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Emergency Data - International Civil Aviation Authority
and personnel shall use their best judgement in handling emergency situations. or b. on Mode A.1. (Doc 4444. there is a need .EMERGENCY DATA . 15. PANS-OPS (Doc 8168) Within this chapter. (Doc 4444.1) NOTE: To indicate that it is in a state of emergency.2) 2. it is recognized that. however they are not published herein: REGIONAL SUPPLEMENTARY PROCEDURES (Doc 7030) INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL AND MARITIME SEARCH AND RESCUE (IAMSAR) MANUAL (DOC 9731) 1 2 2. including being subjected to unlawful interference.1. 15.1 The ICAO Communication Procedures require that an aircraft in distress when it is airborne should use the frequency in use for normal communications with aeronautical stations at the time. on Mode A.2 PRIORITY 2. Part III.1. Code 7500. shall be given priority over other aircraft. ANNEX 12 1002 PROCEDURES FOR AIR NAVIGATION SERVICES — AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT.2. to indicate specifically that it is being subjected to unlawful interference. 16. ANNEX 2 AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS.1 The various circumstances surrounding each emergency situation preclude the establishment of exact detailed procedures to be followed. ANNEX 6 AERONAUTICAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS.1. VOLUMES I II SEARCH AND RESCUE.INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) Extracted from the following ICAO publications: RULES OF THE AIR. Code 7700.1. PANSATM (Doc 4444) PROCEDURES FOR AIR NAVIGATION SERVICES — AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS. an aircraft equipped with an SSR transponder might operate the equipment as follows: a.3 DISTRESS FREQUENCIES 2. However. 2.1) 2. (Doc 4444.1 DEFINITIONS EMERGENCY PROCEDURES GENERAL Refer to Introduction/Chart Glossary. 2. references to the following ICAO Documents are made. ANNEX 10.1 An aircraft known or believed to be in a state of emergency.2 Air traffic control units shall maintain full and complete coordination.3. after an aircraft has crashed or ditched.
the pilot shall continue to use the specified code unless otherwise advised by ATC. the frequency 500 kHz is the international distress frequency for radiotelegraphy to be used for that purpose by ship. a pilot may select Mode A Code 7700 whenever there is a specific reason to believe that this would be the best course of action.1 Distress Signals 2. and so that a guard may be maintained or set up by as many stations as possible including direction-finding stations.5.3. (Annex 10. fired one at a time at short intervals.INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) 1003 for designating a particular frequency or frequencies to be used in order that uniformity may be attained on a world-wide basis. aircraft and survival craft stations when requesting assistance from the maritime service. b. mean that grave and imminent danger threatens.2 The frequency 2182 kHz is the international distress frequency for radiotelephony to be used for that purpose by ship. 2. b. Chapter 1. d. (Doc 8168.3. rockets or shells throwing red lights.1 The pilot of an aircraft in a state of emergency shall set the transponder to Mode A Code 7700 unless ATC has previously directed the pilot to operate the transponder on a specified code.3.. In the latter case. by an aircraft in distress. .5 DISTRESS AND URGENCY SIGNALS NOTE: None of the provisions in this section shall prevent the use. c. 2.4 Similarly. 2.5 With respect to survival craft stations the following emergency / distress frequencies are provided: a.5 MHz.1.. used either together or separately.4. 2. HF — 500 kHz. UHF — 243. . .4). 8364 kHz. . of any means at its disposal to attract attention. Vol V. . c. a signal made by radiotelegraphy or by any other signalling method consisting of the group SOS (.4 TRANSPONDER OPERATIONS — EMERGENCY 2. Vol I. Part III. in the Morse Code). 2.EMERGENCY DATA . a radiotelephony distress signal consisting of the spoken word MAYDAY.5. and immediate assistance is requested: a. . VHF — 121. Chapter 2 Introduction) 2.3. e. However.. Section 3.0 MHz. 1.3 The frequency 4125 kHz is also authorized to enable communications between stations in the maritime mobile service and aircraft stations in distress. aircraft and survival craft stations when requesting assistance from the maritime service. and stations of the Maritime Mobile Service. a distress message sent via data link which transmits the intent of the word MAYDAY. make known its position and obtain help. 2. 2182 kHz.1 The following signals. a parachute flare showing a red light.
