
= Va* + R^2aRcose.
Therefore
V=
r^dm, "dm
= 7T2,ra'/;;7=
smOdB
+ R^2aRcoad
 3ll^[(af fl  2aRcosB)\],
R
  "^^^^ [(a' + 2 aft +
ft')*
(a 2 aft
+ ft*)*).
214
(a)
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Point Outside the Sphere.
may be
Therefore the
= y riira^ R
m
Therefore outside the shell the potential
shell
(b)
is
the same as
if
were concentrated at
its
center.
In
this case
R<a.
Therefore
= 7
Ava^
= y m
a
is
trated at
On
the
no force on a
is
particle
which
dis
within the
shell.
The
tribution of
field
and
H in the
where
ically
Fig.
108,
curve
FIELDS OF FORCE
There are two cases which have to be considered separately, Consider the sphere to be made (a) Point Outside the Sphere. Then, since the point is outside every of concentric shells of thickness dp. one of these shells the potential due to any one of the shells is, according
dm
where
dm
center.
is the mass of the shell and R the distance of the point from the Hence the potential due to all the shells in the sphere is
7=
dm am J"" R
m
where
is
outside of a sphere
Point Within the Sphere. In this case we divide the sphere two parts by means of a concentric spherical surface which passes through the point. Then the potential due to that part of the sphere which is within the spherical surface is obtained by the result of case (a). Thus if mi denotes the mass of this part of the sphere and Vi its potential,
into
then
Vr=y'^=^iryrR\
In order to find the potential due to the rest of the sphere suppose
to be divided into a great
it
number
Then
since every one of the shells contains the point the potential
due to any
one of them
is
dVt
=7
= P
4 iryrp dp,
where dm is the mass, p the radius, and dp the thickness of the shell. Therefore the potential due to all the shells having radii between R and a 'a
pdp
2T7T(a).
216
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
is
F=
Fi
F2
= ym When R
is
a'
the potential
given by a curve
Now
(a)
a
Fig. 109.
point in the
the sphere.
H =_
dV
dR
m
is
Therefore the distribution of the field intensity outside of the sphere the same as that due to a particle placed at the center,
(b)
aF
field intensity obeys the harmonic law; i.e., the intensity varies directly as the distance from the center. In Fig. 109, curve (II) gives the distribution of the intensity of
the
field.
PROBLEMS.
1.
field intensity
at a point
in the solid
Find the potential and the field intensity due to a circular disk of on its axis. 3. Find the potential and the field intensity due to a straight wire of length I and mass m at a point on the axis of the wire. The crosssection
2.
of the wire
is
negUgible.
FIELDS OF FORCE
4.
217
Find the potential and the field intensity due to a straight circuon its axis. 6. Show that problems 2 and 3 are special cases of problem 4. 6. Find the magnetic potential and the field intensity due to a cylindrical magnet at a point on its axis; suppose the magnetism to be distributed at the ends only. 7. Find the potential and the field intensity due to two spherical
8.
ix>int
9.
Find the potential and the field intensity due to a right cone at a on its axis. A uniform solid sphere b cut in two by a diametral plane. Show
7
lo
where
or
7 the
gravitational constant.
any two points on the surface of the earth were joined by a straight and smooth tunnel a particle would traverse it in about 42.5
10.
Show
that
if
minutes.
11.
Two
,
spheres of masses
force,,
F = y
where 7
is
a constant and r
be that of
centers are
b.
when the
a and
The
with the same law of force and take the configuration when the spheres,
are separated by an infinite distance to be that of zero potential energy.
Find the potential due to a small magnet at a point whose distance compared with the length of the magnet. 14. In the preceding problem find the components of the intensity of the field along and at right angles to the line joining the point to the
13.
large
magnet.
Abo
and
its direction.
CHAPTER XL
TJNIPLANAR
.;
181.
It will
be remembered
Law
sections
To every
all
vanishes.
SA, =
0.
(AO
To every angular action there is an equal and opposite rangular reaction, or, the sum of all the angular actions to which a body or a part of a body is subject at any instant vanishes.
2A =
0.
(AJ
In Chapter VI the first section of the law was applied to particles in motion; but in order to do this the meaning of the terms "Unear action" and "hnear reaction" was
'.enlarged so as to include linear kinetic reactions as well as
In the present chapter the second section of the forces. law will be apphed to the motion of rigid bodies; but before doing this we must introduce another form of kinetic reaction, which we will call angular kinetic reaction. If we replace in the second section of the law the terms "angular action" and '^angular reaction" by the terms "torque" and "angular kinetic reaction," we obtain the following form which is directly applicable to problems of rotation
The sum
.plus
of
all
the
angular
the torques acting upon a rigid body kinetic reaction equals zero, or the
218
219
(I)
If
we
try to
free to
move about a
horizontal
a string
we
find that
which we want to impart a given interval of time the harder we must pull at
the string.
of the string
But since the pull and the reaction of the bearings form a couple
and since the increase in the angular velocity per unit time means angular acceleration, we conclude that a torque must
it an angular and that the greater the acceleration desired Evidently the torque the greater must the torque be. which we apply to the flywheel expends itself in overcoming The resisting torque due to the friction certain reactions. between the axle and its bearings and between the surface of the flywheel and the surrounding air must be overcome. But if we gradually diminish this resisting torque by reducing the friction we observe that the torque which must be apphed,
acceleration,
tends towards a constant value different from zero. In other words even if all the resisting torques due to friction
were eliminated we would have to apply a torque of definite magnitude in order to give the flywheel a desired angular acceleration; that is, the flywheel resists torques which impart to it an angular acceleration. This resistance to angular
acceleration
is
220
182.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Experimental DelBnition of
Moment
of Inertia.
If in
all frictional
forces
and torques are eliminated and then torques of different magnitudes are appUed to the flywheel, it will be found that
the torques are proportional to the angular accelerations produced; that is, if Gi, G2, etc., denote the torques obtained by multiplying the pull of the string by the radius of the axle and 71, 72, etc., the corresponding angular acceleration, then we shall find that the following relations hold
^ = ^ = ^=.
Tl 72
=/,
(11)
73
a constant which depends only upon the rotating In fact, as will be shown in 186, it is nothing more or less than the moment of inertia of the rotating system. We have, therefore, the following definition for the moment of inertia of a body, in addition to the analytical definition given in Chapter VII The moment of inertia of a body about a given axis is a constant of the body, relative to the given axis, which equals the quotient of the torque applied by the angular acceleration obtained; both being referred to the given axis* It is evident 183. Measure of Angular Kinetic Reaction. from equation (II) that Gi, G2, etc., which measure the angu
where 7
system.
is
Therefore
number of bodies of different moments of inertia are given the same angular acceleration, it is found that the kinetic reactions are proportional to the moments of inertia; that is,
Gl
ii
(72
. .
.
y^
/'TTT^ (III)
I2
this definition of
* Note the striking similarity between and the definition of mass given in 94.
moment
of inertia,
221
is the common angular acceleration. Therefore the angular kinetic reaction varies directly as the product of the moment of inertia by the angular acceleration,
kly,
where k is the constant of proportionality. When all the magnitudes involved in the last equation are measured in the same system of units k becomes unity. Introducing this simplification in the last equation and putting it into vector notation we have
angular kinetic reaction
= ZV.
(IV)
The negative
acceleration.
184.
Torque Equation.
Combining equations
G=
/Y,
and (IV)
The
last equation,
which
will
any
product of the moment of inertia by the angular acceleration and has the same direction as the angular acceleration. 185. The Two Definitions of Moment of Inertia. In order to show that the constant, I, of equation (II) and the moment of inertia defined by equation (II) of page 152 are the same magnitude, consider the motion of the rigid body A, Fig. Ill, about a fixed axis through the point 0, perpendicular to the plane of the paper. Let rfF be the resultant force acting upon an element of mass dm, that
is,
the vector
sum
of the forces
force
and the
forces
rest of the
body.
Then
dF^dm^^
at
is
222
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
linear acceleration varies
is
The
from point to point, but the same for all the elements.
if
we
by
This be done by taking the moments of the forces about the axis. Since dm can move only in a direction perpendicular to
may
Fig. 111.
the line
r,
rfF
must be perpendicular to r. Therefore the magnitude the moment dG, due to dF, is
of
dG=rdF
= rdm dv
dt
= r^dmTj
(y
= rw).
sum
of the
moments due
is
upon
all
the
G=
Jq
r^
r^dm'j,
d<ji
at
dm.
But by equation
(V)
G =
lia.
Therefore
r^
Xm
dm,
which is the definition of the moment of inertia given in Chapter VII. There is a perfect analogy between 186. Comparison. motion of pure translation and motion of pure rotation. This is clearly brought out in the following lists of the magnitudes involved in the two types of motion
223
motioo of ttmnsUtioii.
Their eiutiocaes
in
motion of rotation.
8, linear
displacement.
0,
angular displacement.
angular acceleration.
, angular velocity.
<!>,
/,
angular inertia or
inertia.
moment
of
mv,
/a>,
wjV, linear
momentum.*
7, angular
momentum, t
energy of rotation.
i /', kinetic
F = mv,
force equation.
G=
force.
1(0,
torque equation.
W= Jo IF ds, work
L = C f
dt,
done by a
W=
linear impulse.*
H= rG
t
angular impulse.!
The equations of Torque and Energy Methods. motion of a rigid body may be obtained in two ways, one of which will be called the torque method and the other the
187.
energy method.
Torque method: First, find the resultant torque and substitute it in the torque equation. Second, integrate the torque equation in order to find the integral equations of the motion. Energy method: First, equate the change in the potential
energy to the change in the kinetic energy.
Second, differentiate the energy equation, thus obtained, with respect to the time. This gives the torque equation. Third, proceed as in the torque method. The energy method is advantageous in complicated problems, but not in simple ones.
224
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
AXIS.
is free to rotate about a fixed under the action of a constant torque. Suppose the body to be the flywheel of Fig. 110. Let the constant torque be suppUed by a constant force F appHed at the free end of the string which is wound around the axle. The tensile force of the string and the reaction of the bearings form a couple, the torque of which equals the moment of the force F about the axis of rotation. Therefore
G=
where a is the radius of the axle.
equation
Fa,
we
obtain
jdoi
dt
dio
Fa,
or
dt
Fa = = = y7
get
CO
we
yt
c.
Let CO
ojo
when
== 0,
then
c
OJ
(1)
or
Integrating again
dB
dt
0}t.
=
Let 5
o}ot\ h (^t^
c'.
when
0,
then
c'
= = =
0.
Therefore
(2)
o}ot\h (^t\
(1)
Eliminating
between equations
a)^
and
(2)
(3)
o}o^\2yd.*
action of
Energy F
Method. The
is
due to the
The diminution in the potential energy of the system which force F equals the work done by F. Therefore
supplies the
{U*
Uo)
(3)
Fs,
Compare equations
(1),
(2),
and
of p. 113.
225
is
unwound.
Fs.
Substituting these
we
obtain
J /&>
/wo*
W*
= =
Wo
a>o*
7
+ 27d,
{s
a0)
Differentiating
which
is
we have
2urat
2y<a
and
which
of the
2.
is
do)
problem
A
is
tal axis
which
woimd around
the string.
Let
the
moment
of inertia of the
rotating system.
m=
= T=
a
the mass of the falling body. the radius of the axle. the tensile force of the string.
Pio. 112.
Energy Method.
Suppose the
Then the
mgh.
t,
of rotation
torque.
There
body during
its
fall.
Iw = Ta
is
/w*
f
mv*
body we get
mvv
mgh.
therefore
mgao),
mv
Hence
16)
'^
mg
T.
But
ao)
and h
v,
= Ta = {mg
*"
/oxi
m(g
mv) a aw) a.
mahao)
or
lot
" mig
ata) a.
226
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
either
method
0)
=
=
I
ma
9,
V
It
is
+ ma^"'
evident from
the last
two equations that both the Unear and the Therefore the equations of motion
=
I
+ ma^
I
1
+ ma^
ma ma
I
gt,
=
=
1 2 7
+ ma
ma'
.gh,
2 I
co2
+ ma^ + ma"^
gi\
v^
I {ma^
When I <C ma, then and the motion of the suspended body is about the same as
Discussion.
g,
When
then v = 0. Therefore the velocity of the falling body changes very slowly.
3.
^ mu
A uniform
is
rectangular trapdoor,
is
which
allowed to
to be smooth and horizontal, find the expression for the angular velocity at
any instant
Fig. 113.
of the
motion.
Torque Method.
The torque
on the door is due to the action of its weight and the reaction of the
hinges.
Therefore
G = mg  sin 6.
Putting this value of
torque equation we get
16:
equation gives
in the
 /co^
= mgh = m^
(1
cos
6).
to
Bind.
the time
/cod)
= sin0
mga
2
e,
/w =
smd.
227
(X
dt,
and integrating we
\ c.
\dt/
But 77 =
dt
when 6 =
0, therefore c
= ^
a
Hence
o,
= ^(lcos&).
a
this result is already given
Discussion.
0)'
It will
be observed that
by
When
^,
= ^,
t
angular velocity of
zJ.
On
velocity with which the end of the door strikes the floor increases with
v^
= 3ag{l coaO) =
Sag,
when
PROBLEMS.
1. Discuss the motion of the falling bodies in Atwood's machine, supposing the pulley to rotate without slipping.
2.
first illustrated
flywheel which
is
1500 revolutions.
tion
is
Find the
moment
rest. The angular accelerasupposed to be constant. 4. A flywheel which is subject to a constant torque of 5000 d>'ne8centimeter starts from rest and makes 2000 revolutions in 4 minutes. Find the angular acceleration and the moment of inertia.
coming to
228
6.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
In the second illustrative problem suppose there
its
is
a resistance to
velocity.
is
A flywheel making
brought to rest in
3 minutes by means of friction brakes appUed to it. Find the angular inertia of the wheel and axle if the total brakeshoe force applied is 500
pounds and the diameter of the flywheel is 10 feet. 7. In the preceding problem find the total number
after the brakes were applied.
8.
of revolutions
made
A
If
flywheel
is
axle.
50,000 gm. cm.' and the diameter of the axle 20 cm., find the force which
initial
is
A fljnvheel
is
stopped by fluid
The
resisting torque
due to
the friction
10.
string
The flywheel of a gyroscope is rotated by applying a force to a wound around the axle. Discuss the motion, supposing the tension
be proportional to the length of the string imwound.
of the string to
Uniplanar Motion.
It
planar motion
may be considered
stantaneous axis were fixed at the instant considered. Therefore uniplanar motion may be
discussed in the
same way
Axis.
as
motion about a
189.
fixed axis.
Instantaneous
If
two points of a
rigid
body are
pio
114
known
stantaneous axis may be found in the following manner: Let P and Q, Fig. 114, be two points which he in a plane parallel to the guide plane, and the velocities of which are
229
further let vp
and vq be the
velocities.
Draw
PO
;
guide plane
plane.
also draw QO perpendicular to vq in the same Then the instantaneous axis passes through 0, the
is
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES.
1.
rolls
down
x^
Let
^^
^
r
lug
Fig. 115.
m=
/
moment
contact.
= = u =
a
V
is
the radius of the cylinder. the velocity of the axis of the cylinder. the angular velocity of the cylinder.
Torque Method.
The torque
of the weight
of
Energy Method.
through a
cylinder
is
In moving
s
due to the weight of the cylinder and the reaction of the plane. It
equals the
al)out
distance
along
the
moment
element
diminished by an amount
the
contact.
equal to
Therefore
mgh = mga
sin a.
G = mga
torque equation
sin a.
in the
\ Icj*
J /wo'
^ng sin a.
time
luci
.'.
a>
mgh
sin a.
lu
B mga sin
a.
230
Therefore
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
w = ^^sina, 6a
g sin a.
and
= = =
Vo
+ gtsma,
to
coo
+ z ^ sin a, oa
t;2
t;j2 j
6
0)2
= Wot +
=
(t)Q^
gt"^
sin a,
sm a.
o
2.
+ 3a'
its
sin a.
Let a
b
= =
m'=
the wheel.
m=
moving system.
M = m\ m'.
Suppose the wheel to be a solid disk Fig. 116. with a thickness equal to half the total length of the axle. Then if both the wheel and the axle are of the same
material the relation
= holds m
0^
Therefore
a^
M
b
and
m=
a'
M. + b^
ToHQUE Method. Considering moments about the element of contact we obtain the following for
the the torque equation:
I(jj
Energy Method.
tain
Supposing
we ob
{Ie\Ma^)
(Je
u)
+ Ma^) V
axis.
where
its
Ic denotes the
ertia of the
+ 2 IgO}^ = Mgs sin a, = Mgs sin a, i Mv"^ + Ic J (Ic + Ma^) v^ = MgaH sin a, (Ic + Ma^) vv = MgaH sin a, (Jc + Ma^) V = Mga^ sin a.
3
Mv^
own
231
Ma
Thus both the
constant.
linear acceleration
may
be obtained as in the
preceding problem.
Discussion.
/
=
2 2
= M:
+ b* 2 (a* + 62)
a*
we get
2aMo'
then v
+ 6')
}
Case
I.
Let b =
rolling
a,
=
2 5 o
^ sin a, which
is
the acceleration of
a cylinder
Casell.
down an
inclined plane.
5
g'
sin a, as in case
I.
Casein.
Let6:>a,
please.
