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# Module 4 Power Series

Introduction
In this module you will learn to represent power series algebraically and graphically. The graphical representation of power series can be used to illustrate the amazing concept that certain power series converge to well-known functions on certain intervals. In the first lesson you will start with a power series and determine the function represented by the series. In the last two lessons you will begin with a function and find its power series representation.

Learning objectives
After completing this module, you should be able to do the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Define and graph the partial sums of a power series Illustrate the interval of convergence for a power series Differentiate and integrate a power series to obtain other power series Find Maclaurin series for a function Find Taylor series for a function

Discussion
Lesson 1: Power Series In this lesson you will study several power series and discover that on the intervals where they converge, they are equal to certain well known functions. Defining Power Series A power series is a series in which each term is a constant times a power of x or a power of (x a) where a is a constant. Suppose each ck represents some constant. Then the infinite series

## is a power series centered at x = 0 and the infinite series

is a power series centered at x = a. Finding Partial Sums of a Power Series Consider the power series

Although you cannot enter infinitely many terms of this series in the Y= Editor, you can graph partial sums of the series because each partial sum is a polynomial with a finite number of terms. Exercise: Graphing Partial Sums of a Power Series

1. What are the second, third, and fourth partial sums of the power series 2. Graph the second, third, and fourth partial sums of the power series [-10, 10, 1] window. On what interval do the graphs appear to coincide? Defining an Infinite Geometric Series

? in a [-5, 5, 1] x

Recall that an infinite geometric series can be written as a + ar + ar2 + ar3 + ... + ark + ..., where a represents the first term and r represents the common ratio of the series. If | r | < 1, the infinite geometric series a + ar + ar2 + ar3 + ... + ark + ... converges to a/(1-r). The power series is a geometric series with first term 1 and common ratio x. This means that the power series converges when | x | < 1 and converges to 1/(1-x) on the interval (-1, 1). Visualizing Convergence The graphs of several partial sums can illustrate the interval of convergence for an infinite series. Graph the second-, third-, and fourth-degree polynomials that represent partial sums of . Graph y=1/(1-x) Change the graphing style for y=1/(1-x) to "thick" to distinguish it from the partial sums.

On the interval (-1,1) the partial sums are close to y=1/(1-x). The interval (-1,1) is called the interval of convergence for this power series because as the number of terms in the partial sums increases, the partial sums converge to y=1/(1-x) on that interval. Exercise 2: Graph the tenth-degree partial sum of and the function y = 1/(1 - x) in a [-2,2,1] [5,5,1] viewing window. Use thick graphing style for y = 1/(1 - x). Click here for the answer. Another Power Series Consider the power series

Graph the seventh-, eleventh-, and fifteenth-degree polynomial partial sums in a [-6,6,1] x [2,2,1] window. Lesson 2: Maclaurin Series In Lesson 1 you explored several power series and their relationships to the functions to which they converge. In this lesson you will start with a function and find the power series that best converges to that function for values of x near zero. Lesson 3: Taylor Series In Lesson 2 you found Maclaurin series that approximate functions near x = 0. This lesson investigates how to find a series that approximates a function near x = a, where a is any real number. Self Test Solve the following problems: The Maclaurin series for y = tan-1(x) is polynomial for y = tan-1 (x)? . What is the fifth-order Maclaurin

1. Graph y = tan-1 (x) with a thick graphing style. In the same window graph the 5th-, 9th-, and 13th-order Maclaurin polynomials for this function. Estimate the interval of convergence for the series based on your graph. 2. Find the second-order Taylor polynomial centered at 2 for y = ex. 3. The second order Maclaurin polynomial for f(x) = ex is . Use this series to find the fourth-order Maclaurin polynomial for y = ex2. 4. Graph y = ex2 with a thick graphing style together with the fourth-order Maclaurin polynomial for y = ex2.

Summary
In this module we have defined and graph the partial sums of a power series and illustrate the interval of convergence for a power series. Several power series were studied and it was discovered that on the intervals where they converge, they are equal to certain well known functions. Likewise, we were able to differentiate and integrate a power series to obtain other power series. We found out that Maclaurin series is a power series that approximate functions near x = 0. On the other hand, a power series that approximates a function near x = a, where a is any real number is called the Taylor series.

References