1 If there is unlawful interference with an aircraft in flight. 220.127.116.11. (Doc 8168.1). 3.5. the pilot-in-command shall attempt to set the transponder to Mode A Code 7500 in order to indicate the situation: If circumstances so warrant. c. Vol I.1. PAN. (Annex 2.2 TRANSPONDER OPERATIONS — UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE WITH AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT 3. (Doc 8168. according to circumstances. Chapter 1. Part III. used either together or separately. 1.1. or of some person on board or within sight. 5.2. a. (Annex 2. Code 7700 should be used instead.2.2) 3 3.2 Urgency Signals 1004 2. either confirm this or not reply at all.6.2. b.1) 2.1 An aircraft which is being subjected to unlawful interference shall endeavor to notify the appropriate ATS unit of this fact. a signal made by radiotelegraphy or by any other signalling method consisting of the group XXX. (Annex 11. 1. Appendix 1. Appendix 1.2.5). a radiotelephony urgency signal consisting of the spoken words PAN. Section 3. Appendix 1.1 The following signals.2 The following signals. 3. Vol I) .2 When an air traffic services unit knows or believes that an aircraft is being subjected to unlawful interference. mean that an aircraft has a very urgent message to transmit concerning the safety of a ship.5. any significant circumstances associated therewith and any deviation from the current flight plan necessitated by the circumstances. 1. in order to enable the ATS unit to give priority to the aircraft and to minimize conflict with other aircraft.1 UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE GENERAL 3.2) 3.2. no reference shall be made in ATS air-ground communications to the nature of the emergency unless it has first been referred to in communications from the aircraft involved and it is certain that such reference will not aggravate the situation. the repeated switching on and off of the navigation lights in such a manner as to be distinct from flashing navigation lights.INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) (Annex 2. (Annex 2. an urgency message sent via data link which transmits the intent of the words PAN. mean that an aircraft wishes to give notice of difficulties which compel it to land without requiring immediate assistance: a.2 If a pilot has selected Mode A Code 7500 and has been requested to confirm this code by ATC (in accordance with 1.7) 3. the repeated switching on and off of the landing lights.1) 2.2. PAN.EMERGENCY DATA . the pilot shall. used either together or separately. aircraft or other vehicle. or b.
1 The following procedures are intended as guidance for use by aircraft when unlawful interference occurs and the aircraft is unable to notify an ATS unit of this fact. (Doc 4444.1. 3. Attachment B) 3.2.3. (Annex 2. 15. 300m (1000 ft) in an area where a vertical separation minimum of 600m (2000 ft) is applied. (Annex 2. where such procedures have been established and promulgated in ICAO Document 7030 — Regional Supplementary Procedures.1 It is expected that aircraft receiving such a broadcast will clear the specified areas and standby on the appropriate radio frequency for further clearances from the air traffic control unit.4) 4. request the appropriate communications stations immediately to broadcast an emergency message. 150m (500 ft) in an area where a vertical separation minimum of 300m (1000 ft) is applied.3 PROCEDURES 3. ATC will take this as confirmation that the use of Code 7500 is not an inadvertent false code selection. proceed at a level which differs from the cruising levels normally used for IFR flight by: 1. Other equipment such as on-board transponders.3. should also be used when it is advantageous to do so and circumstances permit.. and b.INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) 1005 NOTE: If the pilot does not reply. all possible action shall be taken immediately to safeguard all aircraft concerned. Attachment B. air traffic control units shall immediately broadcast by means of the appropriate radio aids.2 Unless considerations aboard the aircraft dictate otherwise.EMERGENCY DATA . 2.1 Upon receipt of advice that an aircraft is making an emergency descent through other traffic. (Doc 4444 Part III. data links.2 ACTION BY THE PILOT-IN-COMMAND 4. if no applicable regional procedures have been established. whenever possible. a.3. unless considerations aboard the aircraft dictate otherwise. 15. proceed in accordance with applicable special procedures for in-flight contingencies. or c. (Annex 2.1 EMERGENCY DESCENT INITIAL ACTION BY THE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL UNIT 4. Attachment B. attempt to broadcast warnings on the VHF emergency frequency and other appropriate frequencies. 2. When deemed necessary.1) 3.4) . the pilot-in-command should attempt to continue flying on the assigned track and at the assigned cruising level at least until able to notify an ATS unit or within radar coverage. the pilot-in-command should.1.2) 4 4. Part III. etc. or if not possible. or 2.1.3 When an aircraft subjected to an act of unlawful interference must depart from its assigned track or its assigned cruising level without being able to make radiotelephony contact with ATS.
(Annex 10. in general.1.2) 18.104.22.168 RADIOTELEPHONY DISTRESS COMMUNICATIONS Action by the Aircraft in Distress 5.4 Distress and urgency traffic shall normally be maintained on the frequency on which such traffic was initiated until it is considered that better assistance can be provided by transferring that traffic to another frequency. Vol II.22.214.171.124 The radiotelephony distress signal MAYDAY and the radiotelephony urgency signal PAN PAN shall be used at the commencement of the first distress and urgency communication respectively. Part III. (Annex 10.1 In addition to being preceded by the radiotelephony distress signal MAYDAY.INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) 1006 4.2.5 MHz or alternative available VHF or HF frequencies may be used as appropriate.4) 5 5. Vol II. (Annex 10. The ATS unit concerned shall additionally inform any other ATS units and control sectors which may be affected.3) 5.3.1. 5.2 5.1.1. preferably spoken three times.5 In cases of distress and urgency communications.3. 5.1. 5. each word being clearly pronounced to facilitate transcription.1.2 The originator of messages addressed to an aircraft in distress or urgency condition shall restrict to the minimum the number and volume and content of such messages as required by the condition.3 If no acknowledgement of the distress or urgency message is made by the station addressed by the aircraft. as prescribed in 5.3.3 SUBSEQUENT ACTION BY THE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL UNIT 4. 15. 5. (Annex 10. Vol II.1.2 and 5.2. 5.4) NOTE: “Other stations” is intended to refer to any other station which has received the distress or urgency message and has become aware that it has not been acknowledged by the station addressed.1.1. the approach control office. 5.5) NOTE: 121. (Doc 4444. Vol II.EMERGENCY DATA . . be on the air-ground frequency in use at the time.3. Vol II. 5.1 Immediately after such an emergency broadcast has been made the area control center.1 At the commencement of any subsequent communication in distress and urgency traffic. other stations shall render assistance. 5.2. Vol II. (Annex 10.1. the distress message to be sent by an aircraft in distress shall: a.1.3.1. it shall be permissible to use the radiotelephony distress and urgency signals.1.1) 5. the transmissions by radiotelephony shall be made slowly and distinctly.2.2 respectively. (Annex 10.1 DISTRESS AND URGENCY RADIOTELEPHONY COMMUNICATION PROCEDURES GENERAL 5. or the aerodrome control tower concerned shall forward further clearances to all aircraft involved as to additional procedures to be followed during and subsequent to the emergency descent.6) 5.