2 a* then tf=T;^sina.
much
as
we
we can reduce the acceleration, theoretically at least, as The reason for this fact becomes clear when we con
of rotation.
8.
^^ i^X
^"^
Tm^
cle represents
a cylinder of mass
along a rough hori
M which
body
it is
wound
around the
latter so that
as
ribbon slides
smooth.
mass and
232
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Torque Method.
weight
The cylinder
is
its
the normal reaction N, the frictional reaction F, and the Taking the moments about the element of tensile force of the string T.
Mg,
contact
we obtain
G=T.2a,
The other forces do not have moments about the element of contact. But considering the motion of the falling body we find that mv = mg T,
where a
is
where
v is
Therefore
G = m{g
Substituting this value of
(?
v)
'2a.
lu
am
(g
v),
where / is the moment of inertia of the cylinder about the element of conBut since the highest element of tact, and ci the angular acceleration. the cylinder has the same linear velocity as the rjbbon and the falling body,
we have 2ao} =
v,
and consequently w
;r
Making
this substitution
=2am{g ^a
4 d^m
or
v),
+ 4 a^
"*
g.
(/
= MaM
be zero and
Energy Method.
potential energy
Supposing
5 lo}^
the
initial velocities to
equating the gain in the kinetic energy of the system to the loss in
we have
+ i mv^ =
=
mgh,
Diflferentiating the
where h
last
is the distance fallen through by the body. equation with respect to the time,
/coco
+ mm
mgh.
solving for
But A
v
V, 0}
and co
Aa'hn
z.
2 a
2a
we
obtain
.
am
m
9, m+lM"'
m
2a(m + fM)
233
It
is
When m
is
negligible
compared with M,v\a very small and consequently When m is very large compared with M, v \s prachence the body falls almost freely.
The
falling
The linear accelerations of the cylinder and of the body depend upon the radius of the cyUnder only indirectly, i.e., through the mass of the cylinder. 4. A circular hoop is projected along a rough horizontal plane with a linear velocity Vo and an angular velocity coo. Discuss the motion. The hoop is acted upon by two forces, namely, its weight and the reof the falling body.
The
latter
may be
component
gives
and
its frictional
component F.
Then
1^
for the horizontal direction
(I),
and
0= Nmg
for the vertical direction.
(2>
On
/.f
where a
is
^f<.,
its
(3>
moment
own
axis.
The double
Denoting the
F
of
ix
by
we have
=
Making
equation
ixmg
(1)
(by equation
(2)J.
and
(3)
and replacing
/ in
by
its
value
we obtain
.
ad
Caae
I.
(4)
f=Fe.
(5)
Suppose
the
initial
234
Vo
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
aoiio.
<
therefore
Then the sliding at the point of contact is toward the left; F is directed to the right and consequently positive. Thus
dt~
Integrating the last two equations
V
03
^^'
we have
vo\ ngt.
(6)
(7)
= 0^0^1.
a
These equations hold until sliding stops, after which the hoop rolls with constant angular and hnear velocities. Let ^i denote the time when
sliding stops, that
is,
when
Vo
ao).
Then
f
(Jigh
coo
J.
h
Substituting this value of
t
= ^'^^and
(7)
(8)
in equations (6)
V.
we
get
(9)
= ^^^, = ^^^,
^
and
for the linear
co,
(10)
velocities of the
hoop
is
when the
than
ing
is
coo.
sliding ceases.
and
is
>
ocoq.
In this case
slid
toward the
right, consequently
dv
dt
If
ti
~ 7"
^^
when
^^tlo^^;
2m^
(80
2a
235
roll
a Unear velocity
than (oo. Case III.
this case
vt less
than
greater
Suppose the
initial
rotation to be counterclockwise.
In
wc obtain
f = M.,
(O
V,
= ?^^^, =
'^i^^f^,
(9")
UH
(10")
where U is the time when sliding ceases. There are three special cases to be considered
(a)
When
When
W^hen
vo
>
otoo, fs is
positive,
rolling
towards the
to
right.
(b)
=
<
cuoo, Vt
=
is
0,
t,
to rest.
(c)
vo
awo,
roll
vs
negative.
= U
backwards.
PROBLEMS.
1.
down an
radii
fi
inclined
and n)
respectively.
(b)
(c)
(d)
A hoop of mass m and radius r. A sphere of mass m and radius r. A hollow sphere of mass m and A
inner
and outer
mass
radii r,
and
r^,
respectively.
(e)
m and of radius r.
(0 Compare the times of descent in (c) and (c). 2. A sphere is projected, without initial rotation, up a perfectly rough Discuss the motion. inclined plane. 8. A wheel which Ls rotating alx)Ut ita own a.xis is placed on a perfectly
236
4.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
The
return trough of a bowling alley
is 50 feet long and has a slope Supposing the contact to be perfectly rough find the
of 1 foot in 20 feet.
time a
other.
5.
ball will
take to return.
The
sides
cle represents
In the adjoining figure the largest cira soUd disk wheel, which rolls
smooth rings on the axle of the wheel. The pulley over which the string passes is smooth. Discuss the motion. 6. In the preceding problem suppose the pulley to be rough and to rotate about its axis. 7. Same as problem 5 except that the wheel rolls up an inclined
plane.
In the preceding problem suppose the pulley to rotate. as the third illustrative example, p. 231, except that the cyUnder is hollow and has a negligible thickness. 10. Same as the preceding problem, but the cylinder rolls up an
8.
9.
Same problem
inclined plane.
11.
How can you tell a solid sphere from a hollow one which has exactly
Two men
of different weights coast
will reach the
down a
hill
on exactly similar
bottom
is filled
down an incUned
plane.
Discuss the
inner surface
plane.
roll
down an incUned
GENERAL PROBLEMS.
1.
and
rolls
no
which they
will
separate.
masses mi and ma are suspended by means of strings which are its axle, respectively. The wheel and axle are rigidly connected and are free to rotate about a horizontal axis. Discuss the motion,
2.
Two
237
(b)
8.
When When
A/i
and
Mi>,
the pulley
is
is
.M + me**' g
not
where n
Hint.
li
T and
T' are the tensile forces in the string on the two sides,
4.
Same
P is supposed
up an
inclined
to rotate.
6.
roll
plane.
mass and thickness is wound around the middle end of the tape is attached to a fixed point and then the cyfinder is allowed to fall. Show that the cylinder falls with an acceleration of j ^ and the tensile force of the tape is J JT, where is the
6.
A tape of negligible
The
free
of
a cylinder.
is
on an inclined plane
down the
rollers,
plane.
incfined plane,
is
its length down an which stay horizontal. 9. A uniform rod is allowed to fall from a position where its lower end in contact with a rough plane and it makes an angle a with the horizon.
upon two
Show
where
10.
that
/ is
when
it
becomes horizontal
its
angular velocity
is
ypsin
a,
the contact to be imperfectly rough, so that the cylinder both slides and
rolls.
11.
CHAPTER
XII.
in space.
The
time.
We
Impulse
is
the
a force which is constant both in direction and magnitude acts upon a particle the impulse which it imparts to the particle equals the product of the force by the time during which it acts. Since time is a scalar while force is a vector, impulse is a vector which has the same direction as the force. If L denotes the impulse which a constant force F imparts in the interval of time t, we can write
191.
If
Measure
L=F.^.
(D
When
the force
is
in both,
we must
them up.
Thus
dL=
and
Fdt
L=
fFdt.
Jo
(I)
mv
for F
we have
mw dt m\
I
m,
dv,
= WV
238
WVo,
(II)
IMPULSE AND
where
t
MOMENTUM
t
239
Vb
and
and
t,
respectively.
and
may
(II')
L=mv mvo.
192.
Momentum.
is
called
mo
mentum.
Therefore the
product of the mass by the velocity and has the same direction as the latter. Equation (II) states, therefore, that impulse equals the vector change in mmnentum.
PROBLEM.
Show
that
is,
momentum along
C Xdt = mi
193.
mio, etc.
of force
Dimensions and Units. Substituting the dimensions and time in the definition of impulse and those of mass and velocity in the definition of momentum, we obtain [MLT^] for the dimensions of both. The C.G.S. unit of
momentum
is
the
sm. cm.
'
'.
The
British
sec.
the poundsecond.
Force and
Momentum.
all
Then we have
(III)
momentum
of the particle.
let
F denote the resultant of all the external forces acting upon the system. Further let F^ be the resultant of all the forces acting upon any one of the particles. Evidently F, is the resultant of two sets of forces, namely, those which are
240
external
Fi
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
and those which are internal to the system. Let denote the resultant of the external forces acting on the particle, and F," denote the resultant of the internal forces
acting
upon
it,
due to
its
system.
Then
F,= F/+F/'.
forces acting
But since F is the resultant of all the external upon all the particles of the system we have
F^SF/ =2(F,F/0
=2:f,2f/'.
of the lefthand
member
is
the
sum
of the
and is nil, because the internal forces come which mutually annul each other. Therefore
F
= i:Fi = 2mv
(IV)
(IV)
= (2mv).
These are
equals
results
(V)
and
sum
Equation (V) states that the resultant external force acting upon a system equals the time rate of change of the resultant
momentum
of the system.
PROBLEMS.
force acting
that the component, along any direction, of the resultant upon a particle equals the rate at which the corresponding, component of its momentima changes, that is,
(1)
Show
~ (mi), X = at
(2)
etc.
Show
IMPULSE AND
sponding component of the resultant
that
is,
MOMENTUM
momentum
etc.
241
(2mi;), X = at
194.
The
Momentum.
When
or
(mv)
const.
(VI)
Therefore when the sum of the external forces acting upon a system vanishes the resultant momentum of the system remains
constant, both in direction
and magnitude.
This
is
the prinof
momentum.
The momenta
may
and, in general,
do change, but the vector sum of the momenta of all the particles of the system cannot change either in direction or
in magnitude.
PROBLEM.
Show
that
if
momentum
'Lmx
196.
const.,
when
X = 0.
magnitude of the xcomponent of the resultant momentum of a system may be put in the following forms:
of
Momentum
a System.
The
Hmx =
=
r
(2mx)
(Mx) [by equation
at (lO, p. 141]
at
I;
Similarly
Hmy  My,
Jlmz  Mi,
(Vin
242
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
where
is
x, y,
and
Combining the
we
obtain
(VII)
2mv = Mv,
which states that
center of mass.
196.
the resultant
momentum
of a system equals
mass
Motion
of the Center of
Mass we get
of a
System.
Com(VIII)
= M^,
which states that the resultant external force acting upon a system equals the product of the total mass of the system by
the acceleration of
is
its
center of mass.
upon by a
moves as
that point
Therefore the center of mass of a system mass of the system were concentrated at
acting
and
upon
the system
were ap
PROBLEM.
Show
that
force acting
velocity of
when the component, along any direction, of the resultant upon a system vanishes the corresponding component of the the center of mass remains constant, that is,
X
const.,
when
X = 0.
How
far would it motion of the
ILLUSTRATIVE PROBLEM.
A
Let
penetrate
bullet?
move
in the direction of
F be the mean
resisting force
offers to the
motion
of the bullet.
When
the plate
is
this force.
we have
(1)
Fd=^ mv^,
where the mass and v the velocity of the bullet. When the target is free to move part of the energy of the bullet is expended in giving the
is
IMPULSE AND
MOMENTUM
v'.
243
if
Therefore
d'
be the new
Fd' = i nw*
(m
+ M) v'\
F
(2)
is
Eliminating
between equations
(2)
we
get
of
momentum we have
mv =
iin
+ M)
v'.
(4) (3)
and
(4)
we
get
d'=T^d. M \7n
It is evident
(5)
from equation (5) that when the target is free, but very large compared with the bullet, the depth penetrated is about the same as when
it is fixed.
PROBLEMS.
1. A particle which weighs 2 ounces describes a circle of Lo feet radius on a smooth horizontal table. If it makes one complete revolution in every 3 seconds find the magnitude and direction of the impulse imparted by the force, which keeps the particle in the circle,
(a) in
onequarter of a revolution;
in threequarters of
2.
Find the expression for the impulse imparted to a particle in deConsidering the rate of change of the
describes a uniform circular motion derive the expression for the central
force.
4.
If
we
what can we
6.
state with regard to the components of the the horizontal and vertical directions?
momentum
in
train
mile a minute.
which weighs 100 tons runs due south at the rate of one Find the lateral force on the western rails due to the
latitude will the force of the preceding problem be a maxiits
rotation of the earth, while the train passes the line of 30 latitude.
6.
At what
mum?
Determine
amount.
244
7.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Two
trains,
weighing 150 tons each and moving towards each Find the average force
which comes into play if the colUsion lasts 1.5 seconds. 8. A body explodes while at rest and flies to pieces. If at any instant after the explosion the different parts of the body are suddenly connected,
will it
9.
move?
shell of
mass
m
is
one piece
if
the other
The
10.
will the
motion
of the center of
mass an
of
Answer
this question
on
air
that there
is
no
A man
smooth horizontal
walks from one end to the other of a plank placed on a plane. Show that the plank is displaced a distance
M M+m
where
I,
M and m are the masses of the man and of the plank, respectively,
is
and
which weighs 150 pounds, strikes an armor plate with a and emerges on the other side with a Supposing the resisting force to be univelocity of 500 feet per second. form, find its magnitude and show that the impulse produced by it equals the change in the momentum of the shell while plowing through the plate.
12.
The
plate
is
10 inches thick.
COLLISION
197.
AND IMPACT.
two bodies collide while moving
Central Collision.
If
along the line which joins their centers of mass the collision In order to fix our ideas suppose the is said to be central. coUiding bodies to be spheres, then Fig. 118 represents
collision.
For a short
come
little
and a
deformation takes
IMPULSE AND
MOMENTUM
245
velocity. Then the defonned parts of the spheres begin to regain, at least partially, their original forms and cause the spheres to separate.
common
The
parts.
two
until
The first
when
the
initial
contact &t
t=
the instant
the centers of
t=
ti.
t
The second
=
ti
part be
gins at
and
spheres separate
a.t
t=
ti'.
The
impulse imparted to each body during the first part of the collision is called the impulse
of compression, while that im
is
Fia. 118.
and
be their velocities just before and vi' and V2' just after let v be their common velocity at the
maximum
compression, that
is,
when
the distance
Further, let L and is shortest. denote the impulses of compression and of restitution,
respectively.
Then we have
I Jo
/
L=
L'
'Fdt= 7ni{v
Vi)
= mi(v
V2),
Fdt= mi
{vi
v)
= mtith' 
v).
The
of impulse
and from the fact that the colUding bodies form a system which is not acted upon by external forces, and
consequently the
sum
of their
during the
collision.
246
198.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Coefficient of Restitution.
It is
found by experiment
The
and
ratio, therefore, is
stances in collision.
of restitution,
is
This constant
generally denoted
by the
Thus
(IX)
e=f

__
Vi
V
Vi
V Vi V
V2
V
Eliminating
v
we
obtain
Vl
V2
But {vi V2) and ( y/ + V2) are the velocities of the first body relative to the second, just before and just after the colUsion. Denoting them by V and V', respectively, we
obtain
e=^
_
199.
lision
is
yf
.
(X)
impact impact
Resiliency.
When
The
a measure
When
and the
perfect
contact
than unity, as
cannot have a value greater be seen from a consideration of the transformation of energy which takes place during collision. At the beginning of the collision the bodies have a certain amount of kinetic energy which depends upon their relative
coefficient of restitution
will
The
IMPULSE AND
velocity at that instant.
MOMENTUM
is
247
restitution a fraction of the potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy and the rest into heat energy. Thus, in general, the kinetic energy at the end of the collision is less than that at the beginning. Therefore the relative
During the
is less
beginning.
less
Thus the
coefficient of restitution
in general,
relative
than unity. If none of the energy, which is due to the motion of the colhding bodies, is lost in the form of heat, it is all transformed into potential energy during the compression and back into kinetic energy during the restitution. In this case the relative velocity at the end of the collision equals that at the beginning, which makes the
coeflBcient of restitution unity.*
may
be
But
this
by having explosives at the point of condoes not come in the definition of the coeffiTherefore unity
is
cient of restitution.
of
e.
When
all
during the collision the bodies have no relative velocity after the colhsion. In this case the contact is called perfectly
inelastic.
inelastic.
Evidently e is zero when the contact is perfectly Therefore the value of e lies between zero and
values of the coefficient of restitution are 0.95
glass, 0.81 for ivory
unity.
for glass
The
on
for lead
on lead.
200.
The
make
The conservation of dynamical energy holds only when the contact Ls i)erfectly elastic. But the confM'rvation of momentum and the conservation (general) of energy arc true under all rircumxtanccs.
conservation of energy
248
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
its
motion relative to the center of mass. Collision does not motion of the center of mass of the system formed of the colUding bodies, because the forces which arise during
the colUsion are internal forces.
kinetic energy
its
which is due to the motion of its center of any loss. The loss occurs in that part of the energy which is due to the motion of the parts of the system with respect to the center of mass. Referring all the velocities to the center of mass and denoting the loss of kinetic energy by Ti, we have
suffer
where
Vi
and
V2
Vi
and
V2'
We can
means
eliminate
Vi
and
V2
from
by
momentum and
the definition of
niiVi
+ nhvi =
t>i
rriiVi
+ rrhv^
V2).
and by
(X')
Vx
= e
{vi
Eliminating
vi
V2
between the
vi
last
'^
{vi
+ e).
of Ti are effected
The following changes in the expression by means of the last three equations.
vi) {vi
Vi)(vi
yi')(yi
+ vi) + I W2 (^2 + ^2
Wi'
.W20(^
+ ^0
V2')
V2)(l
e)
mi +702
{vxv^Yile^).
