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# External pressure calculations

**Cairo Inspection Company
**

Eng. Ibrahim Eldesoky

ASNT –NDT-- LEVEL III ASME AUTHORIZED INSPECTOR API AUTHORIZED INSPECTOR

UG – 28 Thickness of Shells and Tubes Under External Pressure Page 24 Section VIII (a) Rules for the design of shells and tubes under external pressure given in this Division are limited to cylindrical shells, with or without stiffening rings, tubes, and spherical shells….. (b) The symbols defined below are used in the procedures of this paragraph: A = factor determined from Fig. G in Subpart 3 of Section II, Part D and used to enter the applicable material chart in Subpart 3 of Section II, Part D…… B = factor determined from the applicable material chart in Subpart 3 of Section II, Part D for maximum design metal temperature, psi .

Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www. CIC-Egypt.com Eng. Ibrahim Eldesoky

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UG – 28

Do = outside diameter of cylindrical shell course or tube,

in.

**E = Not on exam. L = total length, in. (mm), of a tube between tubesheets,
**

or design length of a vessel section between lines of support (see Fig. UG-28.1). A line of support is: (1) a circumferential line on a head…. Not on exam! (2) a stiffening ring……. Not on exam! (3) a jacket closure ……. Not on exam! (4) a cone-to-cylinder Not on exam!

**P = external design pressure, psi
**

Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www. CIC-Egypt.com Eng. Ibrahim Eldesoky

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or spherical shell. ts = nominal thickness of cylindrical shell or tube. We will go through these steps one at a time. Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www. CIC-Egypt. in. psi Ro = outside radius of spherical shell. in. t = minimum required thickness of cylindrical shell or tube. Ibrahim Eldesoky 4 .com Eng.UG – 28 Pa = calculated value of maximum allowable external working pressure for the assumed value of t. in. Beginning with UG-28(c) there are step by step instructions for working these problems.

shall be……. As will the (Do) Diameter Outside and the (L) Length in other words all that is needed to solve the problem will be provided. 1. it will be given in the stated problem for the external pressure shell or tube calculation. either seamless or with longitudinal butt joints. Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www.com Eng. Cylinders having Do /t values > or = 10: Step 1 Assume a value for t and determine the ratios L/Do and Do /t. * You do not assume a value for thickness (t) on the exam. we can start learning this process. The required minimum thickness of a cylindrical shell or tube under external pressure. Ibrahim Eldesoky 5 . CIC-Egypt. Looking at an example.UG – 28 (c) Cylindrical Shells and Tubes.

CIC-Egypt.530 = 18. Ibrahim Eldesoky 6 .530” L = 120” Do = 10” Calculate Do/t = 10/.com Eng. its length is 120” and the outside diameter is 10”. It operates at 500 oF So then.UG – 28 1.8 call it 19 (no need to be exact) Now we do L/Do = 120/10 = 12 Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www. Cylinders having Do /t values > or = 10: Step 1 Assume a value for t and determine the ratios L/Do and Do /t.530”. Example: The cylinder has corroded to a wall thickness of 0. Temperature = 500 oF t = 0.

05. Ibrahim Eldesoky 7 . G until we reach the value of L/Do of 12.com Eng. CIC-Egypt. Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www.UG – 28 Step 2 Enter Fig. In our example problem we must go up the left side of the Fig. Using the chart we have the following. G in Subpart 3 of Section II. enter the chart at a value of L/Do = 0. For values of L/Do greater than 50. Part at the value of L/Do determined in Step 1. For values of L/Do less than 0. enter the chart at a value of L/Do = 50.05.

com Eng.Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www. Ibrahim Eldesoky 8 . CIC-Egypt.

Which in our case was 19..UG – 28 Step 3 Move horizontally to the line for the value Do /t determined in Step 1..com Eng.. So now we have. Ibrahim Eldesoky 9 . but we will round this to 20 since these problems are not meant to be extremely precise. Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www. CIC-Egypt.

Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www. CIC-Egypt.com Eng. Ibrahim Eldesoky 10 .

com Eng. Continued. Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www. Which gives us the following. Ibrahim Eldesoky 11 .UG – 28 Step 3. CIC-Egypt. From this point of intersection move vertically downward to determine the value of factor A.

Ibrahim Eldesoky 12 .com Eng. CIC-Egypt.Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www.

assume an intersection with the horizontal projection of the upper end of the material/temperature line. Interpolation may be made between lines for intermediate temperatures. CIC-Egypt. In cases where the value of A falls to the right of the end of the material /temperature line. To use the next figure we enter at the bottom at the value Factor A = . Move vertically to an intersection with the material/temperature line for the design temperature see UG-20). Part D for the material under consideration.com Eng.UG – 28 Step 4 Using the value of A calculated in Step 3. enter the applicable material chart in Subpart 3 of Section II. Ibrahim Eldesoky 13 . Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www.0028 and then up to our temperature of 500 oF.

com Eng. Ibrahim Eldesoky 14 .0028 and then up to our temperature of 500 oF. CIC-Egypt.Factor A = . Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www.

