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Llneur 1lmevurylng Model Predlctlve Control

E

k

(t, x(t))x

k

+F

k

(t, x(t))u

k

h

k

(t, x(t)) k = 0, 1, . . . , N 1

min

N

k=0

k

(y

k

, u

k

, r(t +k), t, x(t))

k

= quadratic function of y

k

, u

k

min

U

1

2

U

H(t)U +F(t)

U +(t)

s.t. G(t)U W(t)

x

k+1

= A

k

(t, x(t))x

k

+B

k

(t, x(t))u

k

+f

k

(t, x(t))

y

k

= C

k

(t, x(t))x

k

+D

k

(t, x(t))u

k

+g

k

(t, x(t))

A. 8emorud Model Predlctlve Control z

Llneur tlmevurylng MPC

MPC cun euslly hundle !"#$%& (")$*+%&,"#- ./012 roblems

z

L1vMPC stlll leuds to u

34%5&%("6 7&8-&%) .372 !

Allcutlons: tlmevurylng systems (e.g.: uerosuce), NL systems

A. 8emorud Model Predlctlve Control z

Lxumle: erlodlc double lntegrutor

min 10(x

2,k

r(t + k))

2

+ 0.001u

2

k

s.t. (no constraints)

!mpcsoft_doubleint demo

time-varying double-

integrator model

LTV-MPC block

A=[1 0;Ts 1]*(1+.5*sin(t+k*Ts));

B=[Ts;0];

f=[0;0];

C=[0 1];

no preview

on reference

signal

A. 8emorud Model Predlctlve Control z

Lxumle: double lntegrutor

preview

enabled

dCA

dt

=

F

V

(CAf CA) CAk0e

E

RT

dT

dt

=

F

V

(Tf T) +

UA

CpV

(Tj T)

H

Cp

CAk0e

E

RT

T : temperature inside the reactor [K] (state)

CA : concentration of the reagent in the reactor [kgmol/m

3

] (state)

Tj : jacket temperature [K] (input)

Tf : feedstream temperature [K] (measured disturbance)

CAf : feedstream concentration [kgmol/m

3

] (measured disturbance)

A. 8emorud Model Predlctlve Control z

Lxumle: L1vMPC of u nonllneur CS1R system

!"#$ &'()*'+ ', - ./-0-)/& &'()/(1'12 2)/**3. )-(4 *3-&)'* 5$6789

!#*'&322 >'.3+ /2 *-)@3* ('(+/(3-*=

Model ls nonllneur und contlnuous ln tlme. ve uroxlmute lt to u

dlscretetlme L1v model by onllne llneurlzutlon:

dx

dt

= f(x(t), u(t), t)

xk+1 = (I + Ts

f

x

(x(t), u(t), t))xk + Ts

f

u

(x(t), u(t), t)uk + fk

fk = Ts

f(x(t), u(t), t)

f

x

(x(t), u(t), t)x(t)

f

u

(x(t), u(t), t)u(t)

+

f

t

(x(t), u(t), t)kTs

CS1R model

6

dx

dt

(t + |t) f(x(t), u(t), t) +

f

x

(x(t), u(t), t)(x(t + ) x(t))

+

f

u

(x(t), u(t), t)(u(t + ) u(t))

+

f

t

(x(t), u(t), t)

generic NL model

linearized model

discrete-time

LTV model

A(t) B(t) f(t)

model

matrices

depend on

current

time t

J(t + 1) = J(t) + (CA(t) r(t))

2

+ 10

4

T

2

j

(t)

A. 8emorud Model Predlctlve Control z

Slmulutlon results

,

!$+'23.A+''? )*-;3&)'*/32= &'(&3()*-)/'( CA -(. .32/*3. 23) ?'/() r

$1>1+-)3. &'2) J

Numerlcul derlvutlves of cumuluted cost J

ure u good "udvlsor' to fne tune the L1vMPC deslgn

Wx =

0 1

, W

u

= 10

2

Wx =

10

4

2

W

u

= 0.008

J

Wx

=

4.8 12.0

,

J

W

u

= 1233

A. 8emorud Model Predlctlve Control z

Sensltlvltles und controller retunlng

8

!$'>?1)3 (1>3*/&-+ .3*/<-)/<32 ', J(Tfinal) B/)@ *32?3&) )' B3/C@)2 '(

2)-)32 -(. /(?1) /(&*3>3()2=

Negative sensitivities suggest

to increase state weights

Adjust welghts uccordlng

to sensltlvlty

Crlglnul tunlng:

Positive sensitivity suggests

to decrease input-rate weight

A. 8emorud Model Predlctlve Control z

Lxumle: CS1R demo Performunce tunlng

New tunlng: J=.c

p(t) =

2

0

s

2

+ 20s +

2

0

pc(t)

A. 8emorud Model Predlctlve Control z

Lxumle: L1vMPC for UAv nuvlgutlon

Coul: nuvlgute two lunur vehlcles umong obstucles

to u turget osltlon

1he dynumlcul model of euch vehlcles ls descrlbed by

c

p= [x,y] vehlcle osltlon

pc= communded osltlon

!D3@/&+3 .E(->/&2 &'(<3*)3. )' ./2&*3)3A)/>3

0E 3F-&) 2->?+/(C

!G/<3 2H1-*3 '02)-&+32 ?+-&3. /( B'*42?-&3

98%!: Use !"#$%& (")$*+%&,"#- ./012 :7; to generute deslred osltlons to

stublllzlng controller ln !"#$%&'(" to uvold 8<=(%6!$= und other UAvs

7&8<!$): feuslble suce ls nonconvex !

:%"# "5$%: get u convex lnner uroxlmutlon

of the feuslble suce thut ls

- )*$+,"-!#$ =llneur construlnts on

redlcted stutes ln L1vMPC roblem

- ."!+ 0'(1$" to comute onllne

- Cun hundle olytolc obstucles

of #!2'&!#!+ 0,#1" und -'("30'*3

A. 8emorud Model Predlctlve Control z

L1vMPC for obstucle uvoldunce

Alternutlve: nonconvex feuslble suce modeled by mlxedlnteger construlnts,

guldunce roblem solved by (tlmelnvurlunt) >,<&"5 :7;

initial position

target position

p

0

R

d

= current vehicle position

q

1

, q

2

, . . . , q

M

R

d

= obstacle positions

p

0

= q

i

, i = 1, . . . , M P =

_

_

p R

d

:

_

_

(q

1

p

0

)

.

.

.

(q

M

p

0

)

_p

_

_

(q

1

p

0

)

q

1

.

.

.

(q

M

p

0

)

q

M

_

_

_

_

A. 8emorud Model Predlctlve Control z

lust greedy uroxlmutlon ulgorlthm (j)

z

78!,>$5&%! %??&8@")%("8#:

Assume (for the moment) thut vehlcle und obstucles ure olnts ln suce

P contulns p0 und does not contuln uny of the obstucles q1, q2, ..., qM ln lts lnterlor

q1

qM

q2

p0

5I3>?'*-.J 8'&&@/J $P$ MNOO9

lf the vertlces of WM ure uvulluble, slmly

Assume now ?8!,>$5&%! 8<=(%6!$= wlth shues W1, W2, ... WM

g

j

= min

wR

d (q

j

p

0

)

w

s.t. w W

j

g

j

= min

h=1,...,sj

A

j

c

w

jh

P =

_

_

p R

d

:

_

_

(q

1

p

0

)

.

.

.

(q

M

p

0

)

_p

_

_

(q

1

p

0

)

q

1

+ g

1

.

.

.

(q

M

p

0

)

q

M

+ g

M

_

_

_

_

A. 8emorud Model Predlctlve Control z

lust greedy uroxlmutlon ulgorlthm (zj)

lf P ls nonemty, then P contulns p0 und does not contuln uny of the obstucles

ln lts lnterlor

q1

qM

q2

p0

W2

W1

WM

lor euch obstucle j defne the sculur g

j

B

j

= {q

j

} W

j

(wjh = vertex of Wj)

78!,>$5&%! %??&8@")%("8#:

Assume olyhedrul obstucles und ?8!,(8?"6 AB1

V

P =

_

_

p R

d

:

_

_

(q

1

p

0

)

.

.

.

(q

M

p

0

)

_p

_

_

(q

1

p

0

)

(q

1

d

i

) + g

1

.

.

.