(XI)
When
IMPULSE AND
and
Ti
MOMENTUM
if
249
0;
inelastic, e
Ti=^
t^y.
When the mass of one of the colliding very large compared with that of the other the velocity of the former with respect to the center of mass of the colHding system does not change appreciably during the colhsion. In such a case the body with the greater mass is considered to be fixed and the colhsion is called an impact.
201.
Impact.
bodies
is
falling
body when
it
strikes the
ground
is
after the
collision, as well as
the
common
maximum
Therefore making
L', e,
and
Ti and.
= v'
V
>
(x'7
(XI')
v'
and
where
its velocities just
7',=
^my2(l0,
are
A ball which is thrown vertically down from a height h rises to the point
of projection after impinging against a horizontal floor.
locity of projection
and the
loss in energy.
Let
Vo
v'
= V^^,
respectively.
>
Ti' Jmi>(l')*m,
250
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Discussion. The energy lost during the impact equals the kinetic energy of projection, as would be expected from the conservation of energy.
In other words when the ball is perfrom which it is dropped. The entire kinetic energy is transformed, during the impact, into potential energy and back to kinetic energy without any loss. When e = 0, Vo= <x} and Ti = co, that is, if the contact is perfectly inelastic no value of the velocity of projection will enable the ball to jebound after the impact.
e
1, Vo
When
and Tj
0.
fectly elastic
it
PROBLEMS.
1.
Show
that
when two
nii,
mass colhde
A ball
Two
of
mass
rest,
3.
comes to
relation
rest.
Show
The
rest.
between their masses is such that one of them is reduced to Find the relation. 4. A ball which is dropped on a horizontal floor from a height h reaches a height equal to I ^ at the second rebound. Find the coefficient of
restitution.
5.
1200
6.
With what
if
velocity will
it
rebound
if
0.4?
sec.
Show that
two equal
with velocities
^^ v
1
velocity will
come
to rest.
Find the between the distances of the foot of the target from the rifle and from the place where the bullet strikes the ground. 8. Two perfectly elastic equal balls collide with velocities inversely as Find the velocities after collision. their masses.
relation
9. Two biUiard balls collide centrally with velocities of 8 feet per second and 16 feet per second. Supposing e = 0.8, find the final velocities. 10. A ball is dropped from the top of a tower, at the same instant that
is
Show
that
on the rebound, to a
height 7 (3
+ e^)
is
IMPULSE AND
MOMENTUM
251
11. Two spheres of masses m and 2 m moving with equal velocities along two lines at right angles to each other colhde at the instant when Show that if their centers are on the line of motion of the smaller sphere.
the contact
smooth and e = 0.5 the smaller sphere will come to rest, and and magnitude of the velocity of the larger sphere. In the preceding problem let m = 500 gm, = 40 cm. per second
is
i;
and
find
(a)
the impulse,
its
A
it
metal patched bullet which weighs 1.5 ounces strikes a rock, Find the velocity with
which
14.
will
as large.
rebound and the impulse given to the rock; e = 0.5. body impinges against another body which has a mass n times Show that if the larger body is at rest and the contact inelastic
is
n
is
tl
r 1
times
its
collision,
particle
projected
up a smooth
collide
V^;
h
allowed to slide
down
The two
which the
particles
somewhere on the plane. Find the will arrive at the bottom of the plane.
16. Two small spheres of masses m and 2 m move in a smooth circular groove on a horizontal table with equal speeds in opposite directions.
Find the position of the second collision relative to the first; e = 0.6. 17. In the preceding problem find the interval of time between the first the radii and the eleventh collision, under the following assumptions of the particles are negligible compared with that of the circular groove,
which equals 50 cm., the common speed of the spheres collision is 500 cm. per second, the time of collision is
ju.st Ixjfore
the
first
negligible.
202.
EflSciency of a Blow.
duce one or the other of two distinct results. The object of a blow from a hanuner in driving a nail is quite different from that of a blow in shaping a rivet. Efficiency in the first
case
means
of
greatest
amount
amount
cases.
least
is
means amount of
it
two
We may
252
rv
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Dnving
1.
. .
efficiency
ai
'
a
Smashing
efficiency
^ = energy expended
,
,
Consider the case of a blow which drives a nail or a pile. Let the hammer, m the mass of the pile, v the velocity of the hammer just before impact, v' the velocity just after impact. The contact between the hammer and the pile may be regarded as inelastic, therefore just after the
M be the mass of
and the hammer have the same velocity In other words, immediately after the impact there is an amount of energy equal to ^ (M \ m) v"^ available for drivpile
pile,
ing the
ham
expended during \ \ the impact in producing permanent deformation, heat, and sound. Substituting these in the two definitions for the efficiency of a blow we obtain
mer, that
is,
Mv^
(M + m)
v'^,
is
Driving efficiency
=
=
^^
Smashing
efficiency
^^
all
the
hammer
be in
and the
pile; therefore
we can
(ikf
write
Mv=
+ m) v\
Eliminating the velocities between the last equation and the above expressions for the two efficiencies we obtain
Driving efficiency
= =
M
M\m
Smashing
It
is
efficiency
m
M\m
large
(XII)
nails the
ram
or the
mass
IMPULSE AND
MOMENTUM
253
compared with the pile or the nail. On the other hand, for shaping rivets the anvil must have a large mass compared with the hanuner.
203.
If the
moving
mass varies, as in the case of an avalanche, the relation between impulse and momentum still holds, that is, impulse equals the change in the momentum. We have to take into account, however, the change in the momentum of the mass which is continually added to the moving system as well as Let a mass dm be added in the that of the original mass. time dt; then supposing dm to have been initially at rest the total change in the momentum is m dv + v dm, where the first term is the increase in the momentum of m and the second term is the increase in the momentum of dm. Therefore the impulse given by the resultant force dF in the time dt is
? dt=
_
mdy +
dv
,
v dm,
dm
which
is the same equation as (III), except that in (III) m was considered to be constant, while here it is considered as
a variable. If dm has an
initial velocity u,
is
momentum
of
dm
(v
u) dm.
F=4; + (vu)f
()uf.
(XIII)
254
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES.
1. A jet of water strikes a concave vessel with a velocity of 80 feet per second and then leaves it with a velocity which has the same magnitude as the velocity of impact but makes an angle of 120 with it. If the diameter of the jet is 1 inch find the force necessary to hold the concave
vessel in p)osition.
The force experienced by the vessel equals the rate at which it receives momentum. Suppose the vessel to be symmetrical with respect to the axis of the jet, as in Fig. 119, then by S3Tnmetry there can be no resultant
force
on the
Let
to consider only the change in momentum along the be the mass of water delivered by the jet in the time t, V the velocity of impact, and a the change in the direction of flow. Then
Therefore
axis.
we need
the force
is
mv mv cos a F=
t
= =
v{l
COS a)
w V COS a)
(1
I t
= wiA
9
v{l
..
cos a)
V
WiAv(1
cos a),
Fig. 119.
where
is
is
the weight of
we obtain
F=
ft.'
\24
32
sec.
102.3 lb.
Discussion.
It is evident
of
that
its
a and "
, r
rr
varies
a =
and
for
a =
T.
TI7TWhen a=
WiAv"^
IMPULSE AND
2.
MOMENTUM
255
just touches
is hung from its upper end so that its lower end an inelastic horizontal table, and then it is allowed to fail. Find the force which the table will experience at any instant during the
uniform chain
fall of
the chain.
force is partly due to the weight of that part of the chain which is on the table at the instant considered and partly due to the rate at which the table is receiving momentum. Let x be the height of the upper end of the chain above the table, / the total length, and p the mass per unit length. Then pg (l x) is the weight of that part of the chain which is on the table. On the other hand the momentum which the table receives pv dt > v. in the interval of time dt Therefore the rate at which it receives momentum is pv^, where v is the velocity of that part of the chain which is above the ground. This velocity is the same as that of the upper end of the chain, therefore
'\s
The
t;=
V2g{l 
x).
Hence the
total force
is
F = p{lx)g
+ p'2gilx)
is,
is,
= Zp{lx)g.
Discussion.
the force
is
When x =
When
x
Z,
that
zero.
0,
that
pig, or
As soon as the
entire
chain comes to rest on the table the force equals the weight of the
chain.
by virtue of its weight, receives an accession of mass proportional to the surface. Find the velocity at any instant. The external force acting upon the drop at any instant equals the rate at which its momentum changes, therefore
3.
continuously,
by
precipitation of vapor,
mg =
where m, the mass of the drop,
constant.
is
^ imv),
(1)
variable.
is
proportional to the surface the rate of change of radius of the drop will be
it
fall, r its
radius at
any
later instant,
r increases.
Then at
any instant
256
where t
equation
is
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
the density of water.
Substituting this expression for
in
(1)
{a
+ ktY^^Z{arktykv at
"+*'
\
)S^
^^
__
'''^*'
di
+ cl
/.
e''s
(a
+ kt) rjge^^og (a + to
= = =
Let
V
(a 4
^0^[^/(a
+ ^0' dt + c]
(a
+ A:0^[^ (a^^ +
^^ + ^^ + ^') +
c
c]
(a
= ^
gt
when
4 g^ 4
4
0;
then
0.
fc^^^
"
"
+ 6 a%t + 4 akH^ + (a +
A;)
r^
r^l
PROBLEMS.
1.
shower.
The
of a tent
produced by a
of
50
ft
'
such as
sec.
to produce a deposit of 0.2 inch per hour; 1 cubic foot of water weighs
62.5 pounds.
2. Find the pressure on horizontal ground due to the impact column of water which falls vertically from a height of 500 feet. cm. '
of
3.
is
brought to
Equation
the form
^ + Py
'\
Q, which
is
e~''
\QeJ
dx
\
I
IMPUI^E AND
rest in 0.1 second
MOMENTUM
257
Find the
in
by
and the
The
is
500 meters.
If the velocity
it
of the jet
(a)
exerts
on the
blade,
fixed;
(b)
when
it
Figure 120a represents a horizontal trough with smooth vertical walls. The stream is supposed to have the same speed, 6 miles per hour,
in all three parts of the trough.
to be closed.
Fig. 120.
7.
is
divided into
two equal streams, as shown in Fig. 120b. Supposing the velocity of the water to remain unchanged derive an expression for the force on the obstacle, and discuss it for special values of 6.
8.
crosssection before
it
is
divided to be 4 feet
by
feet,
9.
and 6
120".
v.
10.
=
=
^.
2ir.
11.
12.
In
(8)
take
machine gun delivers 500 bullets per minute with a velocity of 1800 feet per second. If the bullets weigh 0.5 ounce each find the average force on the carriage of the gun. 13. A train scoops up 1500 pounds of water into the tender from a trough 500 yards long while making 50 miles per hour. Find the added resistance to the motion of the train.
258
204.
I.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Oblique Impact of a Particle upon a Fixed Plane.
Smooth Contact.
Let
Case
Vt
and
y,
compo
nents of the velocity along the plane and along the normal, respectively, just before the impact; and let v/ and vj be
the corresponding components just after the impact.
Since
the plane
is
smooth, no hori
component
of the
momentum
= mv/, Vt = v/.
direct; therefore
vj
Fig. 121.
evn.
Denoting by a and jS the angles which the resultant velocity makes with the normal just before and just after the impact
we
obtain
tan a
= J
tan
/3
evn
tan a
Discussion.
e
is
tan
jS.
(XIV)
When
the contact
perfectly elastic e
therefore
the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection as in the case of the
reflection of light.
is
not
to be expected
When
the contact
the velocity and consequently the magnitude of the total velocity minished.
When
the contact
is
perfectly inelastic e
/3
0,
and since a
not zero /3
must be 
There
fore in this case the particle slides along the plane after the collision.
259
Case n.
frictional forces
Rough Contact. When the plane is rough come into play and change the tangential
force,
component of the momentum. due to friction, N the normal friction; then we have
XT
Jt
.'.
 v: u ^ = ,
Fdl=
Jo
I
nN dt=
fiTnv^,
Lt
nr nr Fdt= I nNdt= Jt Jt
I
enrnv^.
But
Therefore
Lt\
L/ = mv/
Vt)
rnVf
(1
m (v/
Vt'
= mn
fiil
+ e) y,
and
Vt
+e)f,.
/3,
which
is
we
get
.
tan^=^. = ^'^(^+^)^''
Vn
ev
Eliminating
tan a
Vt
between the
last
= we
obtain
(XV)
When m =
=
left.
0,
When M "
T
tan /3
ooor/3
When
and tan a
>
m> tan
oo
and
 ; therefore the
towards the
right.
260
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
;
reflected
towards the
left
and
slides
PROBLEMS.
1.
A
A
on another
ball at rest.
move
at right
rest,
and
comes to
3.
Show
A A
particle slides
bullet strikes
e
a smooth inclined plane and then rebounds Find the range of the first rebound. a target at 45 and rebounds at the same angle.
down
Prove that
5.
where n is the coefficient of friction. +/X Four smooth rods, which form a square, are fixed on a smooth
,
,
horizontal plane.
particle
which
is
tan
a=
1
+ e (1 + e)
makes with the rod
of
where a
6.
is
initial velocity
joining the
two
corners and e
of
e.
7. Derive an expression for the percentage of energy lost during oblique impact (a) when the contact is smooth; (b) when the contact is rough. 8. Two billiard balls which are in contact are struck, simultaneously, by a third ball moving with a velocity v, in a direction perpendicular to the line of centers of the first two. Supposing the table to be perfectly smooth find the velocity of each ball after impact. 9. In the preceding problem obtain the expression for the loss of energy and find its value for the following special cases. The balls weigh
6 oimces each.
(a) f
(b) V
10.
= =
= =
0.8. 0.5.
ball
mass and is at rest. The smaller ball has a velocity of 60 feet per second in a direction which makes 135 with the line of centers. Find the velocities after
impact;
0.5.
IMPULSE AND
MOMENTUM
261
GENERAL PROBLEMS.
1.
A gun
is
free to
move on smooth
is
\
loss of
horizontal tracks.
Show
that the
E is
fixed
and when
free to
move.
is
tan a, where
3.
is
A man stands on a
is
on a perfectly smooth
horizontal plane.
He jumps upon
back upon the first plank. Find the ratio of the velocities of the two planks if the mass of the man is M. 4. A stream of water delivering 1000 gallons per minute, at a velocity
of
20
(2) at
an angle of
30*.
Find the
force exerted
6.
on the plane.
Discuss the motion of the
when
allowed to
fall,
very small at the start of the motion. 6. In the preceding problem show that the acceleration
constant
if
the density of the chain varies as the distance from that end of the chain
which
7.
is
in motion.
snow begins to slide down a regular slope, accumulating moves along, thus forming an avalanche. Supposing the to be of uniform depth and width, show that the acceleration
of
it
of the avalanche
is
constant.
floor
ball falls
on a
verti
cally.
(a)
Show
that
T  \^^\/^, '
1
where
is
come to
rest.
Find the
value of
(b)
25 feet and
0.5.
Show
that
H=l^h,
e'
where
feet
/f for
25
and
0.5.
262
9.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
A shell explodes at the highest point of its path and breaks up into
mass
of
two
which
lie
Find
masses of the pieces, v for the velocity of the and E for the energy imparted to the pieces
by the
10.
explosion.
to
A particle slides down a smooth inclined plane which is itself free move on a smooth horizontal plane. Discuss the motions of the particle
of the plane.
11.
and
m begins
mass M, by means of a string which passes over a smooth pulley. Find the distance through which it will lift M. 12. A smooth inclined plane which is free to move on a smooth horizontal plane is so moved that a particle placed on the inclined plane remains at rest. Discuss the motion of the plane. 13. A disk and a hoop sUde along a smooth horizontal plane with the same velocity v, then begin to roll up the same rough inclined plane.
to pull
up a
greater
How
rise?
14.
The second
of the first
ball in its turn collides with a tliird ball at rest. If the masses and last ball are mi and m^, respectively, show that the velocity acquired by the third ball is greatest when the mass of the second ball
satisfies
the relation
15.
Find the
ceding problem.
16.
billiard ball,
moving at
directly
on an equal
ball at rest at
 d
1
+e
A ball
Show
is
of the opposite
that
if I is
it
18. A simple pendulum hanging vertically has its bob in contact with a vertical wall. The bob is pulled away from the wall and then it is let go. If e is the coefficient of restitution find the time it will take the pendulum
to come to rest.
19.
particle strikes a
t>,
IMPULSE AND
MOMENTUM
after time.
263
Prove
(a)
^ T=
2 f sin a r, g{\e)
tu\ (b)
f'sin'a d =  rt R
g{\e)
where
range,
20.
is
flight after
the
first
impact,
the total
and
T and R
e
(b)
= =
a= a=
30,
=
=
0.5.
0.9.
90,
21.
particle
Derive an expression for the time at the end of which the particle stops rebounding and slides down the plane. Compute it*! value for the following special cases:
inclined plane.
(a) Vo
(b) Vo
= =
a= a=
45, e 30, e
= =
0.5. 0.3.