. immediately acknowledge the distress message. take control of the communications or specifically and clearly transfer that responsibility. (Annex 10.1. 4. 5. the identification of the aircraft. 6. when the transmitting station is not itself in distress. take immediate action to ensure that all necessary information is made available. The foregoing provisions may be supplemented by the following measures.EMERGENCY DATA . Vol II.e. 3.5 MHz or another aeronautical mobile frequency. etc. 2. level (i.2. advising the aircraft if a transfer is made. the distress message of an aircraft in distress being broadcast. intention of the person in command. as appropriate) and heading. b. 5. any variation on the elements listed under b. Not all aeronautical stations maintain a continuous guard on the emergency frequency. 1. altitude. to: .3.1) NOTE: a. if time and circumstances make this course preferable. the distress message of an aircraft in distress being made on the emergency frequency 121.2. present position. 3.INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) 1007 b. consist of as many as possible of the following elements spoken distinctly and. c.. as soon as possible.2. flight level. above.2.2 Action by the Station Addressed or First Station Acknowledging the Distress Message 5. 5. the nature of the distress condition. any station taking any means at its disposal to assist an aircraft in distress. if possible. or first station acknowledging the distress message shall: a. The station addressed will normally be that station communicating with the aircraft or in whose area of responsibility the aircraft is operating. b. 4. 5. if considered necessary or desirable. 2. the aircraft using any means at its disposal to attract attention and make known its conditions (including the activation of the appropriate SSR mode and code).1 The station addressed by aircraft in distress. the aircraft transmitting on the maritime mobile service radiotelephony calling frequencies. in the following order: 1. provided that such circumstance is clearly stated in the distress message. name of the station addressed (time and circumstances permitting).
unless: a.4. d.3. In either case.2. according to circumstances.4. the ATS unit concerned.2. (Annex 10. 5.4. the station controlling communications gives permission.2. 1008 2. and which cannot itself assist the station in distress. all distress traffic has been transferred to other frequencies. shall nevertheless continue listening to such traffic until it is evident that assistance is being provided.5.1) 5. or of any other flight in the area.2. Vol II.2. (Annex 10.EMERGENCY DATA .3. shall be permitted to impose silence. or to one station only. Vol II. (Annex 10.2 The use of the signals specified in 5.1 The distress communications have absolute priority over all other communications.1 The station in distress.2) 5.1) 5.1shall be reserved for the aircraft in distress and for the station controlling the distress traffic. warn other stations. It shall address these instructions “to all stations”.2. or the station in control of distress traffic. or which might affect the progress of expected flights in the area. it has itself to render assistance.3.4. Vol II.2.2) 5. Vol II.3. the distress is cancelled or the distress traffic is terminated. 5. (Annex 10.5 Termination of Distress Communications and of Silence 5. Vol II.INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) 1. – the radiotelephony distress signal MAYDAY.3. in accordance with preestablished arrangements.3. (Annex 10.2 Any station which has knowledge of distress traffic.1) .2.2. 126.96.36.199. it shall transmit a message cancelling the distress condition.4 Action by All Other Stations 188.8.131.52.3 Imposition of Silence 5. 5. Vol II.2.2. as appropriate. c. 5. 5.2.3. in order to prevent the transfer of traffic to the frequency of the distress communication.3. NOTE: The requirement to inform the aircraft operating agency concerned does not have priority over any other action which involves the safety of the flight in distress. b. either on all stations of the mobile service in the area or on any station which interferes with the distress traffic. the aircraft operating agency concerned. or its representative. it shall use: – STOP TRANSMITTING. (Annex 10.3. and a station aware of them shall not transmit on the frequency concerned. d.1) 5.1 When an aircraft is no longer in distress.2.