CIC-Egypt.000 48.UG – 28 Factor B is 12. Pa Which will be. Plug it into the formula below and we have our External Pressure allowable.000 Pa = 800 psi 3 x 20 60 Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www.com Eng. Ibrahim Eldesoky 15 .000. 4B Pa = 3(Do ) t 4 x 12.

on the exam the correct choice would have been offered as 760 to 840 psi. CIC-Egypt. Ibrahim Eldesoky 16 . In our previous problem the answer was 800 psi. Answer Range: 760 – 840 psi Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www. This is allowed for on the exam by listing choices of answers that are in a range of +/. i. 4B Pa = 3(Do ) t As regards the final answers to these problems.5%.e.com Eng. because of the difficulty of being precise with the Fig. G there will always be some difference from one person to the next in the determination of Factor A.UG – 28 All that work just to find Factor B is and plug it into the simple formula below.

com Eng. There are two types of external pressure calculations. Ibrahim Eldesoky 17 . CIC-Egypt. the Length the Outside Diameter and the Thickness of the vessel are important. Because of the crushing or buckling load. the type we will use is when the O. not on the test. Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www. External pressure problems are based on the thickness of the shell to the outside diameter ratios. Internal pressure wants to tear the vessel apart.D to (Do) thickness ratio (t) is greater than 10 and the other type. is when it is less than 10.To Summarize UG-28 External calculations depart significantly from internal calculations simply because under external pressure the vessel is being crushed.

The value of Factor B found is the number needed to solve the problem using the formula given in paragraph UG-28 (c)(1) step 6. The first chart Fig. CIC-Egypt. G is used to find a value called Factor A and then Factor A is used to find a Factor B in the second material specific chart.To Summarize UG-28 In order to solve these types of problems two charts will be required. IF an external calculation is given on the examination. Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www.com Eng. One more problem. Find the allowed external pressure on an existing vessel of a known thickness with a Do/t ratio > 10. As stated in the API 510 Body of Knowledge. these charts will be provided in the exam body. Ibrahim Eldesoky 18 .

000 psi. Its length is 70 inches. the operating temperature is 500° F. Its specified min.25 L = 70 inches D0 = 40 inches Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www. yield is 38. CIC-Egypt. The vessel’s wall is 1.com Eng. What is the maximum external pressure allowed? Givens: Temp = 500° F t = 1.25 inches thick and is of SA-515-70 plate.UG-28 Problem: A vessel is operating under an external pressure. Ibrahim Eldesoky 19 . The outside diameter of the vessel is 40 inches.

UG – 28 From UG-28 (c)Cylindrical Shells and Tubes. The required minimum thickness of a shell or a tube under external pressure. Ibrahim Eldesoky Testing to see if this paragraph applies: Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www.com 20 . CIC-Egypt. (1) Cylinders having a Do values ³ 10 t Eng. either seamless or with longitudinal butt joints. shall be determined by the following procedure.

CIC-Egypt.UG – 28• Do 40 = = 32 t 1.75 Step 2 Enter the Factor A chart at the value of 1. Ibrahim Eldesoky 21 .25 Step 1 Our value of Do is 40 inches and L is 70 inches.0045 Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www. Then down from this point to find the value of Factor A which is .com Eng. We will use these to determine the ratio of: L 70 Do = 40 = 1.75 determined above. Step 3 Then move across horizontally to the curve Do/t = 32.

Ibrahim Eldesoky 22 .com Eng.Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www. CIC-Egypt.

Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www. CIC-Egypt. Ibrahim Eldesoky 23 .com Eng.UG – 28 Step 4. Then vertically to the material temperature line given in the stated problem (in our case 500 o F). Using our value of Factor A calculated in Step 3. enter the Factor B (CS-2) chart on the bottom.

com Eng. CIC-Egypt.Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www. Ibrahim Eldesoky 24 .

We find that Factor B is approximately 13000.com Eng. Ibrahim Eldesoky 25 .000 52. CIC-Egypt.000 Pa = = = 541.UG – 28 Step 5 Then across to find the value of Factor B. calculate the value of the maximum allowable external pressure Pa using the following formula: 4B Pa = 3(Do ) t 4x13. Step 6 Using this value of Factor B.66psi 3(32) 96 Answer Range: 514 – 568 psi Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www.

Class Quiz UG-28 A vessel under external pressure has been found to a thickness of 1. CIC-Egypt.123 ". Ibrahim Eldesoky 26 . The vessel’s outside diameter is 54 inches. The vessel is 8'-2" long and operates at a temperature of 300 oF. Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www.com Eng. Presently the external working pressure is 350 psi. It is made of a material with a minimum yield of 30. May this vessel continue to operate in accordance with the Code? Show all work and quote code paragraphs used.000 psi.

We will use these to determine the ratio of: L 98 Do = 54 = 1. CIC-Egypt.08 t 1. Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www. Ibrahim Eldesoky 27 .com Eng.81 Step 2 Enter the Factor A chart at the value of 1.UG – 28 (1) Cylinders having: Do values ³ 10 t Testing to see if this paragraph applies: Do 54 = = 48.123 Step 1 Our value of Do is 54 inches and L is 98 inches.8 determined above.

CIC-Egypt. Then move across horizontally to the curve at approximately Do/t = 48.0022 Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www.UG – 28 Step 3. Ibrahim Eldesoky 28 .com Eng. Then down from this point to find the value of Factor A which is approximately .

Ibrahim Eldesoky 29 .Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www. CIC-Egypt.com Eng.

We find that Factor B is approximately 15000. CIC-Egypt. Ibrahim Eldesoky 30 . enter the Factor B (CS-2) chart on the bottom. Step 5 Next step is across to find the value of Factor B. but should be within a 5% range of the solution.com Eng. Note due to the variance in the reading of the charts answers and values may vary. Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www. then vertically up to the material temperature line given in the stated problem (in our case 300 o F).UG – 28 Step 4 Using our value of Factor A calculated in Step 3.

Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www. Ibrahim Eldesoky 31 . CIC-Egypt.com Eng.

CIC-Egypt.000 Pa = = = 416.UG – 28 Step 6 Using this value of Factor B.com Eng. Ibrahim Eldesoky 32 .437 psi Cairo Inspection Company (CIC) Www. calculate the value of the maximum allowable external pressure Pa using the following formula: 4B Pa = 3(Do ) t 4x15.66 psi 3(48) 144 Answer Range: 395 .000 60.