22.
moves
it
stops rebounding.
stops rebounding.
A bead slides down a smooth circular wire, which is in a vertical and strikes a similar bead at the lowest point of the wire. If during the coUision the first bead comes to rest, show that the second bead will rise to a height e% and on its return will follow the first bead to a height e* (1 e)' h, where h is the height from which the first bead falls. 26. Two equal spheres, which are in contact, move in a direction perpendicular to their line of centers and impinge simultaneously on a third equal sphere which is at rest. Supposing the contacts to be perfectly smooth and elastic find the velocity of each .sphere after the collision. 26. A bullet hits and instantly kills a bird, while passing the highest point of ita trajectory. Supposing the bullet to stay imbedded in the bird, and the bird to have been at rest when shot, find the distance between the place of firing and the point where the bird strikes the ground. 27. Two particles of masses mi and ni^ are connected by an inextcnsiblo string of negligible mass. The second particle is place<l on a smooth horizontal table while the first is allowed to fall from the edge of the table. When the falling particle reaches a distance h from the top of the table the string becomes tight. Find the velocity with which the second particle begins to move.
24.
plane,
264
28.
table.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
uniform chain
fall.
lies in
One end
begins to
of the table so
that
it
, where o
the length of
uniform plank
is
inclined plane.
Show
that
its
M+
2M
Tn
a
in a
its
A mmiber
of coins of equal
is projected along the line of the coins with a given velocity. Find the velocity with which the last coin will start to move. 31. A ball of mass m, which is at rest on a smooth horizontal plane, is tied by means of a string to a fixed point at the same height as the center of the ball. A second ball of equal radius but of mass m' is projected along the plane with a velocity v which makes an angle a with the string. The second ball collides with the first centrally and gives it a
velocity u.
Show
that
m'
sin
(1
+ e)
a.
m+m
sm^
CHAPTER
XIII.
Angular Impulse.
two ways.
If the
torque
if
the
torque
result
measured
to
body in an interval of time equals the product of the torque by the interval of time. If H denotes the angular impulse^ G the torque, and t the time of action, then
H = Gt.
(I'>
is
When
a vector
is
a vector and has the same direction as G. When torque is not constant angular impulse equals the vector sum of infinitesimal impulses imparted during infinitesimal intervals of time. Therefore
Therefore
is
Gdt
Jo
dt
a)
 flda,
where coo and m are the angular velocities at the beginning and at the end of the interval of time during which the torque
acts.
265
266
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
7,
When
the
moment
result obtained:
XG
207.
dt
= I(a
7<Do.
(II)
Momentum. The magnitude /to is called angular momentum and is defined as the product of the moment of inertia by the angular velocity. Since 7 is a scalar 7(0 is a vector which has the same direction as co.
Angular
Equation
208.
(II) states
in the angular
called
momentum. Moment of Momentum. Angular momentum is often moment of momentum, because the former may be
considered as the
particles of the
moment
of the linear
momenta
of the
system under consideration. Let dm be an element of mass, r its distance from the axis of rotation, and
y its linear velocity.
of the
of of
dm.
momentum moment
Jfmr
nm
'
dm =
t/O
rco
dm
r^
dm
CO
=
which
is
7w,
the angular momentum. Substituting the dimensions Dimensions and Units. of G, t, I, and o> in equation (II) we find that both angular impulse and angular momentum have the dimensions
209.
[ML^T~^.
C.G.S. unit
The
is
same
for
both.
The
sec.
of inertia of a
Torque and Angular Momentum. When the moment body remains constant under the action of a
torque
we have
=/d<o
dt
= !(/).
(Ill)
Therefore torque equals the lime rale of change of momentum. The following analysis proves that the last statement is
true
well as
Let A, Fig. 122, represent a body, or a system of bodies, which is acted upon by one or more external torques. For the sake of simplicity suppose the planes of the torques to be
parallel
to
the
plane
of
the
O and
Fio. 122.
paper.
Let dF be the
upon an
of
dF about the
the distance of
dm
from the
to
r.
axis,
by
dF,, the
component
of
dF perpendicular
Therefore
dG =
r r
r
dFp
= =
dmfp
dm
rdi^'^^
(r'w)
[p. 97]
dm
at
{r^dmot).
268
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
body
is
or
<5=
is
(/<.),
(Ill)
where I
is
Equation
(III)
Chapter XI is a special case. Introducing this expression of G in the definition for angular impulse we obtain
(V) of
Gdt
Jo
= Tdilo,)
=
where
7o
7o>
iocoo,
(IV)
and
<oo
denote the
Equation (IV)
is
a generahzation of equation
(II).
It states
of Angular
Momenupon a
When
that
body or system
(/<.)
0,
and consequently
Therefore
/w =
const.
(V)
upon a system
momentum
of the system
'
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE.
Discuss the effect of a shrinkage in the radius of the earth upon the
length of the day.
Let
is
and
a',
Further, let
and
oj'
Then
(1)
^ = ^But
since the earth
its
is
torques
angular
momentum
/w =
I'u)'.
(2)
From
we
obtain
El
P^
L^9l
I
o* o
or
PP'
P
o'
and
_,__._.
in the length of the
is
(3)
When
ba
is
small a'
in the
may
be written
form
(4)
^=2^
Therefore the percentage diminution in the length of the day is twice as Hence when the radius large as the percentage diminution in the radius. is diminished by 1 mile the length of the day is diminished by about 43
seconds.
PROBLEMS.
1.
How do the oceanic currents from the polar regions affect the length A
day? uniform rod of negli^ble diameter falls from a vertical position with its lower end on a perfectly smooth horizontal plane. What is the path of its middle point?
of the
2.
270
3.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
While passing through the
mass
4.
tail of a comet an amount of dust of imiformly upon the surface of the earth. Find the consequent change in the length of the day.
ni settles
mass.
is
In the preceding problem find the torque due to the addition of Suppose the passage to take n days and the rate at which mass acquired to be constant.
6. A particle revolves, on a smooth horizontal plane, about a peg, to which it is attached by means of a string of negligible mass. The string winds around the peg as the particle rotates. Discuss the motion of the
particle.
6.
mouse
is
is
made
about a vertical axis through the center. Find the velocity of the mouse relative to the table which will give the The table weighs 2 pounds and has a latter 20 revolutions per minute? diameter of 18 inches; the mouse weighs 5 ounces. 7. In the preceding problem find the velocity of the mouse with refree to rotate
table which
is filled
with a
and made
rical axis,
about its geometSuppose the frictional forces between the inner surface of the vessel and the liquid and between the molecules of the liquid to be small, yet enough to transmit the motion to the liquid if the rotation is kept up for a long time. After each particle of water attains an angular velocity about the axis given by the relation co = coor the torque which kept the angular velocity constant is stopped and the liquid What will be the angular velocity of the system if is suddenly frozen. (a) The mass of the vessel is negligible. Take the ends (b) The mass is not negUgible but the thickness is.
which
is
vertical.
into account.
Do
Neither the mass nor the thickness of the cylinder not take the ends into account. (d) In (c) take the ends into account.
(c)
9.
it is
is negligible.
a r
by the
relation
co
woC
'"
where
is
271
Pendulum. A ballistic pendulum is a heavy used to determine the velocity of projectiles. The target, which is suspended from a horizontal axis, is given an angular displacement when it receives the projecConsidering the target and the bullet which is projected tile. into it as an isolated system we apply the principles of the conservation of energy and of the conservation of angular
212.
Ballistic
target which
is
momentum.
momentum
is
of
that due
and equals
of inertia
is
where
/' is
the
moment
its
and b
is its
it
The
bullet
is
target normally,
(/
+ /')
w,
where
angular velocity.
of inertia of the target and w its initial Then, by the conservation of the angular momentum, we have
/
is
the
moment
r^ =
If
(/+/')
CO.
(1)
we suppose
gible the kinetic energy of rotation just after the bullet hits
maximum
angular displacement.
Therefore
(2)
i (/h /')
=iM{m) ga
(1
cos o),
where
respectively, a
and a
is
the
maximum
angular dis
272
placement.
obtain
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Eliminating w between equations
(1)
and
(2)
we
(3)
v=, V2 ga
{I
+ J') (M + m) (1  cos a)
The moment of inertia of the target may be determined by observing the period of oscillation when it is used as a pendulum.
It will
if
= 2.\/(M + m) ga
Eliminating
(/
^+^
and
(4)
+ /')
between equations
we
get
_ Pabg {M + m )
tt/'
/^
.
/I
cos a
a
2
(5)
Pahg (M\m)
tt/'
But
is
in practice
the bullet
is
small; therefore
m in
by
/',
and replace
.
When
we
these simpU
get
(6)
V=^a\
213.
Suppose a Let be the mass of the body, I its moment of inertia with respect to an axis perpendicular to the plane of the motion, /<. its moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the center of mass, and a the distance between the two axes. Then the angular momentum about the first axis is
Motion Relative
to the
Center of Mass.
rigid
= I,a>+a'Mv,\
^^^
where v is the veiocity of the center of mass. In the right hand member of the last equation the first term represents
*
Page 309.
momentum
of the
body due
to the motion of
term represents the angular momentum of the body due to the motion of its particles vrith the center of mass. The second term depends upon the position of the center of mass relative to the axis of rotation. The first term does not at all depend upon this position. It depends upon the distribution of the particles of the body about the center of mass. The two terms are, therefore, independent; that is, if the center of mass of a body is suddenly fixed the angular momentum of the body due to the motion of its particles about the center of mass is not at all affected. On the other hand if the motion about the center of mass is destroyed the angular momentum about a given axis due to the motion of the particles of the body vrith the center of mass is not changed. In other words motion about the center of mass and mx)tion with the center of mass are distinct and independent*
As an
illustration
of
this
important
fact consider
mass, radius,
equal and opposite angular velocities about a conunon axle, and which move
with the axle in a direction perpendicular to it. Suppose each of the disks to have
two
shown
in
made one
If
of holes
the
stopped by dropping the pins into the holes, the motion of the axle goes on as if nothing had happened.
rotational motion
Fia. 124.
On
if
axle
changed or even stopped, the rotations of the disks about the axlo
all
arc not at
*
disturbed.
all
274
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE.
uniform circular hoop rotates about a peg on a perfectly smooth hoop if the peg is sudis
introduced, about
which
Let
it
begins to rotate.
and
respectively.
The
circle in
be the positions of the first and second peg, continuous fine may be considered to repre
and
just after
0'.
begins to rotate
into
about
play when the hoop strikes the peg 0' passes through 0', hence it pro
hoop
strikes the
peg
tis
after the
lo)'
= 2inaW,
w'
where
the 0',
H'o' is
the angular
momentum and
m the mass,
of the hoop.
The angiilar momentum about 0' just before the hoop begins to rotate about 0' equals the angular momentum of the hoop due to the motion of the hoop about its geometrical axis plus its angular momentum due to its motion with its center of mass. Therefore
H^ = = =
where
co is
Icco
ma^oj
the angular velocity about the peg 0, and a the angle which the arc 00' subtends at the center of the hoop. But since
H'o'
Ho',
\
2 ma^u}'
ma^o} (1
1
f
cos a)
and
or
0)
cos
t:
a
CO.
+ cos a
275
latter
rotates about 0,
Discussion.
w'
When
v,
and
v'
a0,
that
is,
coincide,
= w and
T, '
v'
as they should.
v'
When a =
When
a =
and
0,
that
is,
PROBLEMS.
L A rod of negUgible transverse dimensions and length I is moving on a smooth horizontal plane in a direction perpendicular to its length. Show that if it strikes an obstacle at a distance a from its center it will have
an angular velocity equal to j^, where
i;
is
its linear
velocity before
meeting the obstacle. 2. A uniform circular plate is turning about its geometrical axis on a smooth horizontal plane. Suddenly one of the elements of its lateral surface is fixed. Show that the angular velocity after fixing the element
equals , where
is
it.
o
3.
circular plate
is
which
is
its lateral
surface
made
by suddenly
~
fixing the
a>
Show
that w'
w, where
and
o
w' are the values of the angular velocity of the plate before and after fixing
is
when measured
4.
Three
is
particles of equal
frame
is
Show
that
its
is
not changed.
6.
A square
if
plate
is
ity
V at
(a)
right angles to
moving on a smooth horizontal plane v^nth a veloctwo of its sides. Find the velocity with which it
will rotate
one of its comers is suddenly fixed; (b) tlie middle point of one of its sides is fixed. 6. A uniform rod of negligible transverse dimensions is rotating al)out Find the angular uelocity with which axis through one end. transverse a it will rotate if the axis is suddenly removed and simultaneously a parallel axis is introduced through the center of mass of the rod. 7. An equilateral triangular plate is rotating about an axis through
276
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
one of the vertices perpendicular to the plane of the plate. Find the resulting angular velocity due to a sudden removal of the axis and a simultaneous introduction of a parallel axis through the center of mass. 8. In the preceding problem, suppose the new axis to pass through one of the other two vertices.
214.
to be a rigid
body
free to rotate
applied to the
is,
body a part
eral,
of its action
in gen
rotation.
action,
will investigate.
simphcity suppose F to
in the
Fig. 126.
plane which passes through the center of mass, c, perpendicular to the axis. Since F and R are supposed to be the only external forces acting upon the body, then by equation (VIII) of p. 242
mv =
where ^
?r
+ R,
(1)
If F and is the acceleration of the center of mass. denote the components of F along and at right angles to
the components of
along the same directions, equation (1) into the following componentequations
:
may
be resolved
mf,
mfr
F\P,
(2) (3)
v.
= Fr+Q,
But
where
and
T^
of the center of
mass
is
circle
aco2
==
a
V
and
f^=
aoi,
we
obtain
P=F^+rmo}\
(VII)
(VIII)
Q=Ft+ rruua.
The magnitude and
relations
the direction of
are given
by the
R = Vp2 + Q2
and
where
is
tan0=^>
the angle
R makes with
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE.
A uniform rod, which is free to rotate about a horizontal axis through one end, falls from a horizontal position. Find the reaction of the axis at
any
instant of
its fall.
Evidently
F^ =
Ft
mgcoad.
= mg sin d.
equation
is
The
is
first
in
equa'
tion (VII)
mg coed
is
measured
while
mg sin
Fn and Ft
\
in
we
obtain
P mg cos d
Q
But by the conservation
J
mcui)*,
"
mg
sin 6
i
mau.
of energy
/*
= mga cos 6,
Therefore
where a
a,^coe<?co8
/
2a
and
4a
T^sind.
278
Making
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
these substitutions
P=
R=
tan
<f>
inig cos
6.
Q = img sin 6.
m Vl+99cos2
4
0.
^ tan
0,
6.
Discussion.
its
Q =
and
R =P=
mg.
In other
words at the instant when the rod passes the lowest point the force on the
axis
is
at rest.
When
But
i
P=
from
and
R=Q =
is
\ mg.
If
the rod
by
mg.
as soon as
the support
removed from the free end the reaction on the axis is changed
^mg
to I mg.
PROBLEMS.
1. A uniform rod which is free to rotate about a horizontal axis falls from the position of unstable equilibrium. Find the reaction of the axis. 2. In the preceding problem find the position where the horizontal component of the reaction is a maximum. 3. A uniform rod which is free to rotate about a horizontal axis falls from a horizontal position. Show that the horizontal component of the reaction is greatest when the rod makes 45 with the vertical. 4. A cube rotates about a horizontal axis which coincides with one of
its edges.
show that
the cube.
5.
P=
is
W and Q =
free to rotate
W,
where
is
the weight of
cube which
when
its
center
at the
same
Find the reaction of the axis. Show that if the body of 214 is a particle connected to the axis
with a massless rod the reaction perpendicular to the rod vanishes. 7. Consider the reactions of the axis when the latter passes through
the center of mass of the rigid body.
8.
cyUndrical surface.
is
The
plate
is let fall
when
its
center of mass
vertically
above the
axis.
from De
 and at 6
0.
279
hoop barely completes rotations about a horizontal axis which its rim and is perpendicular to its plane. Determine the reaction of the axis at the lowest and the highest positions. 10. A uniform rod which rotates about a horizontal axis through one end has four times as much kinetic energy as it has potential cnergj' at the instant it passes the highest point. Find the reaction of the axis when
through
the rod
is
(a) at
(b) horizontal;
(c)
Impulsive Reaction of an Axis. Center of Percussion. a rigid body which is free to rotate about a fixed axis is so struck that no impulse is imparted to the axis during the blow, any point of the line of action of the blow is called a It is evident that if the center of percussion for that axis.
216.
If
axis be
removed and the blow apphed at a center of percusremoved axis, the body will
if
rotate as
The
axis
about
which a
it is
free rigid
given a blow
of spontaneous rotation.
Suppose the rigid body of Fig. 127 to be free to rotate about an perpendicular to the axis through plane of the figure. For the sake of simplicity suppose the blow to be applied in such a direction that it tends to produce rotation only about
the given axis.
Fuj. 127.
blow and
L'
the impulse given to the body by the reaction of the axis Then by the con.servation of linear momentum of rotation.
the linear
momentum
it
of the body must be equal to the by the blow and by the reaction of the
mt'=LL',
(1)
280
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
where
is
the velocity of
its
center of mass.
But by the conservation of angular momentum the angular momentum of the body about the axis after the blow must equal that of the blow itself. Therefore
Io>
= L6,
(2)
where I
velocity
is
the
moment
and
blow
ffom the
for L'
axis.