(q

M

p

0

)

(q

M

d

i

) + g

M

_

_, i = 1, . . . , r

_

_

A. 8emorud Model Predlctlve Control z

lust greedy uroxlmutlon ulgorlthm (j)

q1

qM

q2

p0

W2

W1

WM

V conv(p

0

+ d

1

, . . . , p

0

+ d

r

)

lf P ls nonemty, then P contulns V und does not contuln uny of the obstucles

ln lts lnterlor B

j

= {q

j

} W

j

78!,>$5&%! %??&8@")%("8#:

p

i

(t + 1) = A

i

p

i

(t) + B

i

p

ci

(t) p

i

(t) =

x

i

(t)

y

i

(t)

z

i

(t)

1

(t), . . . , d

r

(t))

B

j

(t) = {q

j

(t)} W

j

(t)

A. 8emorud Model Predlctlve Control z

L1vMPC guldunce ulgorlthm: redlctlon model

?'2/)/'(

', <3@/&+3 Qi

-) )/>3 t

Polytolc shue of UAv #i ut tlme t

p(t)

V(t)

Polyhedrul shue of obstucle #j ut tlme t

qj(t)

Bj(t)

Note: other vehlcles ln formutlon ure treuted us olytolc obstucles (Bj = V )

p

ci

(t) =

x

ci

(t)

y

ci

(t)

z

ci

(t)

?'2/)/'(

&'>>-(.3.

-) )/>3 t

Ac =

(q1 p0)

.

.

.

(qM p0)

, bc =

(q1 p0)

q1

.

.

.

(qM p0)

qM

min

2

+

N1

k=0

W

y

(pk pd(t))

2

+W

u

(pc,k pc,k1)

2

s.t. pk+1 = Apk + Bpc,k, k = 0, . . . , N 1

min pc,k pc,k1 max, k = 0, . . . , Nu 1

Ac,kpk bc,k + gk Ac,kdh,k + 1I

k = 0, . . . , N 1, h = 1, . . . , ri

pc,k = pc,Nu1, k = Nu, . . . , N

A. 8emorud Model Predlctlve Control z

L1vMPC guldunce ulgorlthm: otlmlzutlon model

6

At tlme t, select the deslred osltlon pc(t) for the UAv by solvlng the otlmul

control roblem (=C4%5&%("6 ?&8-&%))"#-)

prediction horizon

bounds on

input

increments

desired position

UAV dynamics

blocked moves

(soft)

obstacle

avoidance

constraints

A. 8emorud Model Predlctlve Control z

Lxumle: nuvlgutlon demo

,

lnltlul osltlon # = (c,c)

1urget osltlon # = (,c)

lnltlul osltlon #z = (,)

1urget osltlon #z = (c,zc)

ROBMPC project

Robust Model Predictive

Control (MPC) for Space

Constrained Systems

!"#$%&'()* ,-.-/,-..0

"#$6',7 7''+0'F

,'* "L7RLI

A. 8emorud Model Predlctlve Control z

Lxumle: nuvlgutlon demo (cooerutlve MPC)

1wo vehlcles uvoldlng euch other und obstucles towurds thelr turgets

8

vehicle

dynamics #1

vehicle

dynamics #2

MPC #1

MPC #2

previous optimal sequences are exchanged

A. 8emorud Model Predlctlve Control z

Lecentrullzed L1vMPC for formutlon fylng

Formation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Alberto Bemporad and Claudio Rocchi

AbstractThis paper proposes a hierarchical MPC approach

to stabilization and autonomous navigation of a formation of

unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), under constraints on motor

thrusts, angles and positions, and under collision avoidance

constraints. Each vehicle is of quadcopter type and is stabilized

by a local linear time-invariant (LTI) MPC controller at the

lower level of the control hierarchy around commanded desired

set-points. These are generated at the higher level and at a

slower sampling rate by a linear time-varying (LTV) MPC

controller per vehicle, based on an a simplied dynamical

model of the stabilized UAV and a novel algorithm for convex

under-approximation of the feasible space. Formation ying is

obtained by running the above decentralized scheme in accor-

dance with a leader-follower approach. The performance of the

hierarchical control scheme is assessed through simulations, and

compared to previous work in which a hybrid MPC scheme is

used for planning paths on-line.