Vol II.3. Vol II.2. 5.EMERGENCY DATA . The station addressed will normally be that station communicating with the aircraft or in whose area of responsibility the aircraft is operating.5.. (Annex 10. the identification of the aircraft. to: a. preferably spoken three times and each word of the group pronounced as the French word “panne”. This message shall be originated only by the station controlling the communications when.3 5. the nature of the urgency condition.2.3) 5. 4. if possible. (Annex 10. 5. b.3 The distress communication and silence conditions shall be terminated by transmitting a message. consist of as many as required of the following elements spoken distinctly and. in the following order: 1. or its representative. (Annex 10.5. 2. The foregoing provisions are not intended to prevent an aircraft broadcasting an urgency message. it is authorized to do so by the appropriate authority. .3. it shall take immediate action to ensure that this information is made available. any other useful information.2.3.5. b.5. the name of the station addressed. after the reception of the message prescribed in 5.3. as soon as possible. 5. if time and circumstances make this course preferable. the ATS unit concerned.1) NOTE: a. level (i.2. 6. the intention of the person in command.2. etc. be on the air-ground frequency in use at the time.3.5.e. altitude. 3. flight level. in accordance with pre-established arrangements.1 In addition to being preceded by the radiotelephony urgency signal PAN PAN. present position.INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) 1009 5. b.1. 5.2) 5. the aircraft operating agency concerned.3. on the frequency or frequencies being used for the distress traffic.1 .2 When the station which has controlled the distress communication traffic becomes aware that the distress condition is ended. as appropriate) and heading. the urgency message to be sent by an aircraft reporting an urgency condition shall: a. including the words “DISTRESS TRAFFIC ENDED”.1 RADIOTELEPHONY URGENCY COMMUNICATIONS Action by the Aircraft Reporting an Urgency Condition (except Medical Transports) 5.1.. Vol II.
c.4.3. and each word of the group pronounced as the French word “panne”.3. Vol II. intended route.1 The use of the signal described in 5.4 Action by an Aircraft Used for Medical Transports 5.2 Action by the Station Addressed or First Station Acknowledging the Urgency Message 1010 5. (Annex 10. exercise control of communications.184.108.40.206. and .2. a transmission of the radiotelephony urgency signal PAN PAN. (Annex 10. shall: a.3.4. e. b. Vol II. 5.3. the aircraft operating agency concerned. or first station acknowledging the urgency message. as appropriate. b.1 The urgency communications have priority over all other communications. number and type of medical transports.EMERGENCY DATA . the call sign or other recognized means of identification of the medical transports.4. estimated time enroute and of departure and arrival. except distress.1) 5. NOTE: The requirement to inform the aircraft operating agency concerned does not have priority over any other action which involves the safety of the flight in distress.2 For the purpose of announcing and identifying aircraft used for medical transports. and all stations shall take care not to interfere with the transmission of urgency traffic.3 Action by Other Stations 5. the ATS unit concerned. 220.127.116.11. as soon as possible. The use of the signals described above indicates that the message which follows concerns a protected medical transport. in accordance with preestablished arrangements.2. take immediate action to ensure that all necessary information is made available.3. position of the medical transports. pronounced as in the French “medical”. shall indicate that the message which follows concerns a protected medical transport pursuant to the 1949 Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocols.3.2.3. (Annex 10. or which might affect the progress of expected flights in the area. acknowledge the urgency message.1) 5. or of any other flight in the area.3. shall be followed by the radiotelephony signal for medical transports MAY-DEE-CAL. d.INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) 5. The message shall convey the following data: a. Vol II. 5.3. or its representative. to: 1.1 The station addressed by an aircraft reporting an urgency condition. c. preferably spoken three times.3.1) 5. if necessary. 2.
5. for a period of 20 minutes following the aircraft’s failure to report its position over a compulsory reporting point and thereafter adjust level and speed in accordance with the filed flight plan. 3.6.5 Action by the Station Addressed or by Other Stations Receiving a Medical Transports Message 5.5.1) NOTE 1: SELCAL or similar automatic signalling devices satisfy the requirement to maintain a listening watch.5.1) 6.1. (Annex 10. when forming part of the aerodrome traffic at a controlled aerodrome. and with such of the following procedures as are appropriate.2. maintain the last assigned speed and level.2) 6.1. The aircraft shall attempt to establish communications with the appropriate air traffic control unit using all other available means.2.EMERGENCY DATA .3.1 COMMUNICATIONS FAILURE GENERAL RULES 6. NOTE 2: The requirement for an aircraft to maintain an air-ground voice communication watch remains in affect after CPDLC has been established. Vol II.INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) 1011 f.5. languages used and secondary surveillance radar modes and codes.3. In addition. (Annex 2.2 and 5.6.1 the aircraft shall: a.1 An aircraft operated as a controlled flight shall maintain continuous air-ground voice communication watch on the appropriate communication channel of. except as may be prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority in respect of aircraft forming part of aerodrome traffic at a controlled aerodrome.1 If in visual meteorological conditions. (Annex 2. the aircraft shall: a.3. or minimum flight altitude if higher.1.3 shall apply as appropriate to stations receiving a medical transports message. continue to fly in visual meteorological conditions.3. report its arrival by the most expeditious means to the appropriate air traffic control unit. the aircraft. land at the nearest suitable aerodrome. b. 5. any other information such as flight altitude. and c.1.1. radio frequencies guarded. .2.3. Vol II. unless otherwise prescribed on the basis of regional air navigation agreement. 3. 5.3.2. (Annex 2.1.3. in airspace where radar is not used in the provision of air traffic control. the aircraft shall comply with the communication failure procedures in 6.1 The provisions of 18.104.22.168) 5. (Annex 10.1. 3.5. shall keep a watch for such instructions as may be issued by visual signals.4.2 below.1) 6 6. and establish two-way communication as necessary with.2 If a communication failure precludes compliance with 6. 6. the appropriate air traffic control unit.2 If in instrument meteorological conditions or when the pilot of an IFR flight considers it inadvisable to complete the flight in accordance with 6.