Eliminating
L between
L'
equations
(1)
and
(2)
and solving
we
obtain
mv^y
I
(3)
= ima ma
where a
is
rj
03,
(IX)
rotation.
the blow
apphed at a center
of percussion L'
0.
Therefore
ma
and
=
(X)
fe=
ma
PROBLEMS.
1.
A square plate is
it will
with which
(a)
if
if
(b)
2.
one of the corners is fixed; the middle point of one of the sides
equilateral triangular plate
is
is fixed.
An
plane in a direction perpendicular to one of its sides. angular velocity, also the impulse given by the axis,
(a) if
(b)
3.
if
281
Find expressions
axis.
for the
Discuss
sf>ecial
uniform rod
Where must a
6. In the preceding problem can the rod be made to rotate about its middle point by a single blow? 7. A circular plate which lies on a smooth horizontal plane is struck so that it rotates about one of the elements of its lateral surface as an axis. Find the position where the blow is applied.
8. Find the center of percussion of a hoop which is free to rotate about an axis perpendicular to its plane. 9. How must a triangular plate, placed on a smooth horizontal plane^ be struck so that it may rotate about one of its vertices?
GENERAL PROBLEMS.
1.
Two
of
particles of equal
and
negligible
that one of
mass are connected by a string of length I mass and placed on a smooth horizontal table so the particles is near an edge of the table and the string is
The
is
given
it
begins to
fall.
Show
time between the instant at which the second particle leaves the table
string occupies
a horizontal position
is
2.
is
L and
the length
axis
bar,
of the obstacle
from the
(b)
ew; L  m (1
I
e)
12a
,,
^(
(c)
L'
= m(lhe)^.
282
3.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
A
circular table
its center.
is
through
Show that
man
and
M + 2m
'
tt,
where
4.
is is
angular velocity
velocity of
v.
and
rotating about its axis, which is vertical, with an moving on a smooth horizontal plane with a linear
its lateral
Find the angular velocity it will have if one of the elements surface is suddenly fixed, and determine the impulse given
Discuss the results for special positions of the
transversely.
uniform rod strikes at one end against an obstacle while falling Show th^t the impulse which the obstacle receives will
be onehalf that which it would have received if the other end of the rod had struck an obstacle simultaneously with the first.
form a circle and smooth horizontal table. If the inner surface of the tube is perfectly smooth, show that the center of mass of the two moves in the
6.
is
lying on a
lur ^i
while
the particle and the center of the tube describe circles about
a.ngular velocity
it
with an
 where
,
is
is the mass and v the velocity of projection of the particle. Find the direction and point of application which an impulse must have in order to make a sphere rotate about a tangent. 8. A uniform rod which is rotating on a smooth horizontal plane about a pivot through its middle point breaks into two equal parts. Determine the subsequent motion. 9. A uniform rod rotates on a smooth horizontal plane about a pivot. What will be the motion when the pivot breaks? 10. A uniform rod falls from a position where its lower end is in conShow tact with a rough horizontal plane with which it makes an angle a.
while
7.
that
I is
when
it
becomes horizontal
its
angular velocity
is
y ^
where
Show that in problem (10) the angular when the horizontal plane is smooth.
a,t
same
12. A uniform rod which hes on a smooth horizontal plane is struck one end, transversely. Show that the energy imparted equals ^ of the energy which would have been given to the bar by the same blow if the other end of the bar were fixed.
CHAPTER
MOTION OF A PARTICLE
216.
XIV.
IN A CENTRAL FIELD
OF FORCE.
Central Field of Force.
A region
is
called
a central
field of force
when
is
every point
of the region
The
fixed
point
is
The
force
which a
particle experiences
is
when placed
in
a central
field of force
Equations of Motions.
is
ticle
which
It is
in the plane
The
expressions for
components
of 90,
When
field is
then the
last
(rMo.
283
(n)
284
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
where
/ (r)
is
The negative
sign in
the righthand
member
is is
measured
opposite direction.
Equations (I) and (II) are the differential equations of the motion of a particle in a central field of force. 218. General Properties of Motion in a Central Field. Integrating equation (II) we get
r^co
h,
(III)
where h
is
a.
constant.
The
direct consequences of equation (III), are common to all motions in central fields of force. (1) The radius vector sweeps over equal areas in equal
intervals of time.
*'
= r^co =  h= constant.
1
,
(2)
The angular
This
is
(III).
The hnear
VCOS<f)
}
where
v is the
<f>
velocity
makes with a
MOTION OF A PARTICLE
285
the center of force upon the direction of the velocity; then it is evident from Fig. 128 that
COS0=
" r
4>
we
obtain
pv
FiQ. 128.
or
=
V
(IV)
(4)
This result
of equation (III)
by m, the mass
mr^o)
of the particle.
Thus
= mh,
but
Therefore
219.
wr^w = 1 03.
Iu=mh = constant.
The
t
orbit
(III).
between equations (I) and The analytical reasoning which follows does not need
found by eliminating
dr
dt
further explanation:
dr dd
de' dt
dr
" de
[by
(III)l
h dr r^de
/i
i)
dd
t
'
de
286
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Therefore
where u =
dV ^_idhi
dt'
dd''
'
dd
dt
=
Substituting this value of
dh"
hhi
d^u
dd''
which
may
equation
(I),
we have
(V)
d^
de'
"^
_/(r)
h'u'
f{r)
the law of force is given determined by equation (V). On the other hand if the orbit is given equation (V) determines the law of force. Thus, if F denotes the force,
for the equation bi the orbit.
is
When
known and
the orbit
is
F = mf (r) = mh'u' /
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE.
^d'u\ d'u)
(VI)
particle describes
law of force
lies
if
on the path. Taking the center as the origin, 'Fig. 129, and the diameter through the origin as the axis and referring
the circle to polar coordinates
tain
r
we obFig. 129
= 2a cos 6,
1
(10
(1)
or
foT the equation of the orbit.
2 a cos 6
Differentiating the last equation
1 \
rf%^/_Jl
d02
Xacos^d
2 a cos 9
u.
(2)
8 a^u^
MOTION OF A PARTICLE
Substituting in equation (VI) from equations (1) and (2)
287
we
get
(3)
F=
^^.
fifth
The
member of equation
PROBLEMS.
1.
Show
that
if
spiral rd
in
attractive
and
Show
that
from the origin, which is the center of attraction. if a particle describes the logarithmic spiral r = e^ in
the expression for the force
in
is
a central
3.
field of force,
F=
Show
^.
particle
moves
is
a central
field of force
is
away
Show
Show
distance and
6.
In the preceding problem show that the radius vector sweeps over
particle describes
an
ellipse in
a
is
field of force,
at one focus.
Show
is
Siipposft two Motion of Two Grfl vitAtiny Particles. to move under the action of particles of masses m and their mutual gravitational attraction, as in the case of the sun and the earth or the earth and the moon. Then if r is the distance between the centers and y the gravitational constant the mutual force of attraction is
220.
>/^
r,
mM
let
In order to
fix
our ideas
Then
288
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
an acceleration
7 ^
an acceleration equal
to 7
.
motion of the This reduces the problem of the motion of the earth to that of a particle moving in a central field of force where the acceleration is
it
and keep
J.,
Mm
or
f(r)
[F
fj
+ in).
in equation
(VII)
and
where
= n~,
(VIII)
= 7 (^
(V)
we
obtain
Let u'
u ~,
then the
^+
that of the
first.
'=0.
(2) let v
(2)
du'
z,
da
* The acceleration of a particle relative to another moving particle is found by adding the negative of the acceleration of the second particle to
MOTION OF A PARTICLE
then
289
dHi^^dv^dv_
dd^
dd
du'
and
v^,\u'^Q.
du
dB
Integrating again
1
COS"*
\
&
or
Let
u'
=A
cos
{d\ S).
u'
= A when
=0,
then
cos d
0.
Therefore
(3)
u'= A
is
a solution of equation
(2).
in equation (3),
w=^ + Acos<?
and replacing m by
its
(4)
value
r=
where
Equation
(5) is
^ e^ cos d
ep
(5)
e^,pf A M
is
(6)
The
which
>
290
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
be obtained from equations (5) and page 82. Thus
.2
may
(III), respectively,
in equation (3) of
"(ir+(iy
= ^,sin2
0+^.
(5)
(7)
and
(7)
we
get
e^ipr
epr
g2p2
42(^^1)+
(8)
where
Therefore
y^
k=
2k
r
= const. ep
const.
(9) e^p^
h^ = ^^ (e^ i) =
^ppose
a gravitating body to be projected into the field of another gravitating body, which acts as the center of force; then the type of the orbit is determined by the initial conditions, that
is,
velocity of projection
of the particle
from
Substituting
(9)
and rearranging
we
,2p2 ^ V
'{"''3
(i)
The
is
the factor in the parentheses of equation (10). When it vanishes e is one, therefore the orbit is a parabola; when it is
negative
orbit
e is less
it is
and when
is
positive e
than one, therefore the orbit is an ellipse; is greater than one, therefore the
a hyperbola.
We
criteria:
MOTION OF A PARTICLE
Case Case
I.
291
orbit
is
a parabola, when
Vq^
= 2k
ro
II.
orbit
is
an elUpse,
when
2k
vo^<
To
Case III.
orbit
is
2k
The
equation
I.
may
,
v^=
2k
when the
j,
orbit
is
a parabola.
is
II.
v^= k{
v^= kia
\
when the
orbit
an
ellipse.
III.
j,
when
the orbit
is
a hyperbola.
The quantity
222.
ticle
is
infinitely distant
infinity.
This velocity
from the center is called the velocity from may be computed from the energy
equation.
Thus
^wy2=
n
r.fA
r
"
Therefore
v^=' r
equation
is
But the
therefore
last
moving
in
velocity
at
any point
orbit
is
it
would have
at that
acquired
if it
and arrived
292
point of the
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
field of force.
lowing forms:
I.
from
II.
a parabola.
is
less
than the
velocity
III.
from
an
ellipse.
is
a hyperbola.
Thus
a comet starts from rest at an infinite distance from falls towards the sun its orbit will be a parabola. If it is projected towards the sun from an infinite distance If it falls from rest, starting its orbit will be a hyperbola. from a finite distance, its orbit will be an ellipse. From equation (III) we have 223. Period of Revolution.
the sun and
at
..
hdt =
'rde=2dA,
an
ellipse the period of
where dA
time
dt.
is
Therefore
is
when
the orbit
is
revolution
{irah
area of ellipse)
axis
and semiminor
(6)
axis
But by equations
MOTION OF A PARTICLE
Substituting the last expression for h in that for
293
P we
obtain
2iral
Vy
It will
(M
+ m)
the major axis but not upon the minor axis of the orbit.
The
who
is lo
etc., will
The form and size of the orbit, be the same whether the
is located on one or on the other of the two bodies. For instance, to an observer on the moon the earth describes an orbit which is exactly similar to the orbit which the moon appears to describe to an observer on the earth.
observer
224.
fix
Mass
of
let
our ideas
due to the sun is as it is on the earth, the period of revolution of the moon around the earth is the same as if they were not in the graviceleration
moon
is
p;
V'y(m + m')
while that of the earth around the sun
is
p_
,
2Tai
V7(M + m)
where Af m, and m' are the masses of the sun, of the earth, and of the moon, respectively, a is the semimajor axis of the earth's orbit, and a' that of the moon's orbit. Squaring these equations and dividing one by the other
\m'
_/P\^ /ay
\P') '\a)
+m
294
Since w!
Jkf,
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
is
negligible
m compared with
may
m_(PV
M
which gives the
sun.
225.
\P')
(ay 'U/'
of the planet to that of the
ratio of the
mass
Kepler's Laws.
of gravitation
Newton showed
makes the apple fall to the ground keeps the moon in its Then he extended the application of the law to the orbit. other members of the solar system by accounting for the empirical laws which Kepler (15711630) had formulated from the observations of Tycho Brahe (15461601). The following are the usual forms in which Kepler's laws are stated.
1.
Each planet
describes
an
ellipse in
The
3.
The square
first
any planet
is
proportional
The
law
is,
as
we have
seen,
a direct consequence of
(III),
follows
from equation
which holds
moving in central fields of force. The third law amounts to stating that the masses of the planets are negligible compared with the mass of the sun. For if m, a, and P refer to one planet and m', a', and P' to
another planet, then
= P
Therefore
2Tra^
V 7 (M +
= and P = Vy {M m)
J
2Ta''
^
+ m')
&(i)' M \m
M ^m'
MOTION OF A PARTICLE
Evidently when
295
negligible
compared with
which
is
PROBLEMS.
1.
The
is
about
cm.
for the
mean
radius,
its
and supposing
it
to attract as
center.
2.
The
moon are,
Take
roughly,
365J and 21\ days. Find the mass of the moon gm. for the mass of the earth.
3.
in tons.
6.0
10"
The
moon
are 365 i
and 27 i days,
approximately, 9.5
10^
and the semimajor axes of and 2.4 X 10* miles. Find the
mass
moon to be 27 1 days, and the radius of show that the acceleration of the moon, due to the attraction of the earth, is equal to what would be expected from the gravitational law. Assume the gravitational acceleration at the surface of the earth, that is, at a point 6.4 X 10* cm. away from the
4.
of the
its
orbit to be 3.85
10' cm.,
center, to be
6.
980
it
''
sec*
Show
that
if
its
orbit
it
would
fall
6.
Show
that
if
a body
is
may
GENERAL PROBLEMS.
1.
Find the expression for the central force under which a particle = a** cos rS and consider the special cases when n = i, (b)n=J,
(a)
(c) n  1, (d)n2,
(e)
2.
3.
particle
moves
in
a central
field of force
is
Show
is
a logarithmic
spiral.
296
3.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
of
where
is
the radius of
altitude,
the earth.
The
particle
Show
that
tial velocity
must not be
than
where a
is
groove and h the distance of the center of force from the center of the
groove.
body
comet describing a parabolic orbit about the sun collides with a mass at rest. Show that the center of mass of the two describes a circle about the sun as center. 6. Prove that the least velocity with which a body must be projected from the north pole so as to hit the surface of the earth at the equator is about 4 miles per second, and that the angle of elevation is 22. 5. 7. A particle moves in the common field of two fixed centers of force of equal intensity. The particle is attracted towards one of the centers with a force which varies as its distance from that center, and repelled from the other center according to the same law. Show that the orbit
5.
of equal
is
a parabola.
8.
a hyperbola.
In the preceding problem show that the radius vector sweeps over
CHAPTER
XV.
PERIODIC MOTION.
226.
a straight line under the action of a force which is directed towards a fixed point and the magnitude of which varies
directly as the distance of the particle
the motion
ticle,
is
Let 0, Fig. 130, be the fixed point, w, the mass of the parand X its distance from 0; then the foregoing definition
gives
F=kx,
4
4
(I'X
O
Fig. 130.
^m^
mX.
where k
is
The negative
(!')
member
is
measured
Substituting this
get
(I)
expression for
we
w^=
or
kx,
i="'^'
^^"^
where w' =
integrating
ax
at
we have
y2
C'
o)*X^.
t\).
Let
v=
Vo
when x =
0,
then c
Therefore
(II)
t;VtbV.
297
298
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
(II) in
Putting equation
the form
or
a;
= sinM+5) = asin(wf+5),
(III)
where
227.
5 is
Displacement.
is
The distance,
maximum
x, of
Amplitude.
The
displacement
(III)
is
the amplitude.
229.
It is evident
a.
from equation
is
that the
amphtude equals
Phase.
at
The particle
if
said to be in the
same phase
and
two
different instants,
Period.
cessive instants at
we
It
will
is
t;
make
is in the same phase is In order to find the period use of the definition of a periodic function.*
(III)
a;
is
a periodic function
of
we can
write
asm.[(jit\b]
5].
if
x=
* If
= asin[aj(i+P) +
any variable x
a;
is
dependence of
fies
on
<
is
a periodic function of any other variable t and = f (t), then the function
f(t)
the
satis
= f(t+nP),
positive or negative integer.
where
P is the period
=
sin
(fl
and n any
As an
illustra
sin
relation sin

2x).
satisfies
the
PERIODIC MOTION
299
with a period of 2
t,
But
since sin
is
a periodic function of
we have
sin 5
= =
sin (e\2T),
therefore
x = asin[w(<+P)
+ ]
(IV)
a8in[o)t\8\2ir]
and consequently
(0
number of complete vibrations which the particle makes per second is called the frequency of the vibration. If n denotes the frequency, then
231.
Frequency.
The
0}
(V)
232. Timedistance Diagram. Suppose the particle to describe the vertical Une AA', Fig. 131, the middle point of
Fio. 131.
OA' = a = the ampliThe relation between the position of the particle and tude. the time may be visuaUzed by plotting equation (III) with X as ordinate and I as abscissa. This gives the wellknown
which
is
Then
OA^
sine curve.
A mental picture of the motion of the particle may be formed by supposing that the particle under consideration is a projection of another particle which moves in a circle The second particle and of radius a with a constant speed. and the auxiliary aiLxiliary particle its path may be called the
circle,
respectively.
300
233.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Common Forms
X= a
sin
(cot
of
Equation
(III).
(III) is written:
+ 6)
= a sin
0} (^
= a sm
sm
{o}t\ 8')
(+^)
2
(iir)
io')
= =
where
234.