I. INTRODUCTION

The last few years have been characterized by an increas-

ing interest in stabilizing and maneuvering a formation of

multiple aerial vehicles. Research areas include both military

and civilian applications (such as intelligence, reconnais-

sance, surveillance, exploration of dangerous environments)

where Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can replace hu-

mans. VTOL (Vertical Take-Off and Landing) UAVs pose

control challenges because of their highly nonlinear and cou-

pled dynamics, and of limitations on actuators and pitch/roll

angles. In particular, quadcopters are a class of VTOL

vehicles for whose stabilization several approaches were

proposed in literature, such as classical PID [1], nonlinear

control [2], H

Predictive Control) [4].

MPC is particularly suitable for control of multivariable

systems governed by costrained dynamics, as it allows one to

operate closer to the boundaries imposed by hard constraints.

In the context of UAVs, MPC techniques have been already

applied for control of formation ight in [5][9] and for

spacecraft rendezvous [10][12].

In the context of path planning for obstacle avoidance,

several other solutions have been proposed in the litera-

ture, such as potential elds [13], [14], A

with visibility

graphs [1], nonlinear trajectory generation (see e.g. the

NTG software package developed at Caltech [5]), vertex-

graph (VGRAPH) algorithms [15], and mixed-integer linear

programming (MILP) [16], [17].

A. Bemporad is with the IMT (Institutions, Market,

Technologies) Institute for Advanced Studies Lucca, Italy,

alberto.bemporad@imtlucca.it. C. Rocchi is with the Department

of Mechanical and Structural Engineering, University of Trento, Italy,

claudio.rocchi@ing.unitn.it. This work was partially supported

by the European Space Agency through project ROBMPC Robust

Model Predictive Control for Space Constrained Systems.

linear

MPC

linear

MPC

linear

MPC

LTV

MPC

Ts=71 ms

Tsn=1.5 s

continuous

time

measurements

voltages

measurements

desired

positions

measure-

ments

LTV

MPC

LTV

MPC

measure-

ments

navigation

stabilization

dynamics

Fig. 1. Hierarchical control structure for UAV navigation

This paper adopts the two-layer MPC approach depicted

in Figure 1 to stabilization and on-line trajectory gener-

ation for autonomous navigation with obstacle avoidance

of a formation of quadcopters. At the lower level, linear

constrained MPC controllers with integral action take care

of stabilizing the quadcopters with offset-free tracking of

desired set-points. At the higher hierarchical level and at

a lower sampling rate, linear time-varying (LTV) MPC con-

trollers generate on line the paths to follow for the formation

to reach a given target position and shape while avoiding

obstacles. The performance of the strategy adopted in this

paper is assessed through simulations and compared to an

alternative technique based on decentralized hybrid MPC

proposed in a previous work [18]. The lower-level linear

MPC algorithms control motor speeds directly via pulse posi-

tion modulation, under admissible thrust and angle/position

constraints. Based on a leader-follower approach in which

the leader points to the target and the followers track a

given relative position from the leader, the higher-level LTV-

MPCs (one per vehicle) maintain the vehicles in formation

towards a desired target in a decentralized way. Obstacles

and vehicle-to-vehicle collisions are constraining predicted

vehicle positions within a convex polyhedron contained in

the feasible space, generated on-line via a novel approach

proposed in this paper. We assume that target and obstacle

positions may be time-varying and only known at run time,

a situation for which off-line (optimal) planning cannot be

easily accomplished.

The paper is organized as follows. After introducing

the UAV dynamics in Section II, a linear MPC design is

proposed in Section III-A for stabilization under constraints

and trajectory tracking. Section III-B proposes a convex

polyhedral approximation approach for obstacle avoidance,

which is used in Section III-C to formulate the higher-

level LTV-MPC controller for safe path planning. Section IV

/"#$%&*(")$ +%&,"#- ./012 :7; for UAvs fylng ln formutlon

Elerurchlcul & decentrullzed structure (leuderjfollower urouch)

;8#+$@ 4#5$&*%??&8@")%("8# of the obstuclefree suce

V

Mi

, i = 1, . . . , 4

x

f1

f2

f3

f4

z

y

mg

l

1

2

3

4

m x = f sin x

m y = f cos sin y

m z = f cos cos mg z

=

Ixx

=

Iyy

=

l

Izz

(f1 + f2 f3 + f4)

f = f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

= (f

2

f

4

)l

= (f

3

f

1

)l

fi =

9.81(22.5VMi 9.7)