if possible. complete a normal instrument approach procedure as specified for the designated navigation aid or fix. the time the last assigned level or minimum flight altitude is reached. Vol II. If this attempt fails.2. 3. b. (Annex 10. and g. rejoin the current flight plan route no later than the next significant point.2. an aircraft operating within a network shall monitor the appropriate VHF frequency for calls from nearby aircraft. or minimum flight altitude if higher.1.1 When an aircraft station fails to establish contact with the aeronautical station on the designated frequency. In addition. or 2. at. 5. or as close as possible to. when being radar vectored or having been directed by ATC to proceed offset using RNAV without a specified limit. hold over this aid or fix until commencement of descent. and thereafter adjust level and speed in accordance with the filed flight plan.2. The provision of air traffic control service to other flights operating in the airspace concerned will be based on the assumption that an aircraft experiencing radio failure will comply with the rules in 6. when required to ensure compliance with e. if no expected approach time has been received and acknowledged.2. whichever is later. c. at. the estimated time of arrival resulting from the current flight plan. e.1) . in airspace where radar is used in the provision of air traffic control.1.EMERGENCY DATA . or as close as possible to. maintain the last assigned speed and level. d. commence descent from the navigation aid or fix specified in d. or the last acknowledged expected approach time. or 3. for a period of 7 minutes following: 1. f. whichever is later.2. See also AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL — International Civil Aviation Organization Rules of the Air. the aircraft’s failure to report its position over a compulsory reporting point. proceed according to the current flight plan route to the appropriate designated navigation aid or fix serving the destination aerodrome and. it shall attempt to establish contact on another frequency appropriate to the route. (Annex 2. the time the transponder is set to Code 7600. the expected approach time last received and acknowledged.2 AIR-GROUND COMMUNICATIONS FAILURE 6. below. land.2) 6.6. within thirty minutes after the estimated time of arrival specified in e.5.2. or.INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) 1012 b.7. taking into consideration the applicable minimum flight altitude. the aircraft station shall attempt to establish communication with other aircraft or other aeronautical stations on frequencies appropriate to the route. NOTE: a.
to an aircraft in distress. (Annex 10.3. Vol I. 7.EMERGENCY DATA . on the frequency in use.3.2.3 When an aircraft is unable to establish communication due to airborne equipment failure it shall. when issuing .4.3.4 TRANSPONDER PROCEDURES — RADIO COMMUNICATION FAILURE 6.1 INTERCEPTION GENERAL NOTE: The word “interception” in this context does not include intercept and escort service provided. 3. when so equipped. a message which is transmitted blind should be transmitted twice on both primary and secondary frequencies. (Annex 10. 1. Vol II. in accordance with the Search and Rescue Manual (Annex 2. 5. (Annex 10. or positions. the aircraft station should announce the frequency to which it is changing.2 If the attempts specified under 6. Part III. Vol II.1.2. If it is determined that the aircraft receiver is functioning.2. (Doc 8168.7. it shall transmit reports at the scheduled times.1 When an aircraft station is unable to establish communication due to receiver failure.INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) 1013 6. further control of the aircraft will be continued using code changes or IDENT transmission to acknowledge receipt of clearances.1.1 The pilot of an aircraft losing two-way communications shall set the transponder to Mode A Code 7600. (Annex 10. the aircraft station shall transmit its message twice on the designated frequency(ies). 7 7.3. Different procedures may be applied to Mode S equipped aircraft in areas of Mode S coverage. 5.2.8).1. 5.7. During this procedure.1) 6. 5.5) NOTE: A controller who observes an SSR response indicating selection of the communications failure code will determine the extent of the failure by instructing the pilot to SQUAWK IDENT or to change code.3 RECEIVER FAILURE 6.2.1. Vol II. in addition to complying with 6. Chapter 22.214.171.124. preceded by the phrase “TRANSMITTING BLIND DUE TO RECEIVER FAILURE”.7.1 Interception of civil aircraft shall be governed by appropriate regulations and administrative directives issued by contracting States in compliance with the Convention on International Civil Aviation.2) Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS) Recommendation — In network operation.3) 126.96.36.199. and in particular Article 3(d) under which contracting States undertake.1.1 fail. (Annex 10.2) 6. 5. preceded by the phrase “TRANSMITTING BLIND” and.3. Section 188.8.131.52.3.2.1) 6. on request.2. if necessary. The aircraft station shall transmit the intended message. select the appropriate SSR code to indicate radio failure. Before changing frequency. include the addressee(s) for which the message is intended. following this by a complete repetition. Vol II. Vol II.2 An aircraft which is provided with air traffic control or advisory service shall.1. the aircraft shall also advise the time of its next intended transmission.3. transmit information regarding the intention of the pilot-in-command with respect to the continuation of the flight of the aircraft.