8'
a cos
= a cos w (^+
a cosl^t+
8
8']
= a cos ^ (t+U'),
^o.
and
^'
=
4
Epoch.
The
may be
(III)
and
and
5'
of the particle
or
from equation
= =
Vvq^
aco
ixPx^
{o}t
CO
Va^
x^
cos
+ 8)
(I)
is
is
(II)
from these expressions that the velocity is a simple harmonic function of the time, that it has the same
It is evident
PERIODIC MOTION
period as the displacement, and that the latter by
236.
it
301
differs in
phase from
P
4
as
shown
in Fig. 132.
Energy
of the Particle.
The
;
further explanation.
U= 
Fdx
Jo
, 2Tm
p2
2irhn
(a^x^)
2ir^a^m
p2
cos2^(< + (o).
(VI)
2TVm sm
p2
'y + (o).(VII)
E=ThU
= 2T^ahn
is
(VIII)
Thus the
the
maximum
The
In Fig. 133, T, U, and V are plotted as ordinates and the time as abscissa, with phase relations which correspond to the curves of Fig. 132.
the U and t Curve. the T and t Curve. (111)18 the E and t Curve.
(I) Is
(II) Is
Fio. 133.
Average Value of the Potential Energy. be considrrod as a function of either x or /, average value with respect to both variables.
237.
Since
we
U may
and
Taking
302
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
t
as the
we have
P
lJt=^J Udt*
r*
,*
pa
Udx
70 *
= rx^dx 2aJo
P
= ^E.
..
E=dU. = 2Vt.
PROBLEMS.
(IX)
1.
of 5 sec.
particle which describes a simple harmonic motion has a period and an ampUtude of 30 cm. Find its maximum velocity and its
maximum acceleration. 2. When a load of mass m is suspended from a helical spring of length L
and
of negligible
D is produced.
The load
is
pulled
set free.
and then Find the period and the amplitude of the vibration. Hooke's
position of equilibrium
law holds true. 3. Within the earth the gravitational attraction varies as the distance from the center. Suppose there were a straight shaft from pole to pole, with no resisting medium in it. What would be the period of oscillation Suppose the earth to be a sphere with of a body dropped into the shaft? a radius of 4000 miles. 4. In the preceding problem find the velocity with which the body
would pass the center of the earth. 5. A particle describes a circle with constant speed. Show that the projection of the particle upon a straight fine describes a simple harmonic
motion.
6.
The pan
is
weight of 5 pounds
placed on
it.
PERIODIC MOTION
7.
303
is
particle
which
is
at
Show
that
is
simple harmonic
when the
particle of
mass
by the
equatioti
asin
{cot
+ 6).
Fmd
time, for
displacement;
acceleration;
(e)
momentum;
energy.
(b) velocity;
(c)
(0 kinetic energy;
(g) potential
(d) force;
9.
10.
= acoswO + M
IL
12.
In problem 10 take the averages with respect to position. In problem 8 suppose the motion to be given by the following
e<iuations
I.
a sin* (ut
\
S).
.
II.
x X
III.
238.
of
Composition of
Two
Harmonic Motions
Equal Period.
Analytical
Xi
Method.
Suppose
(1)
(2)
j),
ai sin {ut
+ Si),
\
and
to
define
Xi=
atsin(o)t
the motions which a particle would have if separately, by two simple harmonic forces. upon, acted Then the motion which will result when the forces act simultaneously is obtained by adding equations (1) and (2).
Thus
a:
xi
+ xj
Oi sin {(d
304
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
of the last equation
and
we
cos
get
by
+ (h cos 52) sin ut + (ai sin 5i + 02 sin 62) cos wt = a cos 5 sin + a sin 5 cos = a sin + 8),
=
(ai
cof
<at
{o)t
(3>
where
a cos
and
8= a sin 5 =
ai cos ai sin
61+6^2 cos
5i
82, 52.
f 02 sin
Fig. 134.
It
is
(3)
motions.
Squaring the
equations
(1)
last
and
a^ =
(2).
Thus
0^2^
ai^
+
=
5i).
(4)
The phase
evidently defined
52
by
(5)
tan
239.
ai sin ai cos
+ 02 sin + cos
6i2
52
Graphical Method.
tion
be obtained by either of the following methods: (1) Represent the given motions by displacementtime curves, then add the ordinates of these curves in order ta
may
PERIODIC MOTION
305
obtain the curve which represents the resultant motion. In Fig. 135 the curves (I) and (II) represent the component
(III) represents
Fio. 135.
(2)
Draw two
making an angle with the /axis, equal to the phase angle of the corresponding motion; the vector sum
in each circle
of these radii gives the radius of the auxiliary circle for the
resultant motion
angle.
By
of the
component motions.
PROBLEMS.
Xi
Oi sin
(Jit
and
Xt
*
~
aisin lut
J
(2)
Xt
oi sin
<j)t
xj
Oscos (ut
t)
<3)
(4)
Xi
Oi cos
(at
Xt
Ojcos
asin
oj cos
l(al f
V
Xi Xi
fli
sin
(i)t
Xt Xs
((ot ^i).
(at.
<5)
Oi sin
ii)(
306
(6)
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Xi
Xi
a^i
=
= =
Oi sin
2'7P
t
and
and
X2
=
= =
2 IT
a2 cos
{cot
(^
<o)
(7) (8)
Ui cos wf
tti
X2
0:2
cos w<
and and
(9)
xi
=
=
Oi cos ut
2:2
(10) (11)
(12)
(13)
coi
02 sin
f.
tti
(o)t
X2
X2
(<
<o)
and and
and
X2
(14)
Xi
= =
tti
sin
(<
to)
X2
=
=
02 sin
(15)
Xi
ai cos
(t
to)
X2
02 cos
(^
to).
(i
+
+
^o)
(f
<o).
240.
Elliptic
Harmonic Motion.
is
particle
which
define the
component motions.
x
a sin
(j}t*
(1)
?/= 6sin(aji
5).
(2>
The equation of the path of the particle may be obtained by eliminating t between equations (1) and (2). Expanding the righthand member of equation (2) and substituting for sin o)t and cos wt from equation (1) we get y = hsuiwt cos 5 + & cos ut sin 5
'
= b cos
a
+ 6V *
sin
5,
a^
* The phase angle is left out of equation (1) to simplify the problem. This^ however, does not affect the generality of the problem. It simply amounts to choosing a particular instant as the origin of the time axis. If, however, the phase angle Is left out of both of the component motions the generality of the problem is affected because that will amount to assuming that the compo
PERIODIC MOTION
or
* 6
307
cos
V
^
sin
5.
a'
Squaring the
last
we have
5,
+ 0^
1"2
T ah
COS
sin*
(3)
which
136.
is
The following
interest.
Case
I.
When 5=0,
=
a:,
equation
(3) re
duces to y
the line
of X
a AA'.
and y
in the
equation
Ai^
we obtain
r
= vaM6^
sin ut
FiQ. 136.
for the equation of the motion. Therefore the motion is simple harmonic, in the line AA'j with an amplitude equal
to ^/d^
6*
and period
Case II.
When
=
is
t,
equation
(3)
reduces to
y=
x.
similar to that in
Case
and takes
Case III.
When 5 = ^
equation
(3)
reduces to
a sin
ut,
u>t.
y^b cos
elliptical
308
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
er
The axes
of the
path coin
Case IV.
cle,
When 5 =  and 6 =
a,
cir
circular
equal to
(a
PROBLEMS.
Find the resultant motion due to the superposition of the motions
defined
(1) (2)
a cos
oi}t
and y
(f
= asm ut.
and y
= = = = =
a cos
a sin
cof
^o)
= asint.
(i
(3)
X X X X X
X X X
and y
a cos
to),
(4)
(5)
(6) (7)
a sin (cof 5) and y = a cos a cos cot and y = bsin cot. a sin (co< 6) and y = b cos
{cot
8).
=
=
asin
co<
J
and
?/
(8)
+ ]
"T
)
t/
=
=
6sin [w^
^ cos
]
(9)
=
=
( ''^
2/
( t*^^
(10)
(cof
+ 5i)
?/
^ sin
(cot
+t + 62).
)
241.
Physical Pendulum.
Any
rigid
body which
is
free to
under the action of its own weight is called a physical compound pendulum. Let A, Fig. 137, be a rigid body which is free to oscillate about a horizontal axis through the point and perpendicular to the plane of the paper. Further let c denote the position of the center of mass and D its distance from the axis. Then the torque equation gives
oscillate
or a
7^= at
where
m^Dsin^,
(X)'
PERIODIC MOTION
309
The equation
777
= A;^sina;
is
at'
equation (X) must be given either an approximate form, or it must be expressed as an infinite series.
in
e is small sin d
6.
may
Therefore
we can
be replaced by write
(X')
/^=
or
mgDd,
=
dt
c%
last
(X")
where
c'=^^.
It will
two
equations are of the same type as equations (T) and (IT) of p. 297, the differential equations of simple harmonic motion. Therefore the motion of the physical pendulum
is
approxi
mately harmonic. Hence we can apply to the present problem the results which were obtained in discussing simple harmonic motion. Thus the expression for the displace'^^"tis
d=a8in(a,<+6),
(XI)
where a is the amplitude, i.e., the maximum angular displacement of the pendulum. On the other hand the period
of the
pendulum
is
Po=
\ ma mgD
(XII)
'^/w
v/^'
(XIII)
310
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
/<.
where
tion
is
the
moment
an
mass
and K is the corresponding radius of gyration. Second Approximation. Starting with the energy equation we have
= mgD
or
dt
(cos 6
I
cos a),
de
/a ysm2sm2.
cos
6=1
2 sin^
.6
member
and t=
p ,
4
member between
we have
/T
de_
The
last integral
cannot be evaluated in a
is
finite
number
of
terms, but
we can expand
series,
integrable.
Let
sm  = sm  sm 0.
2 2
Then ^ =
a; further
d4
dd=
si
sin^  sin^ ^
PERIODIC MOTION
311
of the
Making
member we obtain
"
>
(1 ^
cos 2 0)
d<t>
+ ^sin2 + + sin2a)
[
[by (XII)]
)
Po(l
("when a
L
is
small higher"!
terms
may
be neglected J
when a
Therefore
is
small sin
2~2J'
(XIV)
p.=p(if:).t
Pendulum. A ball suspended which by means of a string forms a simple pendulum when it is free to swing about a horizontal axis through the upper end of the string, provided the mass of the string is negligible compared with that of the
242.
Simple
is
and the radius of the ball is neglicompared with the length of the If m denotes the mass of the string. ball and I the length of the string then
ball
gible
Fig. 138.
This is collocl an elliptic intc^al. t This expansion is carriod out by the Binomial theorem. I See Appendix Ai.
See Appendix A.
312
the
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Therefore
and
and replacing
D by we
Z
obtain
^o=27ry_
mgD
(XV)
T
g'
and
= Po(l
+ ^')
(XV')
^9
..
gD
(XVI)
direction of the axis,
is
1=
^
of
^^
if
D and a given D
alone.
Therefore
not
is
I
a function of
we
as ordinate
and
as abscissa
It is evident
the value of
is
D
as
rapidly to the
minimum
value
be ob
there are
two
PERIODIC MOTION
313
The group
oscillates
of parallel axes about which the rigid body with the siime period forms two coaxial circular cyl
Fio. 139.
Fio. 140.
ter of mass. The cyhnders which correspond to the minimum value of the period coincide and have a common radius A'.
PROBLEMS.
Find the period of the following physical pendulums A uniform rod, the transverse dimensions of which are negligible compared with the length, oscillates about a horizontal axis through one
1.
(a)
end.
(b)
negligible mass.
A sphere of radius a
oscillates
a perfectly smooth
b.
Fmd
The sphere
suppased to have no rolling motion. 8. What effect on the period of a jx^ndulum would Ix; produced by a change in the njas of the bob, or of the length of the string, or in the
radius of the earth, or in the length of the day, or in the latitude of the
location?
4.
mountain.
tiic
earth to bo
314
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
a sphere of 4000 miles radius and the gravitational force to vary inversely as the square of the distance from the center of the earth. 6. Given the height of a mountain above the surrounding plain and
the period of a pendulum on the plain and on the top of the mountain, find a relation from which the radius of the earth can be computed.
6.
the distance from the center, find the depth below the surface at which a
period.
in one minute.
loon?
9.
A
it
pendulum
of length
is
81.
Show
that
will gain
about
ry vibrations
an
interval of time of
n vibra
tions.
supposed to be a large integral nmnber. high above the surface of the earth must a seconds pendulum be carried in order that it may have a period of 4 seconds? 11. While a train is taking a curve at the rate of 60 miles per hour a seconds pendulum hanging in the train is observed to swing at the rate of 121 oscillations in 2 minutes. Show that the radius of the curve is about a quarter of a mile. 12. Find the expressions for the least period of oscillation the following bodies can have; also determine the corresponding position of the axes.
is
10.
How
(a)
(b)
(c)
Rod
(d)
(e)
(f)
Sohd cy Under.
Solid sphere.
Spherical shell.
244.
Determination
of
is
of
Means
which
a Reversible
Pendulum. A
the
Gravitational
Acceleration
by
physical
pendulum
provided with two convenient axes of vibration is Let D and D', Fig. 141, denote called a reversible pendulum. of the axes from the center of mass. Then the distances the
=
and
.
2t\/'
K + D^
^
P'=2ir\J^'t^'^
*
gD'
PERIODIC MOTION
Eliminating
A'
315
and solving
for g
we
get
J^pi
(1)
^=4x5 >'p'2 _
Reversible pendulums which are made for the purpose of determining g are so constructed that the two periods are very nearly equal. Therefore we can write
P'=P +
and obtain
bP,
[bP^P],
^= 4t'
=
4
D' {P
+ iPy  DP^
D'2
P2 (D'
D)
 D2 PD'bP
5
+ D' {spy
[{hpY
is
D +D'
pHih
2D'
neglected]
D'D P ^
_ 2D'
bP\*
(2)
\
D\D\(
d'd'p)
The approximate
is
expression which
W
X
g from experimental data than the more exact expression given in equation (1). This is due to the fact that {D' D), which cannot be determined with a high degree of accuracy, enters into equation (1) as a factor, while it appears only in the correction term of equation (2). 245. Bifllar Pendulum. A rigid body which is suspended by means
/
\
\
/
/
^t. /
gtD
\
\
I
i
'
\
Fio. 141
of
two
parallel strings, as
is
shown
in
WTicn the body is given an angular displacement about a vertical axis through
Fig. 142,
316
its
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
center of mass
and then
left
to itself
it
vibrates with a
definite period.
Let
m=
/=
the
moment
of inertia of the
vertical axis
body about a
through
its
center of mass,
= 6=
I
the angular displacement of the strings, the tensile forces of the strings,
2D
T=
2
and
D=
the
distance
between
the
strings.
FiG. 142.
In order to obtain the torque equation suppose the weight of the suspended system to be concentrated at the ends of the small bar ab and analyze the forces acting upon it as shown in Fig. 143. Evidently ab is acted upon by four forces, namely, the tensile forces of the strings and the two forces each of which represents half the weight These forces are equivalent to a of the suspended system. couple formed by the forces F and F, which act at the ends of ab in a horizontal direction, and a vertical force equal to the difference between the sum of the vertical components of the tensile forces of the strings and the weight of the suspended system. The vertical force gives the suspended system a motion in the vertical direction. But both this motion and the force which produces it are very small therefore they will be neglected. It is evident from Fig. 143 that the torque due to the
horizontal couple
is
G=2'F'Dcos.
2
PERIODIC MOTION
Substituting this value of
I
J
317
we have
= 2FDC0S
dt
= 2 7'Dsin0cos.
First Approximation.
proximations.
When
cos
and
<t>
T=\mg,
Dd =
l4>*
1,
sin<f>
<f>=
d.
Making
equation
we
get
du
mgP^
I
'
dt~
which
is
motion.
Therefore
'~
is
mg
Second Approximation.
143
From Fig.
Fio. 143.
we have
T COS 4t=\mg
Therefore
, sm =
.
and
2D sin e mg
2CO8
and
MM arc
of each of
318
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
these substitutions in the torque equation
2
j
d(j)
Making
we obtain
sm 2
mgD''
I
e cos 2
.
~dl~
v/r
mgD''
I
4D2
sin 5
,0
4D2
,d
is
made
less
than
20
Therefore
even
if
the
maximum
value of
6 is
made
last
as large as half a
is less
consequently neghgible
Thus the
dt
which have
is
Therefore
we
v//////m////A
for
torsional
pendulum consists of a rigid body suspended by a wire, the wire being rigidly connected to both the support and the body, Fig. 144. When the body is given an angular displacement about the wire as an axis and then left
Fig. 144.
to itself
it
G=kd,
PERIODIC MOTION
where A
is
319
The negative
in the torque
equation
we have
i^ = fce,
(XVII)
where c^=
P=
is
=2Ty/
(XVIII)
the motion
247.
Let
Moment
is
of Inertia.
its
is
moment
of inertia
desired
Further let / be the wire as an suspension moment of inertia of the bob about the /' axis and the moment of inertia of the body. Then we have
and
Therefore
P'=2Ty//^
= ^
=
4
/'
and
A:
P'tP*
and k may be determined
experi
Hence
if
is
known both
mentally.