1000

, i = 1, . . . , 4

A. 8emorud Model Predlctlve Control z

Nonllneur dynumlcul model of u quudcoter

commund lnuts: motor voltuges

zc

z stutes , , , x, y, z,

,

,

, x, y, z

Elghly nonllneur und couled dynumlcs

- Sumllng tlme

- Predlctlon horlzon

- Control horlzon

Llneur MPC setu:

- Construlnts:

- Motor voltuge suturutlon

- Altltude

- Pltch und roll ungles

(soft construlnts)

z 0

0 V

Mi

11.1V

6

,

6

NL = 20

NLu = 3

A. 8emorud Model Predlctlve Control z

Llneur MPC for stublllzutlon

Llneur MPC control deslgn bused on MA1LA8 MPC 1oolbox

Llneurlzutlon uround the hoverlng condltlon und tlmedlscretlzutlon

z

Ts =

1

14

s

Lxcellent stublllzutlon roertles, deslte NL dynumlcs und construlnts.

Muny other technlques uvulluble for stublllzutlon uroses

5$-2)/++'J PS1+J R'2-('J MNNT9

At tlme t, euch UAv #i solves lts own L1vMPC roblem

vehlcle # conslders urrlvul olnt pd! us deslred turget, pd!(t)!pd!, !t!0

vehlcle #j conslders leuder's osltlon us deslred turget, pdj(t)=pc!(t), !j>

Prevlous otlmul sequences

ure exchunged to redlct future osltlons of other UAvs #j

pcj(t|t 1), pcj(t + 1|t 1), . . . , pcj(t + N 2|t 1)

A. 8emorud Model Predlctlve Control z

L1vMPC guldunce ulgorlthm: formutlon fylng

zz

pd!

pc!(t)

pc"(t)

pcM(t)

pd!

tetruhedrul obstucles,

UAvs modeled us smull urulleleleds

! "#$%&'( (&&*+&, used for L1vMPC deslgn,

slmulutlon, und code generutlon

! QP roblem bullder und solver lmlemented

ln Lmbedded MA1LA8

CPU tlme = ~DE )= (er tlmeste)

5"L7RLI 8MNNU0J "-&0''4 L/*9

A. 8emorud Model Predlctlve Control z

Lxumle: L1vMPC for formutlon fylng

z

W = conv(

1/3

1/3

1/2

2/3

1/3

1/2

1/3

2/3

1/2

0

0

1/2

)

A. 8emorud Model Predlctlve Control z

Comurlson wlth other guldunce methods

z

.3&3()*-+/S3. >,<&"5 "#$

.3&3()*-+/S3. /01 "#$

?8($#("%! F$!5=

5>3)@'. ', #-1+ -. /*0J MNNV9

5I3>?'*-.J 8'&&@/J KGL$ MNOO9

5)@/2 )-+49

CPU tlme = ~DE )=

CPU tlme = ~G )=

CPU tlme = ~HE )=

(l8M CPLL)

J

tt

=

3080

k=350

p

L

(k) pt

2

2

J

fpt

=

3080

k=350

p

L

(k) p

F1

(k) p

d1

2

2

+p

L

(k) p

F2

(k) p

d2

2

2

Ju =

3080

k=350

u(k) u(k 1)

1

A. 8emorud Model Predlctlve Control z

Performunce comurlson

z

- 'u

5/(./&32 ('*>-+/S3. B/)@ *32?3&) )' )@3 &3()*-+/S3. @E0*/. "#$ ?3*,'*>-(&3)

./12-. .1/34562 lntegrul Squure Lrror (lSL)

'&17/.5&6 8/..-16 .1/34562 lSL

/+9&*:.- ;-15</.5<- &' 568:. 9526/*9 (lALU)

Jtt Jfpt Ju

centralized hybrid MPC 1 1 1

decentralized hybrid MPC -0.09% -0.51% -0.03%

decentralized LTV MPC -2.46% -15.47% +9.20%

potential elds +210.32% +294.30% +212.75%

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