1 If radio contact is established during interception but communication in a common language is not possible.3.5 and transmitting each phrase twice.INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) 1014 regulations for their State aircraft. 3. to have due regard for the safety of navigation of civil aircraft. Appendix 2. d. (Annex 2. the intercepted aircraft shall request immediate clarification while continuing to comply with the visual instructions given by the intercepting aircraft. Appendix 2.2. the intercepted aircraft shall request immediate clarification while continuing to comply with the radio instructions given by the intercepting aircraft. Code 7700. (Annex 2.3 If any instructions received by radio from any sources conflict with those given by the intercepting aircraft by radio. (Annex 2.2 7.2. attempt to establish radiocommunication with the intercepting aircraft or with the appropriate intercept control unit. select Mode A. if possible.3) 7. Appendix 2.2. repeating this call on the emergency frequency 243. giving the identity of the intercepted aircraft and the nature of the flight.1 ACTION BY INTERCEPTED AIRCRAFT An aircraft which is intercepted by another aircraft shall immediately: a. acknowledgement of instructions and essential information by using the phrases and pronunciations in paragraph 7.4. and the following paragraphs.3 RADIOCOMMUNICATION DURING INTERCEPTION 7. attempts shall be made to convey instructions.2 If any instructions received by radio from any sources conflict with those given by the intercepting aircraft by visual signals. (Annex 2. b. 2. (Annex 2.8. and if no contact has been established and if practicable. if equipped with SSR transponder. 2.0 MHz. notify. unless otherwise instructed by the appropriate air traffic services unit. c. 3) . Accordingly.EMERGENCY DATA . by making a general call on the emergency frequency 121. 2. Appendix 2. interpreting and responding to visual signals in accordance with the specifications in paragraph 7. in drafting appropriate regulations and administrative directives due regard shall be had to the provisions contained in the AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL — International Civil Aviation Organization Rules of the Air.1) 7.2) 7. follow the instructions given by the intercepting aircraft. the appropriate air traffic services unit.1) 7.5 MHz.
and normally to the left of.EMERGENCY DATA .1 SIGNALS FOR USE IN THE EVENT OF INTERCEPTION Signals Initiated by Intercepting Aircraft and Responses by Intercepted Aircraft (Annex 2. b.Understood. If the intercepted aircraft is not able to keep pace with the intercepting aircraft. a slow level turn. Appendix 1. ing aircraft.4 7.Follow me.intercepted. vals (and landing lights in the case of a helicopter) from a position slightly above and ahead of. normally to the left. NOTE: Additional action required to be taken by intercepted aircraft is prescribed in paragraph 7. . (or to the right in the case of a helicopter) onto the desired heading. DAY or NIGHT — Rock.4. the latter is expected to fly a series of racetrack patterns and to rock the aircraft each time it passes the intercepted aircraft.2.INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) 1015 7. after acknowledgement.will comply. tional lights at irregular inter. flashing navi. the intercepted aircraft (or to the right if the intercepted aircraft is a helicopter) and. Meteorological conditions or terrain may require the intercepting aircraft to reverse the positions and direction of turn given above in series 1. NOTE: a. 2. gational lights at irregular intervals and following.1) INTERCEPTING Aircraft Signals MEANING INTERCEPTED Aircraft Responds MEANING SERIES 1 DAY or NIGHT — Rocking You have been aircraft and flashing naviga.
EMERGENCY DATA . MEANING Understood. ing landing gear.aerodrome.4. 3 DAY or NIGHT — Lowering Land at this landing gear (if fitted). overflying the helicopter landing area. showing steady landing lights and following the intercepting aircraft and. MEANING You may proceed. INTERCEPTED Aircraft Responds DAY or NIGHT — Rocking the aircraft. In the case of helicopters. if. INTERCEPTING Aircraft Responds MEANING SERIES 4 DAY or NIGHT — If it is Understood. proceeding to land. ted aircraft follow the intercepting aircraft to an alternate aerodrome. If unable to flash landMEANING Aerodrome you have designated is inadequate. and continuing to circle runway in use or helicopter landing area. the intercepting helicopter makes a landing approach. the intercepting aircraft raises its landing gear (if fitted) and uses the Series 1 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft. ing steady landing lights and overflying runway in use or. 2.2 Signals Initiated by Intercepted Aircraft and Responses by Intercepting Aircraft (Annex 2 Appendix 1.follow me. will comply.INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) 1016 SERIES 2 INTERCEPTING Aircraft Signals DAY or NIGHT — An abrupt breakaway maneuver from the intercepted aircraft consisting of a climbing turn of 90 degrees or more without crossing the line of flight of the intercepted aircraft. after overflying the runway in use or helicopter landing area.Understood. landing is considered safe. 7. if the intercepted aircraft is a helicopter. . DAY or NIGHT — Lower. desired that the intercep. coming to hover near to the landing area. show. ted). (if fitwill comply. at a height exceeding 50m (170') but not exceeding 100m (330') above the aerodrome level.2) INTERCEPTED Aircraft Signals DAY or NIGHT — Raising landing gear (if fitted) and flashing landing lights while passing over runway in use or helicopter landing area at a height exceeding 300m (1000') but not exceeding 600m (2000') (in the case of a helicopter.
INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) 1017 SERIES INTERCEPTED Aircraft Signals ing lights. 5 DAY or NIGHT — Regular Cannot comswitching on and off of all ply. flash any other lights available.EMERGENCY DATA . you may the intercepting aircraft proceed. flashing of all available lights. MEANING INTERCEPTING Aircraft Responds MEANING If it is decided to release Understood. Appendix 2. DAY or NIGHT — Irregular In distress. uses the Series 2 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft.1) Phrases for use by INTERCEPTED Aircraft Phrase CALL SIGN (call sign)2 WILCO CAN NOT REPEAT AM LOST MAYDAY HIJACK3 Pronunciation1 KOL SA-IN (call sign) VILL-KO KANN NOTT REE-PEET AM LOSST MAYDAY HI-JACK Meaning My call sign is (call sign) Understood will comply Unable to comply Repeat your instruction Position unknown I am in distress I have been hijacked Phrases for use by INTERCEPTING Aircraft Phrase CALL SIGN FOLLOW DESCEND YOU LAND PROCEED Pronunciation1 KOL SA-IN FOL-LO DEE-SEND YOU LAAND PRO-SEED Meaning What is your call sign? Follow me Descend for landing Land at this aerodrome You may proceed . the intercepted aircraft. 6 Understood. Table 2.5 INTERCEPTION PHRASEOLOGIES (Annex 2. DAY or NIGHT — Use Series 2 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft. Understood. DAY or NIGHT — Use Series 2 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft. 7. available lights but in such a manner as to be distinct from flashing lights.
and e.1 SEARCH AND RESCUE COMMUNICATION FREQUENCIES 8. 3 8 8. at the pilot’s discretion. syllables to be emphasized are bold / underlined. Vol V. record the position of the craft in distress if given. the use of the phrase “HIJACK”. they will normally communicate on the appropriate enroute channels with the flight information center associated with the rescue co-ordination center concerned.2. the frequencies 3023 kHz and 5680 kHz shall be employed.1. inform the appropriate rescue coordination centre or air traffic services unit of the distress transmission. (Annex 10. if feasible: a. nor make desirable.INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) 1018 Phrases for use by INTERCEPTING Aircraft Phrase Pronunciation1 Meaning Phrases for use by INTERCEPTED Aircraft Phrase LAND (place name) DESCEND Pronunciation1 LAAND (place name) DEE-SEND Meaning I request to land at (place name) I require descent 1 2 In the Pronunciation column. b. proceed to the position given in the transmission. giving all available information. (Annex 12.EMERGENCY DATA .2. The call sign required to be given is that used in radiotelephony communications with air traffic services units and corresponding to the aircraft identification in the flight plan. take a bearing on the transmission. c.1 Whenever a distress transmission is intercepted by a pilot-in-command of an aircraft. 2. 5. 8. d. while awaiting instructions.7) . acknowledge the distress transmission.1) NOTE: Where civil commercial aircraft take part in search and rescue operations.1 Where there is a requirement for the use of high frequencies for search and rescue scene of action coordination purposes. the pilot shall. Circumstances may not always permit.2 PROCEDURES FOR A PILOT-IN-COMMAND INTERCEPTING A DISTRESS TRANSMISSION 8.
6.3 PROCEDURES FOR A PILOT-IN-COMMAND AT THE SCENE OF AN ACCIDENT 8. in the meantime. and two-way communication is not available. the aircraft shall do so by transmitting precise instructions by any means at its disposal. and d. drop communication equipment that would enable direct contact to be established.INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) 1019 8. – on-scene weather conditions. – its position. hand over to an aircraft capable of establishing and maintaining such communications until the arrival of the first search and rescue aircraft.1) 8. it shall.3.4 When it is necessary for an aircraft to convey information to survivors or surface rescue units. – type of craft in distress.EMERGENCY DATA . – number of persons observed. or convey the information by dropping a hard copy message.1 When a pilot-in-command observes that either another aircraft or a surface craft is in distress. if possible and unless considered unreasonable or unnecessary: a. b.2. (Annex 12.6. (Annex 12.2) 8. – apparent best ground access route to the distress site. c. 5. determine the position of the craft in distress. such aircraft is unable to establish communication with the appropriate rescue co-ordination center or air traffic services unit. its identification and condition. (Annex 12. if practicable. by mutual agreement.3) . – time of observation expressed in hours and minutes UTC. 5.2 If the first aircraft to reach the scene of an accident is not a search and rescue aircraft it shall take charge of on-scene activities of all other aircraft subsequently arriving until the first search and rescue aircraft reaches the scene of the accident.3 When it is necessary for an aircraft to direct a surface craft to the place where an aircraft or surface craft is in distress. it shall.3.6. report to the rescue coordination centre or air traffic services unit as much of the following information as possible.4. If no radio communication can be established the aircraft shall use the appropriate visual signal in paragraph 8. – apparent physical condition of survivors. If. act as instructed by the rescue co-ordination center or the air traffic services unit. – whether persons have been seen to abandon the craft in distress. 5.3. expressed in geographical co-ordinates or in distance and true bearing from a distinctive landmark or from a radio navigation aid. the pilot shall. (Annex 12.5) 8. keep the craft in distress in sight until compelled to leave the scene or advised by the rescue coordination centre that it is no longer necessary.3. as appropriate. 5.6.