Page 178.
320
248.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Damped Harmonic Motion.
field of force
a harmonic
The
particle
monic force the medium. All resisting forces are functions of the velocity and act in a direction opposed to that of the velocity. But since in harmonic motion the velocity does not attain
great values,
force acting
by a resisting medium damped harmonic motion. is acted upon by two forces, namely, a hardue to the field, and a resisting force due to
which
is
is filled
called
we can suppose
upon the
Therefore
particle
we can
write
F=
kix
kiv,
where the first term of the righthand member represents the harmonic force and the second term the resisting force.
Substituting this value of
we
get
m at
A motion
fined
kix
k^v.
(XIX)
which
is
by equation (XIX) is obtained when a rigid body placed The in a resisting medium is subjected to a harmonic torque. motion is defined by the following torque equation
I^ at
= k'dk"o,,
(XX)
where the first term of the righthand member represents the harmonic torque and the second term the resisting torque. On account of the perfect analogy between the two types of motion a discussion of one of them is all that is necessary. We will consider the motion represented by equation (XX). k" = 2 a and k' = h'^, then equation (XX) becomes Let
f + 2a+6^. =
0.
(1).
PERIODIC MOTION
321
The
last equation is a differential equation of the second order which can be solved by the wellknown methods of We will, however, obtain the soluDifferential Equations.
tion
by a method which
is
more
instructive
be called
It will
an experimental method.
be observed that Q and its first two derivatives are equation (1); therefore d must be such a function
added
result
in
it is differentiated with respect to the time the a function of the same type. The only known elementary functions which satisfy this condition are the circu
olt that
is
when
and exponential functions. But since circular functions be obtained from exponential functions* the solution of equation (1) may be expressed in the form
lar
may
e?=ae^',
(2)
6
where a and
/3
are constants.
Replacing
get
by
their values,
(2),
we
+ 2 a/3 + h^)
a^'
0.
Evidently one or both of the factors must vanish. When oe** = 0, Q = 0, which means that there is no motion. This is
called a trivial solution.
When
we
get
/3
=  a Va' /9
6.
in
equation
(2)
we obtain
the
ticular solutions
In order to obtain the general solution we multiply the parby constants and add them. Hence
* See
Appeadix Avu.
322
is
^
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
(2).
Now
let
6=0 when
(XXI)
then C2 =
e
Ci.
Therefore
Aie'ie'^'^''
e ^"""^O,
where Ai =
aCi.
be discussed separately. Case I. Let a^ = 6?, then ^ = for all values of the time. Therefore this is a case of no motion.
Case II.
radical
by
Let a^ > b^, then Va^ b^ is real, we have gcs + cxi d = Aile'^"''^^
Denoting
this
(XXII)
The
is
character of the motion brought out by the graph of equation (XXII), Fig. The graph is easily 145. obtained by drawing the dotted curves, which are
plotted
by considering the ^
of
terms
the
righthand
member
them
of equation (XXII)
separately,
geometrically.
asymptotically.
a maximum, and then diminishes to zero In this case the motion is said to be aperi^
Let a^ <b^ then Va^
a^ =
co.
odic or deadbeat.
Case III.
5 is
imaginary.
b^ =
ioi.
Let
V"^ =
and V62 
Then Va 
Making
this substitution in
equation (XXI)
we obtain
e=^ie'"(e**'e*'*0
= =
Aie'"^
'2ismid*
(XXIII)
^e'"sinco^,
Appendix Avii.
* See
PERIODIC MOTION
where
323
2iAi. Equation (XXIII) is the integral equaharmonic motion with the additional factor ~", which is called the damping factor. On account of this factor the amplitude of the motion continually diminishes. It is evident from equation (XXIII) that the motion is periodic and has a period
tion of
A=
P=2t
V62 (XXIV)
a^
The
character of the motion is brought out clearly by the displacementtime curve of Fig. 146. A mental picture of the
wJJ
\_ l^^
::rr\\iL::.^^^
...^Xirsr^
''
Fia. 146.
damped harmonic motion of a particle may be formed by considering the motion of an auxiliary particle which
moves
in
a logarithmic
spiral.
If
way as to give the radius vector a constant angular velocity, then the motion of the projection of the auxiliary particle upon the 5axis is damped harmonic.
logarithmic spiral may be used as an auxiliary curve drawing the graph of equation (XXIII), as the circle is used in drawing a sine curve.
The
in
324
249.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Logarithmic Decrement.
of
constant and
is
called the
=
a
is satisfied.
t
Let the first amplitude occur at the instant then since the period of the tangent is tt, the times of the succeeding amplitudes are given by
ti;
tan
or
(ut)
=
=
tan
ti\
(uti
+ nir),
by
is
0}
where n
a positive integer.
rithmic decrement
by X and the
amphtude by
a,
we
have
X
log
(by definition)
an + 2
log
Ae
a(,
niX
"/sin
,
(o)ti
Ae
log
 fl(i
+
"
'/
sin
[coti
+ n7r) + (n + 2)7r]
[by (XXIII)]
i('i
+ +
nr\
i(<i
=a
2x
CO
= aP
k"
2/
Therefore
tions of
if
(XXV)
is
observa
P and
a.
do
0"
PERIODIC MOTION
260.
325
Effect of
Damping on the
Period.
Substituting
the
Vyp^
.P(l+^,),
(XXVI)
where Po is the period for the undamped motion. It is evident from equation (XXVI) that the damping increases the
period.
grange (17361813) introduced into Dynamics a method which can be applied to any vibrating system. The following is a special case of his method adapted to conservative systems which have only one degree of freedom of motion. Express the potential energy of the system as a function of a properly chosen* coordinate q, so that when expanded in ascending powers of q the first power of q does not appear. Then the potential energy takes the form
U''fio+^' + 0^'+
where
fio,
'
'
(XXVII)
h,
etc.,
in
are constants.
The constant
can be
is
* It ia
ahown
alwayi
possible.
326
eliminated
tial
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
by taking the origin Thus we have
as the position of zero poten
energy.
C/=/32g2+^3g'+
(XXVir)
But since the vibrations are supposed to be small, q remains a small quantity during the motion. Therefore the higher powers of q are negUgible compared with q^. Thus neglecting the higher terms
we
U=hfiq\
where 
/3
(XXVIII)
/32.
The
kinetic energy,
T=\uq^,
where a
is
(XXIX)
.
a constant and g
^ at
But
conservative the
stant.
sum
of its
Therefore
E=T\U
=
to the time,
hocq'
+ h ^q'/Sg=0,
(XXX)
ag
(XXXI)
which
is
Therefore
we have
g
= a sin V 
(<
+ ^)
(XXXII)
(XXXIII)
and
P=2xv/^.
of Lagrange's
method
consists of select
way
as to
make
T=hccq',
U=h^q\
PERIODIC MOTION
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES.
1.
327
weight which
is
suspended by means of a helical spring vibrates Find the expression for the period,
Let
m =
m' = p = L= D= a
mass
mass
suspended.
suspended body.
pulled
down
in
In Fig. 147
tion,
let
.4
and B any position of the body. The coordinate in terms of which we want to express the energy of the system must vanish at the position
of equilibrium.
Therefore
its
we
will define
body
tance
in
terms of
The
dis
will
Let q
denote this distance then the kinetic energy of the suspended body equals mq^. In order to express the kinetic energy of
the spring in terms of this coordinate let x denote the distance
of an element of the spring from the point of suspension.
Then
is
2
1
x^dm
q*'pdx
rLxl
(fi)
2 L'Jo
1
iealf x*dx
fiL
2 3
1
g*
m'..
oQU,
Hence the
kinetic energy of the entire system
is
(m + j)i
328
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
Hooke's law the force which produces the extension of the string force, that is, if Q denotes the force then Q kq, where k Therefore the potential energy of the system is
is
ia
By
a harmonic a constant.
U = pQdq
=
But Q
k C qdq Jo
2 'Cy
.
= mg when
=D.
Therefore
mg = kD,
or k
=^
Making
we obtain
is
E=
T+U
t
we obtain
which
is
Therefore
a sin
^j
{t
+Q
^"
^^(' + 5^)7
is neghgible compared with that two equations become
It will
the period
When
a sin
y ^ + Q,
{t
v/f
Therefore in this case the length of the equivalent simple pendulum equals
the stretch in the length of the spring produced by suspending the weight.
2.
particle of
mass
of a stretched of negligible
and
PERIODIC MOTION
mass.
329
will vibrate vihea dis
the area of
its
crow mo
from its ixxsition of e<iuilibrium, and 7*1 forces of the two parts of the string. Then by Hooke'a
Ti
A^
Tt
A'2'^V~2
L
2
, =^
L'L + 2q
L
'
A2
^)
L
2
"
L'L 2^.
L
is
where
X'
A\.
Hence the
But
is
given by
we
obtain
9* ^ " S ^* + ~r~ Li
Ji
we
get
...
rt
which gives
9
a sin v/"~T
*)
3.
Fmd
den
the period of the motion, suppoHing the contact between the cytta*
to be rough enough to prevent sliding.
330
Let
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
m be the mass of
and the
vibrating
Then
at
any instant
r=
where
T denotes
of inertia
mo
ment
contact and
angular velocity.
But
7
1 ma^,
and
where
0}
(b
a)d,
Fig. 148.
its
angular velocity.
Therefore
T=lm{ha)H\
On
the other hand
we have the
energy
U=
=
mgh
Tng{b
a)
(1
cos 6)
=(')[i('i+sr}
Since 9
is
all
the time,
it is
permissible to neglect
Therefore
we have
U =\mg{ha) e\
Thus both T and
The
total
we
obtain
Z{ba)d\2gd =
Therefore
0.
and
*
^V3(l^(^ + 6 (6  g)
^>'
=V
The expansion
is
carried out
PERIODIC MOTION
When
and
Therefore
the contact
is
331
smooth we have
t/
r = I m (6  a)d, = h mg {b a) 0*.
^
= a sin y
r^
('
')
and
P = 2tJ^^^'
of the equivalent simple
b smooth and
^
4t
pendulum
rough.
is (6
a)
when the
when
it is
PROBLEMS.
1.
butcher's balance
If
is
elongated
inch
when a weight
of 4
pounds
is
the error introduced by neglecting the mass of the spring in calculating the period of oscillation.
2.
mercury
in
I7tube.
8.
If in
in the ratio of
4.
to n,
is
P 2 tV '
/n
..
r~*
/
*
n'
T7 A
A particle of mass m is attached to a point on a smooth horizont*! by means of a spring of natural length L. If the particle is pulled so that the spring is stretched to twice its natural length and then let go, show
6.
table
that
it will
2 (x
+ 2) y
ftnf
,
where
T is the force
The maas
of
its
natural length.
negligible.
vxt
Two
masses m\ and
arc connected
is
The modulus
Show
that
when m^
is
fixed
mi
m,
332
8.
ANALYTICAL MECHANICS
In the preceding problem suppose both of the particles to be free
'
a small hole
which connects two particles of equal mass passes through a smooth horizontal table. One of the particles hangs vertically while the other, which is on the table at a distance D from the
string
in
hole, is given
string.
if it is
Show
a period
is
of 2
tt
V '
/o
3^
is
The
in
a vertical position,
is
in equi
Show
that
when
ment
it will
t V ~ where h
'
is
the height
at
its
9 of the piston above the base of the cylinder when the former
is
equi
hbrium
position.
to hold.
11. In illustrative problem 2 (p. 328) take the mass of the string into account and obtain the expression for the period of vibration.
12. In problem 6 take the mass of the spring into account and obtain an expression for the period.
13.
In problem 7 take the mass of the spring into account and find the
In problem 8 take the mass of the spring into account and find the
A particle is placed at
particles of the
the middle point of one of the edges of the table and is attached to the The particle at the center is given a small displacement first particle.
at right angles to the strings.
Show
is
that
it
A particle rests at
Four
smooth and
suspended by means of strings each of which passes over an edge of the table and is connected to the particle on the table. Find the period with which the system will vibrate when the The particle which is on the table is displaced along one of the strings.
horizontal.
particles are
particles
PERIODIC MOTION
17.
333
A particle is
Show
in equilibrium at
distance.
it will
that
if
the particle
2r
= where
,
which a unit mass would experience when placed at a unit distance from
each center of force.
APPENDIX
A.
MATHEMATICAL FORMULiE.
335
I.
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
a**x*
'
'
'
(_v
Applying
1
this
theorem to
I
(1
:i:
x)*
we
obtain
+x
=
^
X H x
+
consequently"]
etc.,:x.
X
=
^
+ X + x + x +
,
["When X <^
_x*, X*,
1,
and consequently!
J
etc,,Cx.
II.
QUADRATIC FORMUL\.
X satbfies the quadratic equation ax*
If
+ bz + c 0, then
"
6 y/b* 4 ac
2a
:::
III.
(a)
LOGARITHMIC RELy\TIONS.
log ab
log a
1
+ log b.
("This
(u\ id;
loga
log ^
log
1
n loga.
formuls
^
may
^,p^^j,jj^
^^ ^,^
(a) by"!
J
(b).l
(c)
log a
log 6.
is
and
(d)
> 0.
[This
obtained by lettmg 6
a in
(c).]
IV.
TRIGONOMETRIC RELATIONS.
sin'x
1
f
(a)
co*x
1.
(b)
+ tan*x
sec'x.
337
338
(c)
APPENDIX A
sin (x
(d)
(e)
(f)
cos {x zty)
tan(xd:t/)
sin
2x = 2 sin a; cos x.
(g)
cos 2 X
(h)
tan 2 X
sin
Hf),
(g),
and
(h) are
obtained by
let"]
[ting y
= x'm
(c), (d),
and
(e).
tan^ X
(i)
= = =
2 sin  cos 
cos^
(j)
cos X
sin*
2 tan (k)
tan X
lta'
(m)
(n)
;
cos2x
sin* 
,/, ^ = HHcos2x).
,
These
L
(g). vs/
(1
cos x)
f \ (o)
+ cosx). If b L2
^
).
lines.
cos d
+ cos
j8
cos j8'
V.
MACLAURIN'S THEOREM.
f(x)=f (0)
VI.
SERIES.
The
(a)
by Maclaurin's theorem.
(b)
+ i +  + +... = 1 + X. [When x <C and consequently x*, x', e=l + H__^ + +...
e'=l
1,
etc.,
<^ x.J
^""^
1!
2!+
X^
.
31
^4!
X'
,
/A\ (d)
smx =
 + +...
X
X^
X.
[When x <C
1,
and consequently
<C x.}
APPENDIX A
(e)
339
.x = = 5 + :+...
=
1.
.1011)
x', x*,
(When x<^
1,
and consequently
etc.,^z.]
(f)
oga+^)=f] + Jf]+=
X,
,forl<x<l
*,
[When x C
1,
and consequently
z\
etc.,
x.J
VII.
(a)
cos X
+ i sin X.
(b)
e~** = cos X
sin
De Moivre's Theorems and are obtained by comparing series (b) and (c) of VI with series (d) and (e) of the same group.
is
(c)
mm amx "*'
2i
'This relation
obtained by subtract
(d)
C08X=
"This relation
to (a).
is
VIII.
(a)
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
sinh x
(b)
cosh X
tsin (ix).
cos
(ix).
These are the definitions of the hyperbolic sine and the hyperbolic ooeine. Replacing x by tx in equations (c) and (d) of group VII we obtain the following relations between hyperbolic and exponential functions:
(c)
sinh X
2
(d)
cosh X
e*
+ c(c)
Squaring equation
(d)
and subtracting
it
we
obtain
ooeh* x
(e)
sinh* x
1.
DC AVERAGE VALUE.
The average
value of y
"/(x)
in the interval
between s
Xi
and
xt is given
by
y
,x,A,
C'ydx.
APPENDIX
B.
MATHEMATICAL TABLES.
341
Logarithms
iW.
1
of
Numbers.
6
,
7
8451
9
1
P.P.
3.3 4.4
2 3
4
5 6 7 8 9 10
11
12 13 14 15 16
17
coop 3010' 4771 6021 0000 0414 0792 1139 1401 3010 3222 3424; 3617 3802 4771 4914 5051; 5185 5315 6021 612.S 0232 6335 6435 0990! 7070 7100, 7243 7324 77821 7853 7924j 7993 8062 845r 8513' 8573' 8633 8692 9031 90N5 9138 9191 9243 9:)42 9o!K) 9638 9685 9731 0(XX)i (X)4;i OOSO 0128 0170 0414 OAXi 04!l_> or)31 0569 07! J ()S2.S OSM ().N99 0934
1I3'
6990 7782 1761 2041 3979 4150 5441 5563 0532 6628 7404 7482 8129 8195
8751
90311 9542
{ M gS.I
s
4
6 88
II
4 1
a
8 4
'
5
7
IS 2
170 198
U4 u 18 8 U9
:
8808 8865 8921 8976 9345 9395 .9446 9494 9823 9868 Of) 19 W.56 ( 0253 0294 0645 0682 u,
1004 1335
M
3 4
Jt
19
3
S
4
38
7
e
8
10 13
14
78
9.8
11 4
1173
1200
1523
1239
1271
1038 1367
e
7
10
133 153
17.1
18.0
1461 1701
2041
255:i
1553 1584 1614 1644 1673 1703 1732 1818; 1847 1875 1903 1931' 19591 1987 2014 2095 2122 2148 2175 2201 2227 2253 2279
It
1
IT
1
18
18 19
2380 2405 2430 2455 2480 2504 2529 2577 260 1! 2625 2648 2672 2695 2718! 2742 2765 27SS 2S10 2^. 2856 287S 29f)0 2023 2915' 2967' 2989
1
3 3
4
3
6 4
7 3
34
5 1 8 8
85
103
11
108
13 6 14 4
20
21
:j()75:
!
3;>t'.
. .
,1
138
15.8
..;
32.S4
:.i4
9
I
10.3
22 23
24 25 2G
3444 3404 34vS3 3502 3017 3030 30551 3674 3692 aS02 3S20 3838! 3856 3874 3!)79 39! t7 4014 4031 4048 4150, 410<i 41S3, 4200 4216
34i4
3.522
3711
J*
1
15
3 4 5
27 2S 29
30
31
3892 4065 4232 4314 4330 4340 4362 4378 4393 4472 44S7 4.j02 4518 4533 4,548 4ii2l 40;i! 46.'>4 4009 4683 4098 17s(; 4s<K) 4.S14' 4S29 4K43 4771
41(14
3909 3927' 3945 3962 4082 4099 4110 4133 4249 4265 4281 4298 4409 4425 4440' 4456 4,504 4579 4591 4009 4713 4728 4742 4757
4.S.57
3 3
4
3 3 4 8
4
8 9
11 2
80
7 S
1'
.
6
7
8
9
13 8 14.4
1.'
i
>
13 5
14
1 1
ts
1 8 3 8
4.S7I
.5011
4.S.S(i
4900
4MN
.
32 33 34 35 30
37 3S 39
.V.^j
,
4!Hi7
.5024
!
.5;v,ii
1;
^
5224. 52.37
'
525<)
.5.37S
:,\iy.\
3 3
4
3 8
43
3 8
7
89
.*!
r
>
'
S
7
8 4 8
11
..,^,^.
.5428
..5.5.51
<)
.
9 8 3
.>)()2
.5.514
5(>.{.'.,
.5:)27
12
.
V 1 10.4 11.7
.,.,....
.,..11
5023
u
13
3 4 9 a 4 8
U
1 1
5717
.w)'>
572t
..
1
5740
.v.
57.52'
5775'
.5.SK8
.57.80
,5S77
.V..SS
5{M)0
5!>99
..I,,
a)\{)
(5117
2 3
4
33
3 3
4 4
40
41
'
,....
& a
7
73
4
0222
'"'.5
42 43
44 45 40 47 4S
9
10.
55 88 77 88
9
'
(
T%
1
08
1
.'
0721
^l^^J
t 1
14 S3 40
4 8 8
49
73
8
1
60
N.
ii
''7
58 84 78
,
4
1
%u
Logarithms
N.
1
of
6
Numbers.
6 7
8
7059
9
7067
P
1
P.
9
60
51
52 53
6390 6998 7007' 7016 7024 7076 7084 7093 7101 7110 7160 7168 7177 7185 7193 7243 7251 7259 7267 7275
7042 7050 7118 7126 7135 7202 7210 7218 7284 7292 7300
7033
7143 7152 7226 7235 7308 7316 7396 7474 7551 7627 7701 7774
2 3 4
54 55 56
57 58 59
60
61
7332 7340 7348 7356 7412 7419 7427 7435 7490 7497 7505 7513 7566 7574 7582 7589 7642 7649 7657 76&i 7716 7723 7731 7738 7789
7796
62 63 64 65 66
67 68 69
70
]\ 73 74 75 76 77 78 79
8463
7364 7372 7380 7388 7443 7451 7459 7466 7520 7528 7536 7543 7597 7604 7612 7619 7672 7679 7686 7694 7745 7752 7760 7767 7803 7810 7818 7825 7832 7839 7875 7882 7889 7896 7903 7910 7945 7952 7959 7966 7973 7980 8014 8021 8028 8035 8041 8048 8082 8089 8096 8102 8109 8116 8149 8156 8162 8169 8176 8182 8215 8222 8228 8235 8241 8248 8280 8287 8293 8299 8306 8312 8344 8351 8357 8363 8370 8376 8407 8414 8420 8426 8432 8439 8470 8476 8482 8488 8494 8500 8537 8543 8549 8555 8597 8603 8609 8615 8657 8663 8669 8675 8716 8722 8727 8733 8774 8779 8785 8791 8831 8837 8842 8848 8887 8943 8998 9053
8561 8621 8681
6 6
7 8 9
8
1
0.8
1.6 2.4
7846 7917 7987 8055 8122 8189 8254 8319 8382 8445
8506 8567 8627 8686
2 3
4 5 6
7
8
9
7
1
0.7
1.4 2.1 2.8 3.5 4.2 4.9 5.6 6.3
2 3 4 5
6
7
8519 8525 8531 8579 8585 8591 8639 8645 8651 8698 8704 8710 8756 8762 8768 8814 8820 8825
6
1
0.6
1.2 1.8
80
81
8865 8871 8876 8882 8921 8927 8932 8938 8976 8982 8987 8993 9031 9036 9042 9047
8739 8745 8797 8802 8854 8859 8893 8899 8904 8910 8915 8949 8954 8960 8965 8971 9004 9009 9015 9020 9025 9058 9063 9069 9074 9079
4 5 6
7
8 9
6
1
82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89
90
91
9085 9138 9191 9243 9294 9345 9395 9445 9494 9542
9590 9638 9685
9731 9777 9823
9096 9101 9106 9112 9117 9122 9149 9154 9159 9165 9170 9175 9201 9206 9212 9217 9222 9227 9253 9258 9263 9269 9274 9279 9304 9309 9315 9320 9325 9330 9355 9360 9365 9370 9375 9380 9405 9410 9415 9420 9425 9430 9455 9460 9465 9469 9474 9479 9504 9509 9513 9518 9523 9528
9557 9562 9566 9571
9128 9133 9180 9186 9232 9238 9284 9289 9335 9340 9385 9390 9435 9440 9484 9489 9533 9538
9586
3 4
5
6
7 8
9
4
1
92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100
0000
9547 9552 9595 9600 9643 9647 9689 9694 9736 9741 9782 9786 9827 9832 9872 9877 9917 9921 9961 9965 0004 0009
1
9576 9581
2 3 4
5
,9791
9750 9754 9759 9763 9795 9800 9805 9809 9836 9841 9845 9850 9854 9881 9886 9890 9894 9899 9926 9930 9934 9939 9943 9969 9974 9978 9983 9987 0013 0017 0022 0026 0030
3
9609 9614 9619 9624 9628 9633 9657 9661 9666 9671 9675 9680 9703 9708 9713 9717 9722 9727
6
7 8
9768 9773 9814 9818 9859 9863 9903 9908 9948 9952 9991 9996 0035 0039 8
1
x ==3.1416
logx = 0.4971
=
= =
log<
2.2 92 logio I
n;
344
Dwm
0.0
ft
1
..
Sm
0.0000
0087 0175 0262 0349 0436
Tucaat.
Cnnit
00
o^
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
'J
(1
:i.5
30
3.5
40
4.5 5.0
190811 163499
14.3007 12.7062 11.4301
10 3854
00699
0.0787 0.0875
00958
1045 1132
00963
0.1051 1139 0.1228 1317
0.1405 1495 1584
0.1219
1305
836 830
82.6
0.1392 0.1478
1564 1650 1736
09903
0.9800 0.9877 0.9863 9818
0.9833 9816 9799 9781 0.9763
9744 9724 9703 9681 0.9650
95
10
0.1673 0.1763
0.1853 0.1944 0.2035 0.2126 0.2217
0.2309 2401 2493 0.2586 0.2679
2773 0.2867 2962 0.3057 0.3153
800
79.6
10.5
11
11
0.1822 0.1908
1994
790 786
78.0 77.6
12
12.5
2079 0.2164
13.0
13 5 14 14 5 15
4.3315
4 1653 4 0108
770
76 5
760
75.5 75.0
74 6 74
3.8667 3.7321
3.6050 3 4874 3 3759 3.2709 3.1716 3.0777 2.9887 2 9042 2 K239 2 7475 2 6746 2.6051 2.6386 2.4761 2.4142
TtataM.
735
73
726
72.0 71.6 71.0 70 6 70.0
0.3420
3502 0.3584 0.3665 0.3746 0.3827
0.3640
3739 3839 0.3939 0.4040 0.4142
09367
0.9336
00304
0.02ri 0.9230
OmIm.
CMMfMt.
*
67.69(r.
34ft
Tangent.
Cotangent.
Cosine.
2.4142
2.3559 2.2998 2.2460 2.1943 2.1445
2.0965 2.0503 2.0057 1.9626 1.9210
1.8807 1.8418 1.8040 1.7675 1.7321 1.6977 1.6643 1.6319 1.6003 1.5697 1.5399 1.5108 1.4826 1.4550 1.4281
1.4019 1.3764 1.3514 1.3270 1.3032
0.9239 0.9205 0.9171 0.9135 0.9100 0.9063 0.9026 0.8988 0.8949 0.8910 0.8870 0.8829 0.8788 0.8746 0.8704 0.8660 0.8616 0.8572 0.8526 0.8480 0.8434
67.5 67.0 66.5 66.0 65.5 65.0 64.5 64.0 63.5 63.0 62.5
62.0 61.5 61.0 60.5 60.0
0.4695 0.4772 0.4848 0.4924 0.5000 0.5075 0.5150 0.5225 0.5299 0.5373 0.5446 0.5519 0.5592 0.5664 0.5739 0.5807 0.5878 0.5948 0.6018 0.6088
0.6157 0.6225 0.6293 0.6361 0.6428
0.5890 0.6009 0.6128 0.6249 0.6371 0.6494 0.6619 0.6745 0.6873 0.7002
0.7133 0.7265 0.7400 0.7536 0.7673 0.7813 0.7954 0.8098 0.8243 0.8391
0.8541 0.8693 0.8847 0.9004 0.9163
59.5 59.0 58.5 58.0 57.5 57.0 56.5 56.0 55.5 55.0 54.5 54.0 53.5 53.0 52.5
35.5 36.0 36.5 37.0 37.5 38.0 38.5 39.0 39.5 40.0
40.5 41.0 41.5 42.0 42.5 43.0 43.5 44.0 44.5 45.0
1.2799 1.2572 1.2349 1.2131 1.1918 1.1708 1.1504 1.1303 1.1106 1.0913 1.0724 1.0538 1.0355 1.0176 1.0000
Tangent.
0.6494 0.6561 0.6626 0.6691 0.6756 0.6820 0.6884 0.6947 0.7009 0.7071
Cosine.
4567.5.
348
Exponential Functions.
X
0.00
.01 e*
e*
1.000 0.990 0.980 0.970 0.961 0.951 0.942 932 0.923 0.914 0.905 0.887 0.869 0.852 0.835 0.817 0.803 0.787
0.771 0.756
X
0.60
.62 .64 .66 .68 .70 .72 .74 .76 .78 .80 .82 .84 .86 .88 .90 .92 .94 .96 .98
f*
tr'
0.549 0.538 0.527 0.517 0.507 0.497 0.487 0.477 0.468 0.458 0.449 0.440 0.432 0.423 0.415 0.407 0.399
391
X
2.5
.6 .7 .8 .9
r
0.0821
1.000
1.010 1.020 1.030 1.041
1.051
1.822
1.850 1.896 1.935 1.974
12.18
13.46 14.88 16.44 18.17
2.014 2.054 2.096 2.138 2.181 2.226 2.270 2.316 2.336 2.411
3.0
.1
.2 .3
.4
35
.6
.7
.8 .9
2460
4.0
.1
0.741
.40
.60
1.822
0.726 0.712 0.698 0.684 0.670 0.657 0.644 0.631 0.619 0.607 0.595 0.583 0.571 0.560 0.549
2.507 2.560 2.612 2.664 2.718 1.00 .1 3.004 .2 3.320 .3 3.669 4.055 .4 4.482 1.5 4.953 .6 5.474 .7 .8 6.050 .9 6.686 2.0 7.389 .1 8.166 .2 9.025 .3 9.974 11.02 .4 2.5 12.18
.2
.3
0.333 0.301 0.273 0.247 0.223 0.202 0.183 0.165 0.150 0.135 0.122 0.111 0.100 0.907 0.0821
0.0188 0.0160 0.0180 0136 0.0111 148.4 0.00674 403.4 00248 1097. 0.000913 2961. 0.000836 8103. 0.O0O12S
22026.
.OfXYil.'..!
I.'J'
00406
0.0860 0.0384 0.03Q3 0.0378
00247
f
<:',
(.i.>
3f/4
::.]:,
LI'/'
O.OM^
r 3r/2
2i
23.14
111.3
0.048i 1 OasHs 1
(X
535.5
>7
5/2
3r 4r
288751. 0.000008
.292 logit X.
Ht
INDEX.
Th numben refer
Acceleration, 89.
to
angular, 97.
Cords, equilibrium
of, 60.
normal, 92.
radial, 95.
Couple, 35.
arm
of, 37.
tangential, 92.
plane
15.
of, 37.
transverse, 95.
Damping
218.
factor, 323.
law
types
of, 35.
Units.
Dip of
cable, 62.
Displacement, 77.
angular, 86.
in S.
H. M., 298.
general, 34.
most
screw, 34.
virtual, 181.
Dynamical energy,
conservation
96.
of, 96.
2.
Cable, dip
length
of, 62.
of, 06.
contact, 246.
Kkisticity, mliabatic, 177.
isothermiU, 177.
modulus
of, 173.
Collision, 244.
perfect, 246.
Comparison
of translation
and
rota
shearing, 178.
Energ>', 186.
tion, 222.
conservation
degrudution
equation, 197.
kinetic, 186, 188.
standard, 194.
Contact,
elastic, 240.
inelastic, 247.
849
350
Energy, potential, 186, 194. transformation of, 186.
INDEX
Friction, belts, 67.
coefficient of roUing, 56.
Epoch, 300.
angle, 300.
,
couple, 57.
kinetic, 22.
laws
208.
of, 16, 40, 208.
of, 22.
sliding, 21.
static, 22.
and
hyperbolic, 339.
Erg, 167.
trigonometric, 337.
series, 338.
Expansion into
Fundamental magnitudes,
74.
constant, 210.
Field intensity, 212.
Fields of force, see Force.
Flexibility, 60.
Guide plane,
31.
of,
Gyration, radius
155.
Harmonic,
see
Motion.
76.
Homogeneous equation,
conservative, 193.
equation, 106.
external, 15.
fields of, 203, 210, 283.
frictional, 21.
in a field, 204.
internal, 15, 42.
moment
of, 38.
Newtonian, 210.
nonconservative, 194.
resultant, 106.
moment
of, 152.
1.
Introduction,
Frequency, 299.
Friction, angle of, 21.
Kilowatt, 191.
INDEX
Kinematics,
2.
351
in resisting
Motion,
media, 130.
242.
of center of
mMn.
of falling bodies, 114, 127. of two gravitating particles, 287. of proj exiles, 120.
of a particle, 100, 113.
Kinetics,
2.
relative to center of mass, 272. simple harmonic, 133, 297. uniformly acceleratetl, 1 13.
and weight,
109.
where muss
varies, 253.
comparison of, 1 10. of a pLinet, 293. Mechanical advantage, 183. Mechanics, scope of, 1.
divisions of, 2.
Notation,
table of,
3.
xi.
319.
types
of, 290.
of, 152.
Momentum,
imgular, 266.
241.
Parallelogram method,
Particle, 14.
auxiliar>', 299.
5.
Pendulum,
bifilar,
ballistic, 271.
315.
of a system, 241.
compound, 308.
equivalent simple, 312.
physical, 308.
moment
of, 266.
torque and angular, 267. Motion, about a fixed axis, 224. about instnntAneouH axc^228. along an inclined plane,n61
anal>'8is of, 73.
aprrio<lic, 322.
rrwrsiblr, 214.
simple, 311.
tontioiukl, 318.
dam)od harmonic, 320. dead iMnt, 322. elliptic harmonic, 306. equations of, 114.
damping on
the, S9A.
28&
Fhaw,296.
352
Potential,
INDEX
Torque, representation
resultant, 219.
of, 37.
field,
Torsion, 172.
Triangle method,
relations, 337.
5.
volumediagram, 175.
Quadratic formula, 337.
fundamental magnitudes,
impulse, angular, 266.
74.
normal, 21.
of axis, 276.
total, 21.
mass, 75.
momentum, momentum,
angular, 266.
linear, 239.
of acceleration, 91.
Routh's
rule, 163.
velocity, 78.
Screw motion,
Shear, 172.
work, 167.
Vectors,
3. of, 4.
addition
Strain, 172.
Stress, 172.
graphical method,
origin of, 3.
9.
representation
resolution
of, 3.
of, 8.
5, 9.
resultant of,
subtraction
of, 7.
terminus
of, 3.
Velocity, 77.
angular, 87.
INDEX
Velocity,
353
done,
acainst
components
of, 79.
Wotk
eooMrvattve
from
foroei, 194.
290.
agabst gravitational
forces, 166.
radial, 81.
relative, 83.
transverse, 81.
Vibrations, 325.
Virtual, displacement, 181.
force, 181.
force, 167.
work, 180.
a rod, 179.
virtual, 180.
and mass,
109.
Young's modulus,
173.
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