the changing of heading to follow the aircraft. heading in the direction in which the surface craft is to be directed. the hoisting of the “Code pennant” (vertical red and white stripes) close up (meaning understood).4. if this is not practicable.1 The following maneuvers performed in sequence by an aircraft mean that the aircraft wishes to direct a surface craft towards an aircraft or a surface craft in distress: a. Repetition of such maneuvers has the same meaning. opening and closing the throttle. the flashing of a succession of “T’s” by signal lamp in the Morse code. NOTE: Due to high noise level on-board surface craft. or 3.1: – For acknowledging receipt of signals: a.6.4. 184.108.40.206. Appendix A. 1.2) 8. aircraft shall take such action as may be required by the interpretation of the signal given. changing the propeller pitch. (Annex 12. circling the surface craft at least once. c.EMERGENCY DATA .2 Signals with Surface Craft NOTE: The following replies may be made by surface craft to the signal in 220.127.116.11. 5. the flashing of a succession of “N’s” in the Morse code. – For indicating inability to comply: a. (Annex 12.5 When a ground signal has been displayed. or 2.4.4) 8.INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) 1020 8. They shall be used only for the purpose indicated and no other signals likely to be confused with them shall be used.2 Upon observing any of the signals given in this section.3. crossing the projected course of the surface craft close ahead at low altitude and: 1. have the meaning indicated therein.1. b. b.4 or. the aircraft shall indicate whether the signal has been understood or not by the means described in 8. (Annex 12.4 8.4.1) . c. the sound signals in (2) and (3) may be less effective than the visual signal in (1) and are regarded as alternative means of attracting attention.1 SEARCH AND RESCUE SIGNALS General 8. rocking the wings.1 The air-to-surface and surface-to-air visual signals in this section shall.8. (Annex 12. b. the hoisting of the international flag “N” (a blue and white checkered square). when used. 5.1) 8.1. by use of the appropriate visual signal in paragraph 8.4. 5.
(Annex 12. 2.4. Appendix A. 2. 8. or b. 1 2 3 Ground-air Visual Signal Code For Use By Survivors (Annex 12.3 No.2) MESSAGE Operation completed We have found all personnel We have found only some personnel CODE SYMBOL LLL LL ++ . smoke. rocking the wings.2.2) NOTE: See Note following 8. Appendix A.1b. Appendix A. reflected light. etc.1 Symbols shall be at least 2.1) MESSAGE Require assistance Require medical assistance No or Negative Yes or Affirmative Proceeding in this direction CODE SYMBOL V X N Y ↑ Ground-air Visual Signal Code For Use By Rescue Units (Annex 12. (Annex 12. Appendix A. or c.2.3) NOTE: a. 1.3.2 The following maneuver by an aircraft means that the assistance of the surface craft to which the signal is directed is no longer required: – crossing the wake of the surface craft close astern at a low altitude and: a.4.2 No.EMERGENCY DATA .5m (8') long and shall be made as conspicuous as possible.3.4. etc. pieces of wood.4.3.3 Ground-Air Visual Signal Code 8. opening and closing the throttle.INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) 1021 8. marking the surface by tramping. flares. 2. or staining with oil. 8. 1 2 3 4 5 8.4. changing the propeller pitch.4. parachute material. b. stones or such like material. Symbols may be formed by any means such as: strips of fabric. Attention to the signals may be attracted by other means such as radio.
NOTE: This is an emergency and the aircraft shall be given priority over other traffic in the landing sequence.3.4 8. if not so equipped.1 MESSAGE We are not able to continue.4. Each proceeding in direction indicated Information received that aircraft is in this direction Nothing found.2 The pilot-in-command shall declare a situation of fuel emergency by broadcasting MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY FUEL. Appendix A.3. (Annex 12. 4 5 6 7 8. Appendix A. 3. the pilot calculates that any change to the existing clearance to that aerodrome may result in landing with less than planned final reserve fuel.4. (Annex 12. The aircraft will be committed to a landing. as in the event of any delay or a go-around.4. Returning to base Have divided into two groups. by switching on and off twice its navigation lights.4. b. 3. This is not an emergency situation but an indication that an emergency situation is possible should any additional delay occur.1) 8. there may be insufficient fuel remaining for a safe landing . during the hours of darkness: – flashing on and off twice the aircraft’s landing lights or. NOTE: The declaration of MINIMUM FUEL informs ATC that all planned aerodrome options have been reduced to a specific aerodrome of intended landing and any change to the existing clearance may result in landing with less than planned final reserve fuel.4.2) 9 IN-FLIGHT FUEL MANAGEMENT 9.3.EMERGENCY DATA . having committed to land at a specific aerodrome.INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) 1022 No. when the calculated usable fuel predicted to be available upon landing at the nearest aerodrome where a safe landing can be made is less than the planned final reserve fuel. 9.2 Lack of the above signal indicates that the ground signal is not understood.1 The pilot-in-command shall advise ATC of a minimum fuel state by declaring MINIMUM FUEL when. Will continue to search Air-to-ground Signals CODE SYMBOL XX →→ NN The following signals by aircraft mean that the ground signals have been understood: a. during the hours of daylight: – by rocking the aircraft’s wings.
3 Standard Phraseology 9. MAYDAY.INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) 1023 9.3. MAYDAY FUEL (c/s) MAYDAY FUEL ROGER .Aircraft callsign) (c/s) MINIMUM FUEL ROGER [NO DELAY EXPECTED or EXPECT (delay information)] (c/s) MAYDAY.1 The standard phraseology shall be used in a MINIMUM FUEL or FUEL EMERGENCY event is as follows: Pilot transmission Controller transmission Pilot transmission Controller transmission NOTE: (c/s .EMERGENCY DATA .
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